List of Articles

  • ĀB

    Persian word meaning “water.”

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ĀB i. The concept of water in ancient Iranian culture

    The ancient Iranians respected water as the source of life, which nourished plants, animals, and men. In their cosmology water was the second of the seven “creations.”

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀB ii. Water in Muslim Iranian culture

    Water constitutes an essential element in Islamic ritual, as a means of purification, and serves as a common theme in folklore.

    (I. K. Poonawala)

  • ĀB iii. The hydrology and water resources of the Iranian plateau

    Over the most of the central part of the plateau, in the Dašt-e Kavīr and Dašt-e Lūt, annual precipitation averages less than 100 mm, making these among the most arid parts of the world.

    (P. Beaumont)

  • ĀB-ANBĀR

    "Water reservoir,” a term commonly used throughout Iran as a designation for roofed underground water cisterns.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ĀB-ANBĀR i. History

    The āb-anbār was one of the constructions developed in Iran as part of a water management system in areas reliant on permanent (springs, qanāts) or on seasonal (rain) water. A settlement’s capacity for storing water ensured its survival over the hot, dry season when even the permanent water supply would diminish.

    (R. Holod)

  • AB-ANBĀR ii. Construction

    Cisterns are built in towns and villages throughout Iran, as well as at crossroads, caravanseries, and hospices (rebāṭ). While town cisterns may be filled with rain water or from qanāts, most āb-anbārs along caravan routes are filled from the spring torrents of nearby streams.

    (M. Sotūda)

  • ĀB-E DEZ

    a major river of Ḵūzestān and the one most vital to its economy. It rises in the central Zagros mountains about 20 km northeast of Borūǰerd near the village of Čahār Borra.

    (H. Gaube)

  • ĀB-E GARM

    There is a special kind of spring, the karst spring, in areas which have no consistent water table. The water usually collects in great clefts within chalky formations or flows in a subterranean channel and often includes the best-known springs in Iran.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • AB-GHURA

    the juice of unripe grapes, used in Persian cuisine. See ĀB-ḠŪRA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀB-ḠŪRA

    (or ĀB-E ḠŪRA), the juice of unripe grapes, used in Persian cuisine.

    (N. Ramazani)

  • ĀB-GŪŠT

    “meat juice,” a popular Persian meat-based soup or stew, consisting of lamb, some legume, and herb and seasoning.

    (EIr and N. Ramazani)

  • ĀB-E ḤAYĀT

    also called ʿAyn al-Ḥayāt or Nahr al-Ḥayāt, meaning the fountain of life, is associated with Ḵeżr, who is identified with the unnamed companion of Moses in the Koran (18:65-82). See ĀB ii. Water in Muslim Iranian culture.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀB-E ĪSTĀDA

    “Still water,” a salt lake in the province of Ḡazna in modern Afghanistan, lying 30 km southeast of the present Ḡazna-Kandahār highway and 100 km south of Ḡazna itself.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀB-NĀHĪD

    “Nāhid of the Water,” a Zoroastrian woman’s name, first attested in the poem Vis o Rāmīn.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀB-ZŌHR

    “offering of water,” the Middle Persian form of a Zoroastrian technical term, Av. Ape zaoθra. Making the offering of water is the culminating rite of the main Zoroastrian act of worship, the yasna; and preparing and consecrating it is at the center of the rituals of the second part of this service.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ʿABĀʾ

    (in Arabic, also ʿabāʾa and ʿabāya), a loose outer garment, generally for men, worn widely throughout the Middle East, particularly by Arab nomads.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ABAD

    “Eternity a parte post,” Arabic theological term meaning “eternity a parte post” (already in early Muʿtazilite theology); it corresponds to Greek atéleuton. It sometimes also serves as a general term for unlimited time (dahr).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ĀBĀDA

    Name of (1) a small town in northern Fārs province, and (2) a medieval town near the northern shore of Lake Baḵtegān in Fārs.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀBĀDĀN

    island and city in the ostān (province) of Ḵūzestān at the head of the Persian Gulf.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ĀBĀDĀN i. History

    In medieval sources, and up to the present century, the name of the island always occurs in the Arabic form ʿAbbādān; this name has sometimes been derived from ʿabbād “worshiper.”

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ĀBĀDĀN ii. The modern city

    At the turn of this century the alluvial island of ʿAbbādān had a few peasant hamlets and a scattering of palm groves along the coast. The city which devel­oped after 1900 under a foreign impulse has a struc­ture unique among Iran’s urban forms.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • ĀBĀDĀN iii. Basic Population Data, 1956-2011

    the population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, economic activity status for 2006 and/or 2011, and population projection from 2014 to 2021.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • ĀBĀDĪ

    “Settlement, inhabited space,” Persian term usally applied to the rural environment; in colloquial usage it often refers to towns and cities as well.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • ABĀLIŠ

    Zoroastrian of the 9th century A.D. who apostatized to Islam.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀBĀN

    Middle Persian term meaning “the waters” (Av. āpō). In Indo-Iranian the word for water is grammatically feminine; the element itself was always characterized as female and was represented by a group of goddesses, the Āpas.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ABĀN B. ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD

    late 2nd/8th century poet. He was of a Persian family, originally from Fasā, which had settled (probably at an early date) in Baṣra.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • ĀBĀN MĀH

    the eighth month of the Zoroastrian year, dedicated to the waters, Ābān.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀBĀN YAŠT

    Middle Persian name of the fifth hymn among the Zoroastrian hymns to individual divinities. It is the third longest, with 131 verses.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀBĀNAGĀN

    the name used by Bīrūnī (Āṯār, p. 224) for the Zoroastrian feast-day dedicated to the Waters, which was celebrated on the day Ābān of the month Ābān. See further under ĀBĀN MĀH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀBĀNDOḴT

    Character in the prose romance Dārāb-nāma of Abū Ṭāher Moḥammad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Mūsā al-Ṭarsūsī, a storyteller of the Ghaznavid period.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • ABAQA

    (or ABAḠA, “paternal uncle” in Mongolian; ABĀQĀ in Persian and Arabic), eldest son and first successor of the Il-khan Hülegü.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • ʿABAQĀT AL-ANWĀR

    a large Persian and Arabic work by Mīr Ḥāmed Ḥosayn b. Moḥammad-qolī b. Moḥammad b. Ḥāmed of Lucknow on the legitimacy of the imamate and the defense of Shiʿite theology.

    (ʿA.-N. Monzavi)

  • ABAR NAHARA

    Aramaic name for the lands to the west of the Euphrates—i.e., Phoenicia, Syria, and Palestine (Parpola, p. 116; Zadok, p. 129; see ASSYRIA ii). These regions apparently passed from Neo-Babylonian to Persian control in 539 B.C.E. when Cyrus the Great conquered Mesopotamia. See EBER-NĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABARKĀVĀN

    Late Sasanian name of Qešm island in the Straits of Hormoz.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • ABARQOBĀḎ

    Ancient town of lower Iraq between Baṣra and Vāseṭ, to the east of the Tigris, in the region adjacent to Ahvāz, known in pre-Islamic and early Islamic times as Mēšūn (Mid. Pers. form) or Maysān/Mayšān (Syriac and Arabic forms).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABARQUH

    (or ABARQŪYA), a town in northern Fārs; it was important in medieval times, but, being off the main routes, it is now largely decayed.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ABARQUH i. History

    In present-day Iran, Abarqūh is situated in the tenth ostān, that of Isfahan, and forms a baḵš or district of the šahrestān of Yazd.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABARQUH ii. Monuments

    Numerous pre-Safavid monuments survive in Abarqūh, but the lack of important later buildings suggests a sharp decline in the city’s wealth.

    (R. Hillenbrand)

  • ABARŠAHR

    Name of Nīšāpūr province in western Khorasan. From the early Sasanian period, Nišāpur, which was founded or rebuilt by Šāpur I in the first years of his reign, was the administrative center of the province.

    (H. Gaube)

  • ABARSĀM

    (APURSĀM in Middle Persian), a dignitary and high-ranking officeholder of the court of the Sasanian king Ardašīr I (A.D. 226-42).

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ABARSĒN

    Middle Persian form of the Avestan name Upāiri.saēna, designating the Hindu Kush mountains (Av. iškata; Mid. Pers. kōf, gar) of central and eastern Afghanistan.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ABARSHAHR

    Name of Nishapur province in western Khorasan. See ABARŠAHR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABASKŪN

    (ĀBASKŪN), a port of the medieval period on the southwest shore of the Caspian Sea in Gorgān province.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABBĀ ISAIAH

    (i.e., “Father” Isaiah), late 4th century A.D., author of Christian ascetical texts; from these it appears that he was a hermit who lived in the desert of Scete in Egypt, of whom several anecdotes are told in the Apophthegmata patrum.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • ʿABBĀD B. SALMĀN

    (or SOLAYMĀN), Muʿtazilite theologian of the 3rd/9th century.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿABBĀS I

    Shah Abbas, Safavid king of Iran (996-1038/1588-1629). Styled "Shah ʿAbbās the Great," he was the third son and successor of Solṭān Moḥammad Shah.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ʿABBĀS II

    Safavid king of Iran (1052-77/1642-66). The expedition to Kandahar, which had been lost to the Mughals under Shah Ṣafi I, counts as Shah ʿAbbās II’s main military venture.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • ʿABBĀS (II) [1982]

    Safavid king of Iran (1052-77/1642-66).

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ʿABBĀS III

    son of Shah Ṭahmāsp II, roi fainéant of the Safavid dynasty (1732-40).

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ʿABBĀS, ḤĀJĪ

    Signature found on a number of pieces of metalwork from Iran.

    (J. W. Allan)

  • ʿABBĀS B. ʿALĪ B. ABŪ ṬĀLEB

    half brother of Imam Ḥosayn, who fought bravely at the battle of Karbalā. According to most traditions, he was killed on the day of ʿĀšurā (10 Moḥarram 61/10 October 680) while trying to bring back water from the Euphrates river to quench the unbearable thirst of the besieged Ahl-e Bayt (holy family).

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ʿABBĀS B. ḤOSAYN

    Buyid vizier, d. 362/973.

    (Claude Cahen)

  • ʿABBĀS AḤVAL

    Leader of an Arab invasion of the lower Euphrates region in which the Savād of Iraq was ravaged, in about A.D. 589, toward the end of the reign of Hormozd IV.

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • ʿABBĀS EFFENDI

    the eldest son of Bahāʾallāh and founder of the Bahaʾi movement. See ʿABD-AL-BAHĀʾ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABBĀS MĪRZĀ QAJAR

    son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and father of the line of Qajar rulers from Moḥammad Shah on (1789-1833).

    (Heribert Busse)

  • ʿABBĀS B. REŻĀ-QOLĪ KHAN NŪRĪ

    calligrapher and civil servant, d. 1255/1839-40.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABBĀS-QOLĪ KHAN

    persian viceroy in eastern Georgia (1099-1105/1688-94), under the Safavid shahs Solaymān and Solṭān Ḥosayn.

    (D. M. Lang)

  • ʿABBĀS-QOLĪ MĪRZĀ QAJAR

    a grandson of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Qajar (d. 1824 or 1825).

    (Heribert Busse)

  • ʿABBĀSĀBĀD

    fortress built in 1810 by ʿAbbās Mīrzā on the northern bank of the Araxes river, at a place formerly called Yazdābād about six miles to the southwest of Naḵjavān.

    (Kamran Ekbal)

  • ʿABBĀSĀBĀD Caravan Station

    Flourishing caravan station of the Safavid period.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • ʿABBĀSĪ

    A name first applied to the principal gold and silver coins issued by the Safavid king ʿAbbās I (1581-1629); it continued in use until the beginning of the 20th century.

    (P. Avery, B. G. Fragner, J. B. Simmons)

  • ʿABBĀSĪ, ŠAYḴ

    Apart from an apparently early work in the standard Isfahan style of the second quarter of the 17th century (Cristie’s 10 July 1975, lot 197), Šayḵ ʿAbbāsī departed from the established conventions of Safavid painting and embarked upon an eclectic manner in which European and Indian elements played an important role.

    (R. Skelton)

  • ʿABBĀSĪ GOJARĀTĪ

    Indian literary figure who wrote in Persian (d. 1048/1638).

    (Yann Richard)

  • ʿABBĀSĪ RABENJANĪ

    10th century Samanid poet.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ʿABBASID CALIPHATE

    the third dynasty of caliphs who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs in Damascus.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABD, ABDĪH

    “marvel, wonder” in Middle Persian. See MIRACLES i. In Ancient Iranian Tradition.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿALĪ BAḤR-AL-ʿOLŪM

    A leading Indian theologian of the Ḥanafī school (18th century).

    (F. Robinson)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿALĪ BĪRJANDĪ

    (or BARJANDĪ) Islamic astronomer, said to have died in 934/1527-28.

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿALĪM NAṢRALLĀḤ KHAN

    “QAMAR,” government official, historian, biographer, translator, and grammarian in British India (19th century).

    (Hameed ud-Din)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAẒĪM AL-ḤASANĪ

    Shiʿite ascetic and transmitter buried in the main sanctuary of Ray (9th century).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ B. ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB

    painter of the Safavid period employed in the royal workshops of Tabriz who lost his nose under mysterious and debated circumstances. According to the historian Qāẓī Aḥmad, both father and son were excellent painters from Kāšān.

    (D. Duda)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ B. NAḎR MOḤAMMAD

    Toghay-Timurid (Janid) dynast of the Uzbeks in Bukhara (r. 1647-80).

    (Mahmudul Hasan Siddiqi)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZIZ BOḴĀRI, SHAH

    See MEDICINE: MUSLIM INDIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ MOḤADDEṮ DEHLAVĪ

    Sunni theologian and mystic (1746-1824).

    (Azduddin Khan)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ ḤEKĪMBĀŠĪ

    Ottoman physician and translator (d. 1782-83).

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ QARA ČELEBIZĀDA

    Ottoman historian and translator (1591-1658).

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ SOLṬĀN

    Shaibanid ruler of Bokhara (d. 1550).

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • ʿABD-AL-BAHĀʾ

    epithet assumed by ʿAbbās Effendi, the eldest son of Bahāʾallāh, founder of the Bahaʾi movement. The epithet means “servant of the glory of God” or “servant of Bahāʾallāh.”

    (A. Bausani, D. MacEoin)

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ LAʿLĪZĀDA

    (d. 1746 A.D.), Ottoman scholar, son of Shaikh Laʿlī Meḥmed, the grandson of Sarı ʿAbdallāh, a commentator on the Maṯnavī.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ NAHĀVANDĪ

    Mughal noble and biographer.

    (Hameed ud-Din)

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ TABRĪZĪ

    religious scholar and notable of Azerbaijan (d. 1039/1629-30).

    (ʿAbd-al-ʿAlī Kārang)

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ YAZDĪ

    Safavid official and poet skilled in calligraphy, killed at the battle of Čālderān in Raǰab 920/August 1514.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-BARĪ

    early 20th century Indian scholar and pīr of the Ferangī Maḥal family.

    (F. Robinson)

  • ʿABD-AL-FATTĀḤ FUMĀNI

    See FUMĀNI, ʿABD-AL-FATTĀḤ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABD-AL-FATTĀḤ GARMRŪDĪ

    (ca. 1200-64/1786-1848), a scribe and minor author of the mid-Qajar period.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ʿABD-AL-FATTĀH ḤOSAYNĪ

    Indian scholar of Persian and Arabic.

    (M. B. Badakhshani)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḠANĪ KHAN

    Indian literary scholar and a poet in Persian and Urdu (d. 1916).

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿABD-AL-HĀDĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    (1305-82/1888-1962), a Shiʿite scholar of Naǰaf, highly regarded for his learning and piety.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. ABUʾL-ḤADĪD

    Muʿtazilite scholar and man of letters (13th century).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. AḤMAD

    vizier of the Ghaznavids in the late 5th/11th to early 6th/12th century. He is described as serving Sultan Ebrāhīm b. Masʿūd (451-92/1059-99).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMID b. AḤMAD b. ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD ŠIRĀZI

    long-serving vizier to the Ghaznavid sultans Ebrāhim b. Masʿud (r. 451-92/1059-99) and his son Masʿud III (r. 492-508/1199-1215).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. ʿĪSĀ

    physician, theologian, philosopher, and jurist (580-652/1184-1254).

    (Georges C. Anawati)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. VĀSEʿ

    mathematician, often referred to as Ebn Tork, who apparently flourished at the beginning of the 2nd/9th century.

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. YAḤYĀ

    an important figure in the development of Arabic epistolary style, especially in the stablishment of chancery style during the Umayyad period (d. 132/750).

    (W. N. Brinner)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD LĀHŪRĪ

    17th-century Indo-Persian historian and author of the Pādšāh-nāma, the official account of the reign of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (1037-67/1628-57).

    (R. M. Eaton)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD MALEK-AL-KALĀMĪ

    calligrapher, poet, and government official (d. 1949).

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAQQ DEHLAVĪ

    noted Mughal traditionist, historian, essayist, and biographer of saints (16th century).

    (N. H. Zaidi)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY, ABŪ’L-ḤASANĀT

    (1264-1304/1848-86), Indian theologian from the distinguished Farangī Maḥall family.

    (F. Robinson)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY, ḴᵛĀJĀ

    miniaturist (late 8th/14th century).

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY AWRANGĀBĀDĪ

    administrator, poet, and biographer (1729-82).

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    calligrapher at the Safavid court in Isfahan in the time of Shah ʿAbbās I (17th century).

    (D. Duda)

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR B. AḤMAD

    prominent theologian of the late Muʿtazilite school (10th century).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR ASTARĀBĀDĪ

    calligrapher of the taʿlīq script and bookpainter.

    (D. Duda)

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR AZDĪ

    Governor of Khorasan, executed in 142/759.

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • ʿABD-AL-JALĪL BELGRĀMĪ

    major 17th/18th century Indo-Muslim litterateur.

    (Moazzam Siddiqi)

  • ʿABD-AL-JALĪL RĀZĪ

    Emāmī Shiʿite scholar, preacher, and author, b. probably early in the 6th/12th century.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḴĀLEQ ḠOJDOVĀNĪ

    teacher and distinguished Naqšbandī saint (d. 617/1220), who consolidated and transmitted the thought of the Naqšbandī order.

    (K. A. Nizami)

  • ʿABD-AL-ḴĀN

    an Arab tribe of Ḵūzestān, it was originally affiliated with the Bani Lām tribal confederacy and resided in the region of ʿAmāra, in present-day Iraq.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ʿABD-AL-KARĪM ʿALAVĪ

    early 19th century Indo-Persian historian (d. ca. 1851).

    (N. H. Zaidi)

  • ʿABD-AL-KARĪM BOḴĀRĪ

    Bukharan traveler and memorialist (d. after 1830-31).

    (Michael Zand)

  • ʿABD-AL-KARĪM GAZĪ

    a respected religious leader of Isfahan (1856-1921).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ʿABD-AL-KARIM JILI

    See JILI, ʿABD-AL-KARIM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABD-AL-KARĪM ḴᵛĀRAZMĪ

    specimens of calligraphy now in Leningrad and Istanbul are signed by him as written during his tenth, eleventh, and twelfth years, indicating that he was a skilled calligrapher at an early age. Unfortunately, none of these pages bear dates which would make it possible to determine the year of his birth.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-KARĪM KAŠMĪRĪ

    noted chronicler of Nāder Shah’s military campaigns (d. 1784).

    (S. Maqbul Ahmad)

  • ʿABD-AL-LAṬĪF BHETĀʾĪ

    Sufi poet of Sind (1689-1752).

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿABD-AL-LAṬĪF MĪRZĀ

    Timurid ruler in Samarqand from Ramażān, 853/October, 1449 to 26 Rabīʿ I 854/8 May 1450.

    (C. P. Haase)

  • ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD ṬĀLAQĀNĪ

    revered as the calligrapher who gave šekasta script its definitive form.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-MALEK B. NŪḤ

    the penultimate ruler of the Samanid dynasty in Khorasan and Transoxania, r. 389/999.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿABD-AL-MALEK B. NŪḤ B. NAṢR

    ruler of the Samanid dynasty in Transoxania and Khorasan, 343-350/954-61.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿABD-AL-MALEK ŠĪRĀZĪ

    astronomer, fl. ca. 600/1203-04; there is a manuscript dated in that year of his revision of Helāl b. Abū Helāl and Ṯābet b. Qorra’s translation of the Conica of Appolonius.

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿABD-AL-MALEKĪ

    a Lek tribe of Māzandarān.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ʿABD-AL-MOʾMEN B. ʿABDALLĀH

    generally reckoned as the eleventh khan of the Shaibanid (Abu’l-Ḵayrī) dynasty of Māvarāʾ al-Nahr and Balḵ.

    (R. D. McChesney)

  • ʿABD-AL-MONʿEM ʿĀMELĪ

    10th/16th century astronomer.

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿABD-AL-NABĪ

    Mughal traditionist, for a time much esteemed by the emperor Akbar (16th century).

    (K. A. Nizami)

  • ʿABD-AL-NABĪ AḤMADNAGARĪ

    12th/18th century Gujerati scholar.

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿABD-AL-NABĪ QAZVĪNĪ

    storyteller and poet in Mughal India (17th-century).

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER BALḴĪ

    (1839-1923), an Ottoman Sufi and poet who came originally from Balḵ.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER ḤOSAYNĪ

    16th-century poet of Sind.

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER JĪLĀNĪ

    noted Hanbalite preacher, Sufi shaikh and the eponymous founder of the Qāderī order.

    (Bruce B. Lawrence)

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER KHAN

    Author of Avīmāq-e Moḡol (publ. 1900), better known as Mirzā Moḥammad Āḡā Jān.

    (M. Aslam)

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER KHAN JĀʾEŠĪ

    Late Mughal biographer (18th-19th century).

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER RŪYĀNĪ

    astronomer (16th century).

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Metalworker of late 13th century, whose one attested signed work is a silver and gold-inlaid brass bowl (Galleria Estense, Modena, no. 8082).

    (E. Baer)

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀHER B. ṬĀHER

    See BAḠDĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-QĀHER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀHER JORJĀNĪ

    celebrated grammarian, rhetorician, and literary theorist, born in Gorgān (date unknown), where he died in 471/1078.

    (K. Abu Deeb)

  • ʿABD-AL-QAYS

    an eastern Arabian tribe.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ʿABD-AL-QODDŪS B. SOLṬĀN MOḤAMMAD

    called ŠAGASĪ, prominent Afghan military and political figure of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    (R. D. McChesney)

  • ʿABD-AL-QODDŪS GANGŌHĪ

    Indo-Muslim saint and litterateur (d. 1537).

    (Bruce B. Lawrence)

  • ʿABD-AL-RĀFEʿ HERAVĪ

    poet, grammarian, and physician, first attached to the court of Ḵosrow Malek (555-82/1160-76), the last Ghaznavid sultan.

    (Żīā-al-dīn Sajjādī)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ʿAJAMĪ

    astronomer (d. 1026/1617).

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ʿANBARĪN-QALAM

    calligrapher of India (fl. late 10th-11th centuries).

    (M. A. Chaghatai)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM DEHLAVĪ

    late Mughal scholar (d. 1726).

    (Fazlur Rahman)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ḴĀN ḴĀNĀN

    Mughal general and statesman (d. 1627).

    (N. H. Zaidi)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ḴᵛĀRAZMĪ

    calligrapher and poet active in western Iran during the second half of the 9th/15th century.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ḴAYYĀṬ

    Muʿtazilite theologian of Baghdad (9th century).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN, AMIR

    Emir or ruler of Afghanistan, and member of the Bārakzay tribe of the Dorrāni tribal confederation, who unified the kingdom after the second Anglo-Afghan war (r. 1297-1319/1880-1901). See AFGHANISTAN x. Political History, BĀRAKZI, and DORRĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN B. HORMUZ MADINI

    See AL-AʿRAJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN B. SAMORA

    Arab general who campaigned in Sīstān (d. 50/670).

    (Michael G. Morony)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN B. SOYŪNJ

    an Uzbek amir in Balḵ (17th century).

    (R. D. MacChesney)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN ČEŠTĪ

    Mughal saint and biographer (17th century).

    (Hameed ud-Din)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN KᵛĀRAZMĪ

    calligrapher specializing in nastaʿlīq, active during the middle decades of the 9th/15th century.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN ŠĀHNAVĀZ DEHLAVI

    See ŠĀHNAVĀZ KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN SAMARQANDĪ

    late 19th century secretary (mīrzā). A Tajik, he was a native of Samarqand.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN SARAḴSĪ

    a Hanafite jurist (d. 1047).

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN ŠAYZARĪ

    Syrian author and contemporary of Saladin (d. 589/1193).

    (H. H. Biesterfeldt)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN B. ʿOMAR ṢŪFĪ

    astronomer, especially well versed in knowledge of the fixed stars (10th century).

    (P. Kunitzsch)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    Ghaznavid sultan, r. 441-44/1050-53.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD DAYLAMĪ

    calligrapher and poet who served the Mughal ruler Shah Jahān (1037-58/1628-58).

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD TATTAVĪ

    noted lexicographer attached to the court of the Mughal ruler Shah Jahān.

    (Wheeler M. Thackston)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    Jahāngīr writes that sixteen miniatures are by Behzād, five by his teacher Mīrak, and one by ʿAbd-al-Razzāq. Earlier investigators did not succeed in establishing convincing attributions of the miniatures to these artists, as they were also puzzled by numerous apocryphal signatures and false identifications attached to the paintings.

    (D. Duda)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ AWRANGĀBĀDĪ

    Mughal official and biographer, chiefly famous as the author of Maʾāṯer al-omarāʾ (18th century).

    (Hameed ud-Din)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BĀŠTĪNĪ

    First leader of the Sarbadār uprising of Bayhaq (14th-century). His career, like the entire history of the Sarbadārs, is related in a contradictory fashion by the Timurid period chroniclers. With appropriate details, he is pictured as violent and dissolute.

    (J. Aubin)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BEG

    (1176-1243/1762-63 to 1827-28), literary biographer, poet, and historian of the early Qajar period.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ KĀŠĀNI

    See KĀŠĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ LĀHĪJĪ

    Theologian and philosopher (and poet under the pen name FAYYĀŻ, 11th/17th century).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ MAYMANDĪ

    Ghaznavid vizier of the middle years of the 5th/11th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ b. AḤMAD b. ḤASAN MEYMANDI

    vizier to the Ghaznavid sultans Mawdud b. Masʿud and ʿAbd-al-Rašid b. Maḥmud, remaining in official service under the latter’s successor Farroḵzād b. Masʿud.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ NAYSABŪRĪ

    Metalworker of the second half of the 6th/12th century.

    (E. Baer)

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ SAMARQANDĪ

    Historian and scholar (1413-82).

    (C. P. Haase)

  • ʿABD-AL-REŻĀ KHAN

    (d. 1249/1833), deputy-governor and powerful noble of Yazd.

    (Mangol Bayat)

  • ʿABD-AL-REŻĀ KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ

    fifth head of the Kermānī branch of the Šayḵī school of Shiʿism.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD B. AFŻAL MOḤAMMAD

    Mughal editor and author (17th century)

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD ḤAMADĀNĪ

    Faqīh, author, and well-known Sufi master of the Neʿmatallāhī order (d. 1216/1801).

    (Mangol Bayat)

  • ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD KHAN

    North Indian politician, administrator, and patron of the arts (17th-18th century).

    (S. Maqbul Ahmad)

  • ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD ŠĪRĀZĪ

    A painting recently in the art market bears an inscription stating it was painted by ʿAbd-al-Ṣamad during his 85th year, despite failing health, as a keepsake for his son (Moḥammad) Šarīf. Still active in 1008/1600, he appears to have died before the accession of Jahāngīr in 1014/1605.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-SATTĀR LAHŪRĪ

    author and translator in the reigns of Akbar and Jahāngīr.

    (A. Camps)

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED

    A potter whose signature is found on a blue and black underglaze painted dish dated 971/1563.

    (O. Watson)

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED B. MOḤAMMAD

    8th/14th century author.

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED B. ZAYD

    (d. 177/793), Sufi, the leading personality among the ascetics trained in the school of Ḥasan Baṣrī.

    (P. Nwyia)

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED JŪZJĀNĪ

    Pupil of Ebn Sīnā (980-1037).

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED MAŠHADĪ

    The style of nastaʿlīq favored by ʿAbd-al-Vāḥed is closely connected with that used by Solṭān-ʿAlī Mašhadī and other calligraphers active in Iran during the 9th/15th century, a fact that suggests that he was indeed trained in Iran.

    (F. Cağman and Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB BOHRĀ

    chief judge (qāżī) in the reign of the Mughal emperor Awrangzēb.

    (P. Saran)

  • ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB HAMADĀNĪ

    Son of a Naqšbandī shaikh, author (d. 1547).

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB MAŠHADĪ

    a calligrapher of the 10th/16th century who lived most of his life in Mašhad.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB MOʿTAMAD-AL-DAWLA

    “NAŠĀṬ,” Qajar official and poet (1759-1829).

    (H. Javadi)

  • ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB SAČAL

    Sindhi mystical poet (18th-early 19th century).

    (Annemarie Schimmel)

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀSEʿ JABALĪ

    Persian poet, d. 555/1160.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ABDADĀNA

    Region in western Media, mentioned in Neo-Assyrian royal inscriptions and annals.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ABDAGASES

    “great king” of the Pahlava dynasty in Drangiana, Arachosia, Gandhāra, and perhaps loosely over the Indus region.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ʿABDAK AL-ṢŪFĪ

    an eccentric religious devotee of Kūfa, who also lived for periods at Baghdad, late 2nd/8th to early 3rd/9th centuries.

    (B. Reinert)

  • ABDĀL

    An Arabic technical term designating one of the categories of awlīāʾ (“friends of God,” Muslim saints).

    (J. Chabbi)

  • ABDĀL, QARA ŠEMSĪ

    (1244-1303/1828-86), a Turkish poet who also wrote poetry in Persian.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ABDĀL BEG

    one of the seven trusted Qezelbāš amirs (ahl-e eḵteṣāṣ) who, after the death of Solṭān ʿAlī (898/1493), accompanied the latter’s young brother and designated master of the Safavid order, Esmāʿīl, to Lāhīǰān, where he found refuge from the persecution of the Āq Qoyonlū rulers.

    (E. Glassen)

  • ABDĀL ČEŠTĪ

    described by Jāmī as the foremost among the shaikhs of Češt. He was born in 260/874.

    (M. Imam)

  • ABDĀLĪ

    ancient name of a large tribe, or more particularly of a group of Afghan tribes, better known by the name of Dorrānī since the reign of Aḥmad Šāh Dorrānī (1747-72).

    (Ch. M. Kieffer)

  • ʿABDALLĀH

    Name appearing on four diverse, high-quality silks of the first half of the 17th century.

    (L. Mackie)

  • ʿABDALLĀH (2)

    Author of Tārīḵ-e Dāʾūdī, fl. early 17th century.

    (Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi)

  • ʿABDALLĀH, MAWLĀNĀ QAVĀM-AL-DĪN

    14th century theologian and faqīh of Shiraz (d. 772/1370).

    (T. Kuroyanagi)

  • ʿABDALLĀH, MĪRZĀ

    (ca. 1843-1918), court musician and master of the setār and tār.

    (Margaret Caton)

  • ʿABDALLĀH, ŠĀH

    (d. 1485), Persian Sufi who introduced the Šaṭṭārī order into India.

    (K. A. Nizami)

  • ʿABDALLĀH, ṢĀRĪ

    (1584-1660), Ottoman scholar, mystic, poet, and commentator of Rūmī.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. AḤMAD

    See EBN AL-BAYṬĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ʿĀMER

    Arab general and governor active in Iran, b. in Mecca in 4/626.

    (J. Lassner)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. EBRĀHĪM

    Timurid khan (k. 1451).

    (C. P. Haase)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. FAŻLALLĀH ŠIRĀZI

    See WAṢSĀF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ʿĪSĀ

    Medical author (early 5th/11th century).

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ḴĀZEM

    Arab military leader, governor of Khorasan (d. 691-92).

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. MAYMŪN AL-QADDĀḤ

    Legendary founder of the Qarmatian-Ismaʿili doctrine and alleged forefather of the Fatimid dynasty.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. MOʿĀVĪA

    Rebel in western Iran in 744-47.

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. MOBĀRAK

    Traditionist (736-97).

    (P. Nwyia)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. NAJĀŠĪ

    Shiʿite governor of Ahvāz under the caliph Manṣūr (8th century).

    (ʿA. N. Monzavī)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ʿOMAR

    Author of an Arabic monograph on the city of Balḵ (d. after 610/1213).

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy Ḥabibi)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ŠĀKER

    Expert in geometry (d. 1174-75).

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ṬĀHER

    Governor of Khorasan (9th century).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿABDALLĀH ANṢĀRĪ

    Outstanding commentator of the Koran, traditionist, polemicist, and spiritual master (5th/11th century).

    (S. de Laugier de Beaureceuil)

  • ʿABDALLĀH BAYĀNĪ

    See ʿABDALLĀH MORVĀRĪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABDALLĀH BEHBAHĀNĪ

    Theologian, prominent leader of the constitutional movement (1840-1910).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ʿABDALLĀH BOḴĀRĪ

    Paintings signed by ʿAbdallāh are of two types: compositions showing strong influence from Herat painting of the late 15th and early 16th centuries and studies of couples, often in a garden setting, a theme which appears to have been especially popular in Bokhara.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABDALLĀH HERAVĪ

    Calligrapher active in Herat, Samarqand, and Mashad (mid-15th century).

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABDALLĀH ḤOSAYNĪ

    Scribe and poet in the service of the Mughal emperors Akbar and Jahāngīr (17th century).

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABDALLĀH KABRĪ

    Mathematician (d. 1083-84).

    (David Pingree)

  • ʿABDALLĀH KHAN

    Court painter (18th-19th century).

    (B. W. Robinson)

  • ʿABDALLĀH KHAN B. ESKANDAR

    Šaybānīd ruler of Transoxania (d. 1598).

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • ʿABDALLĀH KHAN UZBEK

    Mughal noble and general and also briefly an autonomous ruler (10th/16th century).

    (Mahmudul Hasan Siddiqi)

  • ʿABDALLĀH MĀZANDARĀNĪ, SHAIKH

    Theologian and supporter of the constitutional movement (1840-1912).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ʿABDALLĀH MĪRZĀ DĀRĀ

    Son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and governor of Ḵamsa province (1796-1846).

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • ʿABDALLĀH MORVĀRĪD

    (d. 1516), Timurid court official, poet, scribe, and musician.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABDALLĀH PAŠA KÖPRÜLÜZĀDE

    Ottoman statesman and commander-in-chief (d. 1735).

    (M. Kohbach)

  • ʿABDALLĀH QOṬBŠĀHI

    See QOṬBŠĀHI DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿABDALLĀH ṢAYRAFĪ

    Dūst Moḥammad claims that the traditions of Khorasani calligraphy in the nasḵ script are derived from the writing of ʿAbdallāh Ṣayrafī, with Jaʿfar Tabrīzī acting perhaps as the transmitter of the tradition. ʿAbdallāh achieved his greatest fame as a designer of architectural inscriptions.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABDALLĀH ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Qāżī Aḥmad praises ʿAbdallāh’s skill in lacquer painting (rang o rowḡan). This technique was widely used in the decoration of bookbindings during the 16th century, and the examination of surviving bindings may lead to the discovery of further works by ʿAbdallāh.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABDĀN B. AL-RABĪṬ

    early Ismaʿili missionary (dāʿī).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ʿABDĪ

    pen name of ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN PASHA, Ottoman official and historian (d. 1692).

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ʿABDĪ BOḴĀRĀʾĪ

    (d. 1921-22), Tajik taḏkeranevīs (biographer) and poet.

    (Michael Zand)

  • ʿABDĪ NĪŠĀPŪRĪ

    16th-century calligrapher and poet.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ʿABDĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    (1513-80), poet.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi and B. Fragner)

  • ABDĪH UD SAHĪGĪH Ī SAGASTĀN

    (“The wonder and remarkability of Sagastān”), short Pahlavi treatise.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ʿĀBEDĪ

    a landowner (dehqān) of Transoxania (12th century).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀBELA

    See SMALLPOX.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀBELA-YE FARANG

    See SMALLPOX.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀBƎRƎT

    one of the eight Zoroastrian priests of the yasna ritual.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • ĀBEŠ ḴĀTŪN

    Salghurid ruler of Fārs (1263-84), daughter of Atābeg Saʿd II.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ABGAR

    dynasty of Edessa, 2nd century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.

    (J. B. Segal)

  • ABHAR

    a small town in the Qazvīn district.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿABHAR AL-ʿĀŠEQĪN

    work of the Persian mystic Rūzbehān Baqlī Šīrāzī (1128-1209).

    (H. Corbin)

  • ABHARĪ, ABŪ BAKR

    Sufi of Persian ʿErāq (d. 941-42).

    (B. Reinert)

  • ABHARĪ, AMĪN-AL-DĪN

    mathematician, said to have died in 1332-33.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABHARĪ, AṮĪR-AL-DĪN

    (d. 1264), logician, mathematician, and astronomer.

    (Georges C. Anawati)

  • ABHARĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    vizier of the last two Great Saljuq sultans in western Persia.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABHARĪ, MAḴDŪM

    16th-century traditionist.

    (Hameed ud-Din)

  • ABHARI, RAFIʿ-AL-DIN

    See RAFIʿ-AL-DIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀBĪ

    Persian term for those agricultural lands which are irrigated.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ĀBĪ, ABŪ ʿABDALLĀH

    8th-century traditionist.

    (Abu’l-Qāsem Gorji)

  • ĀBĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD

    11th-century vizier and man of letters.

    (M. M. Mazzaoui)

  • ĀBĪ, ʿEZZ-AL-DĪN

    Imami faqīh (jurist) of the 13th century.

    (Abu’l-Qāsem Gorji)

  • ABIRĀDŪŠ

    a village in Elam.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ABIRATTA(Š)

    ancient Near Eastern proper name said to be of (Indo-)Aryan origin, by comparison with Vedic ratha, Avestan raθa “chariot.” This analysis, however, remains uncertain.

    (M. Mayrhofer)

  • ABĪVARD

    a town in medieval northern Khorasan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABĪVARDĪ, ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR

    poet, historian, and writer on genealogy (d. 1113).

    (L. A. Giffen)

  • ABĪVARDĪ, ḤOSĀM-AL-DĪN

    jurisconsult, mathematician and logician (d. 1413).

    (L. A. Giffen)

  • ABJAD

    “alphabet,” a word formed from the first four letters of the Semitic alphabet.

    (G. Krotkoff)

  • ABJADĪ

    Poetical name of MĪR MOḤAMMAD ESMĀʿĪL KHAN, 18th century south-Indian poet of Persian and Urdu.

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ABḴĀZ

    (also APSUA, APSNI), ethnic group of the Caucasus.

    (Dzh. Giunashvili)

  • ABLUTION, ISLAMIC

    (vożūʾ), the minor ritual purification performed before prayers.

    (I. K. Poonawala)

  • ABLUTION, ZOROASTRIAN

    See PADYĀB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABNĀʾ

    "sons," term for the offspring of Persian soldiers and officials in the Yemen and of Arab mothers.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABOULITES

    satrap of Susiana under Darius III, at the time of the Achaemenid collapse.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ABRADATAS

    a fictional king of Susa in Xenophon’s fictional, didactic life of Cyrus (Cyropaedia, books 5-7).

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ABRAHAM

    See EBRĀHĪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABRAHAM OF CRETE

    (Kretatsʾi; b. Kandia, Crete, ?- d. Ejmiatsin, 18 April 1737), a leader of the Armenian Church and the author of a chronicle about Nāder Shah Afšār.

    (George A. Bournoutian)

  • ABRAHAM OF EREVAN

    the author of a history of the wars in Armenian at the time of Nāder Shah Afšār.

    (George A. Bournoutian)

  • ABRAHAM OF KAŠKAR

    Christian monk of the 6th century CE, regarded as father of the monks in the Orient.

    (Florence Jullien)

  • ABRAHAMIAN, ROUBEN

    Armenian Iranist, linguist, and translator. One of the first teachers of Pahlavi language at University of Tehran.

    (Jennifer Manoukian)

  • ABRĀZ

    Middle Persian “high, superior, height,” old Iranian *uparyānk- “above, high.”

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ABRĪŠAM

    Abrīšam appears as a loan word from Iranian in Armenian aprišum, aprešum, Syriac/Mandean ʾbryšwm, and Arabic ebrīsam. The NPers. rēšam/rīšam is evidently only a shortened form of abrēšam. In dialects one also finds čolla (borrowed in Turkic dialects as čille), from *čullak, arabicized as ṣollaǰ, properly speaking, “very fine cotton.”

    (W. Eilers, M. Bazin and C. Bromberger, D. Thompson)

  • ĀBRĪZAGĀN

    “the pouring of water,” name for a Zoroastrian feast; the term could be used for Tīragān and probably also for the name-day festival of Hordād, both of which were celebrated by people sprinkling one another joyfully with water.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀBRĪZĀN

    See TĪRAGĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABROCOMAS

    Persian satrap of Syria and commander under Artaxerxes II.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ABROCOMES

    a son of Darius I by Phrataguna, daughter of his brother Artanes.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ĀBŠĪNA HAMADĀN RŪD

    name of a drainage system that covers several streams and small rivers along the eastern flank of the Alvand Kūh; it flows north into the kavīr of Qom.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ĀBŠŪR RŪD

    “salt river.” The name ābšūr is very common in Iran for those rivers with a high salt content.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ĀBTĪN

    father of the mythical king Feridun of the Pišdādi dynasty.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ABU’L-ʿABBĀS ʿANBARĪ

    See ʿANBARĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU’L-ʿABBĀS MARVAZĪ

    Sufi, jurist, and traditionist, one of the first poets to write in New Persian.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ABU'L-ʿABBĀS AḤMAD NASAVI

    See NASAVI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN SOLAMĪ

    (325-412/937-1021), Sufi, traditionist, and hagiographer.

    (S. Sh. Kh. Hussaini)

  • ABŪ ʿABDALLĀH B. AL-BAYYEʿ

    a noted traditionist and local historian, b. 321/933, d. 405/1014.

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • ABŪ ʿABDALLĀH YAʿQŪB

    vizier of the ʿAbbasid caliph Mahdī (r. 158-69/775-85).

    (D. Sourdel)

  • ABŪ AḤMAD B. ABĪ BAKR KĀTEB

    poet and official of the Samanids, fl. first half of the 4th/10th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ AḤMAD MONAJJEM

    (241/855-56 to 13 Rabīʿ I 300/29 October 912), literary historian, music theorist, poet, and Muʿtazilite, boon companion to caliphs Mowaffaq, Moʿtażed, and Moktafī.

    (A. E. Khairallah)

  • ABU’L-ʿALĀʾ ʿAṬĀʾ

    secretary and poet of the Ghaznavid period, d. 491/1098.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABU’L-ʿALĀʾ GANJAVĪ

    6th/12th century poet at the court of Ḵāqān Faḵr-al-dīn Manūčehr Šervānšāh.

    (Ż. Sajjādi)

  • ABU’L-ʿALĀʾ HAMADĀNĪ

    saintly specialist in the science of Koran readings (qerāʾāt) and Tradition, born in Hamadān in 488/1090 and died in 569/1173.

    (L. A. Giffen)

  • ABU’L-ʿALĀʾ ŠOŠTARĪ

    early Persian poet and prosodist (the earliest known from the Šoštar area).

    (Michael Zand)

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ AḤMAD B. ŠĀḎĀN

    governor (ʿamīd) of Balḵ and northern Afghanistan under the Saljuq ruler of Khorasan, Čaḡrī Beg Dāʾūd, and then under his son, Alp Arslan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ BALḴĪ

    author of a Šāh-nāma, according to Bīrūnī (Āṯār al-bāqīa, pp. 99f.).

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ DĀMḠĀNĪ

    vizier of the Samanids in the last years of their power.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ DAQQĀQ

    ascetic of Nīšāpūr (d. 405/1015).

    (J. Chabbi)

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ FĀRESĪ

    (288-377/900-87), grammarian at the court of the Buyid ʿAżod-al-dawla (d. 366/977).

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • ABU ʿALI MARVAZI

    See MARVAZI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ MESKAWAYH

    Persian chancery official and treasury clerk of the Buyid period, boon companion, litterateur and accomplished writer in Arabic on a variety of topics, including history, theology, philosophy and medicine (d. 421/1030). See MESKAWAYH, ABU ʿALI AḤMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ QALANDAR

    (also known as SHAH BŪ ʿALĪ QALANDAR), Indian poet and saint, d. 725/1324. His mausoleum at Panipat remains a popular center for pilgrimage.

    (Kh. A. Nizami)

  • ABU’L-ʿAMAYṮAL

    Tahirid court poet.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • ABŪ ʿAMR AL-MĀZOLĪ

    Karrāmī theologian, fl. mid-4th/mid-10th century.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ABU’L-ʿANBAS ṢAYMARĪ

    astrologer and author, born at Kūfa, 213/828; died 275/889.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABŪ ʿAṬĀ

    one of the twelve modes in the dastgāh system of classical Iranian music; more precisely, it should be called āvāz-e Abū ʿAṭā or naḡma-ye Abū ʿAṭā.

    (Gen'ichi Tsuge)

  • ABŪ ʿAWĀNA

    a Shafeʿite legal scholar and traditionist.

    (J. A. Wakin)

  • ABŪ ʿAWN

    a distinguished ʿAbbasid general, twice governor of Egypt and once of Khorasan.

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • ABŪ BAKR B. ABĪ ṢĀLEḤ

    vizier of the Ghaznavids in the 5th/11th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ BAKR B. PAHLAVĀN

    See ATĀBAKĀN-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ BAKR B. SAʿD

    (623-58/1226-60), member of the Salghurid dynasty, atabeg of Fārs.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ABŪ BAKR ḤAṢĪRĪ

    Shafeʿite faqīh (jurist) and Ghaznavid official, d. 424/1033.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ABŪ BAKR KALĀBĀḎĪ

    author of the well-known compendium of Sufism al-Taʿarrof le-maḏhab ahl al-taṣawwof.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABŪ BAKR MARVAZĪ

    7th/13th century metalworker.

    (Anatol A. Ivanov)

  • ABŪ BAKR NAYSĀBŪRĪ

    a jurist loosely belonging to the Shafeʿite school.

    (M. J. McDermott)

  • ABŪ BAKR QOHESTĀNĪ

    (fl. 5th/11th century), a courtier and man of letters under the Ghaznavids and Saljuqs; himself a poet, he patronized poetry generously.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ABŪ BAKR SAMARQANDĪ

    (d. 268/881), a Hanafite jurist about whose life the available sources furnish no information.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • ABŪ BAKR SARAḴSĪ

    a follower (but apparently not a contemporary) of Shaikh Abū Saʿīd b. Abi’l-Ḵayr (d. 440/1049).

    (J. W. Clinton)

  • ABŪ BAKR ṬŪSĪ ḤAYDARĪ

    7th/13th century Indo-Muslim saint.

    (Bruce B. Lawrence)

  • ABŪ BAKR AL-WARRĀQ

    Sufi shaikh, born in Termeḏ, lived and worked in Balḵ, d. 280/893.

    (B. Reinert)

  • ABU’L-BAQĀʾ

    author of Jāmeʿ al-maqāmāt on the life of the Naqšbandī saint, Mawlānā Ḵᵛāǰagī Kāsānī (d. 949/1542), written in 1028/1618.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ABU’L-BARAKĀT BAḠDĀDĪ

    5th-6th/11th-12th century physician and philosopher of Jewish origin, born in Balad, a town on the Tigris above Mosul.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABU’L-BARAKĀT LĀHŪRĪ

    Indo-Persian poet.

    (M. U. Memon)

  • ABŪ ḎARR BŪZJĀNĪ

    a Persian poet and Sufi shaikh contemporary with Sebüktigin (d. 387/997).

    (M. N. Osmanov)

  • ABŪ ḎARR HERAVĪ

    a traditionist known primarily for his role in the transmission of Boḵārī’s Jāmeʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ.

    (J. A. Wakin)

  • ABU DOLAF

    See BU DOLAF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ DOLAF ʿEJLĪ

    Arab military chieftain, author, poet, governor, and boon companion for several ʿAbbasid caliphs, and most important member of the ʿEǰlī dynasty of western Iran, flourished in the early 3rd/9th century.

    (F. M. Donner)

  • ABŪ DOLAF AL-YANBŪʿĪ

    Arab traveler, poet, and frequenter of the Buyid court (ca. mid-4th/10th century).

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • ABŪ ʿEKREMA

    a freedman of Banū Ḥamdān, regarded as the first ʿAbbasid propagandist in Khorasan.

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ AṬʿEMA

    (d. 1420s) satirical poet who used Persian culinary vocabulary and imagery and kitchen terminology to create a novel style of poetry. See BOSḤĀQ AṬʿEMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    governor of Ḡazna in eastern Afghanistan on behalf of the Samanids (352/963-355/966).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ ĪNJŪ

    (721-58/1321-59), ruler of Fārs, ʿErāq ʿAǰam (Isfahan), and parts of southern Iran, 743-55/1343-54.

    (J. W. Limbert)

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ KĀZARŪNĪ

    Sufi and eponymous founder of the Kāzarūnīya/Esḥāqīya order.

    (Bruce B. Lawrence)

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ NAẒẒĀM

    famous adīb and Muʿtazilite theologian.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ ŠĀMĪ

    founder and eminent early saint of the Češtī order (3rd-4th/9th-10th century).

    (Mutiul Imam)

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ AL-ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Shafeʿite jurist, b. 393/1003 in Fīrūzābād in Fār.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABU’L-FARAJ BANNĀʾ

    a potter known through a single signed piece reputedly found in Sāva.

    (O. Watson)

  • ABU’L-FARAJ ʿEBRĪ

    (b. Malaṭīa, 1225; d. Marāḡa, 1286), Syriac historian and polymath, also known as Bar Hebraeus. See EBN AL-ʿEBRĪ, ABU’L-FARAJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU’L-FARAJ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    Author of the Ketāb al-aḡānī.

    (K. Abū Deeb)

  • ABU’L-FARAJ RŪNĪ

    an early Persian poet. Nothing is known about his birth and early life, except that he was born in Rūna, the exact location of which is uncertain.

    (Moazzam Siddiqi)

  • ABU’L-FARAJ SEJZĪ

    4th/10th century poet of Sīstān, author of several lost works on the art of poetry.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ABU’L-FATḤ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    An early 6th/12th century astronomer.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABU’L-FATḤ ḤOSAYNĪ

    Shiʿite jurist, d. 976/1568-69.

    (E. Glassen)

  • ABU’L-FATḤ KHAN BAḴTĪĀRĪ

    a chieftain of the Haft Lang branch of the Baḵtīārī and paramount chief (īlḵānī) of the tribe.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ABU’L-FATḤ KHAN JAVĀNŠĪR

    son of the ruler of Qarābāḡ, Ebrāhīm Ḵalīl Khan Javānšīr, and through his sister brother-in-law of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah.

    (Heribert Busse)

  • ABU’L-FATḤ KHAN ZAND

    eldest son of Karīm Khan (Wakīl) of the Īnāq lineage of the Zand, b. 1169/1755-56.

    (Heribert Busse)

  • ABU’L-FATḤ MĪRZĀ

    (d. 1330/1912), Qajar prince who held a number of governorships.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ABU’L-FATḤ YŪSOF

    Ghaznavid vizier of the early 6th/12th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABU’L-FAYŻ KAMĀL-AL-DĪN SERHENDĪ

    author of Rawżat al-qayyūmīya, a still unpublished taḏkera of the Naqšbandīya-Moǰaddedīya order in India.

    (J. G. J. ter Harr)

  • ABU’L-FAŻL ABŪ MOḤAMMAD

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. VĀSEʿ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU’L-FAŻL ʿALLĀMĪ

    historian, officer, chief secretary, and confidant of the Mughal emperor Akbar I.

    (R. M. Eaton)

  • ABU’L-FAŻL GOLPĀYEGĀNĪ

    prominent Bahaʾi scholar and apologist.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • ABU’L-FAŻL ḴOTTALĪ

    (d. 453/1061?), preceptor of Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Hoǰvīrī (d. 465/1073), the author of the celebrated Persian treatise on Sufism, Kašf al-maḥǰūb.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ABU’L-FAŻL MĪKĀL

    author and poet, d. 436/1045.

    (S. ʿA. Anwār)

  • ABU’L-FAŻL SĀVAJĪ

    (1248-1312/1832-95), a scholar, calligrapher, poet, and physician active in Qajar court circles.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ABU’L-FAŻL ŠĪRĀZĪ

    vizier in the time of the Buyids, patron of the Shiʿi Arab poet Ebn al-Ḥaǰǰāǰ, born in Shiraz in 303/915, died at Kūfa in 362/973.

    (L. A. Giffen)

  • ABU’L-FAŻL TĀJ-AL-DĪN

    amir of the line of later Saffarids, sometimes called the third dynasty of Saffarids and, by a historian like Jūzǰānī, the “Maleks of Nīmrūz and Seǰestān.”

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABU’L-FOTŪḤ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    known also by his laqab Montaǰab-al-dīn (or in some sources Montaḵab-al-dīn), a well-known Shafeʿite scholar and traditionist.

    (J. A. Wakin)

  • ABU’L-FOTŪḤ RĀZĪ

    Shiʿite commentator on the Koran who lived in the first half of the 6th/12th century.

    (M. J. McDermott)

  • ABU ḠĀNEM ḴORĀSĀNI

    See ḴORĀSĀNI, ABU ḠĀNEM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU'L-ḠĀZĪ BAHĀDOR KHAN

    khan of Ḵīva (r. 1054-74/1644 to 1663-64) and Čaḡatāy historian.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ABŪ ḤAFṢ ḤADDĀD

    an ascetic who was born and lived in Nīšāpūr, d. between 265/874 and 270/879.

    (J. Chabbi)

  • ABŪ ḤAFṢ SOḠDĪ

    one of the so-called “first poets” in New Persian.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ABŪ ḤĀMED TORKA

    scholar and author of the late 7th/13th and early 8th/14th centuries, the first in a line of prominent men of the Torka-ye Eṣfahānī family.

    (Fazlur Rahman)

  • ABŪ ḤAMZA ḴORĀSĀNĪ

    (d. 290/903), Sufi born and active in Nīšāpūr.

    (B. Reinert)

  • ABŪ ḤANĪFA

    (80-150/699-767), eponym of the Ḥanafī school of Islamic law—the largest of the four primary Sunni schools of law

    (U. F. ʿAbd-Allāh)

  • ABŪ ḤANĪFA ESKĀFĪ

    See ESKĀFĪ, ABŪ ḤANĪFA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN AHWĀZĪ

    astronomer, fl. after ca. 215/830.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN EṢFAHĀNĪ

    (1284-1365/1867-1946), an Iranian moǰtahed who was a leading religious authority in the Shiʿite world for more than thirty years.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN ESFARĀʾĪNĪ

    first vizier for the Ghaznavid sultan Maḥmūd (r. 388-421/998-1030).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN GOLESTĀNA

    vizier of Kermānšāhān and chronicler of post-Afsharid Iran.

    (R. D. McChesney)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN HERAVĪ

    medieval mathematician.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN JORJĀNĪ

    9th-century Shafeʿite jurist, poet, and man of letters.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN ḴARAQĀNĪ

    (352-425/963-1033), Sufi shaikh of Ḵaraqān, some 20 km north of Basṭām in Khorasan.

    (H. Landolt)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN KHAN ARDALĀN

    (b. 1279/1862-63), government official under the late Qajars.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ

    In 1842 an oil portrait of Moḥammad Shah secured him a position as a court artist. His style by now was formed; in oil painting it was refinement on that of Mehr-ʿAlī; but his miniature paintings and portraits show originality, naturalism, and technical perfection.

    (B. W. Robinson)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN KHAN ĪLČĪ

    Persian diplomat, b. 1190/1776 in Šīrāz.

    (H. Javadi)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN KHAN MAḤALLĀTĪ

    imam of the Nezārī Ismaʿilis of the Qāsemšāhī line, beglerbegi of Kermān under Karīm Khan Zand and his successors from approximately 1181/1768 to 1206/1791-92.

    (Heribert Busse)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN KHAN MOJTAHED

    (1806-63), member of a prominent family of Shiraz who led a turbulent life alternating between government service and the cultivation of religious knowledge in a manner unusual in Qajar Iran.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN KHAN ŠIRĀZI

    See MOŠIR-AL-MOLK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN MOSTAWFĪ

    painter and historian of the 12th/18th century from Kāšān, son of Mīrzā Moʿezz-al-dīn Moḥammad Ḡaffārī.

    (F. Gaffary)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN NĀDER-AL-ZAMĀN

    Emperor Jahāngīr had him trained to be a court painter like his father. By their use of color and line, father and son together noticeably strengthened the Persian elements in the Mughal painting of the period.

    (D. Duda)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN ŠAMSĀBĀDĪ

    (1326-96/1908-76), an influential moǰtahed of Isfahan who was murdered on 7 April 1976 under mysterious circumstances.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN TAFREŠĪ

    (1261-1323/1845 to 1905-6), medical instructor, author, and public health official in late Qajar Persia.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • ABU'L-ḤASAN ṬĀLAQĀNĪ

    (?-1350/1932), religious scholar and father of the celebrated Āyatallāh Maḥmūd Ṭālaqānī.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ABŪ HĀŠEM ʿABDALLĀH

    ʿAlid figure in Shiʿite tradition.

    (Tilman Nagel)

  • ABŪ ḤĀTEM RĀZĪ

    Ismaʿili dāʿī (missionary) and author of the 4th/10th century.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • ABU'L-HAYJĀ NAJMĪ

    Persian poet of the 5th-6th/11th-12th centuries.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ABU'L-HAYṮAM GORGĀNĪ

    Ismaʿili philosopher, for a long time one of the great unknown figures in the history of Irano-Islamic philosophy.

    (H. Corbin)

  • ABŪ ḤAYYĀN TAWḤĪDĪ

    an outstanding man of letters and essayist of the Buyid period.

    (W. Montgomery Watt)

  • ABU'L-HOḎAYL AL-ʿALLĀF

    (ca. 135-227/752-841?), early Muʿtazilite theologian of universal reputation.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ABU'L-ḤOSAYN BAṢRĪ

    Muʿtazilite theologian and lawyer, d. 436/1044.

    (Daniel Gimaret)

  • ABU'L-ḤOSAYN KĀTEB

    official of the Buyids and writer in Arabic of the 4th/10th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ ʿĪSĀ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    founder of the ʿĪsāwīya, an obscure Jewish sect in Islamic times.

    (J. Lassner)

  • ABŪ ʿĪSĀ WARRĀQ

    heretical theologian of the 3rd/9th century.

    (W. Montgomery Watt)

  • ABŪ JAʿFAR B. AḤMAD

    mid- to late 3rd/9th century astronomer, son of a famous astronomer from Marv.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABŪ JAʿFAR ḴĀZEN

    astronomer (ca. 287/900-probably 360/970).

    (David Pingree)

  • ABU JAʿFAR ṬUSI

    See ṬUSI, ABU JAʿFAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU'L-JĀRŪD HAMDĀNĪ

    Kufan Shiʿite scholar and leader of the early Zaydite group named after him, the Jārūdīya.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABU'L-ḴĀLED KĀBOLI

    See KANKAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ ḴĀLĪJĀR ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MARZBĀN

    See ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MARZBĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR GARŠĀSP (I)

    second son of the Kakuyid amir of Jebāl, ʿAlāʾ-al-dawla Moḥammad b. Došmanzīār, ruled in Hamadān and parts of what are now Kurdistan and Luristan, 433-37/1041-42 to 1045, d. 443/1051-52.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR GARŠĀSP (II)

    member of the Dailamite dynasty of the Kakuyids (d. 536/1141?).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABU'L-ḴAṬṬĀB ASADĪ

    Founder of the extremist Shiʿite sect Ḵaṭṭābīya.

    (A. Sachedina)

  • ABU'L-ḴAYR B. AL-ḴAMMĀR

    Nestorian Christian physician, philosopher, theologian, and translator, b. Rabīʿ I, 331/November, 942 in Baghdad.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABU'L-ḴAYR KHAN

    A descendant of Šïban (the younger son of Joči) and ruler of the Uzbek nomadic state in Dašt-e Qïpčaq in the 15th century.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • ABU'L-KHAYRIDS

    name used for the dynasty that ruled the khanate of Bukhara in 906-1007/1500-99. Until recently, this dynasty was incorrectly called in Western literature “Shaybanids” (or “Shibanids”).

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • ABU'L-LAYṮ SAMARQANDĪ

    productive Hanafite jurist, author of a Koran commentary and of popular paraenetical works.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ABŪ LOʾLOʾA

    a Persian slave of Moḡīra b. Šoʿba, the governor of Baṣra, who assassinated the caliph ʿOmar b. al-Ḵaṭṭāb, on Wednesday, 26 Ḏu’l-ḥeǰǰa 23/2 November 644.

    (Charles Pellat)

  • ABU'L-MAʿĀLĪ

    Author of Bayān al-adyān, the oldest work on religions and sects written in Persian (11th-12th centuries).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    a dehqān (landowner) of Ṭūs, official under the Samanids, and patron of a lost prose Šāh-nāma (Šāh-nāma-ye Abū Manṣūrī).

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR FARĀMARZ

    eldest son of the Kakuyid amir of Jebāl, ʿAlāʾ-al-dawla Moḥammad b. Došmanzīār.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR HERAVĪ

    (fl. ca. 370-80/980-90), author of the oldest preserved Persian text on materia medica, Ketāb al-abnīa ʿan ḥaqāʾeq al-adwīa.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR MAʿMARĪ

    minister (dastūr) of Abū Manṣūr b. ʿAbd-al-Razzāq (d. 350/961), a military commander of Khorasan under the Samanids.

    (Djalal Khalegi-Motlagh)

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR ṬŪSĪ

    mathematician.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABŪ MAʿŠAR

    astronomer and astrologer, born in Balḵ on 20 Ṣafar 171/10 August 787.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABU’L-MAʿṢŪM MĪRZĀ

    Safavid painter, portraitist, draftsman, engraver, and expert in artistic bookbinding and restoring who was extolled by the historian Qāżī Aḥmad (16th century).

    (D. Duda)

  • ABU’L-MAṮAL BOḴĀRĪ

    (or BOḴĀRĀʾĪ), a poet of the Samanid court.

    (J. W. Clinton)

  • ABU’L-MOʾAYYAD BALḴĪ

    An early Persian poet and writer of the Samanid period, whose works have almost entirely disappeared.

    (Gilbert Lazard)

  • ABŪ MOSLEM EṢFAHĀNĪ

    secretary, official, man of letters, and Muʿtazilite Koran commentator, b. 254/868, probably in Isfahan.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABŪ MOSLEM ḴORĀSĀNĪ

    prominent leader in the ʿAbbasid cause.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ABŪ MOṬĪʿ AL-BALḴĪ

    faqīh, judge, and traditionist, disciple of Abū Ḥanīfa, died 183/799 in Balḵ.

    (L. A. Giffen)

  • ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR ḴᵛĀFĪ

    Shafeʿite jurist and traditionist (d. in Ṭūs in 500/1106) . He was one of the most important students of Emām-al-ḥaramayn Jovaynī.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • ABU MUSĀ i - ii

    island in the Persian Gulf.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ABU MUSĀ iii

    (Bu Musā), a small island in the eastern Persian Gulf (25°52’N, 55°2’E). Persia considers it a town within the Abu Musā township (šahrestān) of the Hormozgān (q.v.) Province (Nurbaḵš, pp. 308, 314-15). The Shaikhdom of Sharjah of the United Arab Emirates claims it as its own. In November 1971 Persia and Sharjah partitioned the island into two exclusive zones of national jurisdiction. In 1992 Persia took control of the entire island, alleging security concerns. In Anglo-Persian diplomatic exchanges prior to 1972 and Persia-UAE relations since then, the status of the island is mentioned often in relation to that of the twin Tonb islands.

    (Guive Mirfendereski)

  • ABŪ MŪSĀ AŠʿARĪ

    a Companion of the Prophet and important participant in the troubles which occupied the caliphate of ʿAlī.

    (G. R. Hawting)

  • ABŪ MŪSĀ MORDĀR

    theologian and ascetic, early representative of the Baghdad branch of the Moʿtazela (d. 226/840-41).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ABŪ NAṢR AḤMAD

    Samanid amir in Transoxania and Khorasan (295-301/907-14).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABU NAṢR AḤMAD B. NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK

    See QEWĀM-AL-DIN ŻIĀʾ-AL-MOLK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ NAṢR AL-ESMĀʿĪLĪ

    an alleged teacher of Abū Ḥāmed Ḡazālī (450-505/1058-1111).

    (W. Montgomery Watt)

  • ABŪ NAṢR FĀMĪ

    (472-546/1079-1151), local historian of Herat in the Saljuq period.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ NAṢR FĀRĀBĪ

    See FĀRĀBĪ, ABŪ NAṢR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ NAṢR FĀRSĪ

    Official, soldier and poet of the Ghaznavid empire, flourished in the second half of the 5th/11th century during the reigns of the sultans Ebrāhīm b. Masʿūd I and Masʿūd III b. Ebrāhīm.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ NAṢR MANṢŪR

    mathematician and astronomer, born probably in Gīlān about 349/960.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABŪ NAṢR MOŠKĀN

    head of the Ghaznavid chancery under Maḥmūd and Masʿūd from 401/1011-12 till his death in 431/1039-40.

    (H. Moayyad)

  • ABŪ NAṢR MOSTAWFĪ

    well-known official of the Saljuqs of Iraq.

    (K. A. Luther)

  • ABŪ NAṢR ʿOTBĪ

    See ʿOTBĪ, ABŪ NAṢR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU NAṢR QOŠAYRI

    See QOŠAYRI, ABU NAṢR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ NOʿAYM AL-EṢFAHĀNĪ

    famous traditionist and author of the collection of Sufi biographies Ḥelyat al-awlīāʾ.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABŪ ʿOBAYDA MAʿMAR

    Arabic philologist and grammarian (probably 110-209/728-824, but the sources have other, slightly different dates).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ ʿOṮMĀN RABĪʿA

    often called RABĪʿAT-AL-RAʾY, important lawyer of the ancient school of Medina and transmitter of Traditions from Companions of the Prophet, died 136/753.

    (L. A. Giffen)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ B. ḤASAN

    Vizier to the atabeg of Lorestān Šams-al-dawla Ḡāzī Beg Aydoḡmuš (7th/13th century).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ B. MOḤAMMAD

    A wealthy dehqān from Sabzavār who was prominent as a founder of madrasas in the second decade of the 5th/11th century.

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM ḤAṢĪRĪ

    Shafeʿite faqīh (jurist) and Ghaznavid official, d. 424/1033. See ABŪ BAKR ḤAṢĪRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN

    The only son of Kāmrān Mīrza, brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56).

    (EIr)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ESḤĀQ SAMARQANDI

    Hanafite scholar, Sufi, and judge (qāżī) of Samarqand (9th-10th centuries).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM HĀRŪN

    Vizier of Atabeg Ozbek b. Moḥammad b. Eldagōz, ruler of Azerbaijan, 607-22/1210-25.

    (K. A. Luther)

  • ABU'L-QĀSEM EBRĀHIM ḤAṢIRI

    See ABU BAKR ḤAṢIRI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KAʿBĪ

    Administrator and intellectual of Persian descent, Hanafite jurist and foremost representative of the Moʿtazela in Khorasan (d. Šaʿbān, 319/February, 931).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABDALLĀH KĀŠĀNĪ

    Historian of the reign of the Il-khan Olǰāytū and member of the Abū Ṭāher family of potters (14th century).

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KERMĀNĪ

    Author of a Ketāb fī oṣūl al-aḥkām (“Book concerning the foundations of astrological judgments”).

    (David Pingree)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ

    Fourth head of the Kermānī branch of the Šayḵī school of Shiʿism (19th-20th centuries).

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KŪFĪ

    Scholar of philosophy, theology, and other disciplines who was at first an Emāmī Shiʿite but later embraced a form of extreme Shiʿism (d. near Šīrāz, 352/962).

    (L. Giffen)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM MOḤAMMAD ASLAM

    (pen name MONʿEMĪ), 18th-century historian of Kashmir.

    (S. Moinul Haq)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM NĀʾĪNĪ

    Major representative (practitioner, instructor, author) of traditional medicine in late Qajar Persia (1245-1322/1829-30 to 1904-05).

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM SAʿĪD

    callgrapher named in the colophon of a Koran manuscript written in early nasḵī script. In the colophon the scribe calls himself the son or grandson of a pupil of Jawharī. That famous Arab lexicographer (originally from Turkestan) after extensive travels, settled in Nīšāpūr to teach, copy books, and pursue a literary career.

    (D. Duda)

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM SOLṬĀN

    Bēglār chief of Sind, b. at Nasarpur, Sind, in 969/1562.

    (M. H. Pathan)

  • ABŪ RAJĀʾ ḠAZNAVĪ

    See ḠAZNAVĪ, ABŪ RAJĀʾ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ RAŠĪD NĪSĀBŪRĪ

    Muʿtazilite scholar. He was probably born not later than 360/970.

    (D. Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABU’L-RAYḤĀN BĪRŪNĪ

    Scholar and polymath of the period of the late Samanids and early Ghaznavids and one of the two greatest intellectual figures of his time in the eastern lands of the Muslim world (362/973-after 442/1050). See BĪRŪNĪ, ABU’L-RAYḤĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU’L-RAYYĀN EṢFAHĀNĪ

    Buyid vizier (10th century).

    (Claude Cahen)

  • ABŪ SAʿD TOSTARĪ

    businessman and quasi-vizier in Fatimid Egypt, d. 439/1047.

    (S. D. Goitein)

  • ABŪ SAHL B. NAWBAḴT

    2nd/8th century astrologer and author.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABŪ SAHL ḤAMDOWĪ

    Ghaznavid official of the 4th-5th/11th century.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ABŪ SAHL ḴOJANDĪ

    vizier of the Ghaznavids in the 5th/11th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ SAHL KŪHĪ

    (also QŪHĪ), mathematician and astronomer.

    (David Pingree)

  • ABŪ SAHL LAKŠAN

    official under the Ghaznavid amirs Maḥmūd (388-421/998-1030) and Masʿūd (421-32/1031-41).

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ABŪ SAHL NAWBAḴTĪ

    a prominent member of the Nawbaḵtī family and noted Imamite leader and scholar.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABŪ SAHL ZŪZANĪ

    courtier and official under the Ghaznavid amirs Maḥmūd (388-421/998-1030) and Masʿūd (421-32/1031-41), d. ca. 440-50/1050-59.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ABŪ SAʿĪD BAHĀDOR KHAN

    ninth Il-khan of Iran, the son and successor of Öljeitü (Ūlǰāytū).

    (Peter Jackson)

  • ABŪ SAʿĪD B. ABI’L-ḴAYR

    famous Iranian mystic, born 1 Moḥarram 357/7 December 967 at Mēhana, a small town in Khorasan, about fifty miles west of Saraḵs, and died there 4 Šaʿbān 440/12 January 1049.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • ABŪ SAʿĪD JANNĀBĪ

    founder of the Qarmaṭī state in Baḥrain (b. between 230/845, and 240/855, d. 300/913 or 301/913-14).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABŪ SAʿĪD KHAN

    cousin of Šaybānī Khan and great-grandson of Uluḡ Beg in the female line, khan of the Uzbeks of Transoxania (936-40/1530-33).

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • ABŪ ŠAKŪR BALḴĪ

    poet of the Samanid period.

    (Gilbert Lazard)

  • ABŪ SALAMA ḴALLĀL

    head of the Hashemite propaganda organization (daʿwa) that sparkled the ʿAbbasid revolution and first vizier of the new dynasty.

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • ABŪ ṢĀLEḤ MANṢŪR

    Samanid prince, the cousin of the amir Aḥmad b. Esmāʿīl (295-301/907-14) and uncle of his successor Naṣr b. Aḥmad (301-31/914-43).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ ṢĀLEḤ MANṢŪR (I) NŪḤ

    (350-66/961-76), Samanid ruler in Transoxania and Khorasan and successor of his brother ʿAbd-al-Malek after the latter’s death in Šawwāl, 350/November, 961.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ABŪ SALĪK GORGĀNĪ

    Persian poet, contemporary of ʿAmr b. Layṯ the Saffarid (265-88/879-901).

    (M. N. Osmanov)

  • ABU’L-ŠAYḴ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    Traditionist and Koran commentator, important principally for his Ṭabaqāt al-moḥaddeṯī (274-369/887-979). See EṢFAHĀNĪ, ABU’L-ŠAYḴ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ ŠOʿAYB HERAVĪ

    or BŪ ŠOʿAYB as he is more commonly known, one of the many poets of the Samanid court which has survived virtually in name only.

    (J. W. Clinton)

  • ABŪ ŠOJĀʿ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    (434-500/1042-43 to 1106, Shafeʿite jurist.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • ABŪ ŠOJĀʿ FANĀ ḴOSROW

    See ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABU SOLAYMĀN SEJESTĀNI

    See SEJESTĀNI, ABU SOLAYMĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ ṬĀHER

    Far from the works of the son following close upon those of the father, the gap between known works of the first generation is twenty-eight years, and between the second generations, forty-two years. Late marriage and long apprenticeships may be the explanation.

    (O. Watson)

  • ABŪ ṬĀHER B. MOḤAMMAD

    See ATĀBAKĀN-E LORESTĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ ṬĀHER ḴĀTŪNĪ

    officer, famous poet, and author in the reign of the Saljuq Sultan Moḥammad b. Malekšāh (498-511/1105-18).

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ABŪ TAHER ḴOSRAVĀNĪ

    a poet of the Samanid period.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ABŪ ṬĀHER SAMARQANDĪ

    author of a book named Ṯamarīya (first half of the 13th/19th century).

    (Michael Zand)

  • ABŪ ṬĀLEB ḤOSAYNĪ

    Mughal scholar chiefly famous for his alleged discovery of Malfūẓāt-e Tīmūrī or Wāqeʿāt-e Tīmūrī, an autobiographical account of Tīmūr from the 7th to the 74th year of his life.

    (Hameed ud-Din)

  • ABŪ ṬĀLEB KALĪM

    (b. ca. 1581-85; d. 1651), Persian poet and one of the leading exponents of the “Indian style” (sabk-e hendi). See KALĪM KĀŠĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ ṬĀLEB KHAN LANDANĪ

    Official and author in British India (18th-19th century).

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ABU ṬĀLEB TABRIZI

    Poet and physician whose pen name was Ṭāleb (d. 1015/1606-07).

    (ʿA. Kārang)

  • ABU’L-TAYYEB ṬABARĪ

    Jurisconsult, judge (qāżī), and professor of legal sciences; he was regarded by his contemporaries as one of the leading Shafeʿites of 5th/11th century Baghdad.

    (J. Wakin)

  • ABU’L-ṬAYYEB ṬĀHER

    founder of the Taherid dynasty of Khorasan; born 139/775-76 in Pūšang (Būšang), died 207/822 in Marv.

    (M. Forstner)

  • ABŪ TORĀB NAḴŠABĪ

    noted 3rd/9th century ascetic.

    (Bernd Radtke)

  • ABŪ TORĀB WALĪ

    noble in the service of Akbar and author of Tārīḵ-e Goǰrāt, a short history of that province from the reign of Bahādor Shah (932-43/1526-36), with an account of his wars against Homāyūn, through Akbar’s conquest and up to 992/1584.

    (S. Moinul Haq)

  • ABU’L-WAFĀ B. SAʿID

    Author in Persian (15th century).

    (David Pingree)

  • ABU’L-WAFĀ BŪZJĀNI

    Mathematician and astronomer (10th-11th century).

    (David Pingree)

  • ABU’L-WAFĀʾ ḴᵛĀRAZMĪ

    Famous Sufi of Kobrawī affiliation, esoterist, scholar, poet, and musician (d. 835/1431-32).

    (H. Landolt)

  • ABU’L-WAFĀʾ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Sufi of Shiraz, morīd of the well-known preacher, mystic and writer, Shah Dāʿī Elā Allāh Šīrāzī (fl. 10th/16th century).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ABU’L-WAZIR MARVAZĪ

    Secretary and author (d. 186/802).

    (L. A. Giffen)

  • ABU’L-YANBAḠĪ

    Iranian poet (d. 230/844).

    (Yann Richard)

  • ABU YAʿQUB HAMADĀNI

    Important figure in the history of Iranian and Central Asian Sufism, largely neglected by both Iranian and Western scholarship (440-535/1048-49 to 1140).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ABŪ YAʿQŪB JORJĀNĪ

    disciple of Ebn Karrām (d. 255/869).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ABŪ YAʿQŪB SEJESTĀNĪ

    one of the most important of the early Ismaʿili dāʿīs.

    (Paul E. Walker)

  • ABU YAZĪD BESṬĀMI

    See BESṬĀMĪ, BĀYAZĪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ABŪ YŪSOF QAZVINI

    Muʿtazilite scholar and author of an immense Koran commentary, born Šaʿbān, 393/June, 1003 (according to another report 391) in Qazvīn.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ABŪ ZAYD BALḴĪ

    noted scholar in both Islamic and philosophical disciplines, but now known chiefly as a geographer. He was born in the village of Šāmestīān, near Balḵ in Khorasan, ca. 235/849 and died there in Ḏu’l-qaʿda, 322/October, 934.

    (W. Montgomery Watt)

  • ABŪ ZAYD KĀŠĀNĪ

    a potter who signed a ceramic bowl in the enameled (mīnāʾī) technique dated 4 Moḥarram 582/26 March 1186.

    (O. Watson)

  • ABŪ ZAYD B. MOḤAMMAD KĀŠĀNĪ

    perhaps the single most important luster potter of Kāšān known to us. More signed and dated works (from 587/1191 to 616/1219) are known by him than by any other potter, and his signature occurs on a greater variety of wares, including both tiles and vessels.

    (O. Watson)

  • ABŪ ZAYN KAḤḤĀL

    author of the medical text Šarāyeṭ-e ǰarrāḥī; its dedication to the Timurid Šāhroḵ (r. 807-50/1404-47) provides the only context for his life.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • ABŪZAYDĀBĀD

    Oasis village of the province of Kāšān, called Būzābād for short and Bīzeva in the local dialect. It is situated 30 km to the east and slightly to the south of the city of Kāšān.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ABŪZAYDĀBĀDĪ

    (Būzābādī for short), a variety of the local dialects of Kāšān province, spoken in the village of Abūzaydābād and its farms, and belonging to the Central or Median group of Iranian dialects.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ABYĀNA

    From a number of lingering old customs and practices it appears that the total conversion of Abyāna from Zoroastrianism to Islam took place relatively late. The inhabitants exhibit with pride an awareness of the ancient customs of the village.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ABYĀNAʾĪ

    Dialect spoken in the village of Abyāna, one of a number of closely similar dialects spoken in the villages of Kāšān and its neighboring districts, all belonging to the Central Dialects of Iran (or Southern Median).

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ĀBYĀR

    Title of the person given official charge of the irrigation of ābī “irrigated” lands.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ĀBYĀRĪ

    Persian term meaning "irrigation." Although dry farming is important in Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, and Khorasan, as well as some other districts, a large proportion of Iran’s agriculture has always depended upon irrigation. This article concentrates on the preindustrial forms that not only have been important in the evolution of Iranian culture and civilization but have constituted an important Iranian contribution to the development of water management systems in other parts of the world.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • ABZARĪ, ḴᵛĀJA ʿAMĪD-AL-DĪN

    Poet and the vizier of the Salghurid Atabeg of Fārs Saʿd b. Zangī (594-623/1197-1226).

    (A. E. Khairallah)

  • ABZŌN

    Middle Persian term meaning “prosperity, increase” in Zoroastrianism.

    (M. F. Kanga)

  • Ab~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the Ab entries

    (DATA)