List of Articles

  • AČAKZI

    See ACƎKZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AČAṘEAN, HRAČʾEAY YAKOBI

    Armenian linguist, born 8 March 1876 (O. S.; 20 March N. S.) at Constantinople.

    (James R. Russell)

  • ACƎKZĪ

    (ACAKZĪ, or AČƎKZĪ, AČAKẒĪ), a tribal grouping of Paṧtūn clans in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

    (Ch. M. Kieffer)

  • ACHAEMENES

    (Greek Achaiménēs), Old Persian proper name Haxāmaniš, traditionally derived from haxā- “friend” and manah “thinking power.”

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ACHAEMENID DYNASTY

    Two principles of their election, dynastic and divine right, belong to contrasting areas and periods—respectively, to prehistoric nomad tribes of Indo-European origin and to the highly civilized Mesopotamian peoples.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ACHAEMENID GLAZED BRICK DECORATION

    architectural elements at Achaemenid capital cities that reflected the king's power and authority through depictions of historical, religious, political, military, and social realities and protocols.

    (Oscar White Muscarella)

  • ACHAEMENID RELIGION

    Greek writings establish with all reasonable clarity that the later Achaemenids were Zoroastrians; but the religion of the early kings has been much debated.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ACHAEMENID ROYAL COMMUNICATION

    the spreading of every kind of information and decision-making needed for governmental control. Under this topic can be subsumed the royal agenda, political objectives, ideological and legitimizing strategies, and orders and messages to subordinates and the general population.

    (Bruno Jacobs)

  • ACHAEMENID SATRAPIES

    the administrative units of the Achaemenid empire.

    (Bruno Jacobs)

  • ACHAEMENID TAXATION

    a most important component of the Achaemenid state administration.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ACHAEMENID VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS OF ROYAL FIGURES

    Visual representations of Achaemenid kings, while indebted to established Mesopotamian iconographic conventions, betray distinct understandings of sovereignty.

    (Erica Ehrenberg)

  • ACHMA

    (a Turkish word meaning “opening”), a town in the Domoko (Dumaqu) oasis near Khotan, so named with reference to the local springs.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • ĀÇINA

    son of Upadarma, a rebel against Darius I.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ĀÇIYĀDIYA

    (a-ç-i-y-a-di-i-y-), name of the ninth month (November-December) of the Old Persian calendar.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ACKERMAN, PHYLLIS

    (b. Oakland, California, 1893; d. January 25, 1977, Shiraz, Persia), author, editor, teacher and translator in the fields of Persian textiles, European tapestries, Chinese bronzes, iconography, symbolism, Assistant Editor of the Survey of Persian Art, wife and collaborator of Arthur Upham Pope, the editor of the Survey of Persian Art (q.v.).

    (Cornelia Montgomery)

  • ACTA ARCHELAI

    See ARCHELAUS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ACTS OF ĀDUR-HORMIZD AND OF ANĀHĪD

    Syriac martyrological texts. Their events are set in the year 446 A.D., during the reign of Yazdegerd II; and they were apparently recorded not long afterward. They offer more detailed data on Zoroastrianism and Zurvanism, even though in a somewhat corrupted form, than is commonly found in the records of the Christian martyrs of the Sasanian empire.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • ACTS OF THE PERSIAN MARTYRS

    a collection of the acts of martyrdom under Šāpūr II (309-79 CE). The author states that the text is not a free composition for glorification of the martyrs, but rather rests on information he gathered from those close to the actual happenings—even eyewitnesses.

    (A. Vööbus)

  • ĀDĀ

    “requital” in Avestan.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • ADAB

    Term applied to a genre of literature as well as to refined and well-mannered conduct; in Persian it is often synonymous with farhang.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ADAB NEWSPAPER

    title of several Persian periodicals.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ADAB i. Adab in Iran

    Apart from a genre of literature (see section ii), adab in Persian means education, culture, good behavior, politeness, proper demeanor; thus it is closely linked with the concept of ethics.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ADAB ii. Adab in Arabic Literature

    In modern Arabic usage the term adab (plur. ādāb) denotes “literature,” but in classical Islam it was applied only to a limited range of literary works.

    (Charles Pellat)

  • ĀDĀB AL-ḤARB WA’L-ŠAJĀʿA

    (“The correct usages of war and bravery”), a treatise in a straightforward Persian prose style in the “Mirror for Princes” genre, written by Faḵr-al-dīn Moḥammad b. Manṣūr Mobārakšāh, called Faḵr-e Modabber.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ADAB AL-KABĪR

    an Arabic work by Ebn al-Moqaffaʿ dealing largely with Persian manners and court etiquette.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • ADAB AL-KĀTEB

    (“Manual for secretaries”), a work composed by the celebrated Baghdad scholar probably of Khorasanian mawlā origin, Ebn Qotayba (213-76/828-89).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀDĀB AL-MAŠQ

    (“Manual of penmanship”), a short essay on writing the nastaʿlīq hand by the noted Safavid calligrapher Mīr ʿEmād (961-1024/1553-54 to 1615-16).

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ADAB AL-ṢAḠĪR

    an Arabic book of wisdom and advice, based on Middle Persian works.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • ʿADĀLAT

    (“Justice”), name of several periodicals.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ADAM, GUILLAUME

    14th-century traveler.

    (J. Richard)

  • ĀDAMĪ

    late 3rd/9th century Shiʿite traditionist.

    (A. Gorjī)

  • ĀDAMĪYAT

    (“Humanity”), name of two Iranian periodicals.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ĀDAR

    See ĀDUR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀḎAR

    See ĀDUR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿADAS

    "lentils."

    (A. Parsa and N. Ramazani, A. Parsa)

  • ADĀT

    “particle,” Arabic word corresponding to the Persian abzār which is used as a technical term in logic (manṭeq), grammar (dastūr), and rhetoric (maʿānī o bayān).

    (Ḵ. Faršīdvard)

  • ADDĀ

    one of the earliest disciples of Mani.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • ʿĀDEL SHAH AFŠĀR

    the royal title of ʿAlī-qolī Khan, r. 1160-61/1747-48, nephew and successor of Nāder Shah.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ʿĀDELŠĀHĪS

    A dynasty of Indo-Muslim kings who governed the city-state of Bijapur from 895/1490 to 1097/1686.

    (R. M. Eaton)

  • ADERGOUDOUNBADES

    a kanārang (eastern border margrave) appointed by the Sasanian king Kavād (r. 488-531 A.D.).

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • ADHAM, MĪRZĀ EBRĀHĪM

    11th/17th century poet.

    (Wheeler M. Thackston)

  • ADHYARDHAŚATIKĀ PRAJÑĀPĀRAMITĀ

    (“The perfection of wisdom in 150 lines”), title of a Praǰñāpāramitā text in Tantric.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • ADIABENE

    a district near the present-day borders of Iraq, Iran, and Turkey.

    (D. Sellwood)

  • ADIB ḴᵛĀNSARI

    a major vocalist of Persia in the first half of 20th century (1901-1982).

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr)

  • ADĪB-AL-MAMĀLEK FARĀHĀNĪ

    poet and journalist (1860-1917).

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • ADĪB NAṬANZĪ

    poet and linguist of the 5th/11th century, from Naṭanz, near Isfahan.

    (ʿA. N. Monzawī)

  • ADĪB NĪŠĀBURĪ

    Persian litterateur and poet (19th century).

    (Jalal Matini)

  • ADĪB PĪŠĀVARĪ

    poetic name of SAYYED AḤMAD B. ŠEHĀB-AL-DĪN RAŻAWĪ (1844-1930).

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • ADĪB ṢĀBER

    famous poet of the first half of the 6th/12th century.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ADĪB ṬĀLAQĀNĪ

    prominent Iranian Bahaʾi author of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • ĀDĪNEVAND

    a small Lur tribe of Lorestān which lives the year round in the baḵš of Ṭarhān.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ʿADL, Aḥmad-Ḥosayn

    (b. Tabriz, 1277 Š./1898, d. 1341 Š./1963, minister of agriculture, Director General of the Plan Organization, and the first director of the College of Agronomy.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • ʿADL, MOṢṬAFĀ

    (b. 1261 Š./1882-83; d. 1329 Š./1950), jurist, professor of law, diplomat, minister and senator, known by the title Manṣur-al-Salṭana.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • ʿADL-E MOẒAFFAR

    “Moẓaffar’s justice,” a phrase connected with the events of the Constitutional Revolution (1905-11) and the name of a newspaper.

    (Jean Calmard, L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ADLER, ELKAN NATHAN

    avid traveler and collector of Hebrew, Judeo-Persian, and Judeo-Tajik manuscripts from the Jewish Persian and Bukharan communities (1861-1946). In 1921, personal circumstances compelled Adler to sell his manuscript and book collections to the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati and the Jewish Theological Seminary of New York.

    (Dalia Yasharpour)

  • ADMINISTRATION in Iran

    This entry covers state administration in Iran in the modern period, from the rise of the Safavids to the fall of the Pahlavis in 1979.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ADMINISTRATION in Iran i. Achaemenid Period

    See ACHAEMENID DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ADMINISTRATION in Iran ii. Arsacid/Parthian Period

    See ARSACIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ADMINISTRATION in Iran iii. Sasanian Period

    See SASANIAN DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ADMINISTRATION in Iran iv. Early Islamic Period

    See under ʿABBASID CALIPHATE and BUYIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ADMINISTRATION in Iran v. Medieval Period

    See under GHAZNAVIDS and IL-KHANIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ADMINISTRATION in Iran vi. Safavid, Zand, and Qajar periods

    The rise of the Safavids was marked by developments that significantly influenced the nature of political, military, and revenue administration.

    (S. Bakhash)

  • ADMINISTRATION in Iran vii. Pahlavi period

    The constitution of 1906 and the supplementary laws of 1907 provided the juridical foundation for a legal-rational state within which the legislature was empowered to establish and modify the administration.

    (R. Sheikholeslami)

  • ʿADNĪ, MAḤMŪD PĀŠĀ

    (879/1474), Ottoman vizier and poet, better known in Turkish literature by his pen name ʿAdnī.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ADRAPANA

    the third station from the western border of “Upper Media” recorded by Isidore of Charax in the 1st century CE.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ADRĀVVŪN

    Gujarati term for the Parsi betrothal ceremony (in Persian nāmzadī).

    (M. F. Kanga)

  • ADUKANAIŠA

    (a-du-u-k-n-i-š-), name of the first month (March-April) of the Old Persian calendar.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ĀDUR

    (and ādar) Middle Persian word for “fire;” the Avestan form is ātar (of unknown derivation), and the late form is arabicized in New Persian as āẕar.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀDUR-ANĀHĪD

    3rd century CE Sasanian “queen of queens.”

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • ĀDUR-BŌZĒD

    a Sasanian mobad of mobads (mowbedān mowbed) or high priest.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀDUR BURZĒN-MIHR

    an Ātaš Bahrām, i.e., a Zoroastrian sacred fire of the highest grade.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀDUR FARNBĀG

    an Ātaš Bahrām, that is, a Zoroastrian sacred fire of the highest grade, held to be one of the three great fires of ancient Iran, existing since creation.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀDUR GUŠNASP

    an Ātaš Bahrām, that is, a Zoroastrian sacred fire of the highest grade, held to be one of the three great fires of ancient Iran, existing since creation.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀDUR NARSEH

    son of the Sasanian king Hormozd II (302-09 CE) and ruler for several months after his father.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀDURBĀD ĒMĒDĀN

    second author of the 9th century CE Zoroastrian compilation, Dēnkard.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀDURBĀD Ī MAHRSPANDĀN

    (“Ādurbād, son of Mahrspand”), Zoroastrian mobad of mobads (mowbedān mowbed) or high priest in the reign of the Sasanian king Šāpūr II (309-79 CE).

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀDURBĀDAGĀN

    See AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀDURFARNBAG Ī FARROXZĀDĀN

    first author of the 9th century CE Zoroastrian compilation, the Dēnkard.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀDURFRĀZGIRD

    a brother of the Sasanian king Šāpūr II (309-79 CE) who is mentioned in the Syriac Acts of the Persian Martyrs.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • AELIANUS, CLAUDIUS

    a sophist of the first third of the 3rd century CE, from Praenest near Rome. His chief service to Iranian history was the preservation of some data from the works of Ctesias of Cnidus, the Greek physician of Artaxerxes II.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • AĒŠMA

    “wrath” in Younger Avestan, both metaphysically, as a distinct demon, and psychologically as the function and quality of that demon realized in man.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • ĀFARĪN LĀHŪRĪ

    Punjabi Persian poet (b. ca. 1070/1660, d. 1154/1741).

    (Z. Ahmad and W. Kirmani)

  • ĀFARĪN-NĀMA

    a poem in the motaqāreb meter by the 4th/10th century poet Abū Šakūr Balḵī.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • AFḠĀN

    (afḡān), in current political usage, any citizen of Afghanistan, whatever his ethnic, tribal, or religious affiliation. According to the 1977 constitution of the Republic of Afghanistan (1973-78), all Afghans are equal in rights and obligations before the law.

    (Ch. M. Kieffer)

  • AFḠĀNĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    (1838 or 39-97), ideologist and political activist of the late 19th century Muslim world, whose influence has continued strong in many Muslim countries. Iran, Egypt, and Afghanistan are the countries of his greatest influence; his combination of reformed Islam and anti-imperialism continues to have widespread appeal.

    (N. R. Keddie)

  • AFGHANI

    (afḡānī), the unit of currency in modern Afghanistan.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy Ḥabibi)

  • AFGHANISTAN

    (Islamic Republic of Afghanistan), landlocked country located in Central Asia and bordered by Iran to the west, Pakistan to the south and east, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north, and China to the far northeast.

    (Multiple Authors )

  • AFGHANISTAN i. Geography

    Afghanistan has an extreme continental, arid climate which is characterized by desert, steppe, and highland temperature and precipitation regimes.

    (J. F. Shroder, Jr.)

  • AFGHANISTAN ii. Flora

    Climate studies have shown the importance of precipitation and altitude as conditioning factors for the diversity of Afghanistan’s flora.

    (M. Šafīq Yūnos)

  • AFGHANISTAN iii. Fauna

    Thirty-two species of bats have been identified in Afghanistan. Their preferred habitat is in warmer sections of the country, where they may be found in abandoned ruins and caves of the Sīstān basin and the steppes. To the east, common bats (Myotis and Pipistrellus) have been observed in Lāgmān and the Kabul river valley.

    (K. Habibi)

  • AFGHANISTAN iv. Ethnography

    In their ethnolinguistic and physical variety the people of Afghanistan are as diverse as their country is in topography. Except in rural areas off the main lines of communications, few peoples maintain racial homogeneity.

    (L. Dupree)

  • AFGHANISTAN v. Languages

    Best represented are the Iranian languages, followed by Turkish languages of recent import, and Indian languages which are either native (Nūrestānī and Dardic) or imported (New Indian).

    (Ch. M. Kieffer)

  • AFGHANISTAN vi. Paṣ̌tō

    Paṣ̌tō is an Iranic language spoken in south and southeastern Afghanistan, by recent settlers in northern Afghanistan, in Pakistan (North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan), and on the eastern border of Iran.

    (G. Morgenstierne)

  • AFGHANISTAN vii. Parāčī

    Parāčī is an Iranian language now spoken northeast of Kabul in the Šotol valley, north of Golbahār, and in the Ḡočūlān and Pačaḡān branches of the Neǰrao valley, northeast of Golbahār.

    (G. Morgenstierne)

  • AFGHANISTAN viii. Archeology

    Excavations by countries other than France did not occur until after World War II. In the winter of 1950-51 the second expedition of the American Museum of Natural History was directed by W. Fairservis; Šamšīr Ḡār and Deh Morāsī Ḡonday, 17 miles southwest of Qandahār, were investigated by L. Dupree.

    (N. H. Dupree)

  • AFGHANISTAN ix. Pre-Islamic Art

    In the tombs of Ṭelā Tapa, the dead are covered with fine fabric sewn with gold bracteates, while their clothing is woven from gold thread and embroidered with pearls. Their swords and daggers are placed in gold sheaths decorated with fantastic animals; their necklaces and pendants portray Greco-Iranian divinities.

    (F. Tissot)

  • AFGHANISTAN x. Political History

    1747 marks the appearance of an Afghan political entity independent of Safavid and Mughal empires. In 1709 a Ḡilzay uprising, led by the Hōtakī tribal chief Mīr Ways, had freed all of southern Afghanistan from Safavid control, thus establishing the basis of a state which would extend into Persia.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • AFGHANISTAN xi. Administration

    The form and function of Afghanistan’s administrative organizations have reflected the changing balance of power between centripetal and centrifugal forces.

    (A. Ghani)

  • AFGHANISTAN xii. Literature

    Under Aḥmad Shah Dorrānī, Afghanistan continued to play its long-standing role as a center of Persian literature and a transmitter of literary currents between Transoxiana and Islamic India.

    (R. Farhādī)

  • AFGHANISTAN xiii. FORESTS AND FORESTRY

    geographical extension and types of forests, The development of forests is limited in Afghanistan not only by the total quantity of rainfalls (a minimum of 250 mm a year is required for the growth of trees), but also by their seasonal distribution with respect to the vegetative season.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • AFGHANISTAN xiv. AFGHAN REFUGEES IN IRAN

    Afghan refugees make up a population of up to 3 million people of various ethnicities, who have settled in Iran since the communist coup of 1978 in Afghanistan.

    (Zuzanna Olszewska)

  • ĀFĪ, ALLĀHYĀR KHAN

    Poet, son of Nawwāb Amīr-al-dawla, the founder of the state of Tonk (b. 1233/1817-18, d. 21 Ramażān 1278/22 March 1861).

    (Z. Ahmad)

  • ʿAFĪF

    (d. ca. 1399), author of Tārīḵ-e Fīrūzšāhī, a Persian life of Fīrūz Shah Toḡloq (r. 1351-88).

    (N. H. Zaidi)

  • AFIFI, RAḤIM

    (b. Shiraz ?/ d. Teheran 1375 Š./ 1996), scholar and author of lexical guides and handbooks of mythology and editor of Ardā Wirāz-nāmag.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • AFLĀKĪ

    author of texts on the virtues of Jalāl-al-dīn Rūmī and his disciples (13th-14th centuries).

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • AFNĀN

    (“twigs” or “branches”), term used in the Bahaʾi faith (initially by Bahāʾallāh) to designate certain lines of descent in the maternal family of the Bāb.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • AFRĀ

    Persian term for the maple tree (genus Acer), also embracing a few shrubs of the family Aceraceae.

    (Ahmad Parsa)

  • AFRAHĀṬ

    name attested in Syriac (ʾfrhṭ) of a number of Iranian Christian churchmen.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • AFRAHĀṬ, YAʿQŪB

    Persian bishop of the mid-4th century CE, author in Syriac.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • AFRĀSĪĀB

    By far the most prominent of Turanian kings, Afrāsīāb is depicted in Iranian tradition as a formidable warrior and skillful general; an agent of Ahriman, he is endowed with magical powers and bent on the destruction of Iranian lands.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • AFRĀSĪĀB i. The Archeological Site

    the ruined site of ancient and medieval Samarqand in the northern part of the modern town.

    (G. A. Pugachenkova and Ī. V. Rtveladze)

  • AFRĀSIĀB ii. Wall Paintings

    The Afrāsiāb wall paintings refer to 7th-century Sogdian murals, discovered in 1965 in the residential part of ancient Samarqand (Samarkand).

    (Matteo Compareti)

  • AFRASIYABIDS

    See ĀL-E AFRĀSĪĀB (1).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AFRĀŠTA, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ

    poet, writer and satirist (1908-1959).

    (B. Sholevar and H. Javadi)

  • ĀFRĪD

    5th-century Christian bishop of Sagastān.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • AFRĪDĪ

    (singular -ay), designation of a major Paṧtūn tribe in northwest Pakistan, with a few members in Afghanistan.

    (Ch. M. Kieffer)

  • AFRIGHID DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E AFRĪḠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AFRIḠIDS

    See ĀL-E AFRIḠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀFRĪN

    “blessing,” benedictory prayers said at the conclusion of every Zoroastrian ceremony of blessings (āfrinagān).

    (F. M. Kotwal and J. W. Boyd)

  • ĀFRĪNAGĀN

    a term for one of the outer Zoroastrian liturgical services.

    (M. F. Kanga)

  • ĀFRINAḠĀN

    See under ĀTAŠDĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AFŠĀN

    (“sprinkling”), the decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver, sometimes called zarafšān “gold sprinkling.”

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • AFŠĀR

    one of the 24 original Ḡuz Turkic tribes.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • AFŠĀR, AḤMAD SOLṬĀN

    See AḤMAD SOLṬĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AFŠĀR, ḤĀJJĪ BĀBĀ

    court physician under Moḥammad Shah Qāǰār.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • AFŠĀRĪ

    one of the twelve dastgāhs or modal systems of classical Iranian music. In the contemporary tradition, Afšārī is customarily classified as a derivative of the dastgāh Šūr. In fact, however, Afšārī is quite independent and possesses its own modal characteristics as well as its own forūd (cadence) pattern.

    (H. Farhat)

  • AFSHARIDS

    actual power was exercised for most of this sixty years not by the nominal ruler but by military leaders or other court factions, and for a brief time by Solaymān II, whose reign was an attempted Safavid restoration. The remaining parts of Nāder’s empire were now the sphere of the Zand dynasty in western Iran.

    (John R. Perry)

  • AFŠĪN

    princely title of the rulers of Ošrūsana at the time of the Muslim conquest, the most famous of whom was Ḵeyḏār (Ḥaydar) b. Kāvūs, d. Šaʿbān, 226/May-June, 841.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AFŠĪN B. DĪVDĀD

    founder of the semi-independent Sajid dynasty in Azerbaijan (r. 276/889-90-317/929).

    (ʿA. Kārang and F. R. C. Bagley)

  • AFSŪS

    (AFSŌS), the taḵalloṣ of MĪR ŠĪR-ʿALĪ, late 18th century poet and translator of India.

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ĀFTĀB

    (“Sun”), name of several Persian periodicals.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • AFTARĪ

    the dialect of Aftar (population about 1,200), located at lat 35°39′ N, long 53°07′ E in the mountains one kilometer west of the Semnān-Fīrūzkūh road to Māzandarān. Historical phonology shows Aftarī as a Northwest (i.e. non-Perside) dialect of Iranian.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • AFTĪMŪN

    a medicinal herb.

    (Ahmad Parsa)

  • ĀFURIŠN

    “blessing, praise,” a technical, literary term for a category of Manichean hymns.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • AFUŠTAʾI NAṬANZI, MAḤMUD

    (d. after 1599), poet and historian of the Safavid period, author of the chronicle Noqāwat al-āṯār.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • AFYŪN

    "opium," its production and commerce in Iran.

    (S. Shahnavaz)

  • AFŻAL BEG QĀQŠĀL

    South Indian taḏkera writer.

    (W. Kirmani)

  • AFŻAL-AL-DĪN KĀŠĀNĪ

    See BĀBĀ AFŻAL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AFŻAL-AL-DĪN KERMĀNĪ

    writer, poet, and physician of Kermān in the 6th and early 7th/12th and early 13th centuries.

    (M. E. Bāstānī Pārīzī)

  • AFŻAL-AL-DĪN TORKA

    name of three figures from Isfahan.

    (R. Quiring-Zoche)

  • AFŻAL AL-ḤOSAYNĪ

    painter active during the reign of Shah ʿAbbās II (1052-77/1642-66).

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • AFŻAL KHAN, AMIR MOḤAMMAD

    (1220-84/1814-67), governor of Balḵ and for a short time ruler of Afghanistan.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy Ḥabibi)

  • AFŻAL KHAN, MOLLĀ ŠOKRALLĀH ŠIRĀZI

    title of MOLLĀ ŠOKRALLĀH ŠĪRĀZĪ, Mughal court official (ca. 978-1048/1570-1639).

    (W. E. Begley)

  • AFŻAL KHAN ḴAṬAK

    (b. 1075/1664-65), chief of the Ḵaṭak tribe, Pashto poet, and author ofTārīḵ-emoraṣṣaʿ.

    (J. Enevoldsen)

  • AFŻAL-AL-MOLK KERMĀNI, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN

    ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN (1862-1929), Persian historian, bureaucrat, and poet.

    (James M. Gustafson)

  • AFŻAL AL-TAWĀRIK

    title of a chronicle of the Safavid dynasty, composed by Fażli b. Zayn-al-ʿĀbedin b. Ḵᵛāja Ruḥ-Allāh Ḵuzāni Eṣfahāni.

    (Charles Melville)

  • AFZARĪ

    See ABZARĪ, ḴᵛĀJA ʿAMĪD-AL-DĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀḠĀ BOZORG TEHRĀNĪ

    See ĀQĀ BOZORG TEHRĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀḠĀ MOḤAMMAD KHAN QĀJĀR

    (r. 1789-97), founder of the Qajar dynasty.

    (John R. Perry)

  • AḠĀČ ERĪ

    a tribe of mixed ethnic origin living in eastern Ḵūzestān.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ĀḠĀJĀRĪ

    town in Ḵūzestān and district (bakš) in the county (šahrestān) of Behbahān, situated seventy-eight km to the northwest of the city of Behbahān.

    (J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī)

  • ĀḠĀJĪ

    title of a court official in the administrations of the Ghaznavids and Saljuqs.

    (ʿAbbās Zaryāb)

  • ĀḠĀJĪ BOḴĀRĪ

    Samanid amir and poet.

    (ʿAbbās Zaryāb)

  • AḠĀNĪ, KETĀB AL-

    (“The Book of Songs”), the major work of Abu’l-Faraǰ Eṣfahānī (284-356/897-967).

    (K. Abu-Deeb)

  • ĀḠĀSĪ

    See ĀQĀSĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AGATHANGELOS

    (Greek for “messenger of good news”), the supposed author of a History of the Armenians, which describes the conversion of King Trdat of Armenia to Christianity at the beginning of the 4th century CE.

    (R. W. Thomson)

  • AGATHIAS

    (b. 536/ 537-d. about 580), Byzantine historian. Among other matters, Agathias’s History treats the war which was fought between Justinian and Xusraw I (Chosroes) in Lazica in 552-56. The work contains much information of interest on the Persians in general and the Sasanians in particular.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • AGIARY

    See ĀTAŠKADA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀḠKAND

    This ware was made by local workshops in the time of the Eldigüzids. Nothing indicates that the production survived the Mongol invasions of Azerbaijan, though similar pottery continued to be produced in the 7th/13th century in east Anatolia and north Syria.

    (R. Schnyder)

  • ĀḠOŠ VEHĀḎĀN

    (Āḡoš son of Vehāḏ), king of Gīlān at the time of Kay Ḵosrow, the Kayanid king, and one of the commanders of his armies.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • AGRA

    City and district center in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India, situated on the west bank of the river Jumna (Yamonā) approximately 125 miles south of Delhi.

    (Gavin R. G. Hambly)

  • AḠRĒRAṮ

    (Av. Aγraēraθa), Turanian warrior and brother of Afrāsīāb in the Avestan yašts and in the the Šāh-nāma.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • AGRICULTURE in Iran

    The tendency to possess not certain, regionally fixed parts of the land but shares of the total, is made possible by the custom of splitting each property or any part of it into “ideal” or “imaginary” shares or allotments.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ĀHAK

    “lime,” a solid, white substance consisting essentially of calcium oxide.

    (Eckart Ehlers, T. S. Kawami)

  • ĀHAN

    With the Tartar conquest of Syria, Tamerlane is said to have deported to Iran the skilled craftsmen he captured. It is suggested that from this point onward Iran supplied itself as well as India and the west with the finest damascene arms and armor, though the steel ingots still originated in India.

    (V. C. Pigott)

  • AHAR

    the name of a county (šahrestān) and town in Azerbaijan.

    (ʿA. ʿA. Kārang)

  • AHAR RUD

    Originating in the mountains of Eškanbar, Sārī Čaman and Qarāǰa-dāḡ, the Ahar river runs from east to west.

    (ʿA. ʿA. Kārang)

  • AHARĪ

    (8th/14th cent.), author of Tārīḵ-eŠāh Oways, dedicated to the Jalayerid ruler Oways (757-76/1356-74).

    (İ. Aka)

  • AHASUREUS

    name of a Persian king in pre-Christian Jewish tradition; it appears in the biblical books of Esther (1.1 et passim), Ezra (4.6), and Daniel (9.1) and in the apocryphal book of Tobit (14.15).

    (W. S. McCullough)

  • AḤDĀṮ, WOJŪH-E

    fines collected in Safavid times by the officers of the night watch (aḥdāṯ), who were under the supervision of the dārūḡa.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ĀHĪ JOḠATĀʾĪ

    Chaghatay amir, poet, and companion of Ḡarīb Mīrzā, a son of the Timurid sultan, Ḥosayn Bāyqarā.

    (ʿA. ʿA. Rajāʾī)

  • ĀHI, MAJID

    (b. Tehran, 1265 Š./1886; d. 22 Šahrivar 1325 Š./12 September 1946), judge, governor of Fārs, minister of justice, and ambassador to the Soviet Union.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • AHL-E BAYT

    (Ahl al-Bayt), the “family of the house” or “household,” i.e., of the Prophet.

    (I. K. A. Howard)

  • AHL-E ḠARQ

    (The drowned, 1990), best-known novel of Moniru Ravanipur.

    (Nasrin Raḥimieh)

  • AHL-E ḤAQQ

    “People of (the absolute) Truth,” a sect found in western Persia and some regions of northeastern Iraq; the name has also been adopted by other Islamic sects (Noṣayrīs, Ḥorūfīs) and appears to be rooted in the tradition of the extremist Shiʿites (ḡolāt).

    (Heinz Halm)

  • AHL-E ḤAQQ ii. INITIATION RITUAL

    The initiation ritual is one of the most important institutions in the tradition of Ahl-e Ḥaqq.

    (M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee)

  • AHLAW

    (Ahlav; written ʾhlwb), a middle Persian term which plays a fundamental role in Mazdean soteriology and which is usually translated as “just.”

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • AHLĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    poet (858/1454?-942/1535).

    (Wheeler M. Thackston)

  • AHLOMŌG

    Middle Persian form of Younger Avestan ašəmaoγa- “one who produces confusion of Truth,” a term applied to Iranian priests who deviated from Zoroastrian doctrine.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • AḤMAD B. ʿABDALLĀH

    (3rd/9th century), son of the supposed founder of Ismaʿili doctrine and grandfather of the first Fatimid caliph, Mahdī.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • AḤMAD B. ASAD

    (d. 250/864), early member of the Samanid family and governor of Farḡāna under the ʿAbbasids and Taherids.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤMAD B. AYYŪB

    7th-8th/13th-14th Azerbaijani architect, one of the best representatives of the architectural school of Naḵǰavān.

    (A. A. Kalantarian)

  • AḤMAD B. AYYŪB [1984]

    (ARCHIVED VERSION) by A. A. Kalantarian. As printed in EIr. Vol. I, Fasc. 6, p. 639.

    (A. A. Kalantarian )

  • AḤMAD B. AYYŪB ḤĀFEẒ

    7th-8th/13th-14th architect from the city of Naḵǰavān. He constructed in Barda (Bardaʿa) a mausoleum, completed in 722/1322 according to the building inscription.

    (A. A. Kalantarian)

  • AḤMAD B. BAHBAL

    Mughal historian and author of a Persian work, Maʿdan-e aḵbār-e Aḥmadī, also known as Maʿdan-e aḵbār-e Jahāngīrī.

    (Hameed ud-Din)

  • AḤMAD B. FAŻLĀN

    author of an extremely important travel narrative written after he had been a member of an embassy in the early 4th/10th century from the ʿAbbasid caliphate to the ruler of the Bulghars on the middle Volga in Russia.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤMAD B. ḤOSAYN

    historian of the 9th/15th century born in Yazd, author of the Tārīḵ-e ǰadīd-e Yazd.

    (İ. Aka)

  • AḤMAD B. JAʿFAR

    poet, man of letters, musician, wit, and bon vivant at the court of several ʿAbbasid caliphs, hence sometimes called al-Nadīm.

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • AḤMAD B. KEŻRUYA

    See BALḴI, ABU ḤĀMED.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AḤMAD B. MOḤAMMAD

    (r. 311-52/923-63), amir in Sīstān of the Saffarid dynasty (that part of it sometimes called “the second Saffarid dynasty”).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤMAD B. MOḤAMMAD B. ṬĀHER

    governor in Ḵᵛārazm and son of the last Tahirid governor in Khorasan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤMAD, NEẒĀM-AL-DIN

    b. Neẓām-al-Din Shaikh Maḥmud, vizier and amir under the Timurids (d. 912/1507).

    (Erika Glassen)

  • AḤMAD B. NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK

    (d. 1149-50), son of the well-known Saljuq vizier (d. 485/1092) and himself vizier for the Great Saljuqs and then for the ʿAbbasid caliphs.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤMAD B. ʿOMAR B. SORAYJ

    Shafeʿite author from Shiraz (249/863-306/918-19)/

    (Tilman Nagel)

  • AḤMAD B. QODĀM

    a military adventurer who temporarily held power in Sīstān during the confused years following the collapse of the first Saffarid amirate and the military empire of ʿAmr b. Layṯ in 287/900.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤMAD B. SAHL B. HĀŠEM

    governor in Khorasan during the confused struggles for supremacy there between the Saffarids, Samanids, and various military adventures in the late 3rd/9th and early 4th/10th century, d. 307/920.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤMAD-E ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD

    See AḤMAD ŠĪRĀZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AḤMAD ʿALAWĪ

    philosopher and author in Persian and Arabic (d. between 1054/1644 and 1060/1650).

    (H. Corbin)

  • AḤMAD ʿALĪ HĀŠEMĪ SANDĪLAVĪ

    Indo-Persian litterateur (b. 1162/1748-49 in Sandila, a town near Lucknow; d. after 1224/1809).

    (S. S. Alvi)

  • AḤMAD ČARMPŪŠ

    (ČERAMPŌŠ), Sohravardī poet-saint of 14th century Bihar (d. 26 Ṣafar 755/22 March 1354).

    (S. H. Askari)

  • AḤMAD HERAVĪ

    one of the many eminent astronomers employed by the Buyids in the 4th/10th century.

    (David Pingree)

  • AḤMAD INALTIGIN

    Turkish commander and rebel under the early Ghaznavid sultan Masʿūd I (421-32/1030-41), d. 426/1035.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤMAD-E JĀM

    a Conservative Sufi with unreserved loyalty to the Šarīʿa (1049 -1141).

    (H. Moayyad)

  • AḤMAD-E ḴĀNI

    (1061-1119/1650-1707), a distinguished Kurdish poet, mystic, scholar, and intellectual who is regarded by some as the founder of Kurdish nationalism.

    (F. Shakely)

  • AḤMAD KĀSĀNĪ

    (1461-62—1542-43), known as MAḴDŪM-E AʿẒAM, Sufi, author of about thirty religious treatises, political activist, and founding ancestor of two important saintly lineages of Naqšbandī ḵᵛāǰagān.

    (J. Fletcher)

  • AḤMAD KHATTŪ

    famous medieval Gujarati saint whose name is associated with the foundation of the city of Ahmadabad (b. Delhi, 737/1336; d. Sarkhej, 10 Šawwal 849/9 January 1446).

    (K. A. Nizami)

  • AḤMAD ḴOJESTĀNĪ

    military commander in 3rd/9th century Khorasan, one of several contenders for authority in the region after the collapse of Taherid rule had left a power vacuum, d. 268/882.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤMAD MAYMANDĪ

    (d. 424/1032), Ghaznavid vizier, statesman, and foster brother and schoolfellow of Sultan Maḥmūd of Ḡazna (r. 388-421/998-1030).

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • AḤMAD MŪSĀ

    8th/14th century painter.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • AḤMAD NEHĀVANDĪ

    2nd/8th century ʿAbbasid astronomer.

    (David Pingree)

  • AḤMAD QAVĀM

    See QAVĀM-AL-SALṬANA, forthcoming online. 12/26/2016 Unpublished x-ref as per M.A. email

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AḤMAD RODAWLAVĪ

    early Muslim saint of the Ṣāberīya Češtīya (d. 837/1434.

    (Bruce B. Lawrence)

  • AḤMAD ṢĀḠĀNĪ

    one of the many astronomers who worked for the Buyids in Baghdad in the 4th/10th century.

    (David Pingree)

  • AḤMAD SERHENDĪ (1)

    Shaikh (1564-1624), outstanding Mughal mystic and prolific writer on Sufi themes.

    (Yaron Friedmann)

  • AHMAD SERHENDI (2)

    Shaikh (1564-1624), Indian Sufi known as Mojadded-e alf-e Ṯāni, the Renovator of the second millennium (of Islam).

    (Demetrio Giordani)

  • AḤMAD SHAH DORRĀNĪ

    See AFGHANISTAN X. POLITICAL HISTORY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AḤMAD SHAH QĀJĀR

    (r. 1909-1925), the seventh and last ruler of the Qajar dynasty.

    (M. J. Sheikh-ol-Islami)

  • AḤMAD ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Ghaznavid official and vizier, d. ca. 434/1043.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤMAD SOLṬĀN AFŠĀR

    Qizilbāš amir in the Safavid service.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • AḤMAD TABRĪZĪ

    Persian poet (first half of the 8th/14th century).

    (İ. Aka)

  • AḤMAD TAKŪDĀR

    third il-khan of Iran (r. 680-83/1282-84), seventh son of Hülegü.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • AḤMAD TŪNĪ

    Karrāmī theologian who lived about 400/1010.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • AḤMAD YĀDGĀR

    10th/16th century historian of the Afghans in India.

    (Hameed-ud-Din)

  • AHMADABAD

    Major city of Gujarat state in western India and a former center of Persian culture.

    (L. A. Desai)

  • AḤMADĀVAND

    a small, sedentary Kurdish tribe of western Iran.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • AHMADNAGAR

    major city and province in the state of Maharashtra in western India, founded about 900/1495 by Malek Aḥmad Neẓām-al-molk, a Bahmanī governor, on the site where he had earlier won a battle against his sovereign’s forces.

    (Ziyaud-Din A. Desai)

  • AḤMADNAGARĪ, ʿABD-AL-NABĪ

    See ʿABD-AL-NABĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AḤMADPURĪ, GOL MOḤAMMAD

    (d. 1243/1827), a Panjabi saint and Češtī hagiographer.

    (K. A. Nizami)

  • AḤMADZĪ

    “descendants of Aḥmad” (sing. Aḥmadzay), a Paṧtō clan and tribal name.

    (Ch. M. Kieffer)

  • AḤRĀR

    (or BANU’L-AḤRĀR), in Arabic literally “the free ones,” a name applied by the Arabs at the time of the Islamic conquests to their Persian foes in Iraq and Iran.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤRĀR, ḴᵛĀJA ʿOBAYDALLĀH

    (806-96/1404-90), influential Naqšbandī of Transoxania.

    (John Michael Rogers)

  • AHRIMAN

    "demon," God’s adversary in the Zoroastrian religion.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • AHRIŠWANG

    a learned transcription of the Avestan nominative Ašiš vaŋuhī, the goddess “Good Recompense.”

    (Bernfried Schlerath)

  • AḤSĀʾĪ, SHAIKH AḤMAD

    (1753-1826), Shiʿite ʿālem and philosopher and unintending originator of the Šayḵī school of Shiʿism in Iran and Iraq.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • AḤSAN AL-TAQĀSĪM

    a celebrated geographical work in Arabic written towards the end of the 4th/10th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḤSAN AL-TAWĀRĪḴ

    a chronological history of Iran and the neighboring countries written by Ḥasan Beg Rūmlū (b. 937/1530-31), a qūṛčī in the service of the Safavid Shah Ṭahmāsb.

    (ʿA. Navāʾī)

  • AHU

    two homonymous Avestan terms: (1) “Existence, life” in a range of religious phrases, (2) “Lord, overlord,” linked with ratu- “lord, judge.”

    (Bernfried Schlerath)

  • ĀHŪ

    Two species of gazelle occur in Iran, Gazella sub-gutturosa and G. dorcas.

    (B. P. O’Regan, H. Javadi)

  • AHUNWAR

    Middle Persian form of Avestan Ahuna Vairya, name of the most sacred of the Gathic prayers.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • AHURA

    designation of a type of deity inherited by Zoroastrianism from the prehistoric Indo-Iranian religion.

    (F. B. J. Kuiper)

  • AHURA MAZDĀ

    the Avestan name with title of a great divinity of the Old Iranian religion, who was subsequently proclaimed by Zoroaster as God.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • AHURĀNĪ

    feminine deity of the waters.

    (Bernfried Schlerath)

  • AHURA.TKAĒŠA

    an infrequent Avestan adjective meaning “following the Ahuric doctrine.”

    (Mary Boyce)

  • AHVĀZ

    city of southwestern Iran, located in the province of Ḵūzestān on the Kārun river.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • AHVĀZ i. History

    Ahvāz was apparently a flourishing town in pre-Islamic times. When the Arabs invaded Ḵūzestān in the later 630s, after the overrunning of Iraq, the general ʿOtba b. Ḡazwān destroyed the administrative half of the town of Ahvāz but preserved the commercial one.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AHVĀZ ii. The Modern City

    The city has a grid plan adapted to the bends of the Kārūn river. Its heart is on the left bank of the Kārūn; a new quarter has been added on the right bank, where the railway station has been located. Besides the railway bridge an imposing road bridge links the two river banks.

    (X. De Planhol)

  • AHVĀZ iii. Monuments

    Little of architectural interest appears to have survived from the medieval period, but a few structures in old Ahvāz and the new city are remnants of various historical and structural happenings.

    (J. Lerner)

  • AHVĀZ iv. Population, 1956-2011

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Ahvaz: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • AHVĀZĪ

    a 4th/10th century mathematician.

    (David Pingree)

  • AHVĀZĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN AHWĀZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀĪN-E AKBARĪ

    See AKBAR-NĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀĪN GOŠASP

    a general of Hormazd IV (A.D. 579-590), sent by him to campaign against the rebellious general Bahrām Čūbīn.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀĪN-NĀMA

    Arabic and New Persian form of Middle Persian ēwēn nāmag (“book of manners”), a general term for texts dealing with the exposition of manners, customs, skills, and arts and sciences.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀĪNA-YE ḠAYBNOMĀ

    “The Revealing Mirror,” a fortnightly illustrated magazine which began publication in Tehran on 22 Jomādā I 1325/3 July 1907, edited by Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Raḥīm Kāšānī.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ĀĪNA-KĀRĪ

    the practice of covering an architectural surface with a mosaic of mirror-glass.

    (Eleanor G. Sims)

  • AIRYAMAN

    an ancient Iranian divinity and a yazata of the Zoroastrian pantheon, known in Manichean Middle Persian as Aryaman, in Pahlavi as Ērmān.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • AIRYAMAN IŠYA

    Gathic Avestan prayer.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • AIRYANƎM VAEJAH

    See ĒRĀNVĒJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AIWYǠŊHANA

    Avestan term “wrapping round, girdle”: (1) a strip from a date-palm leaf used to tie bundle of wires which constitute the barsom, (2) the kusti or sacred girdle.

    (M. F. Kanga)

  • ʿAJABŠĪR

    a town and baḵš in East Azerbaijan.

    (ʿA. Kārang)

  • ʿAJĀʾEB AL-DONYĀ

    (“Wonders of the world” or “Wonderful things”), title of a Persian geography.

    (L. P. Smirnova)

  • ʿAJĀʾEB AL-MAḴLŪQĀT

    (“The marvels of created things”), the name of a genre of classical Islamic literature and, in particular, of a work by Zakarīyāʾ b. Moḥammad Qazvīnī.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth, Iraj Afshar)

  • ʿAJĀʾEB AL-MAQDŪR

    (“The wondrous turns of fate in the vicissitudes of Tīmūr”), a history of the life and conquests of Tīmūr (1336-1405).

    (U. Nashashibi)

  • ʿAJAM

    the name given in medieval Arabic literature to the non-Arabs of the Islamic empire, but applied especially to the Persians.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿAJAMĪ

    6th/12th century architect under the Eldigüzid atabegs, founder of the Nakhchevan architectural school.

    (A. A. Kalantarian)

  • ʿAJEZ, NARAYAN KAUL

    Kashmiri Brahman of the 17th-18th centuries, a poet and compiler of Moḵtaṣar-e tārīḵ-e Kašmīr (1710-11).

    (A. Mattoo)

  • ĀJĪ ČĀY

    (Talḵa-rūd, “Bitter river”), a river some 200 km in length which flows into Lake Urumia. Due to the mountain origins of many of its source rivers and tributaries, the flow of the river shows marked seasonal variations.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ʿAJIB MĀZANDARĀNI

    19th-century poet of the Qajar court.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ĀJĪL

    an assortment of nuts, roasted chickpeas and seeds such as watermelon, pumpkin, and pear, and raisins and other dried fruits.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • AJINA TEPE

    the present-day name of the mound covering the ruins of an early medieval Buddhist monastery.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • AJMER

    (Aǰmēr, from Skt. Ajayameru), a city in Rajasthan, western India, of great strategic, commercial, and cultural importance from the 6th/12th to the 12th/18th centuries.

    (F. Lehmann)

  • ĀJOR

    See BRICK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀJŪDĀN-BĀŠĪ

    a Persian term translating the French military title adjudant-en-chef; aide and deputy to the army commander during the Qajar period.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • ĀKAUFAČIYĀ

    name of a tribe resident in the southeastern part of the Achaemenid empire.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • AḴAWAYNĪ BOḴĀRĪ

    4th/10th century physician who worked in Bukhara.

    (H. H. Biesterfeldt)

  • AKBAR I

    (949-1014/1542-1605), third and greatest of the Mughal emperors of India.

    (F. Lehmann)

  • AḴBĀR AL-AḴYĀR

    The most reliable taḏkera of early Indian Sufis, by Shaikh ʿAbd-al-Ḥaqq Moḥaddeṯ Dehlavī (d. 1052/1642).

    (Bruce B. Lawrence)

  • AḴBĀR AL-DAWLAT AL-SALJŪQĪYA

    An Arabic chronicle on the history of the Great Saljuq dynasty in Iran and Iraq.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AKBAR FATḤALLĀH

    prime minister of Iran from Ābān, 1299 Š./October, 1920 to Esfand, 1299 Š./February, 1921.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • AKBAR KHAN ZAND

    (d. 1196/1782), youngest son of Zakī Khan Zand.

    (John R. Perry)

  • AḴBĀR-E MOḠOLĀN

    an original and independent source prepared by Qoṭb-al-Dīn Širāzi on the reign of the Il-Khan Hulāgu Khan and his immediate successors, Abaqa and Aḥmad Tegüdār.

    (George Lane)

  • AKBAR-NĀMA

    Official history of the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar (964-1015/1556-1605), including a statistical gazetteer of sixteenth century North India, compiled by Abu’l-Fażl ʿAllāmī.

    (R. M. Eaton)

  • AḴBĀR AL-ṬEWĀL, KETĀB AL-

    (“The book of the long historical narratives”), title of a historical work by the Persian writer of ʿAbbasid times Abū Ḥanīfa Aḥmad b. Dāwūd b. Wanand Dīnavarī.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḴBĀRĪ, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD

    A leading exponent of the Aḵbārī school of Islamic jurisprudence (feqh) and a violent polemicist against its opponents (1178-1233/1765-1818).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • AḴBĀRĪYA

    A school in Imamite Shiʿism which maintains that the traditions (aḵbār) of the Imams are the main source of religious knowledge, in contrast to the Oṣūlī school.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • AKES

    (Greek Akēs), a river in Central Asia, the modern Tejen or Harī-rūd (q.v.).

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • AḴESTĀN

    a late 12th-century ruler of the Šervānšāh dynasty, patron of the poet Ḵāqānī Šervānī.

    (Ż. Sajjādī)

  • AKHAVAN-E SALESS, MEHDI

    prominent poet who holds a place of distinction between the followers of classical Persian prosody and the modernists (1928-1990).

    (Saeid Rezvani)

  • ʿAKKĀS-BĀŠĪ

    photographer and pioneer motion-picture cameraman (1874-1915).

    (F. Gaffary)

  • AḴLĀQ

    “ethics” (plural form of ḵoloq “inborn character, moral character, moral virtue”).

    (Fazlur Rahman)

  • AḴLĀQ AL-AŠRĀF

    (“The ethics of the aristocracy”), a satire composed in 740/1340-41, the most important work of ʿObayd Zākānī.

    (Paul Sprachman)

  • AḴLĀQ-E JALĀLĪ

    an “ethical” treatise in Persian by Moḥammad b. Asʿad Jalāl-al-dīn Davāni (15th century).

    (G. Michael Wickens)

  • AḴLĀQ-E MOḤSENĪ

    an ostensibly serious treatise on ethics by the prolific prose-stylist Kamāl-al-dīn Ḥosayn Wāʿeẓ Kāšefī, completed in 900/1494-95.

    (G. Michael Wickens)

  • AḴLĀQ-E NĀṢERĪ

    by Ḵᵛāǰa Naṣīr-al-dīn Ṭūsī, the principal treatise in Persian on ethics, economics, and politics, first published according to the author in 633/1235.

    (G. Michael Wickens)

  • AḴLĀṬ

    a town and medieval Islamic fortress in eastern Anatolia.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth, H. Crane)

  • AḴNŪḴ

    Enoch, in Manichean texts. According to the Cologne Mani Codex, the outstanding Greek Mani-vita, the prophet grew up in a Judeo-Christian environment, in the sect founded by Elkhasai in Eastern Syria about 100 CE.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • AKŌMAN

    “Evil Mind,” a term personified as a demon in Zoroastrianism.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • ĀḴᵛOND

    See ĀḴŪND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AḴORSĀLĀR

    See ĀXWARR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AḴSĪKAṮ

    in early medieval times the capital of the then still Iranian province of Farḡāna.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AḴSĪKATĪ

    See AṮĪR AḴSĪKATĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AḴŠONVĀR

    The imperfect recording in Arabic of an eastern Middle Iranian term for “king;” it is used as a proper name.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • AKSU

    Nowadays, Aksu is a town and major oasis of the Northwest Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Located between the southern foot of the Tien Shan Mountains (“Heavenly Mountains”) and the edge of the Taklamakan Desert, the administrative area of the city (18,184 sq km) had a population of 572,700, in 2000.

    (Alain Cariou)

  • AḴTĀJĪ

    a term, Mongolian in origin, derived from aḵtā “gelding” and meaning “groom” or, more specifically in the context of the court, “master of the horse.”

    (David O. Morgan)

  • AḴTAR “star"

    See AXTAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AḴTAR newspaper

    a Persian newspaper published in Istanbul, 1876 to 1895-96.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • AḴTAR, AḤMAD BEG GORJĪ

    a poet of the era of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qāǰār (1212-50/1797-1834).

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • AḴTAR-E KĀVĪĀN

    See DERAFŠ-E KĀVĪĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀḴŪND

    (or ĀḴᵛOND), a word of uncertain etymology with the general meaning of religious scholar. Various Persian origins have been proposed for the word.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ĀḴŪND, ḤĀJJ

    See ʿALĪ AKBAR ŠAHMĪRZĀDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AḴŪND ḴORĀSĀNĪ

    (1255-1329/1839-1911), Shiʿite religious leader.

    (A. Hairi, S. Murata)

  • ĀḴŪNDZĀDA

    (in Soviet usage, AKHUNDOV), Azerbaijani playwright and propagator of alphabet reform (1812-78).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • AKVĀN-E DĪV

    the demon Akvān, who was killed by Rostam in the Šāh-nāma.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • AḴYĀR

    “the chosen” (Persian, bargozīdagān), a category sometimes encountered in accounts given by Sufi writers of the unseen hierarchy known as reǰāl al-ḡayb (“men of the unseen”).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ĀL

    a folkloric being that personifies puerperal fever; the name apparently derives from Iranian āl “red.”

    (A. Šāmlū and J. R. Russell)

  • ĀL-E ʿABĀ

    “The Family of the Cloak,” i.e., the Prophet Moḥammad, his daughter Fāṭema, his cousin and son-in-law ʿAlī, and his grandsons Ḥasan and Ḥosayn.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ĀL-E AFRĀSĪĀB (1)

    a minor Iranian Shiʿite dynasty of Māzandarān in the Caspian coastlands that flourished in the late medieval, pre-Safavid period.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀL-E AFRĀSIĀB (2)

    See ILAK-KHANIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E AFRĪḠ

    (Afrighid dynasty), the name given by the Khwarazmian scholar Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī to the dynasty of rulers in his country, with the ancient title of Ḵᵛārazmšāh.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀL-E AḤMAD, JALĀL

    (1923-69), well-known writer and social critic.

    (J. W. Clinton)

  • ĀL-E ʿALĪ

    See ʿALIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E BĀBĀN

    See BĀBĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E BĀVAND

    (BAVANDIDS), a dynasty ruling Ṭabarestān (Māzandarān) from at least the 2nd/8th century until 750/1349.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ĀL-E BORHĀN

    the name of a family of spiritual and civic leaders in Bokhara during the 6th/12th and early 7th/13th centuries.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀL-E BŪ KORD

    a tribe of Ḵūzestān, of uncertain origin.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ĀL-E BŪYA

    See BUYIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E DĀBŪYA

    See DABUYIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E ELYĀS

    a short-lived Iranian dynasty which ruled in the eastern Persian province of Kermān during the 4th/10th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀL-E FARĪḠŪN

    The Iranian name of the family, Farīḡūn, may well be connected with that of the legendary Iranian figure Farīdūn/Afrīdūn; moreover the author of the Ḥodūd al-ʿālam, who seems to have lived and worked in Gūzgān, specifically says in his entry on the geography of Gūzgān that the malek of that region was a descendant of Afrīdūn.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀL-E FAŻLŪYA

    See ATĀBAKĀN-E LORESTĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E HĀŠEM

    3rd-5th/9th-11th century local dynasty of the region of Darband.

    (Claude Cahen)

  • ĀL-E JALĀYER

    See JALAYERIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E ḴAMĪS

    See ʿARAB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E ḴĀQĀN

    See QARAKHANIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E KART

    or perhaps ĀL-E KORT, an east Iranian dynasty (643-791/1245-1389).

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ĀL-E KAṮĪR

    an Arab tribe of Ḵūzestān composed of two subtribes, Bayt Saʿd and Bayt Karīm and inhabiting two sectors of Šūš and Dezfūl.

    (J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī)

  • ĀL-E MĀKŪLĀ

    a Persian noble family prominent at Baghdad in the 5th/11th century.

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • ĀL-E MAʾMŪN

    Their rise is connected with the growth of the commercial center of Gorgānǰ in northwest Ḵᵛārazm and its rivalry with the capital of the Afrighids, Kāt or Kāṯ, on the right bank of the Oxus. Gorgānǰ flourished especially because of its position as the terminus for caravan trade across the Ust Urt desert to the Emba.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀL-E MĪKĀL

    the leading aristocratic family of western Khorasan from the 3rd/9th to the 5th/11th century.

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • ĀL-E MOḤTĀJ

    a local dynasty, most probably of Iranian origin but conceivably of Iranized Arab stock, who ruled in the principality of Čaḡānīān on the right bank of the upper Oxus in the basin of the Sorḵān river.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀL-E MOŠAʿŠA

    A misnomer for the Sādāt-e Mošaʿšaʿ. See MOŠAʿŠAʿIĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E MOẒAFFAR

    See MOZAFFARIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E NAWBAḴT

    See NAWBAḴTIĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E ṢAʿED

    See ṢĀʿEDIĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E ŠANSAB

    See GHURIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL TAMḠĀ

    “red seal,” Turkish term for the supreme seal of the Mongol Il-Khans of Iran.

    (Gerhard Doerfer)

  • ĀL-E VARDĀNZŪR

    See ATĀBAKĀN-E YAZD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀL-E ZĪĀR

    See ZIYARIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĀʾ

    vizier of Fārs under the Buyid rulers Šaraf-al-dawla and Ṣamṣām-al-dawla.

    (Heribert Busse)

  • ĀLĀ DĀḠ

    name of a number of mountains in Iran; of Turkish origin, the words mean “colored mountain.”

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    See ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR GARŠĀSP.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA, MĪRZĀ AḤMAD KHAN

    (d. 1329/1911), the son of Moḥammad Raḥīm Khan ʿAlāʾ-al-dawla.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    (d. 1299/1882), notable of the Qajar tribe and holder of high offices under Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA, ROKN-AL-DĪN MĪRZĀ

    Timurid prince (820-65/1417-60).

    (J. Woods)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA ḎUʾL-QADAR

    early 9th/15th century ruler of Maṛʿaš and Albestān in the kingdom of Little Armenia, east of the Taurus mountains.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ALA, HOSAYN

    (1882-1964), statesman, diplomat, minister, and prime minister during the late Qajar and Pahlavi periods. He served as a high-ranking official from the Constitutional Revolution of 1906-07 to the time of the White Revolution of 1963-64.

    (Mansureh Ettehadieh and EIr.)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA ʿALĪ

    (511-34/1117-40), ruler of the Espahbadīya line of the local dynasty of the Bavandids in the Caspian region of Māzandarān.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA ḤASAN B. ROSTAM

    B. ʿALĪ B. ŠAHRĪĀR, ŠARAF-AL-MOLŪK, Bavandid ruler of Māzandarān. According to the account of Ebn Esfandīār, he reigned from 558/1163 to 566/1171.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA MOḤAMMAD

    (d. 433/1041), Daylamī military leader and founder of the shortlived but significant Kakuyid dynasty.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA SEMNĀNĪ

    (1261-1336), famous mystic of the Il-khanid period, opponent of the growing influence of Ebn ʿArabī in Iran.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ

    Ghurid malek and later sultan, reigned in Ḡūr from Fīrūzkūh as the last of his family there before the extinction of the dynasty by the Ḵᵛārazmšāhs, 599-602/1203-96 and 611-12/1214-15.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ MOTTAQĪ

    See ʿALĪ MOTTAQĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN ATSÏZ

    a late and short-reigned sultan of the Ghurid dynasty in Afghanistan (607-11/1210-14).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN BĪRJANDĪ

    a metalworker who lived between the late 15th and the early 16th century.

    (E. Baer)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN JAHĀNSŪZ

    called JAHĀNSŪZ, Ghurid sultan and the first ruler of the Šansabānī family to make the Ghurids a major power in the eastern Islamic world (544-56/1149-61).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN ḴALJĪ

    sultan of Delhi (r. 695-715/1296-1316).

    (N. H. Zaidi)

  • ʿALĀʿ-AL-Din KAYQOBĀD

    See KAYQOBĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    naqīb of Isfahan in the Timurid period and ancestor of prominent religious-legal dignitaries of the Safavid period.

    (R. Quiring-Zoche)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    chief of the Ismaʿilis of Alamūt (d. 1255).

    (Bernard Lewis)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Ḵᵛārazmšāh who reigned in Transoxania and central and eastern Iran as well as in Ḵᵛārazm, (596-617/1200-20).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD BOḴĀRĪ

    See BOḴĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN MONAJJEM

    See ʿALĪŠĀH BOḴĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN SAMARQANDĪ

    Ḥanafī jurist and Mātorīdī theologian.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ALA-FIRENG

    See ALĀFRANK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-MOLK, ḤĀJJĪ

    (d. 23 Jomādā II 1308/4 February 1891), holder of various offices under Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-MOLK, MIRZĀ

    son of Mīrzā ʿAlī Aṣḡar Mostawfī, governor and minister in the later Qajar period (1258-1344/1842-1925).

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-SALṬANA

    prime minister and diplomat of the late Qajar period (d. 14 Ramażān 1336/23 June 1918), also known by the titles Moʿin-al-Wezāra, ʿAlā-al-Salṭana, and Prince.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • ʿALĀʾ-AL-SALṬANA

    Displeased with Malkom Khan, the Iranian minister in London, the Shah replaced him with Moḥammad-ʿAlī Khan; at this point he received the title ʿAlāʾ-al-salṭana. During the constitutional period he was back in Iran as a member of various cabinets. In January, 1913 he became prime minister, a position he enjoyed for seven months.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • ALĀFRANK

    or ALA-FIRENG, the eldest son of the Il-khan Geiḵatu (r. 690-94/1291-95).

    (David O. Morgan)

  • ʿALĀʾI, ŠOʿĀʿ-ALLĀH

    (1899-1984), prominent government official and a leading Bahai.

    (Firuz Kazemzadeh)

  • ALAK-DOLAK

    the game of tipcat, played for centuries in Iran, Afghanistan, and surrounding countries.

    (H. Javadi)

  • AʿLAM, HUŠANG

    (1928-2007), scholar of the history of science.

    (Mehran Afshari and EIr)

  • ʿALAM, MOḤAMMAD EBRĀHIM

    (1881-1944), one of the most eminent local magnates and landowners of the late Qajar and early Pahlavi period.

    (Hormoz Davarpanah)

  • AʿLAM, MOẒAFFAR

    Sardār Enteṣār (1882-1973), provincial governor, minister of foreign affairs, military minister plenipotentiary.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • ʿĀLAM II, SHAH

    Mughal emperor (1173-1253/1759-1806).

    (S. S. Alvi)

  • ʿALAM VA ʿALĀMAT

    In both Arabic and Persian, the word ʿalam conveys various senses connected with the general meaning of a distinctive sign or mark. In Persian the word had early carried the meaning of ensign and of standard or flag. The same meanings may also be rendered by the word ʿalāma, which derives from the same root.

    (Jean Calmard, J. W. Allan)

  • AʿLAM-AL-DAWLA

    See ṮAQAFĪ, ḴALĪL KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALAM-AL-HODĀ

    leading Imamite scholar, man of letters, and naqīb (syndic) of the Talibids in Baghdad.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿALAM KHAN

    viceroy of the Afsharid state of Khorasan, 1161-68/1748-54.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ʿĀLAM-E NESVĀN

    a magazine founded in Mīzān 1299 Š./September 1920, one of the earliest periodicals published by and for women.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ʿĀLAMĀRĀ-YE ʿABBĀSĪ

    a Safavid chronicle written by Eskandar Beg Monšī (1560-1632).

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ʿĀLAMĀRĀ-YE ŠĀH ESMĀʿĪL

    an anonymous narrative of the life of Shah Esmāʿīl (r. 907-30/1501-24), the founder of the Safavid dynasty in Iran.

    (R. McChesney)

  • ʿALĀMĀT-E ŻOHŪR

    See APOCALYPTIC.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ALAMŪT

    a high, isolated valley in the Alborz 35 km northeast of Qazvīn, the center of an autonomous Ismaʿili state.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • ALAMŪT DIALECTS

    See QAZVĪN DIALECTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ALANS

    an ancient Iranian tribe of the northern (Scythian, Saka, Sarmatian, Massagete) group, known to classical writers from the first centuries CE.

    (V. I. Abaev, H. W. Bailey)

  • ĀLĀT

    “utensils,” for Parsis the “sacred apparatus” employed in Zoroastrian rituals.

    (F. M. Kotwal and J. W. Boyd)

  • ALAVI, BOZORG

    (1904-1997), leftist writer and one of the most noted Persian novelists of the 20th century, whose works were banned in Iran from 1953 to 1979.

    (Ḥasan Mirʿābedini)

  • ʿALAWAYH

    AL-AʿSAR (“the Left-handed”), a noted singer at the ʿAbbasid court under Hārūn al-Rašīd and his successors, ca. 184-230/800-54.

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • ʿALAWĪ

    the nesba used to denote descendants, political states, or sects connected with one or another ʿAli; more particularly, it is employed to refer to a Shiʿite sect centered today in Syria.

    (W. Kadi)

  • ʿALAWĪ, ABD-AL-KARĪM

    See ʿABD-AL-KARĪM ʿALAVĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALAWĪ, AḤMAD

    See AḤMAD ʿALAWĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALAWĪS

    OF ṬABARESTĀN, DAYLAMĀN, AND GĪLĀN. See ʿALIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALAWĪYAT AL-AʿSAR

    See ʿALAWAYH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀLBĀLŪ

    (or ĀLŪBĀLŪ), sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris), a tree of western Asia and eastern Europe.

    (Ahmad Parsa)

  • ALBANIA

    an ancient country in the Caucasus (for Albania in Islamic times, see Arrān).

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ALBORZ

    modern Persian name for the east-west massif in northern Iran, lying south of the Caspian districts.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ALBORZ i. The Name

    etymology and meaning.

    (W. Eilers)

  • ALBORZ ii. In Myth and Legend

    stories about the Alborz mountains in Iran and Zorastrianism.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ALBORZ iii. Geography

    physical relief, geology, geomorphology, climate, flora, demography and economy of the Alborz massif.

    (Marcel Bazin, Eckart Ehlers, Bernard Hourcade)

  • ALBORZ COLLEGE

    an American Presbyterian missionary institution in Tehran; starting as a grade school in 1873, it grew to a junior college in 1924 and an accredited liberal arts college by 1928. In 1940 it was closed and its property bought by the government of Iran.

    (Y. Armajani)

  • ALBUQUERQUE, ALFONSO DE

    (ca. 1460-1515), admiral in the Indian Ocean (1504, 1506-08), second governor of Portuguese India (1509-15), a great conqueror, and the real founder of the Portuguese empire in the Orient.

    (J. Aubin)

  • ALCHASAI

    a sectarian in the early Christian Church, 1st-2nd centuries CE, in the time of Trajan.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • ĀLČĪ

    (“sealer”), a Turkish term (from āl “red seal”) designating an il-khanid chancery official.

    (David O. Morgan)

  • ALDANMIŠ KÄVAKEB

    Azeri Turkish title of a narrative by Āḵūndzāda (1812-78).

    (S. Soucek)

  • ʿĀLEMPUR, Moḥyi-al-Din

    (Muhiddin Olimpur/Olimov), Tajik journalist, photographer, and intellectual figure who was instrumental in strengthening cultural ties among Persianate societies (1945-1995).

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ALESSANDRI

    (d. after 1595), Venetian secretary and diplomat, author of an important report on Safavid Persia.

    (A. M. Piemontese)

  • ALEXANDER, PRINCE

    (known in Persian as ESKANDAR MĪRZĀ), pro-Persian member of the royal family of Georgia (b. 1770, d. after 1830).

    (George A. Bournoutian)

  • ALEXANDER THE GREAT

    (356-323 B.C.). Ascending the throne of Macedonia on the assassination of his father Philip II in 336, Alexander quickly took up Philip’s grand scheme to land an army in Asia and “liberate the Greek cities from the Achaemenid yoke.”

    (Pierre Briant)

  • ALEXANDER THE GREAT ii. In Zoroastrian Tradition

    heritage of the Sasanian period includes two widely divergent storylines about Alexander, both of which were presumably transmitted by Zoroastrians and can therefore be labelled “Zoroastrian.”

    (F. M. Kotwal and P. G. Kreyenbroek)

  • ALEXANDER OF LYCOPOLIS

    apparently a Neoplatonic philosopher living in Egypt about 300 CE.

    (G. Widengren)

  • ALEXANDRIA

    general designation of cities whose foundation is credited to Alexander the Great (356-23 B.C.).

    (P. Leriche)

  • ALEXANDROPOLIS

    name of a number of cities. According to certain historians, these cities were founded after Alexander’s death; others call some of these same cities Alexandria.

    (P. Leriche)

  • ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA

    “One thousand nights and one night,” Arabic title of the world-famous collection of tales known in English as The Arabian Nights.

    (Charles Pellat)

  • ALFARIC, PROSPER

    (1876-1955), French historian of religions.

    (H. C. Puech)

  • ALFĪYA VA ŠALFĪYA

    name given to illustrated books, in particular one by Azraqī, describing various kinds of sexual relationships between men and women. See AZRAQI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALI, AMIR SAYYED

    See ʿALI AL-AʿLĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ AMĪR SAYYED

    See ʿALĪ AL-AʿLĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ, ḴᵛĀJA

    also known as SAYYED ʿALĪ ʿAJAMĪ (b. ca. 770/1368-69, d. 830/1427 or 832/1429), an ancestor of the Safavid royal family, the son of Shaikh Ṣadr-al-dīn and grandson of Shaikh Ṣafī-al-dīn Ardabīlī.

    (H. Horst)

  • ʿĀLĪ NEʿMAT KHAN

    Satirist, historian, and Persian poet of Mughal India (d. 1121/1709-10).

    (M. U. Memon)

  • ʿALĪ B. ʿABBĀS MAJŪSĪ

    physician from Fārs and author of an Arabic work on medicine (d. /994 [?]); probably the most important medical writer between Rāzī and Ebn Sīnā.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • ʿALĪ B. ʿABDALLĀH

    See ʿALAWAYH AʿSAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. ABĪ ṬĀLEB

    (b. ca. 600, d. 40/661), cousin and son-in-law of the prophet Moḥammad, first Shiʿite Imam, father of the Imams Ḥasan and Ḥosayn by Fāṭema, and fourth caliph (35-40/656-61).

    (I. K. Poonawala, Etan Kohlberg)

  • ʿALĪ B. AḤMAD BALḴĪ

    post-3rd/9th century astronomer.

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿALĪ B. ASAD

    (second half of the 11th cent.), the amir of Badaḵšān to whom Nāṣer(-e) Ḵosrow dedicated his Jāmeʿ al-ḥekmatayn

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy Ḥabibi)

  • ʿALĪ B. BŪYA

    the eldest of three brothers who came to power in western Persia as military adventurers and founded the Buyid dynasty. See ʿEMĀD-AL-DAWLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. FARĀMARZ

    member of the Deylamī dynasty of the Kakuyids (d. 1095).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĪ B. ḤĀMED

    KŪFĪ. See ČĀČ-NĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. ḤARB

    (or ʿAlī b. ʿOṯmān b. Ḥarb), ephemeral Saffarid amir of the so-called “third Saffarid dynasty”.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĪ B. ḤASAN

    See ʿALĪTIGIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. ḤOSĀM-AL-DAWLA

    ŠAHRĪĀR. See ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA ʿALĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. ḤOSAYN B. ʿALĪ B. ABĪ ṬĀLEB

    ZAYN-AL-ʿĀBEDĪN (d. ca. 712-13), the fourth Imam of the Emāmī Shiʿites.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿALĪ B. ḤOSAYN ANṢĀRĪ

    See ZAYN-AL-DĪN ʿAṬṬĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. ḤOSAYN AL-ŠARĪF

    AL-MORTAŻĀ. See ʿALAM-AL-HODĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. ʿĪSĀ B. DĀʾŪD

    B. AL-JARRĀḤ (245-334/859-946), vizier during the reign of the caliph Moqtader (r. 908-32). His family was of Persian origin resident in Iraq.

    (D. Sourdel)

  • ʿALĪ B. ʿĪSĀ B. MĀHĀN

    (d. 812), officer in the service of the ʿAbbasids.

    (Charles Pellat)

  • ʿALĪ B. MAʾMŪN

    ABU’L-ḤASAN, second Ḵᵛārazmšāh of the short-lived Maʾmunid dynasty in Ḵᵛārazm (r. 997-ca. 1008-09).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĪ B. MASʿŪD

    [I], BAHĀʾ-AL-DAWLA ABU’L-ḤASAN, Ghaznavid sultan, reigned briefly ca. 1048-49.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĪ B. MOḤAMMAD

    See ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ B. MOḤAMMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. MOḤAMMAD B. ABĪ ṬĀHER

    See ABŪ ṬĀHER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿALĪ

    ASTARĀBĀDĪ. See ŠARĪF JORJĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. ʿOBAYDALLĀH

    B. ḤASAN ḤASKĀ B. ḤOSAYN B. ḤASAN B. ḤOSAYN, Shiʿite traditionist and biographer (b. 1110-11, d. after 1189).

    (M. J. McDermott)

  • ʿALĪ B. ʿOBAYDALLĀH ṢĀDEQ

    ABU’L ḤASAN (d. ca. 1040), Ghaznavid military commander under Sultan Masʿūd I.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĪ B. ʿOMAR KĀTEBI QAZVINI

    KĀTEBĪ QAZVĪNĪ. See NAJM-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. ʿOṮMĀN

    B. ḤARB. See ʿALĪ B. ḤARB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. OWAYS

    Jalayerid prince usually known as Šāhzāda Shaikh ʿAlī, one of the five sons of Oways I (r. 1356-74).

    (J. M. Smith, Jr.)

  • ʿALĪ B. ŠAMS-AL-DĪN

    author of the Tārīḵ-e Ḵānī.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿALĪ B. ŠOJĀʿ-AL-DĪN

    See ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ B. SOLṬĀN-MOḤAMMAD

    MĪRZĀ, a master painter of the early Safavid period.

    (A. Welch)

  • ʿALĪ B. ṬAYFŪR

    BESṬĀMĪ, historian and litterateur at the courts of Sultan ʿAbdallāh Qoṭbšāh (1626-72) and his successor Sultan Abu’l-Ḥasan (1672-86).

    (M. A. Nayeem)

  • ʿALĪ B. ZAYD

    BAYHAQĪ. See BAYHAQĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ALĪ DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E ʿALĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ ʿAJAMĪ

    See ʿALĪ, ḴᵛĀJA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ AKBAR

    Imam Ḥosayn’s eldest son, killed at the age of 18, 19, or 25 at the battle of Karbalā on the day of ʿĀšūrā (10 Moḥarram 61/10 October 680).

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ʿALĪ AKBAR ḤOSAYNĪ ARDESTĀNĪ

    Indo-Muslim taḏkera writer, remembered solely for his unpublished Maǰmaʿ al-awlīāʾ, an encyclopedia of Sufi saints compiled in 1043/1633-34 and dedicated to the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (1037-68/1628-58).

    (K. A. Nizami)

  • ʿALĪ AKBAR ḴEṬĀʾĪ

    (15th-16th centuries), author of the Persian Ḵeṭāy-nāma or “Book of Cathay,” i.e., of China.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ʿALĪ AKBAR ŠAHMĪRZĀDĪ

    known as Ḥāǰǰ Āḵund, a prominent Iranian Bahāʾī (b. 1842).

    (Moojan Momen)

  • ʿALĪ AL-AʿLĀ

    (d. 822/1419), also known as Amīr Sayyed ʿAlī, principal successor of Fażlallāh Astarābādī, founder of the Ḥorūfī sect.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ʿALĪ ĀQĀ TABRĪZĪ, MIRZA

    See ṮEQAT-AL-ESLĀM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ AṢḠAR

    Imam Ḥosayn’s youngest son, killed at Karbalā (10 Moḥarram 61/10 October 680).

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ʿALĪ AṢḠAR BORŪJERDĪ

    author of several works including the ʿAqāʾed al-šīʿa, written in 1263/1874 and dedicated to Moḥammad Shah Qāǰār.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ʿALĪ AṢḠAR ČEŠTĪ

    Mughal hagiographer, chiefly known for his Jawāher-e Farīdī, compiled in 1033/1623 during the reign of Jahāngīr (1014-37/1605-27).

    (K. A. Nizami)

  • ʿALĪ-AṢḠAR KHAN AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN

    See ATĀBAK-E AʿẒAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ BESṬĀMĪ

    early Bābī ʿālem and member of the ḥorūf al-ḥayy or sābeqūn, the first followers of the Bāb.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • ʿALĪ DĀYA

    See ʿALĪ B. ʿOBAYDALLĀH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ EBRĀHĪM KHAN

    Indian statesman and literary figure (d. 1208/1793-94).

    (F. Lehmann)

  • ʿALĪ AL-HĀDĪ

    the 10th imam of the Emāmī Shiʿites (d. 254/868).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿALĪ HAMADĀNĪ

    full name: ʿALĪ B. ŠEHĀB-AL-DĪN B. MOḤAMMAD HAMADĀNĪ, MĪR SAYYED, surnamed ʿAlī-e Ṯānī, Šāh-e Hamadān, and Amīr-e Kabīr, major 8th/14th century Sufi saint.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • ʿALĪ HERAVĪ

    also known as MĪR ʿALĪ KĀTEB ḤOSAYNĪ, a calligrapher active in Herat, Mašhad, and Bukhara from the late 9/15th century to 951/1544-45.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿALĪ KANĪ

    MOLLĀ (1220-1306/1805-88), an influential and wealthy moǰtahed of Tehran who played a decisive role in obtaining the cancellation of the Reuter Concession in 1873.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ALĪ KĀY

    a semi-nomadic Gīlakī-speaking tribe that winters in the foothills of the central Alborz.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • ʿALĪ KHAN AMĪN AL-DAWLA, MĪRZĀ

    MĪRZĀ. See AMĪN-AL-DAWLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ KHAN ḤĀJEB-AL-DAWLA

    Qajar official (1222-84/1807-08 to 1867).

    (Heribert Busse)

  • ALI KOSH

    See ʿALĪKOŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALI MARDĀN KHAN

    (d. Lahore, 1657), military leader and administrator under Safavid kings Shah ʿAbbās I and Shah Ṣafi, and Mughal ruler Shah Jahān.

    (Mehrnoush Soroush)

  • ʿALĪ MĪRZĀ

    (d. 899/1494), eldest son of Shaikh Ḥaydar, head of the Safavid ṭarīqa, and ʿAlamšāh Begom, daughter of the Āq Qoyunlū ruler Uzun Ḥasan.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD KHAN BAHĀDOR

    Historian of the Mughals and author of Merʾāt-e Aḥmadī (ca. 1111/1700-1177/1763).

    (Hameed ud-Din)

  • ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD ḴORĀSĀNĪ

    MĪRZĀ. See EBN AṢDAQ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD ŠĪRĀZĪ

    See BĀBISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD WARQĀ

    See VARQĀ, ʿALI-MOḤAMMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ-MORĀD KHAN ZAND

    (r. 1195-99/1781-85), fourth of the Zand rulers.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ʿALĪ MOTTAQĪ

    Saint and Hadith scholar of India (885-975/1481-1567).

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿALĪ-NAQĪ

    a Safavid miniature painter, whose works follow the manner of his father, Shaikh ʿAbbāsī; he is known from the inscriptions on seven paintings dated between 1684-85 and 1700-01.

    (R. Skelton)

  • ʿALĪ AL-NAQĪ

    IMAM. See ʿALĪ AL-HĀDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ QĀʾENĪ

    usually known as SOLṬĀN-ʿALĪ, calligrapher active in Herat and Tabrīz during the late 9th/15th and early 10th/16th centuries.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿALĪ QĀʾENĪ

    mathematician.

    (David Pingre)

  • ʿĀLĪ QĀPŪ

    a five-storied building overlooking the Maydān-e Šāh of Isfahan..

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿALĪ B. IL-ARSLAN QARĪB

    or ḴᵛĪŠĀVAND, ZAʿĪM-AL-ḤOJJĀB, Turkish military commander of the early Ghaznavids Maḥmūd, Moḥammad and Masʿūd I.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿALĪ-QOLĪ JOBBA-DĀR

    painter active in Qazvīn and Isfahan during the late 11th/17th and early 12th/18th centuries.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿALĪ-QOLĪ KHAN (MOṢṬAFĀ PASHA)

    later known as MOṢṬAFĀ PASHA (ca. 1680-1727), Safavid (later Ottoman) wālī or viceroy of Kʿarṭʿli (Georgia), residing at Tiflis.

    (D. M. Lang)

  • ʿALĪ-QOLĪ KHAN

    (d. 1240/1824-25), the youngest of nine sons of Moḥammad Ḥasan Khan Qāǰār and half brother of Āḡā (more correctly Āqā) Moḥammad Khan.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • ʿALĪ-QOLĪ KHAN AFŠĀR

    See ʿĀDEL SHAH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ-QOLĪ KHAN ANṢĀRĪ

    See ANṢĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ-QOLĪ KHAN MOḴBER-AL-DAWLA

    See MOḴBER-AL-DAWLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ-QOLĪ KHAN ŠĀMLŪ

    (d. 977/1589), Safavid governor of Herat and guardian of the future Shah ʿAbbās I.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ʿALĪ-QOLĪ KHAN WĀLEH

    Persian poet at the Mughal court (1124-69/1712-56).

    (W. Kirmani)

  • ʿALĪ QŪŠJĪ

    (QŪŠJŪ), theologian and scientist (d. 879/1474).

    (Fazlur Rahman, D. Pingree)

  • ʿALĪ AL-REŻĀ

    the eighth Imam of the Emāmī Shiʿites.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿALĪ-REŻĀ ABBĀSĪ

    10th-11th/16th-17th century calligrapher born and trained in Tabrīz but active principally in Qazvīn and Isfahan.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿALĪ-REŻĀ KHAN QĀJĀR

    See AŻOD-AL-MOLK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ-ŠĪR NAVĀʾĪ, AMĪR

    See NAVĀʾĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALĪ TABRĪZĪ (calligrapher)

    (or MĪR ʿALĪ TABRĪZĪ), 8th/14th century calligrapher who is often credited with the invention of the nastaʿlīq script.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿALĪ TABRĪZĪ (woodcarver)

    15th-century woodcarver.

    (H. Crane)

  • ʿALIDS

    OF ṬABARESTĀN, DAYLAMĀN, AND GĪLĀN. From its beginnings in 250/864 until the early Safavid age, ʿAlid rule in the coastal regions south of the Caspian Sea was based chiefly on Zaydī Shiʿite support.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿALĪKOŠ

    an archeological site dating to the 8th millennium B.C. in southwestern Iran, near the modern town of Deh Lorān.

    (F. Hole)

  • ʿALĪŠĀH, TĀJ-AL-DĪN

    vizier of the two Il-khans Ölǰeytü (r. 703-17/1304-16) and Abū Saʿīd (r. 717-36/1317-35).

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ʿALĪŠĀH BOḴĀRĪ

    7th/13th century astronomer.

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿALĪTIGIN

    the usual name in the sources for ʿALĪ B. ḤASAN or HĀRŪN BOḠRA KHAN, member of the Hasanid or eastern branch of the Qarakhanid family, ruler in Transoxania during the early 5th/11th century (d. 425/1034).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ALIZADEH, Ghazaleh

    (1947-1996), noted novelist and short story writer.

    (Ḥasan Mirʿābedini)

  • ʿALLĀF

    See ABU’L-HOḎAYL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ALLĀH-QOLĪ KHAN ĪLḴĀNĪ

    Qajar notable (ca. 1236-1309/1820-1892).

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • ALLAHABAD

    Major city and headquarters of a district of the same name in Uttar Pradesh, India at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers.

    (Ziyaud-Din A. Desai)

  • ALLĀHDĪĀ ČEŠTĪ

    Mughal author of Sīar al-aqṭāb, a biography of the masters of the Ṣāberī Češtī Sufi order (17th century).

    (G. Sarwar)

  • ALLĀHO AKBAR, KŪH-E

    a mountain range that forms part of the northern rim of the Khorasan trench in northeastern Iran, to the north of the city of Qūčān.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ALLĀHVERDĪ KHAN (1)

    (d.1022/1613), a Georgian ḡolām who rose to high office in the Safavid state.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ALLĀHVERDĪ KHAN (2)

    (d. 1072/1662), son of Ḵosrow Khan (d. 1063/1653), a Safavid ḡolām of Armenian origin.

    (Cornell H. Fleischer)

  • ALLĀHYĀR KHAN

    See ĀFĪ, ALLĀHYĀR KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ALLĀHYĀR KHAN QELĪČĪ

    (b. ca. 1150/1735-36), khan of the Qelīča, a minor Turkish tribe in northern Khorasan, and ruler of Sabzevār at the turn of the 19th century.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • ALLĀHYĀR KHAN ABDĀLĪ

    a chieftain of the important Afghan tribe of the Abdālī (later known as the Dorrānī).

    (John R. Perry)

  • ALLĀHYĀR KHAN ĀṢAF-AL-DAWLA

    See ĀṢAF-AL-DAWLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿALLĀMĪ, ABU’L-FAŻL

    Historian, officer, chief secretary, and confidant of the Mughal emperor Akbar I; see ABU’L-FAŻL ʿALLĀMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ALLIANCE FRANÇAISE

    See FRANCE xv. FRENCH SCHOOLS IN PERSIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ALLIANCE ISRAÉLITE UNIVERSELLE

    the first worldwide Jewish organization, through which a number of Jewish schools were founded in Iran.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ALMOND

    See BĀDĀM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ALP ARSLĀN

    Saljuq sultan from 455/1063 to 465/1072.

    (K. A. Luther)

  • ALPTIGIN

    Turkish military slave commander of the Samanids and founder of Turkish power in eastern Afghanistan (d. 352/963).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ALQĀB VA ʿANĀWĪN

    titles and forms of address, employed in Iran from pre-Islamic times.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • ALQĀS MĪRZA

    second of Shah Esmāʿīl’s four surviving sons (1516-1550) and leader of a revolt.

    (Cornell H. Fleischer)

  • ALTAIC

    The Altaic peoples and languages are distributed around 45° north latitude, from eastern Europe to the Pacific Ocean.

    (K. H. Menges)

  • ALTHEN, JEAN-BAPTISTE JOANNIS

    (1709-74), who introduced the cultivation of madder into southern France. When his attempts to grow cotton in southern France proved fruitless, he began to cultivate Oriental madder; this proved so successful that madder soon became a main crop of the region.

    (S. Schuster-Walser)

  • ALTIN TEPE

    a settlement of the Neolithic period and Bronze Age in the south of Turkmenistan near the village of Miana.

    (V. M. Masson)

  • ALTŪN TAMḠĀ

    “gold mark of ownership” (Tk.), a seal that was used throughout their empire by the Mongol rulers of Iran (including the Chupanids and Jalayerids), especially for financial or property decisions and in documents relating to financial transactions by the state.

    (Gerhard Doerfer)

  • ALTUNTAŠ

    Turkish slave commander of the Ghaznavid sultans and governor in Ḵᵛārazm (408-23/1017-32).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀLŪČA

    garden plum (Prunus domestica), a fruit with a wide range in size, flavor, color, and texture.

    (Ahmad Parsa)

  • ALVAND KŪH

    mountain range near Hamadān, an isolated massif at a point of junction between the Zagros folds and the central Iranian plateau.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ALVĪRĪ

    a dialect spoken in the village of Alvīr and belonging to the Central group of Iranian dialects.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ALWĀḤ

    “Tablets,” pl. of LAWḤ, a term used by Bahāʾīs for epistles issued by the three central figures of the faith.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • Ac~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the Ac–Al entries

    (DATA)