List of Articles

  • AMA

    a minor Zoroastrian divinity, the hypostasis of strength, who appears in the Avestan hymn to Vərəθraγna (Yt. 14).

    (Mary Boyce)

  • AʿMĀ

    7th-8th century poet from Azerbaijan who wrote in Arabic.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • AMAHRASPAND

    See AMƎŠA SPƎNTA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMAL AL-ĀMEL

    biographical dictionary of Shiʿite (Etnāʿašarī) scholars originating from the Jabal ʿĀmel in south Lebanon, composed by Moḥammad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī Mašḡarī, known as Ḥorr-e ʿĀmelī (1033-1104/1624-1693).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ʿAMALA

    (literally: workers, retainers), the retinue of a tribal chief, and the name of a number of tribes.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • AMĀMA

    (also ʿAmāma), a village in the Lavāsān district at a distance of 39 km north of Tehran, located in a mountainous area 2,230 m above sea level. Heavy snowfalls in winter nearly isolate the village for more than three months of the year. The village population fluctuates, receding to a minimum of about 1,200 souls in winter when the majority of its youths migrate to nearby cities in search of work, and reaching a peak of 3,000 in summer when they return and its cool mountain air attracts city dwellers.

    (Abu’l-Qāsem Tafażżolī)

  • ʿAMĀMA

    (or ʿAMMĀMA, Arabic ʿEMĀMA), the turban. Imbued with symbolic significance, the turban was once the almost universal headgear of adult male Muslims.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • AMĀN-E AFḠĀN

    newspaper of Afghanistan during the reign of King Amānallāh (1337-48/1919-29).

    (I. V. Pourhadi)

  • AMĀNALLĀH

    (1892-1961), ruler of Afghanistan (1919-29), first with the title of amir and from 1926 on with that of shah.

    (L. B. Poullada)

  • AMĀNAT

    12th/18th century poet in Persian who imitated the style of his teacher, Mīrzā ʿAbd-al-Qāder Bīdel.

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • AMĀNAT KHAN ŠĪRĀZĪ

    When Shah Jahān’s wife Momtāz Maḥall died in childbirth (17 Ḏu’l-qaʿda 1040/17 June 1631), ʿAbd-al-Ḥaqq was appointed to select the Koranic passages and design the calligraphy for her tomb. One year later, the emperor honored him with the title Amānat Khan and promoted him to the manṣab rank of 900.

    (W. E. Begley)

  • AMĀNI

    pen name of Amān-Allāh Khan, Ḵān-e Zamān, an Indo-Muslim physician and author of works on medicine (d. 1637).

    (Fabrizio Speziale)

  • ʿAMʿAQ BOḴARĀʾĪ

    Having attained a degree of literary prowess in his home of Bokhara he went to the Qarakhanid court in Samarkand in 460/1068.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • ĀMĀR

    See DEMOGRAPHY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMAR NĀTH

    Persian writer and poet of the Punjab under the Sikhs (1822-67).

    (B. Ahmad)

  • ʿAMĀRA MARVAZĪ

    Persian poet of the late Samanid/early Ghaznavid periods.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • AMARANTH

    See BOSTĀNAFRŪZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀMĀRGAR

    a Middle and New Persian word designating a person holding a particular administrative post.

    (D. N. MacKenzie, M. L. Chaumont)

  • AʿMAŠ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD

    SOLAYMĀN B. MEḤRĀN ASADĪ (in some sources, erroneously, Azdī) KĀHELĪ KŪFĪ, 1st-2nd/7th-8th century Shiʿite scholar, traditionist, and Koran reader.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • AMASYA, PEACE OF

    (8 Raǰab 962/29 May 1555), treaty signed between Iran and the Ottomans and observed for some twenty years.

    (M. Köhbach)

  • AMATUNI

    Armenian dynastic house, known historically after the 4th century CE.

    (C. Toumanoff)

  • AMAZONS

    designation of a fabulous race of female warriors in Greek beliefs, writings, and art, fancifully explained as a-mazos (breastless or full-breasted).

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • AMAZONS

    women warriors in Greek and Persian beliefs, writings, and art.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • AMAZONS i. INTRODUCTION

    designation of a fabulous race of female warriors in Greek beliefs, writings, and art, fancifully explained as a-mazos (breastless or full-breasted).

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • AMAZONS IN THE IRANIAN WORLD

    Women warriors who gloried in fighting, hunting, and exercised sexual freedom in Persian literature and Iranian history and culture.

    (Adrienne Mayor)

  • ĀMED

    See AMIDA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀMEDĪ

    6th/12th century traditionist.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • ʿĀMEL

    the holder of an administrative office in the pre-modern Islamic world.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿĀMELĪ, ʿABD-AL-MONʿEM

    See ʿABD-AL-MONʿEM ʿĀMELĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿĀMELĪ, BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    See BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿĀMELĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿĀMELĪ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    See AḤMAD ʿALAWĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿĀMELĪ EṢFAHĀNĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    Shiʿite theologian and author (d. Najaf, 1138/1726).

    (H. Corbin)

  • AMƎRƎTĀT

    See AMURDĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿĀMERĪ NĪŠĀPŪRĪ

    (d. 381/992), important philosopher from Khorasan between Fārābī and Avicenna.

    (H. Corbin)

  • AMƎŠA SPƎNTA

    an Avestan term for beneficent divinity, meaning literally “Holy/Bounteous Immortal” (Pahl. Amešāspand, [A]mahraspand).

    (Mary Boyce)

  • AMESTRIS

    no. 4. Niece of of Darius III, d. ca. 280 BCE. She was married to the Macedonian general Craterus, then to the tyrant Dionysius in Bithynia, and to Lysimachus, king of Thrace, before ruling alone in Paphlagonia.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ʿAMĪD, ABŪ ʿABDALLĀH

    known as Kolah (said to be an opprobrious term), secretary and official in northern Persia and Transoxania during the 4th/10th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿAMĪD-AL-DĪN ASʿAD

    See ABZARĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿAMĪD-AL-DĪN SANĀMĪ

    Persian poet of India, panegyrist of Nāṣer-al-dīn Maḥmūd (r. 644-64/1246-66) and perhaps of Ḡīāṯ-al-dīn Balban (7th/13th century).

    (M. U. Memon)

  • ʿAMĪD-AL-MOLK

    See ABŪ BAKR QOHESTĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿAMĪD-AL-MOLK ABŪ ḠĀNEM

    See ABZARĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMIDA

    Pers. Āmed (modern Dīārbakr), town situated on a plateau dominating the west bank of the upper Tigris.

    (D. Sellwood and EIr)

  • AMĪN, ḤĀJJĪ

    name given successively to two Bahaʾis who were trustees of the Bahaʾi system of religious taxation, the Ḥoqūq Allāh.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • AMĪN AḤMAD RĀZĪ

    better known as AMĪN RĀZĪ, 10th-11th/16th-17th century author of the Haft eqlīm, a famous geographical and biographical encyclopedia.

    (M. U. Memon)

  • AMĪN BALYĀNĪ

    See BALYĀNĪ, AMĪN-AL-DĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, ʿALĪ EBRĀHĪM KHAN

    See ʿALĪ EBRĀHĪM KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    See MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN KHAN (forthcoming).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, MOḤAMMAD-ṢĀDEQ KHAN

    See MOḤAMMAD-ṢĀDEQ KHAN MOSTAWFĪ (forthcoming).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, ʿABDALLĀH KHAN

    ṢADR EṢFAHĀNĪ (1779-1847), chief revenue accountant and later prime minister under Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (1797-1834).

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, FARROḴ KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ

    (1227-88/1812-71), a high ranking Qajar official.

    (F. Gaffary)

  • AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, MĪRZĀ ʿALĪ KHAN

    (1844-1904), high ranking official in the service of the Qajar king Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah (r. 1848-96) and grand vizier under Moẓaffar-al-dīn Shah (r. 1896-1907).

    (H. F. Farmayan)

  • AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, MOḤSEN KHAN

    MOʿĪN-AL-MOLK. See MOḤSEN KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪN-E ELĀHĪ

    See ARDAKĀNĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪN ḤAŻRAT

    eldest son of Āqā Ebrāhīm Amīn-al-solṭān who succeeded his father as Head of the royal pantry (ābdār-bašī), which allowed him to accompany Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah in all his travels in Iran and abroad.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • AMĪN ḤOŻŪR

    (Trustee in Presence), an official title under Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah whose successive administrative reorganizations after 1858 led to a multiplication of offices, particularly in the royal household.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • AMĪN ḴALWAT

    (Trustee of the Shah’s private household or court), an office and title in the late Qajar period held by members of the Ḡaffārī family.

    (F. Gaffary)

  • AMĪN LAŠKAR

    (Trustee of the Army), Qajar title held by Mīrzā ʿEnāyatallāh and Mīrzā Qahramān under Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • AMĪN LAŠKAR, MĪRZĀ QAHRAMĀN

    (1244-1310/1828-92), a middle rank Qajar official during the rule of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • AMĪN-AL-MOLK

    See PĀŠĀ KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪN-AL-MOLK, MĪRZĀ ESMĀʿĪL

    (1867-98), a high-ranking official towards the end of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah’s reign.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN, ʿALĪ-AṢḠAR KHAN

    See ATĀBAK-E AʿẒAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN, ĀQĀ EBRĀHĪM

    (d. 1300/1882-83), influential court minister of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah and father of ʿAlī-Aṣḡar Khan Amīn-al-solṭān.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • AMĪN-E ŠŪRĀ

    See PĀŠĀ KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪN-AL-ŻARB, ḤĀJJ MOḤAMMAD-ḤASAN

    (AMĪN-AL-ŻARB), custodian of the state mint under Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah, regarded as the most successful Iranian entrepreneur of his time (1253-1316/1837-98).

    (A. Enayat)

  • AMĪN-AL-ŻARB, ḤAJJ MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN MAHDAWI

    (1289-1351/1872-1932), Persian businessman and vice-president of the first Maǰles.

    (A. Enayat)

  • AMĪNĀ

    pen name of BENYĀMĪN B. MĪŠĀʾĪL KĀŠĀNĪ, an outstanding Jewish poet of Iran.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • AMĪNA AQDAS

    or AMĪN-E AQDAS (d. 1311/1893), one of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah’s most powerful wives.

    (Guity Nashat)

  • AMĪNĀ QAZVĪNĪ

    also known as MĪRZĀ AMĪNA or AMĪNA-YE MONŠĪ, Mughal historian and poet of Shah Jahān’s reign.

    (Hameed ud-Din)

  • AMĪNĪ, SHAIKH ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN

    also known as ʿAllāma-ye Amīnī (1320-90/1902-70), Shiʿite scholar and author of the encyclopedic al-Ḡadīr fi’l-ketāb wa’l-sonna wa’l-adab.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • AMĪNJĪ

    eminent Ṭayyebī Ismaʿili jurist from Ahmadabad in India (d. 1567).

    (I. Poonawala)

  • AMĪR

    “commander, governor, prince” in Arabic. The term seems to be basically Islamic; although it does not occur in the Koran, we do find there the related concept of the “holders of authority.”

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AMĪR ARSALĀN

    a prose romance of the genre dāstānhā-ye ʿammīāna, “popular tales,” composed by Mīrzā Moḥammad ʿAlī Naqīb-al-mamālek, the chief storyteller of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah (r. 1848-96).

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • AMĪR AṢLĀN KHAN

    See MAJD-AL-DAWLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪR BAHĀDOR, ḤOSAYN PĀŠĀ KHAN

    See BAHĀDOR JANG, AMIR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪR ḤARAS

    (AMĪR-E ḤARAS) “commander of the guard,” the official at the court of the ʿAbbasid caliphs and at certain of its provincial successor states who was directly responsible for policing the palace and for carrying out the caliph’s wishes.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AMĪR ḤASAN DEHLAVĪ

    See INDIA xiv. Persian Literature in India.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMIR ḤAYDAR BELGRĀMI

    See BELGRĀMI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMIR ḤOSAYN ILḴĀN BAḴTIARI

    See BAḴTIĀRI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMIR ḤOSAYNI HERAVI

    See ḤOSAYNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMIR ḤOSAYNI SADĀT

    See ḤOSAYNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMIR KABIR PUBLISHERS

    a major Persian publishing house active from 1949 to 1979, founded by ʿAbd-al-Raḥim Jaʿfari (b. 1298 Š. /1919) in a small office on Nāṣer Ḵosrow Avenue in Tehran, the location for most major publishers at the time. It opened its first bookstore nearby and later established thirteen branches throughout the city.

    (EIr)

  • AMĪR KABĪR, MĪRZĀ TAQĪ KHAN

    (1222-68/1807-52), also known by the titles of Atābak and Amīr-e Neẓām; chief minister to Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah for the first four years of his reign and one of the most capable and innovative figures to appear in the whole Qajar period.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • AMĪR ḴORD

    Indo-Muslim author of the Sīar al-awlīāʾ (8th/14th century).

    (K. A. Nizami)

  • AMĪR ḴOSROW DEHLAVĪ

    (651-725/1253-1325), the “Parrot of India,” the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India.

    (Annemarie Schimmel)

  • AMĪR LAŠKAR

    (AMĪR-E LAŠKAR) military rank equivalent to general granted during Reżā Khan’s rise to power.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • AMIR MAʿṢUM BEGI JĀN

    See BEGI JĀN

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMIR MOʾAYYAD

    See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪR MOFAḴḴAM BAḴTĪĀRĪ

    See BAḴTĪĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪR MOḤAMMAD AFŻAL KHAN

    See AFŻAL KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪR-AL-MOʾMENĪN

    See ʿALĪ B. ABĪ ṬĀLEB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪR NEẒĀM

    (AMĪR-E NEẒĀM), the holder of the military and administrative office of emārat-e neẓām in the Qajar period.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • AMĪR NEẒĀM, MOḤAMMAD-RAḤĪM KHAN

    (d. 1299/1882), notable of the Qajar tribe and holder of high offices under Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah. See ʿALĀʾ-DAWLA.

    (Cross-reference)

  • AMĪR NEẒĀM GARRŪSĪ

    known also as Sālār-e Laškar (1236-1317/1820-1900), officer, diplomat, statesman, and literary figure of the Qajar period.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • AMĪR-AL-OMARĀʾ

    literally, “commander of commanders,” hence “supreme commander,” a military title found from the early 4th/10th century onwards, first in Iraq and then in the Iranian lands.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth, Roger M. Savory)

  • AMĪR PĀDEŠĀH

    See MOḤAMMAD AMĪR B. MAḤMŪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMIR PĀZVĀRI

    semi-legendary poet of Māzandarān.

    (Habib Borjian and Maryam Borjian)

  • AMĪR ŠAHĪD

    (AMĪR-E ŠAHĪD). See ABŪ NAṢR AḤMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪR SAYYED ʿALĪ

    See ʿALĪ AL-AʿLĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMĪR TŪMĀN

    (AMĪR-E TŪMĀN) commander of 10,000 men, a military rank originally used by the Il-khanids in the 7th/13th century.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • AMIR-AʿLAM

    (b. Trabzon, 1861; d. Tehran, 2 Ordibehešt 1340 Š./22 April 1961),, university professor, representative and deputy speaker of the Majles, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, senator, minister, and founder of the Red Lion and Sun (Jamʿiyat-e šir o ḵoršid-e sorḵ-e Irān), an organization corresponding to the Red Cross (Šajiʿi, 1965, p. 303).

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • AMIR-ṬAHMĀSEBI, ʿAbd-Allāh

    (b. Tehran 1260 Š./1881, d. Borujerd, 1307Š./1928), Major General, Army Commander and Governor of Azerbaijan, Minister of War, Minister of Public Utilities and Commerce.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • AMĪRAK BALʿAMĪ

    name given to ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD, vizier of the Samanids.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • AMĪRAK BAYHAQĪ

    (d. 448/1056), intelligence officer in Khorasan under the early Ghaznavids.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AMĪRAK ṬŪSĪ

    4th/10th century notable of the ʿAbd-al-Razzāqī family of Ṭūs.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • AMIRDOVLATʿ AMASIATSʿI

    (b. Amasya ca. 1420/25; d. Bursa, 1496), Armenian physician at the Ottoman court and author of Angitats Anpet, an encyclopedic polyglot in six languages including Persian.

    (Avedis K. Sanjian)

  • AMIRI, YUSOF

    Persian-Chaghatay poet of the first half of the 15th century.

    (András Bodrogligeti)

  • AMĪRḴĪZĪ, ESMĀʿĪL

    Iranian man of letters, poet, and political activist, born in the Amīrḵīz quarter of Tabrīz in December 1877.

    (Iraj Afšār)

  • AMITĀYUS

    Sanskrit name of one of the transcendental Buddhas, the so-called Dhyāni-Buddhas, of later Buddhism.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • AMLĀK

    (plural of melk), privately owned agricultural estates; the term (of Arabic origin) designates a form of rural land tenure pattern that existed simultaneously in Iran with various other types of land holdings over several centuries.

    (E. Hooglund)

  • AMLĀK-E ḴĀṢṢA

    See ḴĀṢṢA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMLAŠ

    i. Geography. ii. Excavations.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • AMLAŠ i. Geography [1989]

    (ARCHIVED VERSION) by Marcel Bazin. As printed in EIr. Vol. I, Fasc. 9, 1989, p. 976.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • AMLAŠ i. Geography

    small town and district in the southeastern part of Gilān Province.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • AMLAŠ ii. Excavations

    small village in southeastern Gilān which, since 1959, has given its name to a large assortment of archeological artifacts derived from illegal, clandestine excavations in the nearby valleys of the Alborz range.

    (R. H. Dyson)

  • ʿĀMMA

    (pl. ʿawāmm), a common Emāmī Shiʿite appellation for the Sunnites.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • ʿAMMĀRA

    See ʿAMĀRA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿAMMĀRLŪ

    a Kurdish tribe of Gīlān and Khorasan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS

    historian who provides important information on the Sasanians (b. ca. 330-35).

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • AMMITMANYA

    an Iranian, to whom were entrusted 215 (?) BAR of grain provided for provisions at Tukraš.

    (M. Mayrhoffer)

  • AMMŌ, MĀR

    Manichean apostle, outstanding figure in the missionary history of Manicheism during the 3rd century CE.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • AMOGHAPĀŚAHṚDAYA

    “the heart or essence of the Amoghapāśa ritual,” the name of a Buddhist text belonging to the Mahayanist Tantric tradition.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • ĀMOL

    a town on the Caspian shore in the southwest of the modern province of Māzandarān, medieval Ṭabarestān.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth, Sheila S. Blair, E. Ehlers)

  • ĀMOL (ĀMŪYA)

    town situated three miles from the left bank of the Oxus river (Āmū Daryā).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AMOL WARE

    Amol wares are mainly fine bowls with flaring walls and straight rims and larger dishes with flattened, everted, or straight rims. Some of these have been greatly restored, so that they feel much heavier than they once were, and their coarser base rings lack the sureness of potting that typifies better-preserved specimens.

    (Yolande Crowe)

  • ĀMOLI

    ŠAMS-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD B. MAḤMUD, Shiʿite scholar and author, died at Shiraz in 753/1352-53, when it was under the control of the Inju ruler Abu Esḥāq Jamāl-al-Din (q.v.).

    (David O. Morgan)

  • ĀMOLI, ŠAMS-AL-DIN

    See NAFĀʾES AL-FONUN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀMOLĪ, SAYYED BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    early representative of Imamite theosophy (b. 720/1320, or perhaps 719/1319).

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • ĀMORAʾĪ

    the dialect spoken in Āmora, a village in the šahrestān of Tafreš.

    (Pierre Lecoq)

  • AMORDĀD

    See AMURDĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMORGES

    Greek form of the name of several notable Iranians of the Achaemenid period.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • AMPELIUS, LUCIUS

    author of a short encyclopaedic work Liber memorialis in fifty chapters covering such diverse subjects as cosmography (and astronomy), geography and ethnography, theology and especially history.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • AMPHIBIANS

    Twenty species occur in Iran: six salamanders in three genera in two families and fourteen frogs and toads in four genera in four families. The amphibian fauna is most diverse in the northwestern provinces, which have the greatest rainfall and running water throughout the year.

    (Steven C. Anderson)

  • ʿAMR B. LAYṮ

    ṢAFFĀRĪ, military commander and second ruler of the Saffarid dynasty of Sīstān (r. 879-900).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿAMR B. ʿOBAYD

    early Muʿtazilite theologian and traditionist (d. probably 144/761).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ʿAMR B. YAʿQŪB

    great-grandson of the co-founder of the Saffarid dynasty and ephemeral boy amir in Sīstān, 299-301/912-13.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AMR BE MAʿRŪF

    Arabic al-amr be’l-maʿrūf wa’l-nahy ʿan al-monkar “enjoining what is proper or good and forbidding what is reprehensible or evil,” one of the principle religious duties in Islam.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • AMRANLU

    a small Turkic tribe which has settled down in the village of Galūgāh in Māzandarān.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • AMRĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    (d. 999/1590-91 [?], poet and Sufi from Kūhpāya, a village near Isfahan.

    (I. K. Poonawala)

  • AMṚTA-PRABHA-DHĀRAṆĪ

    name given by H. W. Bailey to a fifty-line text in Late Khotanese.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • ĀMŪ DARYĀ

    river about 2,500 km long, regarded in ancient times as the boundary between Iran and Tūrān.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ʿAMŪOḠLĪ, ḤAYDAR KAN

    (ʿAMOḠLĪ). See ḤAYDAR KHAN ʿAMŪOḠLĪ.

    (Cross-reference)

  • AMURDĀD

    one of the seven great Aməša Spəntas of Zoroastrianism, the hypostasis of the concept of “not dying,” that is Long Life on this earth or Immortality in the hereafter.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀMŪYA

    See ĀMOL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AMYRTAEUS (II)

    “The God Ammon has given him”, King of Egypt, 404-398 B.C., the only member of Manetho’s 29th dynasty.

    (E. Bresciani)

  • AMYTIS

    Median and Persian female name.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • AN-HSI

    name by which the Parthian empire was known to the Chinese, a transcription of Aršak-, the name of the Parthian ruling house.

    (E. G. Pulleyblank)

  • AN LU-SHAN

    frontier general of mixed Sogdian and Turkish ancestry who rose to high rank during the latter part of the reign of Hsüan-tsung (713-56).

    (E. G. Pulleyblank)

  • AN SHIH-KAO

    or An Ch’ing, the earliest known translator of Buddhist texts into Chinese.

    (E. G. Pulleyblank)

  • ANA’L-ḤAQQ

    “I am the Truth,” the most famous of the Sufi šaṭḥīyāt (ecstatic utterances, or paradoxes).

    (Annemarie Schimmel)

  • ANABASIS

    title of ancient campaign accounts stylistically influenced by the so-called Periplus books.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ANĀHĪD

    Ardwīsūr Anāhīd, Middle Persian name of Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā, a popular Zoroastrian yazatā; she is celebrated in Yašt 5 (known as the Ābān Yašt) which is one of the longest and best preserved of the Avestan hymns. Sūrā and anāhitā are common adjectives, meaning respectively “strong, mighty” and “undefiled, immaculate.”

    (Mary Boyce, M. L. Chaumont, C. Bier)

  • ANĀMAKA

    name of the tenth month (December-January) of the Old Persian calendar.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ANAND RAM MOKLES

    Chronicler, lexicographer, and poet of the later Mughal period (1111-64/1699-1750.

    (B. Ahmad)

  • ĀNANDRĀJ, FARHANG-E

    Persian dictionary by Monšī Moḥammad Bādšāh, completed in 1306/1888. See FARHANG-E ĀNANDRĀJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANANIAS OF SHIRAK

    (7th century), scholar, to whom (or to a pseudo-is attributed the anonymous work Armenian Geography Ašxarhac‘oyc‘).

    (Tim Greenwood)

  • ANANTAMUKHANIRHĀRADHĀRAṆĪ

    the name of a Buddhist text belonging to the Mahayanist Tantric tradition.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • ANAPHAS

    Persian male name.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ANĀRAK

    a baḵš and its town on the southern fringes of the Dašt-e Kavīr.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ANĀRAKI

    the dialect of Anārak, a town with 2,100 inhabitants in the Bīābānak region northeast of the city of Nāʾīn.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • ANATOLIA

    and its relations with Iran: see Asia Minor.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANAW

    village and archeological site at the foot of the Kopet-Dag mountains east of Ashkhabad in Soviet Turkestan.

    (T. Cuyler Young, Jr., G. A. Pugachenkova)

  • ʿANBAR

    (ambergris), a waxy, aromatic substance produced in the intestines of stomach of the sperm whale and used in perfumery.

    (Ž. Mottaḥedīn)

  • ANBĀR

    (Pers. term meaning granary), a town on the left bank of the Euphrates five km northwest of Fallūǰa and sixty-two km west of Baghdad.

    (Michael Morony)

  • ANBĀR

    (or ANBĪR), a town of the medieval Islamic province of Gūzgān or Jūzǰān in northern Afghanistan, probably to be identified with the modern Sar-e Pol.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿANBARĀN

    a township and district (baḵš) in the Namin sub-provincial district (šahrestān) of Ardabil Province.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • ANBARĀNĪ Dialect

    See ṬĀLEŠĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿANBARĪ, ABU’L-ʿABBĀS

    4th-5th/10th-11th century poet and prose stylist of Khorasan and statesman in the service of the Qarakhanids.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ANBARĪĀN FAMILY

    a distinguished family of officials, littérateurs, ʿolamāʾ, and traditionists from Bayhaq (modern Sabzavār).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ANBARIN QALAM, ‘ABD-AL-RAḤĪM

    See ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ʿANBARĪN QALAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANCIENT LETTERS

    The group consists of five almost complete letters and a number of fragments of similar letters. Each letter was folded several times and bore the names of the sender and addressee on the outside. Most were tied with string; one letter was wrapped in silk and enclosed in an envelope of coarse cloth addressed to Samarkand.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • ʿANDALIB, NĀṢER MOḤAMMAD

    Sufi writer (b. in Delhi 1105/1693-94, d. 1172/1759).

    (Annemarie Schimmel)

  • ANDĀMEŠ

    See ANDĪMEŠK; DEZFŪL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANDARĀB

    or ANDARĀBA, the name of a river and a town situated upon it in northern Afghanistan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ANDARĪMĀN

    the name of a number of Turanian heroes in the Šāh-nāma.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ANDARUN

    or ANDARŪNĪ (inside), the private quarters of well-to-do houses in contrast to bīrūnī. the public rooms usually reserved for men.

    (M. A. Djamalzadeh)

  • ANDARWAYWAZĪG

    Middle Persian term for “acrobat, tumbler” (lit. “one who plays in the air”).

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ANDARZ

    “precept, instruction, advice”: the literary genre in pre-Islamic and New Persian literatures.

    (S. Shaked, Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ANDARZBAD

    Sasanian administrative title meaning “chief advisor” for a city.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ANDARZGAR

    Mid. Pers. term, “counselor, teacher.”

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • ANDARZ-NĀMA

    (print only)

    (Ḡ.-Ḥ. Yusofi)

  • ANDEJĀN

    town in in the medieval Islamic province of Farḡāna, modern Russian Andizhan, in the easternmost part of the in the easternmost part of Uzbekistan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ANDĒMĀNKĀRAN SARDĀR

    Sasanian title for court usher.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ANDIA

    district near lake Urmia mentioned in Assyrian texts.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ANDIJAN UPRISING

    On the night of 9 Muḥarram 1316/30 May 1898, a group of about 2,000 poorly armed men attacked the 4th and 5th Russian Companies on the outskirts of Andijan under the leadership of the Naqšbandi Sufi Shaykh Dukči Išān (Muḥammad ʿAli Madali, ca. 1856-1898).

    (Anke von Kuegelgen)

  • ANDĪMEŠK

    (also ANDĀMEŠ, ANDĀLMEŠK), the name of medieval Dezfūl.

    (X. De Planhol)

  • ANDḴŪY

    a commercial town in northwestern Afghanistan.

    (D. N. Wilber)

  • ANDRAGORAS

    Seleucid satrap of Parthia and Hyrcania, known primarily from his coins.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • ANDREAS, FRIEDRICH CARL

    German Iranologist (1846-1930).

    (W. Lentz, D. N. MacKenzie, B. Schlerath)

  • ANĒRĀN

    “non-Iran,” Middle Persian ethno-linguistic term generally used pejoratively to denote a political and religious enemy of Iran and Zoroastrianism.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • ANGAJĪ, ḤĀJJ MĪRZĀ ABŪ’L-ḤASAN

    (1282-1357/1865-1939), a leading moǰtahed of Tabrīz, politically active during both the Constitutional Revolution and the reign of Reżā Shah.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ANGALYŪN

    Persian rendering of the title of the Gospel of Mani.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • ANGIOLELLO , GIOVANNI MARIA

    (or DEGLI ANGIOLELLO) (1451-ca. 1525), Venetian adventurer, merchant, and author of an important historical report on the Aq Qoyunlū and early Safavid Persia.

    (A. M. Piemontese)

  • ANGLO-AFGHAN RELATIONS

    a survey from the earliest times to the death of the last Bārakzay ruler in 1357 Š./1978.

    (J. A. Norris)

  • ANGLO-AFGHAN TREATY OF 1905

    an agreement pertaining to British control of Afghan foreign policy and related matters.

    (J. A. Norris)

  • ANGLO-AFGHAN TREATY OF 1921

    the outcome of peace negotiations following the Third Anglo-Afghan War.

    (L. W. Adamec)

  • ANGLO-AFGHAN WARS

    First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-42), Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-80), Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919).

    (J. A. Norris, L. W. Adamec)

  • ANGLO-IRANIAN AGREEMENT

    See ANGLO-PERSIAN AGREEMENT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    This series of articles covers relations between England and Iran from the Safavid to the Pahlavi periods.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS i. Safavid to Zand Periods

    English interest in Persia during this period is almost exclusively concerned with trade and has almost nothing to do with political relations. Relations arose as the result of a failure to trade eastwards through Russia and Central Asia in the mid-16th century by merchants of the Russia Company, which, though formed in London on 26 February 1555, had already dispatched their first voyage of three ships by the northeastern route round Russia on 18 May 1553.

    (R. W. Ferrier)

  • ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS ii. Qajar period

    Before the 19th century Anglo-Iranian relations were sporadic. Periods of engagement alternated with decades of disengagement. After the death of Karīm Khan Zand (1193/1779) contacts between Britain and Iran diminished and were maintained with regularity only in the Persian Gulf as the center of government authority moved north.

    (F. Kazemzadeh)

  • ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS iii. Pahlavi period

    For most of the 20th century relations have been dominated politically by the modernization and revival of Iran under the stimulus of Reżā Shah and his son and successor Moḥammad Reżā Shah, strategically by Iran’s proximity to the Soviet Union, and economically by Iranian oil.

    (R. W. Ferrier)

  • ANGLO-IRANIAN WAR

    See ANGLO-PERSIAN WAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANGLO-PERSIAN AGREEMENT OF 1919

    provisional agreement made between the British and the Persian governments which, if ratified, would have granted the British a paramount position of control over the financial and military affairs of Iran.

    (N. S. Fatemi)

  • ANGLO-PERSIAN OIL COMPANY

    (ŠERKAT-E NAFT-E ENGELĪS O IRAN), a British company formed to extract and market oil in the oil fields of southwestern Iran.

    (F. Kazemi)

  • ANGLO-PERSIAN WAR (1856-57)

    Following their defeat in the Russo-Persian wars of 1219-28/1804-13 and 1242-44/1826-28, the Qajars, tried to compensate for their losses by reasserting Persia’s control over western Afghanistan.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ANGLO-RUSSIAN AGREEMENT OF 1873

    an attempt by the Foreign Offices of London and St. Petersburg to define the northern boundary of Afghanistan.

    (J. A. Norris)

  • ANGLO-RUSSIAN CONVENTION OF 1907

    an agreement relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.

    (F. Kazemzadeh)

  • ANGRA MAINYU

    See AHRIMAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AṄGULIMĀLĪYA-SŪTRA

    a Buddhist text concerning the conversion to Buddhism of a robber called Aṅgulimāla.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • ANGŪR

    In the big river basins, real viticulture in organized plantations gradually took shape. Western cultural influences brought by the Greeks may well have stimulated this development. The vineyards are always irrigated, even though rain-fed vine growth is possible in most of the districts. The waterings, however, are few.

    (Marcel Bazin, Xavier de Planhol, W. L. Hanaway, Jr)

  • ANHALT CARPET

    The overall composition, the central medallion, and the cloud bands are characteristic of Tabrīz, which was a major artistic center under the Safavids. The carpet’s almost perfect state of preservation, which at one time cast doubt on its being from the 16th century, has been attributed to its remaining in its original Turkish packing.

    (M. H. Beattie)

  • ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

    See DĀM-DĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANĪRĀN

    See ANĒRĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANĪS

    a daily Kabul newspaper, in Darī (Persian), with some articles in Pashto.

    (L. Pourhadi)

  • ANĪS-AL-DAWLA

    (d. 1314/1896-97), the most important wife of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qāǰār.

    (Guity Nashat)

  • ANĪS AL-ʿOŠŠĀQ

    a small handbook of the imagery traditionally used in Persian love poetry, by Ḥasan b. Moḥammad Šaraf-al-din Rāmi (sometimes Zāmi), d. 795/1393.

    (G. Michael Wickens)

  • ANĪS AL-ṬĀLEBĪN WA ʿODDAT AL-SĀLEKĪN

    one of the most important sources extant for the life and dicta of Bahāʾ-al-dīn Naqšband, eponymous founder of the Naqšbandī Sufi order.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ANJEDĀN

    village located 37 km east of Arāk (former Solṭānābād) in Markazī province.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ANJOMAN (Organization)

    (“gathering, association, society”), general designation of many private and public associations.

    (Mangol Bayat, Hamid Algar, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.)

  • ANJOMAN (Newspaper)

    a newspaper published in Tabrīz in February-March 1907 by the Anǰoman-e Mellī of Tabrīz, which had previously published Rūz-nāma-ye mellī and Jarīda-ye mellī.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ANJOMAN-E ĀṮĀR-E MELLĪ

    (AAM), The National Monuments Council of Iran, established in 1301 Š./1922 to promote interest in and to preserve Iran’s cultural heritage.

    (ʿĪ. Ṣadīq)

  • ANJOMAN-E EṢFAHĀN

    a weekly paper founded in Isfahan on 21 Ḏu’l-qaʿda 1324/6 January 1906.

    (L P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ANJOMAN-E ESMĀʿĪLI

    (Ismaʿili Society), a research institution founded on 16 February 1946 in Bombay, India, under the patronage of the third Aqa Khan.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ANJOMAN-E EYĀLĀTI-E TABRIZ

    the provincial council (anjoman) of Tabriz, organized during the early phase of the Constitutional Revolution, in 1324/1906. Tabriz watched the unfolding of the events of Tehran, which led to the granting of the Constitution by Moẓaffar-al-Din Shah on 14 Jomādā II 1324/5 August 1906; but as he hesitated to sign the electoral law, Tabriz took the initiative (Kasrawi, Mašruṭa 3, pp. 152, 155). Led by orators, merchants and the ʾolamā, Tabrizis took sanctuary (bast) in the British Consulate in Šaʿbān 1324/October 1906, until the shah relented and telegraphed the Crown Prince Moḥammad ʿAli Mirzā to begin the elections. As people came out of the sanctuary in Tabriz, 20 amongst them decided to organize an anjoman, to watch over the Majles (ibid., pp. 165, 467).

    (Mansoureh Ettehadieh)

  • ANJOMAN-E FALSAFA WA ʿOLŪM-E ENSĀNĪ

    (Iranian Society for Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences), formed in 1949 as a regional branch of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences, a UNESCO affiliate.

    (EIr)

  • ANJOMAN-E KALĪMĪĀN

    (JEWISH ASSOCIATION), name given to the Jewish Association of Tehran in the 1930s, and to the Jewish Association of Iran since 1974.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ANJOMAN-E KETĀB

    (the Book Society of Iran), founded in 1957 in Tehran by Ehsan Yarshater in collaboration with Iraj Afshar (Īraǰ Afšār), ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb, and a number of concerned scholars, to foster interest in good publications.

    (Iraj Afšār)

  • ANJOMAN-E MAʿĀREF

    (Society or Council of Education), a society founded in Šawwāl, 1315/February-March, 1898 under the patronage of the then prime minister Ḥāǰǰ Mīrzā ʿAlī Khan Amīn-al-dawla in order to promote the cause of Western-type education in Iran.

    (ʿA. Anwār)

  • ANJOMAN-E OḴOWWAT

    (or OḴŪWAT) “The Society of Brotherhood,” a non-political Sufi-type society officially founded on 15 Šabʿān 1317/21 December 1899 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Khan Ẓahīr-al-dawla to promote the ideals of equity and brotherhood in Iran.

    (ʿA. Anwār and EIr)

  • ANJOMAN-E SAʿĀDAT

    (The Association of Felicity), an organization of Iranians resident in Istanbul, devoted to furthering the cause of the Iranian constitution between 1908 and 1912.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ANJOMAN-E TABLĪḠĀT-E ESLAMĪ

    (The Society of Islamic Propagation), an Islamic cultural and educational society established in 1941 by ʿAṭāʾallāh Šehābpūr.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ANJOMAN-E TĀRĪḴ-E AFḠĀNESTĀN

    (Historical Society of Afghanistan), founded in 1942 to disseminate information about the history of Afghanistan by conducting research, promoting scholarship, and publishing scholarly works.

    (R. Farhādī)

  • ANJOMAN-E VELĀYATI

    (Provincial Council) of Isfahan, set up subsequent to the establishment of the Parliament (majles) to secure the aims of the Constitutional Revolution.

    (ʿAli Reżā Abtaḥi)

  • ANJOMAN-E ZARTOŠTĪĀN

    (Society of Zoroastrians), the designation of formally instituted Zoroastrian associations in Iran.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • ANJOMANĀRĀ, FARHANG-E

    Persian-language dictionary compiled by Reżā-qolī Khan Hedāyat (1215-88/1800-71) known as Lala-bāšī.

    (R. ʿAfīfī)

  • ʿANKABŪTĪĀN

    See ARACHNIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANKLESARIA, BAHRAMGORE TAHMURAS

    (1873-1944), Parsi scholar, son of Tahmuras Dinshah Anklesaria, born and educated in Bombay.

    (K. M. JamaspAsa and M. Boyce)

  • ANKLESARIA, PESHOTAN KAVASHAH

    (1928-69), Parsi priest and scholar born at Broach.

    (K. M JamaspAsa and M. Boyce)

  • ANKLESARIA, TAHMURAS DINSHAH

    (1842-1903), Parsi priest and scholar.

    (K. M. Jamaspasa and M. Boyce)

  • ʿANNAZIDS

    (BANŪ ʿANNĀZ), a Kurdish dynasty (r. ca. 380-510/990-1117).

    (K. M. Aḥmad)

  • ANŌŠAG-RUWĀN

    "of immortal soul", originally a respectful euphemism, becoming in the Islamic period an aristocratic proper name.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ANŌŠAZĀD

    (in the Šāh-nāma, Nōšzād; the name means “son of the immortal”), a son of Ḵosrow I Anōšīravān and leader of a revolt in ca. 550 CE.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ANŌŠĪRAVĀN

    See ḴOSROW I.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANQARAVĪ, ROSŪḴ-AL-DĪN

    (also known as Rosūḵī Dede; d. 1041/1631), a shaikh in the Mawlawī order and author of the most important traditional commentary on theMaṯnawī of Jalāl-al-dīn Rūmī.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ANQUETIL-DUPERRON

    (1731-1805), French orientalist, born in Paris on 7 December 1731. In June, 1759, he was able to send news to Paris that he had completed (in three months) a translation of that Vendidad.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • ANṢĀRĪ, ḴᵛĀJA ʿABDALLĀH

    See ʿABDALLĀH ANṢĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANṢARĪ, ʿALĪ-QOLĪ KHAN

    MOŠĀWER-AL-MAMĀLEK (1868-1940), a career diplomat under the late Qajars.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • ANṢĀRĪ, SHAIKH MORTAŻĀ

    B. MOḤAMMAD AMĪN (1799-1864), 1799-1864), important author of works on feqh.

    (S. Murata)

  • ANṢĀRĪ, MĪRZĀ SAʿĪD KHAN

    MOʾTAMEN-AL-MOLK. See MOʾTAMEN-AL-MOLK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANSHAN

    (or ANZAN), the name of an important Elamite region in western Fārs and of its chief city.

    (John F. Hansman)

  • ANṬĀKĪYA

    See ANTIOCH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANTHROPOLOGY

    (Persian mardomšenāsī), social and cultural, in Iran and Afghanistan.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • ANTHROPOMORPHISM

    in Iranian religions. Ahura Mazdā in the gāthās was conceived of, although invisible and immortal, as of human form, with eyes (Y.31.13), hands (43.4) and tongue in the mouth (31.3); but he was of gigantic size since he, or his Salutary Spirit, was said (30.5) to be clad in the firmest stones (the firmament). Nevertheless, he was prepared to be represented on Achemenian reliefs or seals as a human bust on the winged solar disc.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • ANTI-ALBORZ

    the highland between Tehran and Semnān on the southern flank of the central Alborz range.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • ANTIA, EDULJI KERSASPJI

    (1842-1913/1212-83 yazdegerdi), Parsi scholar, born of priestly stock in Navsari in Gujarat.

    (K. M. JamaspAsa and M. Boyce)

  • ANTIOCH (1)

    town in northern Syria founded in 300 B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator. It was the capital of the Seleucids and became one of the main centers of caravan traffic.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ANTIOCH (2)

    city name given to a number of Seleucid foundations.

    (John F. Hansman)

  • ANTIOCHUS

    name of thirteen kings of the Seleucid dynasty, several of whom were active in Iran.

    (D. Bing, J. Sievers)

  • ANTIOCHUS OF COMMAGENE

    (full title: Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philoromaios Philhellen, Theos signifying his divinity), 1st-century BC Seleucid ruler.

    (G. Widengren)

  • ANTONY, MARK

    Roman general (ca. 82-30 B.C.). Following the defeat of Crassus at Carrhae (Ḥarrān) in 53 B.C., the Roman leadership sought a war of revenge. Mark Antony became master of the East through a pact with Octavian (the future Augustus) in 40 B.C., he began preparations for a campaign against the Parthians.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ANŪŠA MOḤAMMAD

    B. ABU’L-ḠĀZĪ, ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR, Khan of Ḵīva 1663-87.

    (G. L. Penrose)

  • ANUŠAWAN

    grandson of Ara, legendary king of Armenia, called sawsanuēr “devoted to the plane tree.”

    (James R. Russell)

  • ANŪŠERVĀN KĀŠĀNĪ

    ABŪ NAṢR ŠARAF-AL-DĪN, high official who served the Great Saljuq sultans and the ʿAbbasid caliph during the first half of the 6th/12th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ANŪŠERVĀN B. MANUČEHR

    B. MANŪČEHR B. QĀBŪS, ruler of the Daylamī dynasty of the Ziyarids in Ṭabarestān and Gorgān during the early 11th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ANŪŠTIGIN ḠARČAʾĪ

    Turkish slave commander of the Saljuqs; in the late 11th century, he bore the traditional title of Ḵᵛārazmšāh.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ANWĀR, SHAH QĀSEM

    SHAH QĀSEM. See QĀSEM-E ANWĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ANWĀR-E SOHAYLĪ

    a collection of fables by the Timurid prose-stylist Ḥosayn Wāʿeẓ Kāšefī.

    (G. Michael Wickens)

  • ANWARI

    AWḤAD-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD (or ʿALĪ), poet at the court of the Saljuqs in the 12th century.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ANZALĪ

    The town had 55,000 inhabitants in 1976 and 110,643 in 2006 (Markaz-e Āmār-e Irān), mainly Gilaks and Turks. The latter are mostly emigrants (mohâjer) from Azerbaijan when it was under Soviet rule, and they are particularly numerous in the fisheries and port activities.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • ANZAN

    The name of an important Elamite region in western Fārs and of its chief city. See ANSHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AOGƎMADAĒČĀ

    A small prayer and meditation on death, made up of 29 Avestan quotations (one of them Gathic) embedded in a sermon in Pārsī (Pahlavi in Arabic script).

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • APADĀNA

    The term apadāna was possibly used exclusively to describe a distinctive type of columned audience hall introduced by Darius I (r. 522-486 B.C.). It is only known from four extant inscriptions: one of Darius II (r. 424-05 B.C.) and three of his son, Artaxerxes II (r. 405-359 B.C.).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt, D. Stronach)

  • APĄM NAPĀT

    (Son of the Waters), Zoroastrian divinity of mysterious character whose true identity, like that of his Vedic counterpart, Apām Napāt, has been much debated.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • APAMA

    name of several noble women of the Achaemenid and Hellenistic periods, probably related to the Av. apama- “the latest,” hence “the youngest [child], nestling.”

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • APARIMITĀYUḤ-SŪTRA

    a Buddhist text belonging to the Mahāyāna tradition. It is concerned with the merit obtained by recalling the Buddha called Aparimitāyurjñānasuviniścitarāja.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • APARNA

    (Gk. Aparnoi/Parnoi, Lat. Aparni or Parni), an east Iranian tribe established on the Ochos (modern Taǰen, Teǰend) and one of the three tribes in the confederation of the Dahae.

    (Pierre Lecoq)

  • APASIACAE

    name of a nomadic tribe belonging to the Scythian Massagetae, not attested in Iranian sources.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • APHORISM

    “short sentences drawn from long experience” to Cervantes, “the wisdom of many, the wit of one” to Lord Russell, the terms proverb, aphorism, maxim have evaded strict definition and demarcation.

    (Paul Sprachman)

  • APOCALYPTIC

    (that which has been revealed). The use of the term apocalyptic to define a particular type of prophetic utterance is a development of Judaeo-Christian studies, in which a need was felt to mark a distinction between the ancient prophets and the pseudonymous ones who flourished mainly in the intertestamental period.

    (Mary Boyce, I. K. Poonawala)

  • APOLLODORUS OF ARTIMITA

    historian of the 1st century B.C. or later, author of a Parthian History.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • APOPHTHEGMATA PATRUM

    (Maxims of the fathers), Graeco-Latin name customarily used to refer to a species of Christian literature consisting of sayings and edifying anecdotes of the monks and solitary ascetics who inhabited the deserts of Egypt during the early centuries of the Christian era.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • APŌŠ

    Middle Persian for Av. Apaoša, the demon of drought.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • APOSTOLIC CANONS

    fragmentary Christian Sogdian text.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • APPIANUS

    (APPIAN) OF ALEXANDRIA, historian, born probably toward the end of the 1st century CE.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • APZUT KAWĀT WALL

    a Sasanian defensive wall located between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains.

    (Murtazali Gadjiev)

  • AQ EVLI

    a small Turkic tribe of Fārs. According to legend, the ancestors of the present-day Āq Evlīs were forced to migrate from Azerbaijan to Khorasan in Safavid times.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • AQ QOYUNLŪ

    or WHITE SHEEP, a confederation of Turkman tribes who ruled in eastern Anatolia and western Iran until the Safavid conquest in 1501.

    (R. Quiring-Zoche)

  • ʿĀQ-E WĀLEDAYN

    (ʿĀQQ-E WĀLEDAYN), Ar. “[the son] disobedient to [his] parents,” a theme in popular Shiʿite literature.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • AQA

    Mongolian title, essentially meaning “elder brother” and by extension “senior member of the family.”

    (David O. Morgan)

  • ĀQĀ BĀLĀ KHAN SARDĀR

    MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ KHAN, Qajar official in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • AQA BOZORG QĀʾEM-MAQĀM

    See QĀʾEM-MAQĀM.

    (cross-reference)

  • ĀQĀ BOZORG ṬEHRĀNĪ

    (1293-1389/1876-1970), Shiʿite scholar and bibliographer.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ĀQĀ KHAN

    title of the imams of the Nezārī Ismaʿilis since early 19th century.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ĀQĀ KHAN KERMĀNĪ

    (1854-55 to 1896), Iranian writer and intellectual, and an outstanding example of a first-generation secular nationalist. His main goal seems to have been the upholding of reason and modern science, both of which he viewed as directly and unavoidably opposed to religion. His lifetime struggle was in the name of Iran rather than Islam.

    (Mangol Bayat)

  • ĀQĀ KHAN NŪRĪ

    (1807-1865), prime minister (ṣadr-e aʿẓam) of Persia (1851-58) under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah Qajar. See EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, ĀQĀ KHAN NURI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀQĀ MĪRAK

    prominent painter of the 10th/16th century in the workshop of the Safavid Shah Ṭahmāsp (r. 930-84/1524-76).

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ĀQĀ MOḤAMMAD KHAN QĀJĀR

    See ĀḠĀ MOḤAMMAD KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀQĀ NAJAFĪ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    (1262-1332/1846-1914), prominent religious leader involved with a number of important political events of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    (A.-H. Hairi)

  • ĀQĀ NAJAFĪ QŪČĀNI

    (1295-1362/1878-1943), religious authority and constitutionalist.

    (A.-H. Hairi)

  • ĀQĀ REŻĀ HERAVĪ

    a painter closely associated with Prince Salīm, the later Emperor Jahāngīr, during the latter’s residence in Allahabad (1008-13/1599-1605).

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ĀQĀ TABRĪZĪ

    MĪRZĀ, 19th-century civil servant and writer.

    (Hasan Javadi and Farrokh Gaffary)

  • ĀQĀ ZANJĀNĪ

    MĪRZĀ, also known as Ḵamsaʾī, a calligrapher active between 1869-70 and 1890.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ĀQĀSĪ

    ḤĀJJĪ MĪRZĀ ABBĀS ĪRAVĀNĪ (ca. 1198-1265/1783-1848), grand vizier of Moḥammad Shah Qāǰār (r. 1834-48), 1835-48.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • ĀQČA

    (or AQČA), a small market town in north Afghanistan, situated on the western edge of the great piedmont oasis of the Balḵāb river.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • AQD

    marriage contract, marriage contract ceremony.

    (Anne H. Betteridge and H. Javadi)

  • ʿAQDĀ

    a small settlement and subdistrict (dehestān) in the district (baḵš) of Ardakān-e Yazd.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AQDAS

    more fully al-Ketāb al-aqdas (Pers. Ketāb-e aqdas), “The Most Holy Book,” written in Arabic by Bahāʾallāh, the founder of the Bahāʾī religion.

    (Amin Bausani)

  • ʿAQD-NĀMA

    contract, now specifically marriage contract.

    (Layla S. Diba)

  • ʿĀQEL, ḴᵛĀJA MOḤAMMAD

    entitled Korīǰa, mystic of the Panjab (d. 1229/1814).

    (M. Z. Siddiqui)

  • ʿĀQEL, MIRZA MOḤAMMAD

    Kashmiri poet and courtier who flourished in the first half of the 12th/18th century.

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿĀQEL KHAN RĀZĪ

    Indo-Muslim man of letters, historian, and mystic (d. 1108/1696).

    (S. Maqbul Ahmad)

  • ĀQEVLI, FARAJ-ALLĀH

    (b. Isfahan, 1266 Š./1887; d. Tehran, 13th Ābān, 1353 Š./1974), director of Anjoman-e Āṯār-e Melli (The National Monuments Council of Iran) who also held important posts in the gendarmerie and in civilian life.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • ʿAQL

    “intellect, intelligence, reason”.

    (Fazlur Rahman, W. C. Chittick)

  • ʿAQL-E SORḴ

    “The Crimsoned Archangel” (lit., “The Red Intellect”), one of the visionary recitals or treatises on spiritual initiation of Sohravardī (d. 1191)

    (H. Corbin)

  • ĀQSŪ (1)

    town in eastern Turkestan, modern Chinese Sinkiang, about six km to the north of the river Āqsū. It lies on the caravan route between Maralbāšī and Kučā.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • ĀQSŪ (2)

    a river in the Āmū Daryā system. The upper course, called the Morḡāb in the Soviet Union, finds its source in the Little Pamir, the eastern part of Afghanistan’s Waḵān-Pāmīr mountains.

    (C. Naumann)

  • ARA THE BEAUTIFUL

    son of Aram, mythical king of Armenia.

    (James R. Russell)

  • ĀRĀʾ WA’L-DĪĀNĀT

    doxographical work, famous especially for its information about non-Islamic religions and Greek philosophy, written by Ḥasan b. Mūsā al-Nawbaḵtī (d. between 300/912 and 310/922).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ʿARAB

    As two of the most prominent ethnic elements in the Middle East, Arabs and Iranians have been in contact with each other, and at times have had their fortunes intertwined, for some three millennia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ʿARAB i. Arabs and Iran in the pre-Islamic period

    Centuries of contacts between the Arabs and Persians should have left behind some legacy in the fields of thought and culture, but such a legacy is not easy to quantify or to evaluate.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿARAB ii. Arab conquest of Iran

    During the first two centuries of the Muslim era (7th-8th centuries A.D.) the Sasanian state and much of the east Iranian region in Central Asia were conquered by the mostly Arab armies of the early Islamic state.

    (Michael Morony)

  • ʿARAB iii. Arab settlements in Iran

    Arab settlements were critical in making the effects of the conquest long term, rather than transitory, and in facilitating the symbiosis of Iranian and Arab cultures within a mutual Islamic context.

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • ʿARAB iv. Arab tribes of Iran

    Estimates of the Arabic-speaking population of Iran range from 200,000 (1957) to 650,000 (1960). In present-day Iran there are still many families and tribes whose Arab origin can be traced.

    (Pierre Oberling and Bernard Hourcade)

  • ʿARAB v. Arab-Iranian relations in modern times

    The military coup of Reżā Khan (1921) and his accession to the throne (1925) resulted in sufficient governmental capacity to conduct foreign affairs effectively. Reżā Shah’s good-neighbor policy addressed three major problems with Iraq.

    (R. K. Ramazani)

  • ʿARAB MĪŠMAST

    an Arab tribe of Fārs, Tehran, and Khorasan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ʿARAB MOḤAMMAD B. ḤĀJJĪ

    khan of Ḵīva 1013-32/1602-23 (?).

    (G. L. Penrose)

  • ARAB-SASANIAN COINS

    Arab-Sasanian is a term applied to several different coinages of early Islamic Iran which were issued under Arab authority using the design and inscriptions of the preceding Sasanian coinage.

    (Michael Bates)

  • ʿARABESTĀN

    See ḴŪZESTĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARABIA

    i. The Achaemenid province Arabāya. ii. The Sasanians and Arabia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ARABIA i. THE ACHAEMENID PROVINCE ARABĀYA

    In the Bīsotūn and other Old Persian inscriptions that list provinces of the Achaemenid empire in a geographical sequence, Arabāya is placed after Babylonia and Assyria (i.e., Syria) and before Egypt.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ARABIA ii. The Sasanians and Arabia

    Within a few years after the commencement of Ardašir I’s (r. ca. 224-242) program of conquest, the Sasanians undertook military engagements in both northeastern Arabia and Oman.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • ARABIAN NIGHTS

    See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARABIAN SEA

    See OMAN, SEA OF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE

    The profound influence of Arabic in Iran can be traced to its social, religious, and political significance in the wake of the Muslim conquest, when it became the language of the dominant class, the language of religion and government administration, and by extension, the language of science, literature, and Koranic studies.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE i. Arabic elements in Persian

    The proportion of Arabic words in Persian was about thirty percent in the 4th/10th century and reached some fifty percent in the 6th/12th.

    (A. A. Ṣādeqī)

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE ii. Iranian loanwords in Arabic

    Loanwords in Arabic, traditionally called moʿarrab (arabicized) or daḵīl (foreign words), include a considerable number of Iranian elements.

    (A.Tafażżolī)

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE iii. Arabic influences in Persian literature

    any inquiry into the early development of Islamic Persian language and literature is faced with the same problem—the absence of contemporary material.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE iv. Arabic literature in Iran

    comprises the works of the early Arab conquerors and those of the Persians who wrote in Arabic. The latter, by far more numerous, ensured Iran a major role in the development of Arabic letters.

    (V. Danner)

  • ARABIC LANGUAGE v. Arabic Elements in Persian

    v. ARABIC ELEMENTS IN PERSIAN Since the Arab conquest of Iran in the seventh century and the subsequent conversion of a majority of the population to Islam, Arabic, as the language of contact, of the Muslim scripture and liturgy, and of a large volume of wide-ranging scholarly literature for more than a thousand years thereafter, has exercised a profound influence on the Persian language. Apart from the writing system, this influence is evident chiefly in the large Arabic vocabulary that has been incorporated into the Persian lexicon. The following will survey the topic under the rubrics of Lexical statistics; Phonology and orthography; Loanword classes; Grammatical elements; Semantics; History and evolution.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ʿARABŠĀH, ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN

    a poet and mystic of the 8th/14th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ʿARABŠĀHĪ

    a dynasty of Chingisid origin that ruled in Ḵᵛārazm from the beginning of the 10th/16th century.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • ARACHNIDS

    or ARACHNIDA, Pers. ʿankabūtīān, the largest chelicerate class of the invertebrate phylum Arthropoda. Zoogeographically, the Iranian arachnid fauna differs little from that of adjacent regions. General behavior and life history information available from authoritative entomology and invertebrate zoology texts applies to Iranian representatives as well.

    (ʿA. Aḥmadī and R. G. Tuck, Jr.)

  • ARACHOSIA

    province in the eastern part of the Achaemenid empire around modern Kandahār, which was inhabited by the Iranian Arachosians or Arachoti.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARĀK

    Arāk was originally the popular name of Solṭānābād, a town in western Iran, but is now the official name as well.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth and Xavier de Planhol)

  • ARAK iii. Basic Population Data, 1956-2011

    population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status for 2006 and/or 2011.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • ARAKADRI

    name of uncertain meaning given in Darius I’s inscription (DB 1.37) to a mountain in the region of Pišiyāuvādā.

    (W. Eilers)

  • AṘAKʿEL OF TABRĪZ

    Armenian historian, born at Tabrīz in the 1590s, died at Etchmiadzin in Armenia in 1670.

    (A. K. Sanjian)

  • ARAL SEA

    Daryā(ča)-ye Ḵᵛārazm, inland sea in western Turkestan, bounded since 1924 and 1936 by Karakalpaqistan (part of the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan) in the south and Kazakhstan in the north.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ARAMAIC

    The Arameans, the speakers of all those dialects, are first directly mentioned in cuneiform texts from the end of the twelfth century B. C. where they are said to belong to the Akhlame group of people. In the course of time, various names such as Chaldean, Nabatean, Syrian, and Assyrian, came into use for Aramaic-speaking peoples.

    (F. Rosenthal, J. C. Greenfield, S. Shaked)

  • ARAMAZD

    Armenian form of AHURA MAZDĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARĀN (1)

    or ALĀN, Inscr. Mid. Pers. ʾlʾn-, Inscr. Parth. ʾrdʾn, ʾln-. See ALANS, ALBANIA, ARRĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARĀN (2)

    See ḤOLVĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀRĀN (3)

    a small town about 10 km north of Kāšān.

    (ʿA. N. Rażawī)

  • ARANG

    a river in ancient Iranian tradition.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ARĀNĪ, TAQĪ

    (1902-1940), Iranian Marxist and intellectual initiator of the communist Tudeh Party.

    (E. Abrahamian, B. Alavi)

  • ARARAT

    extinct volcano in the northeastern extremity of Turkey close to the Iran-Soviet frontiers.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • ARAŠ

    Old Persian arašni-, Avestan araθni-) “cubit.” See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀRAŠ

    Avestan Ǝrəxša, Middle Persian Ēraš, a heroic archer in Iranian legend. The Avesta (Yašt 8.6) refers to what was apparently a familiar episode in the epic tradition.

    (A. Tafażżolī, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.)

  • ĀRAŠ, KAY

    Avestan KAVI ARŠAN, a member of the Kayanid dynasty in Iranian legend.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ARASBĀRĀN

    See AHAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARAŠK

    or AREŠK (Pahlavi), Avestan araska-, Persian rašk “envy,” in Middle Persian sometimes personified as a demon. See RAŠK (pending).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARAXA

    Old Persian form of the name of a leader of a Babylonian rebellion against Darius I.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ARAXES RIVER

    The Araxes rises near Erzurum (Turkey) in the Bingöl Dağ region: there is only a low divide separating it from the headwaters of the Euphrates river. The drainage-pattern of the Araxes is complex. Subsidiary downthrow basins open off it, and a system of feeder tributaries occupying broad, flat-floored valleys has developed.

    (W. B. Fisher, C. E. Bosworth)

  • ʿARAŻ

    a term of philosophy meaning “accident.”

    (Fazlur Rahman)

  • ARBĀB

    the plural of the Arabic noun rabb “owner, master, the Lord,” used in Persian to signify any sort of owner or master.

    (Š. Rāseḵ)

  • ARBĀB KAY-ḴOSROW-E ŠĀHROḴ

    See ŠĀHROḴ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARBĀB ROSTAM GĪV

    See GĪV.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARBĀB, MOḤAMMAD-MAHDĪ

    a prominent merchant and scholar of Isfahan (fl. ca. 1818-1896/97).

    (S. Okazaki)

  • ARBACES

    Greek form of an Old Iranian proper name.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ARBAʿĪN

    40th day after ʿĀšūrāʾ. A day of mourning, preferably at the shrine of Imam Ḥosayn, Arbaʿīn forms part of a cycle of days commemorating the burial of the imam and his companions.

    (M. Ayoub)

  • ARBĀYISTĀN

    name of a Mesopotamian province in the Sasanian empire.

    (G. Widengren)

  • ARBELA

    capital of an ancient northern Mesopotamian province located between the two Zab rivers.

    (John F. Hansman)

  • ARBELA, BATTLE OF

    the victory of Alexander the Great over Darius III on 1 October 331 BCE.; see GAUGAMELA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARBERRY, ARTHUR JOHN

    British orientalist (1905-1969).

    (E. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ARCHELAUS

    the assumed author of a Christian polemic against the Manicheans composed before 348 CE.

    (M. Tardieu)

  • ARCHEOLOGY

    The history of archeological research in Iran may be divided into two periods, before and after the Second World War. The early period can in turn be subdivided into a first phase of mainly French activity (ca. 1884-1931), and a second phase in which archeology in Iran became a multinational affair (1931-40). The modern period can be subdivided into what might best be called the “quiet phase” (1940-57) and the “explosive phase” (1958-78).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ARCHEOLOGY i. Pre-Median

    As early as the 17th century, a number of European travelers reported with surprise on the remarkable ancient monuments to be seen throughout the countryside. The first scientific and scholarly attempt to deal with one such monument, however, was Rawlinson’s recording of the Bīsotūn (Behistun) inscription (1836-41).

    (T. Cuyler Young)

  • ARCHEOLOGY ii. Median and Achaemenid

    The family of ceramics represented in the Median levels at Tepe Nush-i Jan seems to be associated with the moment that the Medes consolidated their power in the vicinity of Hamadān in the second half of the 7th century B.C.

    (D. Stronach)

  • ARCHEOLOGY iii. SELEUCID AND PARTHIAN

    Very few monuments from the Seleucid period have been discovered in Iran, and probably none from the time of Alexander the Great.

    (K. Schippmann)

  • ARCHEOLOGY iv. Sasanian

    Archeological field work has played a comparatively smaller part in forming the image of Sasanian history and culture than the large number of preserved monuments, buildings, and rock reliefs, collections of coins and objects of art.

    (Dietrich Huff)

  • ARCHEOLOGY v. Pre-Islamic Central Asia

    Archeological remains of almost all the major epochs have now been uncovered, and the materials have been obtained that describe comprehensively the ancient civilizations of Central Asia of the pre-Islamic period.

    (V. M. Masson)

  • ARCHEOLOGY vi. Islamic Iran

    From the outset Islamic archeology in Iran was overshadowed by the numerous and splendid sites of earlier periods, and archeological investigation of Islamic sites began appreciably later in the Iranian world than in western Islam and in the Indian subcontinent.

    (R. Hillenbrand)

  • ARCHEOLOGY vii. Islamic Central Asia

    The study of the archeology of the Islamic period was initiated in Central Asia in the late 19th century by Turkestan amateurs and St. Petersburg scholars, and has been carried on with growing intensity since Soviet times.

    (G. A. Pugachenkova and E. V. Rtveladze)

  • ARCHEOLOGY viii. REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN

    In the mid-19th century, European travelers became aware that the area of the republic abounded in ancient ruins. Since the 1960s and 1970s several scores of archeological expeditions of the Azerbaijanian Academy of Sciences have been active.

    (M. N. Pogrebova)

  • ARCHERY

    See KAMĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARCHITECTURE

    This series of articles covers architecture in Iran from ancient times to the Pahlavi period.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ARCHITECTURE i. Seleucid Period

    The Seleucid architecture of Iran encompasses the buildings constructed during the period of Greek power from 330 B.C. through the 2nd century B.C.

    (T. S. Kawami)

  • ARCHITECTURE ii. Parthian Period

    It seems impossible to use the Iranian homeland of the Parthians as the basis for the definition of Parthian architecture.

    (E. J. Keall)

  • ARCHITECTURE iii. Sasanian Period

    A great number of čahār-ṭāq ruins, surveyed all over Iran and most frequent in Fārs and Kermān, are regarded as fire temples. Nearly all of them were closed to the outside by blocking walls in their bays or the surrounding vaulted corridors.

    (Dietrich Huff)

  • ARCHITECTURE iv. Central Asian

    Architecture in Central Asia dates back to the late Neolithic period (6th-5th millennia B.C.).

    (G. A. Pugachenkova)

  • ARCHITECTURE v. Islamic, pre-Safavid

    The beginnings of an Islamic architecture in Iran are still almost impossible to identify properly. Remaining monuments are few, most of them are very uncertainly dated, and literary information is scanty or difficult to interpret.

    (Oleg Grabar)

  • ARCHITECTURE vi. Safavid to Qajar Periods

    Iranian architecture from the 16th to the 19th centuries is, not surprisingly, dominated by the Safavids. Though no accurate checklist has been drawn up, it is clear that within the present political borders of Iran several hundred buildings datable between 907/1502 and 1138/1725 survive.

    (R. Hillenbrand)

  • ARCHITECTURE vii. Pahlavi, before World War II

    Two features of Reżā Shah’s efforts for the modernization of Iran were related to the architectural construction of the period. One was his reference to the country’s ancient history, which should inspire the present generation to achieve new glories. The other was his desire to adopt aspects of Western civilization in such a fashion that Iran would become equal to the West.

    (D. N. Wilber)

  • ARCHITECTURE viii. Pahlavi, after World War II

    Between the close of World War II and the overthrow of the Pahlavi regime in 1979, an ancient and very traditional Iranian culture came fully into contact with contemporary developments, in particular, with the highly scientific and empirical world of the West.

    (N. Ardalān)

  • ARCHIVES i. Turkish archives concerning Iran

    It is evident that the archive material of the Ottoman Empire was very well maintained, already from the early times. However, a number of older documents were destroyed by Timur (d. 1405) during his conquest of Bursa, then the capital of the Ottoman Empire, after the battle of Ankara in 1402.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • ARD

    (Pahlavi; Manichean Middle Persian ʾyrd). See AHRIŠWANG, AŠI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARD YAŠT

    Middle Persian name of the Avestan hymn dedicated to Aši.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • ARDĀ WĪRĀZ

    “Wīrāz the just,” principal character of the Zoroastrian Middle Persian text Ardā Wīrāz-nāmag.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • ARDABĪL

    town and district in northeastern Azerbaijan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth, Xavier de Planhol, M. E. Weaver, M. Medley)

  • ARDABIL v. Population, 1956-2011

    the population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status for 2006 and/or 2011.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • ARDABĪL CARPET

    a name applied chiefly to a Persian carpet acquired by the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1893, which is significant for its outstanding quality of design and weaving and for the precise date it carries. A second, almost identical carpet is less well known; it was presented by the late J. Paul Getty to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 1953.

    (M. Beattie)

  • ARDABĪLĪ

    known as MOQADDAS and MOḤAQQEQ ARDABĪLĪ, Imamite theologian and jurist of the early Safavid age.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ARDAHANG

    See ARŽANG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARDAKĀN-E FĀRS

    a small upland town of the ostān of Fārs.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ARDAKĀN-E YAZD

    a town of central Persia on the present Yazd-Ardestān-Kāšān road along the southern edge of the Dašt-e Kavīr, forty miles northwest of Yazd.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ARDAKĀNĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    known as Ḥāǰǰī Amīn and Amīn-e Elāhī, one of the four Ayādī-e Amr Allāh appointed by Bahāʾallāh as leaders of the Bahaʾi movement in Iran.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • ARDALĀN, ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ARDALĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARDAMITRA

    See ARDAŠĪR SAKĀNŠĀH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARDAŠĪR I

    (d. 242 CE), the founder of the Sasanian empire.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ARDAŠĪR I i. History

    by 224 extended his sway over Persis and beyond into Elymais (Ḵūzestān) and Kermān, forcing to submission many local kings and vassals of the Parthians. The extent of his original realm cannot be determined precisely.

    (Josef Wiesehöfer)

  • ARDAŠĪR I ii. Rock reliefs

    The first Sasanian ruler Ardašīr I established the Sasanian tradition of rock carving, which flourished until the reign of Šāpūr III and made an impressive resurgence under Ḵosrow II. Ardašīr’s rock reliefs differ markedly from the few preserved Parthian specimens (as do his coins) and foreshadow a new monumental form.

    (H. Luschey)

  • ARDAŠĪR II

    Sasanian king of kings, A.D. 379-83; he was deposed by the nobles in favor of Šāpūr III.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARDAŠĪR III

    Sasanian king (r. September, 628-29 April, 629). His father Šērōyē (Kawād II) murdered most of the Sasanian princes and died after only a brief reign.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARDAŠĪR

    name of several figures in the Šāh-nāma.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ARDAŠĪR B. DAYLAMSOPĀR

    See ABU’L-ḤAYJĀ NAJMĪ.

    (cross-reference)

  • ARDAŠĪR BĀBAKĀN

    Sasanian and early Islamic district (ostān) formed in the early 7th century south of Baghdad and west of the Tigris. Its capital was Weh-Ardašīr (Ar. Bahrasīr).

    (H. Gaube)

  • ARDAŠĪR MĪRZĀ

    ROKN-AL-DAWLA, the ninth son of the crown prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā, b. ca.1805-06, d. 1866.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • ARDAŠĪR SAKĀNŠĀH

    a vassal king of the first Sasanian king of kings, Ardašīr I.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARDAŠĪR-ḴORRA

    one of the five administrative divisions (kūra) of Fārs, in Sasanian and early Islamic times.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ARDAŠĪR-NAMA

    a matnawī of six thousand couplets in Persian by Šāhīn Šīrāzī, a Jewish Persian poet of the 8th/14th century.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ARDAVĀN

    (ARDAWĀN). See ARTABANUS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARDERIKKA

    name of two ancient villages.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARDESTĀN

    a town of central Iran between Kāšān and Nāʾīn.

    (X. De Planhol, R. Hillenbrand)

  • ARDESTĀNI

    the dialect spoken in the small town of Ardestān.

    (Pierre Lecoq)

  • ARDESTĀNĪ, ʿALĪ-AKBAR ḤOSAYNĪ

    See ʿALĪ AKBAR ḤOSAYNĪ ARDESTĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARDUMANIŠ

    a Persian, son of Vahauka.

    (Pierre Lecoq)

  • ARDWAHIŠT

    one of the six great Aməša Spəntas who, with Ahura Mazdā and/or his Holy Spirit, make up the Zoroastrian Heptad. Of the six, Aša has the clearest pre-Zoroastrian antecedents.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ARDWAHIŠT YAŠT

    (ORDĪBEHEŠT YAŠT), the third in the series of Avestan hymns addressed to individual divinities. It is devoted to one of the greatest of the Zoroastrian Aməša Spəntas, Aša Vahišta.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ARDWĪSŪR

    See ANĀHĪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARDWĪSŪR YAŠT

    See ĀBĀN YAŠT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARƎDVĪ SŪRĀ

    See ANĀHĪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿĀREF QAZVĪNĪ

    ABU’L-QĀSEM (ca. 1300-1352/1882-1934), poet, musician, and singer during and after the Constitutional Revolution.

    (Jalal Matini, Margaret Caton)

  • ʿĀREFĪ HERAVĪ

    a poet of the 9th/15th century contemporary with the Timurid Šāhroḵ.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • AREIA

    See HERAT ii. HISTORY, PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARƎJAṰ.ASPA

    See ARJĀSP.

    (cross-reference)

  • ʿĀREŻ

    the official in medieval eastern Islamic states who had charge of the administrative side of the military forces, being especially concerned with payment, recruitment, training, and inspection.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ARFAʿ, ḤASAN

    Iranian general, born in Tiflis in 1895, the eldest son of the veteran diplomat Prince Reżā Arfaʿ.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi)

  • ARG

    Its etymology is obscure: the term appears in Middle Persian only in the compound argbed a military rank and, though evidently in use, does not occur frequently in New Persian before the early 17th century. It is used also by Persian writers of Central Asia and northern India to designate the fortress of a city.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ARG-E ʿALĪŠĀH

    the remains of the Masǰed-e ʿAlīšāh, a colossal mosque built in Tabrīz.

    (K. Afsar)

  • ARG-E KARĪM KHAN

    citadel built by the Zand ruler Karīm Khan (1163-93/1750-79).

    (K. Afsar)

  • ARG-E TEHRĀN

    See TEHRAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARḠANDĀB

    the name of two non-contiguous administrative districts (woloswālī) in Afghanistan.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • ARḠANDĀB RIVER

    a river in the south of Afghanistan, the biggest tributary of the Helmand. The present name, in the form Āb-e Arḡand, is attested from the 7th/13th century.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • ARGBED

    a high-ranking title in the Parthian and Sasanian period.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ARḠŪN

    See ABU’L-QĀSEM SOLṬĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARḠŪN ĀQĀ

    a Mongol administrator in Iran (d. 1275).

    (Peter Jackson)

  • ARḠŪN KHAN

    fourth il-khan of Iran (r.683-90/1284-91).

    (Peter Jackson)

  • ARIA

    region in the eastern part of the Persian empire.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARIABIGNES

    an Achaemenid prince.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARIAEUS

    military commander in the army of Cyrus the Younger.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARIARAMNEIA

    a city in Cappadocia mentioned in an inscription.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARIARAMNES

    See ARIYĀRAMNA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARIARATUS

    one of the three sons of the Achaemenid King Artaxerxes II.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ARIMANIUS

    Latin form of AHRIMAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARIOBARZANES

    Old Iranian proper name *Ārya-bṛzāna-, perhaps signifying “exalting the Aryans.”

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev, A. Sh. Shahbazi, P. Lecoq)

  • ARISTAGORAS

    tyrant of Miletus (late 6th-early 5th centuries B.C.).

    (P. Tozzi)

  • ARIUS

    See HARĪ-RŪD

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARIYĀRAMNA

    Old Persian proper name.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARIZANTOI

    one of the six tribes of the Median nation as listed by Herodotus.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ʿARĪŻĪ, ABŪ ṬĀLEB ḤOSAYNĪ

    Mughal scholar chiefly famous for his alleged discovery of Malfūẓāt-e Tīmūrī or Wāqeʿāt-e Tīmūrī, an autobiographical account of Tīmūr from the 7th to the 74th year of his life. See ABŪ ṬĀLEB ḤOSAYNĪ ʿARĪŻĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARJĀN TOMB

    the late Neo-Elamite elite burial near Behbahan in southwestern Iran contains a coffin and a few artifacts and may shed new light on the discussion of Persian heritage as related to the Elamites.

    (Javier Alvarez-Mon)

  • ARJĀSP

    a chief of the Iranian tribe of the Xyōns and an enemy of Kay Goštāsp, patron of Zoroaster.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ARJOMAND, Ḵalil

    At the age of 21, in Grenoble, Kalil Arjomand devised an innovative mechanism for graded motorcar acceleration. This achievement, which prefigures his later creativity, was singled out by Esmaʿil Merʾāt, then supervisor of the Iranian students in France and later Minister of Education, in his reports to Iranian authorities.

    (Rava Azeredo da Silveira)

  • ARLEZ

    Armenian term for a supernatural creature.

    (James R. Russell)

  • ARMAḠĀN

    a monthly literary magazine founded in 1919.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ARMĀʾĪL

    legendary figure in the myth of Ẓaḥḥāk.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • ARMAITI

    one of the six great Aməša Spəntas in Zoroastrianism.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ARMAVIR

    one of the capitals of ancient Armenia.

    (R. H. Hewsen)

  • ARMAZI

    (or ARMAZ-TSIKHE), an important royal city of Georgia.

    (D. M. Lang)

  • ARMENIA i. IMAGE OF PERSIANS IN

    In the Sasanian period Armenians developed a self-awareness as Christians against the background of their earlier Iranian social and religious culture (see ARMENIA AND IRAN i-v). Although written texts, beginning in the fifth century CE, only give a partial view of Armenian ideas about themselves and their place in the larger world, the long-term impact of the early major texts was formative for later ideology down to modern times.

    (Robert Thomson)

  • ARMENIA ii. ARMENIAN WOMEN IN THE LATE 19TH- AND EARLY 20TH-CENTURY PERSIA

    In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Iranian Armenians were concentrated in Azerbaijan and Isfahan. When demographic studies included the numbers of women, these were noticeably smaller than those for men, most likely because male heads of families were less apt to report about female family members.

    (Houri Berberian)

  • ARMENIA AND IRAN

    series of articles that covers Irano-Armenian relations in pre-modern times.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ARMENIA and IRAN i. Armina, Achaemenid province

    a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid empire; the inhabitants are called Arminiya- “Armenian.”

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARMENIA AND IRAN ii. The pre-Islamic period

    under Darius and Xerxes had much narrower boundaries than the future Armenia of the Artaxiads and the Arsacids.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ARMENIA AND IRAN iii. Armenian Religion

    In the formative period the Armenians appear to have absorbed Hurrian, Hittite, and Urartian elements in their religious beliefs. Iran, however, was to be the dominant influence in Armenian spiritual culture.

    (James R. Russell)

  • ARMENIA AND IRAN iv. Iranian influences in Armenian Language

    attested in written sources since the 5th century A.D. and characterized from the very beginning of the literary documentation by a large number of Iranian loanwords.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt, H. W. Bailey)

  • ARMENIA and IRAN v. Accounts of Iran in Armenian sources

    Since Armenian writing itself begins only around 430, almost forty years after the disappearance of the Armenian Arsacid empire, the historians who write of Arsacid or earlier events belong to a later era.

    (M. Van Esbroeck)

  • ARMENIA AND IRAN vi. Armeno-Iranian relations in the Islamic period

    expansion of Islam in Iran caused a big rift between Armenia, already converted to Christianity, and Iran.

    (H. Papazian)

  • Armenians in India

    See JULFA v. Armenians in India.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARMENIANS OF MODERN IRAN

    Armenians can be found in almost every major city of Iran.

    (A. Amurian and M. Kasheff)

  • ARMENO-IRANIAN RELATIONS in the pre-Islamic period

    appearance of Armenian literature in the second half of the fifth century CE, in the generation which followed the great revolt of the Armenian nobles in 450 against Yazdgird II’s attempt to re-impose Zoroastrianism on their already Christian country, resulted in its almost total obliteration of Armenia’s ties to the Iranian world.

    (Nina Garsoïan)

  • ARMIN

    the fourth son of Kay Qobād in certain texts of the Šāh-nāma.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ARMINA

    See ARMENIA AND IRAN i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARMOR

    The main evidence for the form of armor used under the Achaemenids comes from Xenophon and Herodotus. Xenophon in his Cyropaedia describes the guard of Cyrus the Great as having bronze breastplates and helmets, while their horses wore bronze chamfrons and poitrels together with shoulder pieces (parameridia) which also protected the rider’s thighs.

    (J. W. Allan)

  • ARMOR ii. In Eastern Iran

    By the 6th, or even 7th, century BCE, the Scythian and Northern Caucasian nomads had formed a complete complex of defensive armor.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • ARMY

    a survey from early pre-Islamic times to the mid-20th century.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ARMY i. Pre-Islamic Iran

    materials for a study of pre-Islamic Iranian military concerns fall into four categories: textual evidence; archeological finds; documentary representations (on monuments and objects of art); and philological deductions.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARMY ii. Islamic, to the Mongol period

    Arab armies which overran Sasanian Iraq and Iran in the middle decades of the 7th century A.D. comprised essentially the levée en masse of the male, free Muslim Arab cavalrymen.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ARMY iii. Safavid Period

    Shah Esmaʿil's army was comprised of tribal units, the majority of which were Turkmen, the remainder Kurds and Čaḡatāy.

    (M. Haneda)

  • ARMY iv. Afšar and Zand Periods

    Nāder Shah grew up a raider, made his early reputation as a mercenary, and came to power as commander-in-chief of a fugitive Safavid claimant in Afghan-occupied Iran; by force of arms he drove out the Afghans and intimidated the Ottoman Turks and Russians who had sought to partition Iran.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ARMY iv a. Qajar Period

    at the end of the 18th century, the military forces of the first Qajar ruler Āḡā Moḥammad Khan (r. 1789-97) resembled those of preceding dynasties.

    (Stephanie Cronin )

  • ARMY v. Pahlavi Period

    While few foreign officers were employed, many cadets were sent abroad, mainly to French military academies. Consequently, the nascent military institutions were highly influenced by the style and organization which were prevalent in France.

    (M. J. Sheikh-ol-Islami)

  • ARMY vi. In Afghanistan from 1919

    Using Turkish advisers, Amānallāh Khan (r. 1919-29) unsuccessfully tried to create a nationalist-oriented army.

    (L. Dupree)

  • ARNAVĀZ

    one of the mythical king Jamšēd’s sisters.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARNOLD, THOMAS WALKER

    Sir (1864-1930), British orientalist.

    (B. W. Robinson)

  • ARPA KHAN

    10th Il-khan of Iran (r. 736/1335-36).

    (Peter Jackson)

  • ARRAJĀN

    medieval city and province in southwestern Iran between Ḵūzestān and Fārs.

    (H. Gaube)

  • ARRĀN

    a region of eastern Transcaucasia.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ARRIAN

    Greek historian (2nd cent. CE).

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ARROWS in Eastern Iran

    came in use along with the bow, and the two developed in parallel. In the Bronze Age in eastern Iran, metal arrowheads of bronze were widespread, while skillfully made stone arrowheads, inherited from the earlier period, remained in use.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • ARSACIDS

    (Persian Aškānīān), Parthian dynasty which ruled Iran from about 250 BCE to about 226 CE.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ARSACIDS i. Origins

    The various accounts of the origins of Arsaces, the founder of the dynasty, reflect diverse developments over time in political ideologies.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARSACIDS ii. The Arsacid dynasty

    The rise of the Arsacids is closely linked to the history of Seleucids, who lost large parts of their Iranian possessions within a period of roughly fifteen years.

    (K. Schippmann)

  • ARSACIDS iii. Arsacid Coinage

    Coins minted in Iran under the Arsacids superseded Seleucid currency in the territories successively taken from the Seleucids. In essential denominations, iconography, and script, they are markedly Hellenistic, but they also show Iranian features.

    (M. Alram)

  • ARSACIDS iv. Arsacid religion

    It may reasonably be assumed that, at least from the time they seized power, the Arsacids were professed Zoroastrians.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ARSACIDS v. The “Arsacid” era

    As an indication of their imperial aspirations, the Parthians established their own dynastic era, beginning with the vernal equinox. The historicity of this era was proved by a Babylonian tablet equating the Seleucid year 208 with 144 of the Arsacid era.

    (EIr)

  • ARSACIDS vi. Arsacid chronology in traditional history

    The Parthian rule lasted 474 years, longer than any dynastic period in Iranian history, but post-Sasanian sources give various figures for the duration of the Arsacid rule.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARSACIDS vii. The Arsacid dynasty of Armenia

    Third dynasty of Armenia, from the first to the mid-fifth century. Arsacid rule brought about an intensification of the political and cultural influence of Iran in Armenia.

    (C. Toumanoff)

  • ARSACIDS viii. Military Architecture Of Parthia

    In the western parts of the Parthian empire, i.e., in the Mesopotamian plain, military and defensive systems and fortifications developed under a clearly strong influence of earlier civilizations that had existed in the region.

    (Krzysztof Jakubiak)

  • ARSACIDS IN ISLAMIC SOURCES

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARŠAK

    See ARSACIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARŠĀMA

    name of several Achaemenid notables.

    (E. Bresciani)

  • ARSAMES

    See ARŠĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARSANES

    See NARSE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARSANJĀN

    a small town in Fārs on the northeastern fringes of the Zagros mountain massif.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ARSANJĀNĪ, ḤASAN

    journalist and politician (1922-69).

    (Fakhreddin Azimi)

  • ARSEN, KOCOYTỊ

    Ossetic author (1872-1944).

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • ARSES

    Greek rendering of an Old Persian name, used as a hypocoristic.

    (Pierre Lecoq)

  • ARSITES

    Greek rendering of an Old Persian name.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARSLĀN B. ṬOḠREL

    See SALJUQS OF IRAQ (pending).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARSLĀN KHAN MOḤAMMAD

    See ILAK-KHANIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARSLĀNŠĀH B. KERMĀNŠĀH

    See SALJUQS OF KERMĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARSLĀNŠĀH

    Ghaznavid sultan (r. 509-11/1116-18).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ARSLĀNŠAH B. TOḠRELŠĀH

    See SALJUQS OF KERMĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARŠTĀT

    See AŠTĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ART IN IRAN

    The history of art in Iran and Iranian lands.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ART IN IRAN i. NEOLITHIC TO MEDIAN

    An important element of the art of Iran is the presence of composite beings. One type, here called demon, is a combination of man and animal walking on two legs. An example is the demon with the head of a mountain goat or a moufflon.

    (Edith Porada)

  • ART IN IRAN ii. MEDIAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE

    We know that Medes were mentioned in neo Assyrian annals from the year 836 B.C. onwards; as late as in King Esarhaddon’s vassal treaties (672 B.C.) they are represented by petty princes: central kingship had not yet been established, the foundation of which was later ascribed to the legendary judge, Deïokes.

    (Peter Calmeyer)

  • ART IN IRAN iii. ACHAEMENID ART AND ARCHITECTURE

    No work of architecture or art can be attributed with certainty to an Achaemenid earlier than Cyrus the Great. Only a cylinder seal, now lost, but several times used on later bullae at Persepolis, can possibly have belonged to an older member of the family.

    (Peter Calmeyer)

  • ART IN IRAN iv. PARTHIAN Art

    monuments generally included in discussions of Parthian art come from the periphery of the Parthian world—Syria, Mesopotamia, the edges of the Iranian plateau.

    (S. B. Downey)

  • ART IN IRAN v. SASANIAN ART

    There are major remains of many different types: monumental rock reliefs, silver vessels, stucco architectural decoration, and seals.

    (P. O. Harper)

  • ART IN IRAN vi. PRE-ISLAMIC EASTERN IRAN AND CENTRAL ASIA

    Monumental works of art of the pre-Islamic age are there evidenced only from the early medieval period that corresponds with the Parthian and Sasanian dynasties in Iran.

    (G. Azarpay)

  • ART IN IRAN vii. ISLAMIC PRE-SAFAVID

    Of especial importance for the development of art in Islamic Iran was the cultural and artistic legacy of the immediate past.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ART IN IRAN viii. ISLAMIC CENTRAL ASIA

    Under Islam the sculpture and mural painting previously displayed in Central Asia almost completely disappeared, and ornament took pride of place.

    (G. A. Pugachenkova)

  • ART IN IRAN ix. SAFAVID TO QAJAR PERIODS

    The arts of the Safavid period show a far more unitary development than in any other period of Iranian art.

    (A. Welch)

  • ART IN IRAN x.1 ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE QAJAR PERIOD

    Qajar art is characterized by an exuberant style and flamboyant use of color, which became more emphatic as the 19th century progressed; here Persian art may be compared with developments in 19th-century Europe.

    (J. M. Scarce)

  • ART IN IRAN x.2 QAJAR PAINTING

    The unsettled political situation following the death of Karīm Khan left little opportunity for schools of painting to flourish and develop. But even before their rise to supreme power the Qajars had captured the services of at least one painter who set a high standard for the first generation of their rule.

    (B. W. Robinson)

  • ART IN IRAN xi. POST-QAJAR

    About the mid-1950s, Iranian modernists started to receive official encouragement via the Department General of Fine Arts (later to become the Ministry of Arts and Culture).

    (K. Emāmī)

  • ART IN IRAN xii. IRANIAN PRE-ISLAMIC ELEMENTS IN ISLAMIC ART

    Iranian pre-Islamic elements contributed to the formation and development of Islamic art, and they can be easily recognized in various contexts.

    (Maria Vittoria Fontana)

  • ARTA

    See ARDWAHIŠT and AŠA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARTABANUS (Old Persian proper name)

    Latinized form of an Old Persian proper name.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ARTABANUS (Arsacid kings)

    name borne by several Arsacid kings.

    (K. Schippmann)

  • ARTABAZANES

    autonomous ruler of Armenia who submitted to the Seleucid king Antiochus III in 220 B.C., when the latter invaded his country.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ARTABAZUS

    Old Iranian personal name.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ARTABĒ

    the Greek form of a Median and Old Persian measure of volume.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ARTACHAIĒS

    Greek rendering of an Old Iranian name.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARTAḪŠAR

    See ARTOXARES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARTAMANIA

    prince of Zi-ri-ba-ša-ni, who wrote a letter of devotion to the pharaoh of Egypt.

    (M. Mayrhofer)

  • ARTAPHRENĒS

    name given by Herodotus for the son of Hystaspes and brother of Darius I, and of various other Persians in Greek literature.

    (Pierre Lecoq)

  • ARTAŠŠUMARA

    a Mitannian king.

    (M. Mayrhofer)

  • ARTASYRAS

    Old Iranian name *Ṛta-sūra “powerful through Arta”.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ARTATĀMA

    king of Mitanni.

    (M. Mayrhofer)

  • ARTAVARDIYA

    Old Persian personal name, meaning “doer of Justice.”

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ARTAVASDES

    Old Iranian male personal name.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARTAXATA

    a city of ancient Armenia founded ca. 176 B.C. by King Artaxias I.A

    (R. H. Hewsen)

  • ARTAXERXES

    throne name of several Persian kings of the Achaemenid dynasty.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARTAXERXES I

    a son of Xerxes I and Amestris.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARTAXERXES II

    Achaemenid Great King whose personal name is given as Arsaces.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARTAXERXES III

    throne name of Ochus, Achaemenid king (r. 359-58 to 338-37 B.C.).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARTAXIAS I

    reigned 189-160 B.C., founder of the Artaxiad dynasty in Greater Armenia.

    (James R. Russell)

  • ARTAZOSTRE

    a daughter of Darius the Great.

    (J. Kellens)

  • ARTEMBARĒS

    Old Iranian proper name * Ṛtam-para-, meaning “who encourages the order.”

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ARTEMISIA

    queen of the Achaemenid province of Caria.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARTEMITA IN APOLLONIATIS

    city of the Parthian period in eastern Iraq.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ARTĒŠTĀR

    a learned calque on and translation of the Avestan raθaēštā.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • ARTĒŠTĀRĀN SĀLĀR

    “chief of the warriors,” a high-ranking title in Sasanian times.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • ARTHROPODS

    or ARTHROPODA, largest and undoubtedly most diverse animal phylum, comprising an estimated seventy-five to eighty percent of all known species in the kingdom; representatives of both major extant subdivisions occur within Iran.

    (ʿA. Aḥmadī and R. G. Tuck, Jr.)

  • ARTOXARES

    a Paphlagonian eunuch at the court of Artaxerxes I and satrap of Armenia.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ARTSRUNI

    one of the most important princely families of Armenia, an offshoot of the Orontids, Achaemenian satraps and subsequently kings of Armenia, but claiming descent from Sennacherib of Assyria.

    (C. Toumanoff)

  • ARTYPHIOS

    or ARTYBIOS, Greek rendering of an Old Persian name.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARTYSTONE

    Persian female personal name.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ARUKKU

    a son of Cyrus I, king of Parsumaš and grandfather of Cyrus the Great.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ʿARŪSĪ

    the secular wedding celebration which follows the wedding contract ceremony (ʿaqd).

    (Anne H. Betteridge)

  • ʿARŪŻ

    the metrical system used by the Arab poets since pre-Islamic times.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ʿARŪŻĪ, YŪSOF

    rhetorician and poet of the 4th/10th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ARVAND GUŠNASP

    Sasanian marzbān of Georgia under Ḵosrow I.

    (D. M. Lang)

  • ARVAND-RŪD

    name given to the river Tigris in some passages in the Mid. Pers. books.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • ARYA

    an ethnic epithet in the Achaemenid inscriptions and in the Zoroastrian Avestan tradition.

    (H. W. Bailey)

  • ARYAMAN

    See AIRYAMAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀRYĀMEHR

    See MOḤAMMAD REŻA SHAH PAHLAVI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀRYĀNĀ

    Bulletin of the Historical Society of Afghanistan.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy Ḥabibi)

  • ARYANA VAĒJAH

    See ĒRĀN-WĒZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARYANDES

    Achaemenid satrap of Egypt.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ARYANPUR, AMIR-HOSAYN

    noted engagé intellectual, scholar, and educator of the 20th century Iran.

    (Mehrdad Mashayekhi)

  • ARYANS

    self designation of the peoples of Ancient India and Ancient Iran who spoke Aryan languages. Aryan is thus basically a linguistic concept, denoting the closely related Indo-Aryan and Iranian languages .

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ʿARŻ, DĪVĀN-E

    the department of the administration which, in the successor states to the ʿAbbasid caliphate in the Islamic East, looked after military affairs, such as the recruitment and discharge of soldiers, their pay allotments, etc.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ARZAN

    "millet." The main species of millet probably originate from the Far East and seem to have been introduced into Iran from India.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • ARŽANG

    an extra-canonical work of Mani.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • ARZĀNI, MOḤAMMAD AKBAR

    an Indian author of works on medicine.

    (Fabrisio Speziale)

  • ARZENJĀN

    or ERZENJĀN, a town of northeastern Anatolia.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀRZŪ

    Major Indo-Muslim poet, lexicographer and litterateur (b. at Gwalior or Agra 1099/1687-88 or 1101/1689-90).

    (Moazzam Siddiqi)

  • ARZU (Article 2)

    See Ḵān-e Ārezu, Serāj-al-din ʿAli (ARTICLE 2).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ARZŪR

    Mid. Pers. form of Avestan Arəzūra-, the name of a demon of unclear origin or function in Zoroastrian tradition.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • Am~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the Am–Ar entries

    (DATA)

  • ĀS

    a game of playing cards (see CARD GAMES) which became popular in the Qajar era, and hence replaced ganjafa, the card game associated with the Safavids.

    (Mehdi Roschanzamir)

  • ĀS

    “Ossetia”; ĀSĪ “Ossetic, Ossete.” See ALANS; ALBANIA; ASII; OSSETIC.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀŠ

    (thick soup), the general term for a traditional Iranian dish comparable to the French potage.

    (W. Eilers, ʿE. Elāhī, M. Boyce)