List of Articles

  • AṦA

    “truth” in Avestan. The Indo-Iranian concept of truth is preserved in the Gāθās and in the younger Avesta unchanged.

    (Bernfried Schlerath, Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • AṦA VAHIŠTA

    See ARDWAHIŠT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASAD B. SĀMĀNḴODĀ

    ancestor of the Samanid dynasty.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ASʿAD B. NAṢR

    See ABZARĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASADĀBĀD (1)

    name of several towns in medieval sources, including the modern city.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ASADĀBĀD

    (or ASʿADĀBĀD), the official name of a small town in eastern Afghanistan, capital of Konar (Kunar) Province.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • ASADĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    See ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR B. AḤMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASADĀBĀDĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    See AFḠĀNĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASADALLĀH EṢFAHĀNĪ

    a signature borne by hundreds of fine blades, which is occasionally followed by dates ranging from the 17th to the 19th century.

    (A. S. Melikian-Chirvani)

  • ASADĪ ṬŪSĪ

    (d. 1072-73), poet, linguist and copyist, from Ṭūs in Khorasan.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ĀṢAF KHAN

    10th/16th century Mughal official and military commander.

    (P. Saran)

  • ĀṢAF-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-AL-WAHHĀB

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀṢAF-AL-DAWLA, ALLĀHYĀR

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀṢAF AL-LOḠĀT

    title of a Persian dictionary.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ĀṢAFĪ HERAVĪ

    a minor poet of the Timurid period (d. 923/1517).

    (A. ʿA. Rajāʾī)

  • ĀṢAFJĀHI DYNASTY

    See DECCAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASAGARTA

    an ancient Iranian tribe of uncertain location; they must have dwelt in the east of the kingdom.

    (W. Eilers)

  • ASĀLEM

    a mountainous district in Ṭāleš, now a dehestān of the central baḵš of the šahrestān of Ṭawāleš, province of Gīlān.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • ASĀLEMI dialect

    See ṬĀLEŠI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AṢAMM, ABU BAKR

    ABU BAKR ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān b. Kaysān (d. 200/815-6 or 201/816-7), Muʿtazilite of Baṣra.;

    (F. W. Zimmermann)

  • ĀŠAQLŪN

    Manichean demon. See ĀSRĒŠTĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AʿSAR, ʿALAWAYH ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    See ʿALAWAYH AL-AʿSAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AŠʿARĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    scholastic theologian (motakallem) and founder of the theological school of the Ašʿarīya.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀŠʿARĪ, ABŪ MŪSĀ

    See ABŪ MŪSĀ AŠʿARĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AŠʿARĪYA

    (or Ashʿarism), an Islamic school of theological thought founded by Abu’l-Ḥasan Ašʿarī.

    (A. Heinen)

  • ASĀS

    “foundation, basis,” a degree of the Ismaʿili daʿwa hierarchy.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • ASĀṬĪR

    See MYTHOLOGY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AŠAVAN (possessing Truth)

    (Avestan), lit. “possessing truth (aša),” referring to humans, Ahura Mazdā, and the divine or angelic entities.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • ASĀWERA

    Arabic broken plural form of a singular oswār(ī), eswār(ī), early recognized by Arab philologists as a loanword from Persian meaning “cavalryman.”

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿAŠĀYER

    “tribes” in Iran. 1. Definitions. 2. Historical background. 3. Population figures. 4. Territorial distribution: (a) Lor and Lak tribes; (b) Kurdish tribes; (c) Turkish tribes; (d) Arab tribes; (e) Baluch and Brahui tribes. 5. Organization. 6. Economy.

    (F. Towfīq)

  • ASB

    ASB, “horse” (equus cabullus, Av. aspa-, Old PerS. asa- and aspa-, Mid. and NPers. asp/b); uses and significance of horses in the Iranian world.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ASB i. In Pre-Islamic Iran

    the horse in the culture and society of the ancient Iranian world.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ASB ii. Among the Scythians

    the horse in Scythian culture.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • ASB iii. In Islamic Times

    horses and horsemanship in Iran in the Islamic period.

    (ʿA. Solṭānī Gordfarāmarzī)

  • ASB iv. In Afghanistan

    horses and horsemanship in Afghanistan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀŠBANAKKUŠ

    name of an Iranian in the Persepolis Fortification Tablets.

    (M. Mayrhofer)

  • ASBĀNBAR

    See MADĀʾEN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASBĪĀN

    See ĀBTĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASB-SAVĀRĪ

    "horse-riding." The Iranian lands, in the course of their long history, have been the source of major advances in the techniques of equitation.

    (J.-P. Digard)

  • ĀŠEʿʿAT AL-LAMAʿĀT

    (The rays of the flashes), a detailed commentary by Nūr-al-dīn ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmī (817/1414-898/1492).

    (A. E. Khairallah)

  • ʿĀṢEM EFENDĪ

    (1168/1755-1236/1819), an Ottoman Turkish linguist and chronicler.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • AŠƎM VOHŪ

    the second of the four great prayers of the Zoroastrians, the others being: Ahuna vairyō (Y. 27.13), Yeŋˊhē hātąm (Y. 27.15), and Airyəˊmā išyō (Y. 54.1).

    (Bernfried Schlerath)

  • ʿĀṢEMI, Moḥammad

    (also Osimi and Asimov) Tajik educator, scholar, statesman, and humanist (b. Ḵojand, 1 September 1920; d. Dushanbe, 29 July 1996). His primary subject of interest was philosophy in the broad sense of the word, with particular attention to the achievements made in the East.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ʿĀŠEQ

    in Azerbaijan, Iran, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, a poet and minstrel who accompanies his singing on a long-necked, fretted, plucked chordophone known as a sāz.

    (C. F. Albright)

  • ʿĀŠEQ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    a Persian poet of the 12th/18th century (pen name ʿĀšeq).

    (K. Amīrī Fīrūzkūhī)

  • ʿĀŠEQ HAWĀSĪ

    “melody of the ʿāšeq,” term referring to (1) a type of poem often sung by ʿāšeqs in Iranian Azerbaijan and (2) the typical manner of singing the poem and the manner of accompanying it on the musical instrument.

    (C. F. Albright)

  • ASFĀD JOŠNAS

    a native of Ardašīr-ḵorra (Gūr, Fīrūzābād) who commanded the supporters of Šērōya.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ASFAND

    a medieval district (kūra) of the quarter (robʿ) of Nīšāpūr of Khorasan province.

    (H. Gaube)

  • ASFĀNŪR

    See MADĀʾEN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASFĀR AL-ARBAʿA

    (The four journeys), title of the magnum opus of Mollā Ṣadrā (d. 1050/1641).

    (Fazlur Rahman)

  • ASFĀR B. ŠĪRŪYA

    early 10th-century military leader during the period of Samanid expansion.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ASFEZĀR

    (or ASFŌZAR), designation of a district (kūra) and later its chief town in the Herat quarter of Khorasan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ASFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM

    5th/12th-century astronomer, of whose life almost nothing is known.

    (David Pingree)

  • ASFĪJĀB

    (or ASBĪJĀB, ESBĪJĀB) a town and district of medieval Transoxania.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ASHKHABAD

    (Russian; Persian ʿEšqābād), since the Soviet period the capital of Turkmenistan.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ASHRAF, GHODSIEH

    Throughout her life, Ghodsieh Ashraf repeatedly observed, not without pride, that her material belongings could be packed into one suitcase. Though she may not have been an easy taskmaster, she was served by an unflagging joie de vivre and cut a figure distinct from the traditional models of her times.

    (Mahnaze A. da Silveira)

  • AŠI

    Avestan feminine noun meaning “thing attained, reward, share, portion, recompense” and, as a personification, the goddess “Reward, Fortune.”

    (Bernfried Schlerath, Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • ĀSĪĀ (or āsīāb, Mill)

    or āsīāb, "mill." Before World War II most grain ground to produce flour for the staple in the Iranian diet, bread, was processed by traditionally powered mills, principally watermills. Except in remote areas they have been replaced by diesel or electrically-driven mills, and old machinery has fallen derelict.

    (M. Harverson)

  • ASIA INSTITUTE

    founded in 1928 in New York City as the American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology, incorporated 1930 in the state of New York and active in Shiraz 1965-79. In its affiliation, functions, and publications, the Institute has had a complicated and eventful career, illustrating some of the vicissitudes of Iranian studies during the twentieth century.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • ASIA INSTITUTE, BULLETIN OF THE

    originally Bulletin of the American Institute of Persian Art and Archaeology from July 1931; and the first issue was edited by Arthur Upham Pope, director of the Institute.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • ASIA MINOR

    Irano-Anatolian relations. The Iranians left their imprint above all on the art of governing.

    (M. Weiskopf)

  • ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL

    See BENGAL ii. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASII

    (or ASIANI), an ancient nomadic people of Central Asia, who about 130 B.C. put an end to Greek rule in Bactria.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • ASINAEUS AND ANILAEUS

    figure in Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities.

    (M. Smith)

  • ASĪR EṢFAHĀNĪ

    a poet of the 11th/17th century (d. 1049/1639).

    (K. Amīrī Fīrūzkūhī)

  • ĀŠIRVĀD

    “blessing, benediction,” a set of prayers and admonitions recited by the two officiating Parsi priests in the Zoroastrian marriage ceremony.

    (M. F. Kanga)

  • ʿASJADĪ

    a poet of the first half of the 5th/11th century.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ASK SPRINGS

    The Ask springs, like those in other places around the base of Damāvand, are as yet used only by the local inhabitants. It remains to be seen whether they would repay commercial development (in the form of spa baths, bottling plants, etc.).

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ĀŠKĀBĀD

    See ASHKHABAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AŠKĀNĪĀN

    See ARSACIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿASKAR MOKRAM

    a town of the medieval Islamic province of Ahvāz (Ḵūzestān) and also the name of the district of which it was the administrative center.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿASKARĀN

    village in Qarābāḡ about seven miles northeast of Stepanakert in the eastern Caucasus, where peace negotiations between Russia and Persia took place in 1225/1810.

    (Kamran Ekbal)

  • ʿASKARĪ, ABŪ HELĀL

    philologist and poet born about the middle of the 4th/10th century.

    (W. Montgomery Watt)

  • ʿASKARĪ, ABU MOḤAMMAD

    the 11th imam of the Twelver Shiʿites.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • ʿASKARĪ, ʿALĪ AL-HĀDĪ

    See ʿALĪ AL-HĀDĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN AL-ʿASKARĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AŠKAŠ

    an Iranian hero in the reign of Kay Ḵosrow.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • AŠKBŌS

    a Turanian hero from Kašān or Košān in the story of “Kāmūs-e Kašānī,” in the Šāh-nāma.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ASLAM, ABU’L-QĀSEM MOḤAMMAD

    See ABU’L-QĀSEM MOḤAMMAD ASLAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀṢLĀNDŪZ

    (or AṢLĀNDŪZ), a small village in the northeast of the Iranian province of East Azerbaijan.

    (J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī)

  • ĀSMĀN

    (sky, heavens), in Zoroastrian cosmology the first part of the material (gētīg) world created by Ohrmazd.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ASMĀR AL-ASRĀR

    (Night-discourses of secrets), theosophical treatise in Persian composed by a 9th/15th century Češtī Sufi of India, Sayyed Moḥammad Ḥosaynī Gīsūdarāz (d. 825/1422), popularly known as Ḵᵛāǰa-ye Bandanavāz.

    (S. S. K. Hussaini)

  • ASMUSSEN, Jes Peter

    scholar of Iranian studies (1928-2002).

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • AṢNĀF

    the plural of ṣenf (class, kind category), collective designation of guilds in Iran since the 11th/17th century.

    (Willem Floor)

  • ĀSNATAR

    one of the eight Zoroastrian priests (ratu) necessary for the performance of the yasna ritual.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • AŠŌ-DĀD

    Zoroastrian (Pazend) term for the remuneration to a priest for his services.

    (M. F. Kanga)

  • ĀŠOFTA

    a Persian magazine published in Tehran 1325 Š./1946-1336 Š./1957.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ĀŠŌGAR

    See AŠŌQAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AŚOKA

    Mauryan emperor of India (ca. 272-231 B.C.).

    (J. G. De Casparis, G. Fussman, P. O. Skjærvø)

  • ASOŁIK

    “the singer,” the usual name of Stephen of Tarōn.

    (Michel van Esbroeck)

  • AŠŌQAR

    in Syriac sources the name of a deity.

    (EIr)

  • ĀSŌRISTĀN

    name of the Sasanian province of Babylonia.

    (G. Widengren)

  • ASP

    See ASB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASP-SAVĀRĪ

    See ASB-SAVĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASPABAD

    or ASPAPAT. See ASPBED.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASPAČANĀ

    a senior official under Darius the Great and Xerxes.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ASPAND

    See ESFAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASPARUKH

    a Middle Iranian proper name attested in ancient Georgia and early medieval Bulgaria.

    (D. M. Lang)

  • ASPASII

    one of the tribal people encountered by Alexander the Great in Gandhāra, 327-26 B.C.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ASPASTES

    Greek form of an Old Persian name attested in the Achaemenid period.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ASPATHINES

    See ASPAČANĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀŠPAZ, ʿABDALLĀH HERAVĪ

    See ʿABDALLĀH HERAVĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀŠPAZĪ

    "cooking." The history of food consumption in Iran is primarily part of the history of agriculture and stockbreeding on the Iranian plateau.

    (Bert G. Fragner)

  • ĀŠPAZ-ḴĀNA

    “kitchen.”

    (ʿE. Elāhī)

  • ASPBED

    “master of horses, chief of cavalry,” Parthian title attested in the Nisa documents and the inscription of Šāpūr I on the Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ASPET

    Armenian title.

    (C. Toumanoff)

  • ʿAṢR-E ENQELĀB

    a journal of news and political comment published at Tehran in 1333-1915.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ʿAṢR-E JADĪD

    (New era), the name of several journals and a magazine published in Iran at various times.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • AŠRAF

    town in Māzandarān. See BEHŠAHR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AŠRAF-ʿALĪ KHAN FOḠĀN

    (or FEḠĀN), poet writing in Persian and Urdu (1140-86/1727-72).

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • AŠRAF ḠAZNAVI

    (article in print only); see online ḤASAN ḠAZNAVI.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • AŠRAF GĪLĀNĪ

    (1870-1934), poet and leading journalist of the Constitutional era.

    (M. Rahman)

  • AŠRAF ḠILZAY

    the Afghan chief who ruled as Shah over part of Iran from 1137/1725 to 1142/1729.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • AŠRAFI

    term used from the mid-15th century for a gold coin first minted in Mamluk Egypt in 810/1407-08.

    (Bert G. Fragner)

  • AŠRAFĪ, ḤOJJAT-AL-ESLĀM

    religious leader, born sometime before 1235/1819 and died 1315/1897-98.

    (A. Hairi)

  • ASRĀR AL-ḤEKAM

    the title of a book written for Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qāǰār, by the philosopher Ḥāǰǰ Mollā Hādī Sabzavāri (1212-89/1797-1872).

    (M. Moḥaqqeq)

  • ASRĀR AL-TAWḤĪD

    principal source for the life and teachings of the well-known mystic of Khorasan, Abū Saʿid b. Abi’l-Ḵayr (b. 357/967, d. 440/1049).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ĀSRĒŠTĀR

    in Middle Persian Manichean texts a kind of demons, often associated with the mazans.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • ĀSRŌN

    Middle Persian form of Avestan āθravan.

    (EIr)

  • ʿAṢṢĀR TABRĪZĪ

    poet, scholar, and mystic of the 8th/14th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ʿAṢṢĀR, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD-KĀẒEM

    (b. 1302/1884-85; d. Tehran, 19 Dey 1353 Š./9 January 1975), outstanding Shiʿite scholar and professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran.

    (Ahmad Kazemi Mousavi and EIr)

  • ASSARHADDON

    king of Assyria 680-69 B.C., son of Sennacherib and father of Aššurbanipal. Here only Assarhaddon’s relations with the Cimmerians and Mannians, and the Medes, are described. The Cimmerians with an admixture of Scythians came down from the Caucasus about 700 B.C. and began to press on the eastern borders of Assyria.

    (J. A. Delaunay)

  • ASSASSINS

    (Ar. Ḥaššāšin), pejorative name given to Neẓāri Ismaʿilis by their adversaries during the Middle Ages. See ISMAʿILISM iii. History.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AŠŠURBANIPAL

    The Cimmerians (Gimirru) had entered Assyria about 700 B.C. but were stopped by Assarhaddon and so turned towards Lydia (Luddu). The king of Lydia, Gyges (Gūgu, Guggu), who had founded the Mermandes dynasty, following the advice of the god Aššur in a dream, sent a delegation to Aššurbanipal to ask for assistance.

    (J. A. Delaunay)

  • ASSYRIA

    i. The Kingdom of Assyria and its relations with Iran. ii. Achaemenid Aθurā. iii. Parthian Assur.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev, È. Grantovskiĭ, K. Schippmann)

  • ASSYRIA i. The Kingdom of Assyria and its Relations with Iran

    Texts belonging to the 9th-7th centuries B.C. provide valuable data on the expeditions of Assyrian kings to Iranian territory, including “Messages to the Deity” and summaries of royal victories presented in geographical order.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev and È. Grantovskiĭ)

  • ASSYRIA ii. Achaemenid Aθurā

    Old Persian Aθurā “Assyria” goes back to Akkadian Aššur, the name of the city of Aššur and of the original Assyrian territory on the middle course of the Tigris.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ASSYRIA iii. Parthian Assur

    In 141 B.C. the Parthian king Mithridates I conquered large parts of Mesopotamia, including probably Assyria. Although the Parthians were soon driven back out of Mesopotamia, Assur finally fell under Parthian influence from the reign of Mithridates II onwards.

    (K. Schippmann)

  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN

    The development of the modern concept of “Assyrians” among the East Syrian Christian communities began with Botta’s excavation of the palace of Sargon II in Khorsabad (1843), followed by Layard’s discovery of Nineveh. This research opened the eyes, not only of the West, but also of the ethnically nameless Aramean population in these regions which had been satisfied to identify itself by religions denominations.

    (R. Macuch, A. Ishaya)

  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN i. The Assyrian community (Āšūrīān) in Iran

    Clearly, this small ethnic group divided into different confessions needed special arguments for accepting a standard name “Assyrians” after this term had already been accepted, for practical reasons, by others.

    (R. Macuch)

  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN ii. Literature of the Assyrians in Iran

    Although there were four missionary printing-houses in Urmia before the end of World War I, the Iranian Assyrian writers and poets were producing much more than they were able to publish. Many of their literary products remained in manuscript or were published only posthumously.

    (R. Macuch)

  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN iii. Assyrian Settlements Outside of Iran

    The dispersion of the Assyrians took place during World War I, when the whole nation was uprooted from its homegrounds. The diaspora is still in progress. Presently in the Middle East, besides Iran, Assyrian settlements are located in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey.

    (A. Ishaya)

  • ASTABED

    The word astabid occurs in two Syriac texts as the title of a high-ranking Iranian officer and is applied to three different individuals.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • AŠTĀD

    Old Iranian female deity of rectitude and justice.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • AŠTĀD YAŠT

    Yt. 18, though dedicated to Aštād, the goddess of rectitude, does not mention her.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • ĀSTĀN-E QODS-E RAŻAWĪ

    the complex of buildings surrounding the tomb of the Imam ʿAlī al-Reżā at Mašhad.

    (ʿA.-Ḥ. Mawlawī, M. T.Moṣṭafawī, and E. Šakūrzāda)

  • ĀSTĀNA

    a township and a district of Lāhīǰān in the province of Gīlān.

    (Eckart Ehlers, Marcel Bazin, and Christian Bromberger)

  • ASTARA

    a town and sub-province in the province of Ardabil, northern Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ĀSTĀRĀ i. Town and sub-province

    The rural inhabitants grow rice, wheat, and vegetables on the coastal plain and wheat, corn (maize), and fruit trees on the lower slopes of the mountains, and graze flocks and herds between qešlāq and yeylāq.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • ASTARA ii. Population, 1956-2011

    This article deals with the growth of Astara from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • ASTARĀBĀD

    (or ESTERĀBĀD), the older Islamic name for the modern town of Gorgān in northeastern Iran, and also the name of an administrative province in Qajar times.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth, Sheila S. Blair)

  • ASTARĀBĀD BAY

    a lagoon in the extreme southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ASTARĀBĀD-ARDAŠĪR

    See KARḴ MAYSĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    See ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR ASTARĀBĀDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, FAŻLALLĀH

    (d. 796/1394), founder of the Ḥorūfī religion.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, MAHDĪ KHAN

    court secretary and historiographer to Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1148-60/1736-47).

    (John R. Perry)

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, MOḤAMMAD AMĪN

    founder of the 17th-century Aḵbārī school.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • AŠTARAK

    a village in the Ābārān district about six miles northwest of Yerevan (Iravān) in a mountainous region of the Caucasus; in Moḥarram 1243/August 1827 the site of a Persian victory in the second Russo-Persian war; also known as the battle of Oshakan (Awšakān).

    (Kamran Ekbal)

  • AŠTARJĀN

    (OŠTORJĀN), name of a subdistrict (dehestān) and its chief village, lying southwest of Isfahan.

    (R. Hillenbrand)

  • ĀSTARKĪ

    (or AŠTARKĪ), one sub-tribe of the six which presently constitute the Dūrkī tribe of the Haft Lang confederation of the Baḵtīārī people.

    (J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī)

  • ASTAUENE

    Parthian province to the north of Hyrcania (Gorgān). See OSTOVĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀŠTĪĀN

    the name both of an administrative subdistrict (dehestān) and its chef-lieu in the First Province (ostān).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀŠTĪĀNI

    the dialect of Āštīān, belongs to the group of “Central” dialects spoken in Kashan and Isfahan provinces and some adjacent areas.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, ḤASAN

    (d. 1319/1901), late 19-century moǰtahed who played an important role in the campaign against the tobacco concession of 1309/1891.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, MAHDĪ

    known as Mīrzā Kūček (1306-1372/1888-89 to 1952-53), a scholar who excelled in both the traditional (manqūl) and rational (maʿqūl) sciences.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • AŠTIŠAT

    religious center of pagan Armenia and first official Christian see.

    (M. Van Esbroeck)

  • ASTŌDĀN

    “bone-receptacle, ossuary.” The term has an important place in the vocabulary of ancient Iranian funerary rites.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ASṬORLĀB

    The altitude of the sun or of the star is determined by an observation through the alidade on the back; the rim of the upper two halves of the back is graduated from 0° to 90° from the horizontal diameter (horizon) to the apex (zenith).

    (David Pingree)

  • ASTRAKHAN

    a town (Russian since 1556) on the river Volga.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ASTROLABE

    See ASṬORLĀB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ASTROLOGY AND ASTRONOMY IN IRAN

    Highly relevant are the subjects Mithraism and Zurvanism. It is here assumed that the exposure of Zoroastrian priests to Near Eastern divination, from the Achaemenid period on, helped foster cosmological speculation; and this developed a body of myth around Zurwān “Time.”

    (David Pingree, C. J. Brunner)

  • ASTVAṰ.ƎRƎTA

    the Avestan name of the Saošyant, the future Savior of Zoroastrianism.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ASTWIHĀD

    the demon of death in the Avesta and later Zoroastrian texts.

    (M. F. Kanga)

  • ASTYAGES

    the last Median king.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ʿĀŠŪRĀʾ

    tenth day of Moḥarram, the first month of the Islamic calendar; for Sunnis it is a day on which fasting is recommended, and for Shiʿites a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Imam Ḥosayn.

    (M. Ayoub)

  • ĀŠŪRĀDA

    (or Āšūrʾāda, ʿAšūrʾāda), formerly (until ca. 1308-09 Š./1930) three adjacent islands, now part of the end of the Mīānkāla peninsula of Māzandarān, at the southeast corner of the Caspian Sea.

    (J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī)

  • ASWĀR

    (Middle Persian) “horseman.” In Old Persian asabāra designated the horseman as opposed to the foot-soldier.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • ASYLUM

    religious, secular, and extraterritorial. See BAST.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿAṬĀʾ SAMARQANDĪ

    author of a set of astronomical tables for an unidentified prince of the Yuan dynasty of China, 1362-63.

    (David Pingree)

  • ATĀBAK

    Turkish atabeg, lit. “father-chief,” a Turkish title of rank which first appears, at least under this name, with the early Saljuqs.

    (Claude Cahen)

  • ATĀBAK-E AʿẒAM, AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN

    grand vizier under the last three Qajar kings.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN

    an influential family of military slave origin, also called Ildegozids, ruled parts of Arrān and Azerbaijan from about 530/1135-36 to 622/1225.

    (K. A. Luther)

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E FĀRS

    princes of the Salghurid dynasty who ruled Fārs in the 6th/12th and 7th/13th centuries.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E LORESTĀN

    rulers of Lorestān, part of the Zagros highlands of southwestern Iran in the later middle ages. Lorestān had a mixed population of Lors, Kurds, and others.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E MARĀḠA

    a family of local rulers of Marāḡa who ruled from the early 6th/12th century until 605/1208-09.

    (K. A. Luther)

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E YAZD

    a dynasty which governed Yazd in the 6th/12th century.

    (S. C. Fairbanks)

  • ATABAKI, PARVIZ

    (1928 - 2004), a Persian diplomat, literary scholar, translator, and editor.

    (Farhad Taheri)

  • ʿATABĀT

    “thresholds,” more fully, ʿatabāt-e ʿalīyāt or ʿatabāt-e (or aʿtāb-e) moqaddasa “the lofty or sacred thresholds,” the Shiʿite shrine cities of Iraq

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ATABAY, CYRUS

    (1929-1996), Iranian poet and translator who wrote poetry exclusively in German and translated works on Persian literature into German.

    (Saeid Rezvani)

  • ATĀʾĪYA ORDER

    a branch of the Yasavīya Sufi brotherhood especially active in Ḵᵛārazm from the 8th/14th century.

    (Devin DeWeese)

  • ĀṮĀR-E ʿAJAM

    a study of the geographical features and historical monuments of Fārs.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ĀṮĀR AL-BĀQĪA

    (The Chronology of Ancient Nations), a historical work by Bīrūnī, composed at the age of 27, in 1000 CE.

    (David Pingree)

  • ĀṮĀR AL-BELĀD

    the title of a geographical work composed in Arabic during the 7th/13th century by the Persian scholar Abū Yaḥyā Zakarīyāʾ b. Moḥammad Qazvīnī.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀṮĀR AL-WOZARĀʾ

    a biographical work on ministers and other officials, their policies and literary works, by Sayf al-dīn Ḥāǰǰī b. Neẓām ʿAqīlī, written at Herat between 1470-71 and 1486-87.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ĀTAŠ

    “fire” in Zoroastrianism. The hearth fire, providing warmth, light and comfort, was regarded by the ancient Iranians as the visible embodiment of the divinity Ātar, who lived among men as their servant and master. Fire was also present at their religious ceremonies.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀTAŠ, AḤMAD

    See ATEŞ, AHMED.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀTAŠ Journal

    (Fire), a Persian journal of news and political comment, published in Tehran, 1946-60.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ĀTAŠ, Ḵᵛāja ʿAlī Ḥaydar

    late 18th to early 19th-century Indo-Muslim poet in Persian and Urdu.

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ĀTAŠ NIYĀYIŠN

    the fifth in a group of five Zoroastrian prayers, which is addressed to fire and its divinity.

    (Mary Boyce and F. M. Kotwal)

  • ĀTAŠDĀN

    “place of fire, fire-holder,” designates the altar-like repository for a sacred wood-fire in a Zoroastrian place of worship.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ATASHI, MANUCHEHR

    Missing the bucolic backdrop of his childhood, Manucher Atashi soon dropped out ofschool and left the city to live in Čāh-kutāh, a village near Bušehr, where he worked as a shepherd and fell in love with a young girl, who eventually married another man and died at an early age.

    (Saeed Rezaei)

  • ĀTAŠKADA

    “house of fire,” a Zoroastrian term for a consecrated building in which there is an ever-burning sacred fire.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀTAŠ-ZŌHR

    or ātaš-zōr, a Middle Persian term for the Zoroastrian ritual.

    (Mary Boyceand F. M. Kotwal)

  • ATEŞ, AHMED

    (Aḥmad Ātaš), Turkish Orientalist and scholar of Persian literature (b. Ağcaköy near Birecik in southeastern Turkey, 1911/ d. Istanbul, 20 October 1966; Četin, p. 157, n. 1).

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ATHENAIOS OF NAUCRATIS

    author of the Deipnosophistai, his only extant work, in which in about a hundred passages he deals with things Persian.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • AṮĪR AḴSĪKATĪ

    Poet of the 6th/12th century with a distinctive style.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • AṮĪR OWMĀNĪ

    Poet of the ʿErāqī (western Iranian) school of the 7th/13th century (d. 665/1266).

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • AṮĪR-AL-DĪN ABHARĪ

    See ABHARĪ SAMARQANDĪ, AṮĪR-AL-DĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ATKINSON, James A.

    (1780­-1852), a notable British orientalist, a scholar of the Persian language and literature, and the translator of Persian literature.

    (Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak)

  • ATOSSA

    Achaemenid queen.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ʿAṬR

    “perfume” (Arabic ʿeṭr, plur. ʿoṭūr; in Persian also ʿaṭrīyāt, perfumes), a Semitic term also attested in Syriac and Amharic.

    (F. Aubaile-Sallenave)

  • ATRAK

    river of northern Khorasan, flowing first northwest, and then southwest into the Caspian Sea.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀΘRAVAN-

    (Avestan) “priest” regularly used to designate the priests as a social “class,” one of the three into which ancient Iranian society was theoretically divided.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ĀTRƎVAXŠ

    (Mid. Pers ādurwaxš), one of the eight Zoroastrian priests (ratu) necessary for performance of the yasna ritual.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • ATROPATENE

    See AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ATROPATES

    the satrap of Media, commander of the troops from Media, Albania, and Sacasene at the battle of Gaugamela in 331 B.C.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ATRUŠAN

    the Armenian word for “fire temple,” a loan-word from Parthian.

    (James R. Russell)

  • ATSÏZ B. ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    See ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN ATSÏZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ATSÏZ ḠARČAʾĪ

    ruler of Ḵᵛārazm with the traditional title Ḵᵛārazmšāh, 521 or 522/1127 or 1128 to 551/1156.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ATTABI

    one of many names for cloth used by medieval Islamic writers.

    (E. Sims)

  • AṬṬĀR, FARĪD-AL-DĪN

    (1145 or 46-1221) Persian poet, Sufi, theoretician of mysticism, and hagiographer, was born and died in Nīšāpūr.

    (B. Reinert)

  • ʿAṬṬĀŠ

    Ismaʿili leader during the time of Sultan Barkīāroq (Berk-yaruq, d. 498/1104).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ATTAŠAMA

    personal name in the Nuzi texts.

    (M. Mayrhofer)

  • ĀTUR

    "fire." See ĀDUR and ĀTAŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AΘURĀ

    Achaemenid province. See ASSYRIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀΘVIYA

    in the Avestan Hōm Yast (Y. 9.7) the second mortal to press the haoma and the father of Θraētaona (Ferīdūn).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AUBERGINE

    See BĀDENJĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AUDH

    See AVADH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AUGUSTINE

    prominent Christian theologian and philosopher, born 354 in Thagaste, Numidia.

    (G. Widengren)

  • AURELIUS VICTOR

    born in Africa ca. 325/330, held high positions under Julian and Theodosius.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • AUSTRIA i. Relations with Persia

    i. Relations with Persia Diplomatic and Commercial Relations with Persia. Diplomatic and commercial relations between Austria and Persia have a long history, stretching back to the sixteenth century.

    (Helmut Slaby)

  • AUSTRIA ii. IRANIAN STUDIES

    The present entry is intended as a synthetic history of the organization of Iranian studies (1) up to 1918 in all the Habsburg “hereditary countries,” which included the present Czech Republic and Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, also parts of Poland, Romania, and Ukraine, and (2) since 1918 in the Republic of Austria exclusively.

    (X. Tremblay and N. Rastegar)

  • AUTIYĀRA

    name of a district of the satrapy Armina of the Achaemenid empire.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • AUTOPHRADATES

    name of several Achaemenid officials, especially the satrap of Lydia under the Artaxerxes II, from 391 B.C. until the late 350s.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • AVA

    the basic modern form of the name of two small towns of northern Persia, normally written Āba in medieval Islamic sources.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AVADĀNA

    Sanskrit term for a category of Buddhist narrative literature.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • AVADH

    an ancient cultural and administrative region lying between the Himalayas and the Ganges in North India, named after Ayodhyā, the setting of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana.

    (R. B. Barnett)

  • AVALOKITEŚVARA-DHĀRAṆĪ

    name given by H. W. Bailey to a Buddhist text written in archaizing Late Khotanese, ending with a dhāraṇī (Skt. “spell, sacred formula”) preceded by homage to the bodhisattvas.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • AVARAYR

    a village in Armenia in the principality of Artaz southeast of the Iranian town of Mākū.

    (R. Hewsen)

  • ĀVĀZ

    Āvāz as a musical term has three basic meanings: (1) The classical vocal style of Iran, which is based on the elaborate modal system called dastgāh and sung mainly to classical Persian verses. (2) “Tune.” This term is used to denote an auxiliary mode in the dastgāh system.

    (Gen'ichi Tsuge)

  • AVERY, PETER

    The most important part of Avery’s published works consists of translations of Persian poetry, in particular the ghazals (ḡazal) of Hafez, the Persian poet for whom he felt a special empathy. He began translating some of the ghazals while still a student at SOAS.

    (David Blow)

  • AVESTA

    the holy book of the Zoroastrians.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • AVESTA i. Survey of the history and contents of the book

    “Avesta” is the name the Mazdean (Mazdayasnian) religious tradition gives to the collection of its sacred texts. The etymology and the exact meaning of the name (Pahlavi ʾp(y)stʾk/abestāg) can not be considered established.

    (J. Kellens)

  • AVESTA ii. Middle Persian Translations

    The ritual Avestan texts belonging to the great rituals are transmitted through two different kinds of manuscripts: the Sāde manuscripts, containing only the Avestan text, and the so-called Pahlavi manuscripts, which include the Pahlavi translations.

    (Alberto Cantera)

  • AVESTAN GEOGRAPHY

    Geographical references in the Avesta are limited to the regions on the eastern Iranian plateau and on the Indo-Iranian border.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • AVESTAN LANGUAGE I-III

    The Avestan script is based on the Pahlavi script in its cursive form. The earliest Pahlavi manuscripts date from the fourteenth century A.D., but the Pahlavi cursive script must have developed from the Aramaic script already in the first centuries A.D.

    (K. Hoffmann)

  • AVESTAN LANGUAGE iv. AVESTAN SYNTAX

    iv. AVESTAN SYNTAX The only complete syntax of Avestan which is still usable today is H. Reichelt’s Awestisches Elementarbuch (Heidelberg 1909, pp. 218-387, indicated by “R” in the references).

    (Jean Kellens)

  • AVESTAN PEOPLE

    The term Avestan people is used here to include both Zoroaster’s own tribe, with that of his patron, Kavi Vištāspa, and those peoples settled in Eastern Iran.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • AVIATION

    Originally the Iranian government had approached the U.S. administration to negotiate the purchase of American military aircrafts and to organize the training of pilots and technicians. But the Americans rejected the request, arguing that such an agreement would violate the disarmement clauses of the post-World War I peace treaties.

    (Abbas Atrvash)

  • AVICENNA

    Latin form of the name of the outstanding philosopher and physician of the medieval period, Abū ʿAlī Ḥosayn Ebn Sīnā (d. 1037).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • AVICENNA i. Introductory note

    philosopher who began a movement away from explicitness about the central question of the relation between philosophy and religion.

    (M. Mahdi)

  • AVICENNA ii. Biography

    philosopher whose biography presents the paradox that although more material is available for its study than is average for a Muslim scholar of his caliber, it has received little critical attention.

    (Dimitri Gutas)

  • AVICENNA iii. Logic

    philosopher whose works on logic are extant, and most of them have been published. With the exception of two Persian works, Dāneš-nāma-ye ʿalāʾī and Andar dāneš-e rag, all of his works are written in Arabic.

    (Sh. B. Abed)

  • AVICENNA iv. Metaphysics

    a philosopher whose metaphysical system is one of the most comprehensive and detailed in the history of philosophy.

    (M. E. Marmura)

  • AVICENNA v. Mysticism

    a philosopher whose philosophical system, rooted in the Aristotelian tradition, is thoroughly rationalistic and intrinsically alien to the principles of Sufism as it had developed until his time.

    (Dimitri Gutas)

  • AVICENNA vi. Psychology

    a psychology or doctrine of the soul that has an Aristotelian base with a strong Neoplatonic superstructure.

    (Fazlur Rahman)

  • AVICENNA vii. Practical Sciences

    an account of practical science that is laconic and dispersed in minor tracts and in the opening and closing passages of his comprehensive encyclopedic works.

    (M. Mahdi)

  • AVICENNA viii. Mathematics and Physical Sciences

    referred to, in his encyclopedic work the Šefāʾ, as the mathematical sciences; includes both mathematics and astronomy.

    (George Saliba)

  • AVICENNA ix. Music

    from the discussion in his Ketāb al-najāt, Dāneš-nāma-ye ʿalāʾī, and Ketāb al-Šefāʾ. He considers music one of the mathematical sciences (the medieval quadrivium).

    (O. Wright)

  • AVICENNA x. Medicine and Biology

    In the works of Avicenna, the two great traditions,Galen and Aristotle, intersected. Avicenna wrote the medieval textbook of Galenic medicine the Qānūn (the Canon), as well as the central medieval statement of Aristotelian biology (the Ḥayawān, the biological section of the Šefāʾ).

    (B. Musallam)

  • AVICENNA xi. Persian Works

    only two works in Persian have come down to us: a short book Andar dāneš-e rag (On the science of the pulse), and a treatise on philosophy.

    (M. Achena)

  • AVICENNA xii. The impact of Avicenna’s philosophical works on the West

    Western European acquaintance with Avicenna began when Latin versions of some of his Arabic works came out in the mid-12th to late 13th centuries.

    (S. Van Riet)

  • AVICENNA xiii. The influence of Avicenna on medical studies in the West

    From the early fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth century Avicenna held a high place in Western European medical studies.

    (U. Weisser)

  • ĀVĪŠAN

    wild thyme. Varieties in Iran are carminative, stomachic, diuretic, digestive, and flatulent. They may be used for liver and respiratory disorders.

    (R. A. Parsa)

  • AVROMAN

    a mountainous region on the western frontier of Persian Kurdistan.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • AVROMAN DOCUMENTS

    three parchments found in a cave in the Kūh-e Sālān.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • AVROMANI

    the dialect of Avroman, properly Hawrāmi, the most archaic of the Gōrāni group.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • AWĀʾEL AL-MAQĀLĀT

    a Shiʿite doctrinal work written in Baghdad.

    (M. J. McDermott)

  • AWAN

    name of a place in ancient western Iran, the nominal dynastic seat of Elamite rulers in the late third millennium B.C.

    (M. W. Stolper)

  • ʿAWĀREF AL-MAʿĀREF

    a classic work on Sufism by Šehāb-al-dīn Sohravardī (1145-1234)

    (W. C. Chittick)

  • ʿAWĀREŻ

    term used since 4th/10th century to denote extraordinary imposts of various kinds, the nature of which differed per area and historic period.

    (Willem Floor)

  • ʿAWFĪ, SADĪD-AL-DĪN

    an important Persian writer of the late 6th/12th and early 7th/13th centuries.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • AWḤAD-AL-DĪN KERMĀNĪ

    a famous mystic of the 6th/12th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • AWḤADĪ MARĀḠAʾĪ

    (born ca. 673/1274-75 in Marāḡa and died there in 738/1338), a poet who flourished in the reign of Abū Saʿīd Bahādor Khan (r. 716/1316-736/1335).

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • AWLĪĀʾ

    a term commonly translated in European languages as “saints” or the equivalent.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • AWLĪĀʾALLĀH ĀMOLĪ

    the author of the history of Rūyān, Tārīḵ-e Rūyān, written about 760/1359.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • AWQĀF

    See WAQF (pending). See also AMLĀK, ḴĀṢṢA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AWRANGĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY AWRANGĀBĀDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AWRANGĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ AWRANGĀBĀDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AWRANGĀBĀDĪ, SHAH NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN

    the celebrated Češtī saint said to be a descendant of Abū Bakr, the first caliph, in the line of Šehāb-al-dīn Sohravardī.

    (M. L. Siddiqui)

  • AWRANGZĒB

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AWRŌMĀN

    or AWRŌMĀNI, See AVROMAN; AVROMANI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AWṢĀF AL-AŠRĀF

    a short mystical-ethical work in Persian by Naṣīr-al-dīn Ṭūsī, written late in life, ca. 670/1271-72.

    (G. Michael Wickens)

  • AWTĀD

    See ABDĀL; AWLĪĀʾ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AXSE

    the name of a Parthian hostage in Rome, inscribed in the dedication of an epitaph engraved on a marble plaque and discovered at the Forum Boarium in Rome (Priuli, 1977, pp. 331-34; 1979, p. 25, no. 78).

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • ĀXŠTI

    (Avestan) “Peace, contract of peace.”

    (Bernfried Schlerath)

  • AXT

    a sorcerer and, according to Zoroastrian tradition, a vehement, early opponent of the Religion.

    (M. F. Kanga)

  • AXTAR

    (Middle and New Persian) “star” or “constellation.”

    (W. Eilers)

  • AXTARMĀR

    “astronomer.” The astronomers were included in the category of the third of the four Sasanian social classes, i.e., the class of the scribes, together with the physicians and poets.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀXWARR

    Middle Persian term for “manger” or “stall” borrowed into Armenian as axoṙ.

    (W. Eilers)

  • ĀXWARRBED

    Middle Iranian term for the “Stablemaster, Royal Equerry.”

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀY ḴĀNOM

    or AÏ KHANUM (Tepe), a local Uzbek name designating the site of an important Greek colonial city in northern Afghanistan excavated since 1965 by a French mission and which belonged to a powerful hellenistic state born of Alexander’s conquest in Central Asia (329-27 B.C.)

    (Paul Bernard)

  • AY TĪMŪR

    Sarbadār commander and ruler, “the son of a slave”.

    (J. M. Smith, Jr.)

  • ĀYADANA

    “place of cult.” The term occurs once in the Old Persian Bīstūn inscription of Darius I.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • AYĀDGĀR Ī JĀMĀSPĪG

    “Memorial of Jāmāsp,” a short but important Zoroastrian work in Middle Persian, also known as the Jāmāspī and Jāmāsp-nāma.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • AYĀDGĀR Ī WUZURGMIHR

    a popular-religious andarz composition in Pahlavi, attributed to one of the best-known sages of the Sasanian period, Wuzurgmihr (Bozorgmehr) ī Buxtagān, who was active at the court of Ḵosrow I Anōšīravān (531-79 A.D.).

    (S. Shaked)

  • AYĀDGĀR Ī ZARĒRĀN

    “Memorial of Zarēr,” a short Pahlavi text which is the only surviving specimen in that language of ancient Iranian epic poetry.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • AYĀDĪ-E AMR ALLĀH

    “Hands of the Cause of God”, term used in Bahaʾism to designate the highest rank of the appointed religious hierarchy.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • AʿYĀN AL-ŠĪʿA

    a monumental dictionary (56 vols. altogether) of Shiʿite celebrities and learned men compiled by the Shiʿite scholar Sayyed Moḥsen Amīn ʿĀmelī (d. 1952).

    (W. Ende)

  • ĀYANDA

    Persian journal which began publication in Tīr, 1304 Š./June-July, 1925, under the editorship of its founder, Maḥmūd Afšār (1893-1983).

    (Iraj Afšār)

  • ĀYANDAGĀN

    a daily morning newspaper that first appeared in Tehran on 16 December, 1967.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton and P. Mohajer)

  • ĀYATALLĀH

    (Sign of God; Engl. Ayatullah, Ayatollah), an honorific title awarded by popular usage to mojtaheds, particularly the foremost among them.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ĀYATĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN

    (b. 1288/1871; d. 1332 Š./1953), son of Mollā Moḥammad-Taqī Āḵūnd Taftī, Bahāʾi missionary, journalist, author, and teacher.

    (Iraj Afšār)

  • AYĀZ, ABU’L-NAJM

    favorite Turkish slave of the Ghaznavid Sultan Maḥmūd, whose passion for Ayāz is a recurrent theme in Persian poetry, where he is also called Ayās or Āyāz.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • AYBAK

    (Uzbek “cave dweller”), now called Samangān, capital of Samangān province, associated with several important archeological sites.

    (L. Dupree)

  • AYBAK, QOṬB-AL-DĪN

    founder of the Moʿezzī or Slave Dynasty and the first Muslim king of India, also called Ībak (moon chieftain) and Aybak Šel.

    (N. H. Zaidi)

  • ĀYENAHĀ-YE DARDĀR

    (Mirrors with cover doors, Tehran, 1992), one of the last major works by Hushang Golshiri.

    (Mohammad Mehdi Khorrami)

  • AYMĀQ

    (Turk. Oymaq), a term designating tribal peoples in Khorasan and Afghanistan, mostly semi-nomadic or semi-sedentary, in contrast to the fully sedentary, non-tribal population of the area.

    (A. Janata)

  • ʿAYN-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD

    ATĀBAK-E AʿẒAM (1845-1926) son of Solṭān Aḥmad Mīrzā ʿAżod-al-dawla, Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah’s forty-eighth son and a prominent political figure of Moẓaffar-al-dīn Shah’s reign (1896-1907).

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ʿAYN-AL-QOŻĀT HAMADĀNĪ

    (492/1098-526/1131), brilliant mystic philosopher and Sufi martyr.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • AYNALLŪ

    (or ĪNALLŪ, ĪNĀLŪ, ĪMĀNLŪ), a tribe of Ḡozz Turkic origin inhabiting Azerbaijan, central Iran and Fārs.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ʿAYNI, KAMĀL

    As a textual and literary critic, Kamāl ʿAyni centered his work on Persian works of the Timurid era and contiguous periods, mainly the 15th and 16th centuries. He thus published a number of essays and monographs.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ʿAYNĪ, ṢADR-AL-DĪN

    (1878-1954), poet, novelist, and the leading figure of Soviet Tajik literature, born 18 Rabīʿ II 1295/15 April 1878 in the village of Sāktarī in the emirate of Bukhara, a Russian protectorate.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • AYŌKĒN

    a Middle Persian legal term denoting the category of persons to whom descends the obligation of stūrīh (marriage by proxy or substitution).

    (M. Shaki)

  • AYRARAT

    region of central Armenia in the broad plain of the upper Araxes.

    (R. H. Hewsen)

  • ĀYRĪMLŪ

    (in Persian often Āyromlū), Turkic tribe of western Azerbaijan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ĀYROM, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    army commander and the head of the police under Reżā Shah (r. 1304-20 Š./1925-41).

    (Mehrdad Amanat)

  • AYVĀN

    (palace, veranda, balcony, portico), a Persian word used also in Arabic (īwān, līwān) and Turkish.

    (Oleg Grabar)

  • AYVĀN-E KESRĀ

    Ayvān-e Kesrā has been described in Arabic and Persian sources and is the subject of a moving qaṣīda by the poet Ḵāqānī who visited its ruins in mid-6th/12th century. Once the most famous of all Sasanian monuments and a landmark in the history of architecture, it is now only an imposing brick ruin.

    (E. J. Keall)

  • ʿAYYĀR

    a noun meaning literally “vagabond,” applied to members of medieval fotowwa (fotūwa) brotherhoods and comparable popular organizations.

    (Claude Cahen, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.)

  • ʿAYYĀŠĪ, ABU’L-NAŻR MOḤAMMAD

    Imami jurist and scholar of the 3rd-4th/9th-10th centuries.

    (I. K. Poonawala)

  • AYYOHAʾL-WALAD

    a short treatise by Abū Ḥāmed Moḥammad Ḡazālī Ṭūsī (fl. 450-505/1058-1111), originally composed in Persian.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • AYYŪB KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    B. AMĪR ŠĒR ʿALĪ KHAN. See MOḤAMMAD AYYŪB KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AYYUBIDS

    (Ar. Banū Ayyūb), a Kurdish family who first became prominent as members of the Zangid military establishment in Syria in the mid-sixth/twelfth century.

    (R. S. Humphreys)

  • ʿAYYŪQĪ

    a poet of the fifth/eleventh century who versified the romance of Varqa o Golšāh.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ĀZ

    Iranian demon known from Zoroastrian, Zurvanite, and, especially, Manichean sources.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • ĀZĀD (Iranian Nobility)

    (older ĀZĀT), a class of the Iranian nobility.

    (M. L. Chaumont, C. Toumanoff)

  • ĀZĀD

    Zelkova crenata or Siberian elm, a tree of the Ulmaceae family, for which also other scientific names, such as Zelkova carpinifolia, Zelkova hyrcana, Planera crenata, and Planera Richardi, have been proposed.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • ĀZĀD, ʿABD-AL-QADIR

    (b. 1272 Š./1893, d. 1352 Š./1973), journalist, politician, Majles deputy, member of opposition groups .

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • ĀZĀD, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    Scholar and writer in Urdu and Persian, born about 1834 in Delhi.

    (K. N. Pandita)

  • ĀZĀD BELGRĀMĪ

    Major Indo-Muslim poet, biographer, and composer of chronograms, also known as Ḥassān-al-Hend (fl. 1116-1200/1704-86).

    (Moazzam Siddiqi)

  • ĀZĀD FĪRŪZ

    governor of Bahrain and the surrounding area in the time of Ḵosrow (probably Ḵosrow II Parvēz).

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀZĀD KHAN AFḠĀN

    (d. 1781), a major contender for supremacy in western Iran after the death of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47).

    (John R. Perry)

  • ĀZĀD TABRIZI

    (also spelled Hocéne-Azad; “Ḥasan” in Eʿtemād-al-Salṭana, p. 207, is a misprint), physician, anthologist, and translator (b. Tehran, ca. 1854; d. Paris, 1936).

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ĀZĀDA

    name of a Roman slave-girl of Bahrām Gōr.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • AZADARAN-E BAYAL

    (ʿAzādārān-e Bayal; The mourners of Bayal, Tehran, 1964). The collection comprises eight interconnected stories, called Qeṣṣa. Sharing characters and not unlike a novel, they revolve around the inescapable horrors of death, disease, drought, and famine in a fictitious village named Bayal.

    (Mahyar Entezari)

  • ʿAZĀDĀRĪ

    to hold a commemoration of the dead, by extension, mourning, a word deriving from Arabic ʿazāʾ, which means commemorating the dead.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ĀZĀḎBEH B. BĀNEGĀN

    a dehqān (landowner) of Hamadān, marzbān (governor) in the former Lakhmid capital of Ḥīra in central Iraq during the years preceding the Arab conquest of that province.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ĀZĀDĪ

    (Freedom), the name of the several Persian journals.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ĀZĀDĪSTĀN

    the title of a Persian educational magazine which came out at Tabrīz in Jawzā, 1299/June-August, 1920.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ĀZĀDSARV

    Two bearers of this name are known.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ĀZĀDVĀR

    (or Āzaḏvār), a small town of Khorasan in the district (kūra, rostāq) of Jovayn, which flourished in medieval Islamic times, apparently down to the Il-khanid period.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AŻĀʿELḴᵛĀNĪ

    See MANĀQEB ḴᵛĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AZAL

    Arabic theological term derived from Pahlavi a-sar “without head” and meaning, already in early Muʿtazilite kalām, “eternity a parte ante,” as opposite to abad, “eternity a parte post.”

    (Josef van Ess)

  • AZALI BABISM

    designation of a religious faction which takes its name from Mīrzā Yaḥyā Nūrī Ṣobḥ-e Azal (about 1246-1330/1830-1912), considered by his followers to have been the legitimate successor to the Bāb.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • AʿẒAM KHAN

    the fifth son of Amir Dōst Moḥammad Khan and the third amir of the Moḥammadzay line, ruler of Afghanistan in 1284/1867-1285/1868.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy Ḥabibi)

  • ĀŽANG

    (Wrinkle), a Persian newspaper which commenced publication in Esfand, 1332 Š./February, 1954, and lasted until 1353 Š./1974.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • AẔAR “fire”

    See ĀDUR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀẔAR

    father of Abraham. See EBRĀHĪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀẔAR BĪGDELĪ

    (ĀḎAR BĪGDELĪ), poet and author of a taḏkera (biographical anthology) of about 850 Persian poets, complied in 1174/1760.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • ĀẔAR KAYVĀN

    (ĀḎAR KAYVĀN; d. between 1609 and 1618), a Zoroastrian high priest and native of Fārs who emigrated to India and became the founder of the Zoroastrian Ešrāqī or Illuminative School.

    (H. Corbin)

  • ĀẔAR ḴORDĀD

    See ĀDUR FARNBAG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀẔARBĀDAGĀN

    See AZERBAIJAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀẔARBĀY(E)JĀN

    See AZERBAIJAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀẔARBĀYJĀN JOURNAL

    (ĀḎARBĀY[E]JĀN), the title of a satirical-political journal published at Tabrīz in 1907.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ĀẔARĪ language

    the ancient language of Azerbaijan. See AZERBAIJAN vii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĀẔARĪ ṬŪSĪ

    (ĀḎARĪ ṬŪSĪ), NŪR-AL-DĪN (or FAḴR-AL-DĪN) ḤAMZA B. ʿALĪ MALEK ESFARĀYENĪ BAYHAQĪ, Shiʿite Sufi poet (fl. 1382-1462).

    (A. ʿA. Rajāʾī)

  • ĀZARMĪGDUXT

    Sasanian queen who according to Ṭabarī ruled for a few months in 630.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • ĀẔARŠAHR

    (or DEHḴᵛĀRAQĀN; in the local Azeri Turkish: Toḵargān), a town and a district (baḵš) of the šahrestān of Tabrīz.

    (ʿA. ʿA. Kārang)

  • AŽDAHĀ

    “dragon,” various kinds of snake-like, mostly gigantic, monsters living in the air, on earth, or in the sea (also designated by other terms) sometimes connected with natural phenomena, especially rain and eclipses.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø, Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh, J. R. Russell)

  • AZDĀKARA

    (from Old Persian azdā- “announcement” and kara- “maker”), officials of the Achaemenid chancery, the heralds, who made known, for example, the government edicts, court sentences.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • AZDI, ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān, was a governor of Khorasan (757-59) who came into conflict with the caliph al-Manṣur.

    (G. R. Hawting)

  • AZDĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    B. RAWWĀD, a notable of Azerbaijan at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, known mainly in connection with the revolt of Bābak, the leader of the Ḵorrami movement.

    (G. R. Hawting)

  • AZERBAIJAN

    (Āḏarbāy[e]jān), historical region of northwestern Iran, east of Lake Urmia, since the Achaemenid era.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • AZERBAIJAN i. Geography

    characterized by volcanic constructions—along the “volcanic cicatrix” that follows the internal ridge of the Zagros and marks its contact with the central Iranian plateau.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • AZERBAIJAN ii. Archeology

    comprises the two Iranian provinces of West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan, with administrative centers at Urmia (before 1979 Reżāʾīya) and Tabrīz respectively; it does not include “Northern Azerbaijan,” centered on Baku, which since 1829 has belonged to the Russian empire.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History

    the northwestern province of Azerbaijan can look back on a long history. For the earliest periods, however, archeological research has barely begun.

    (K. Schippmann)

  • AZERBAIJAN iv. Islamic History to 1941

    Background. Azerbaijan formed a separate province of the early Islamic caliphate, but its precise borders varied in different periods.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • AZERBAIJAN v. History from 1941 to 1947

    Upon entering Iran, the Soviets dismantled frontier and customs posts between Iran and the USSR, and set up military posts on the southern border of the Soviet occupied zone. The de facto result was extension of the Soviet frontier into Iran.

    (B. Kuniholm)

  • AZERBAIJAN vi. Population and its Occupations and Culture

    tribalism is no longer of great social relevance for most Azerbaijanis, but most have a recent history of tribal allegiances, whether Turkish or Kurdish.

    (R. Tapper)

  • AZERBAIJAN vii. The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan

    Āḏarī (Ar. al-āḏarīya) was the Iranian language of Azerbaijan before the spread of the Turkish language, commonly called Azeri, in the region.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • AZERBAIJAN viii. Azeri Turkish

    Oghuz languages were earlier grouped into Turkish (of Turkey), Azeri, and Turkmen, but recent research has modified this simple picture.

    (Gerhard Doerfer)

  • AZERBAIJAN ix. Iranian Elements in Azeri Turkish

    perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Iranian has exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax and vocabulary, less in morphology.

    (L. Johanson)

  • AZERBAIJAN x. Azeri Literature [1988]

    (ARCHIVED VERSION) by H. Javadi and K. Burrill As printed in EIr. Vol. III, Fasc. 3, 1988, pp. 251-255.

    (H. Javadi and K. Burrill)

  • AZERBAIJAN x. Azeri Turkish Literature

    Due to bilingualism among the educated Turkic-speaking people of the area the use of Azeri prose was widespread until the reign of Reżā Shah Pahlavi (r. 1925-41).

    (H. Javadi and K. Burrill)

  • AZERBAIJAN xi. Music of Azerbaijan

    Iranian elements in the development of the Azeri tradition were numerous, as is shown by modern terminology (čahār meżrāb, bardāšt), as well as by certain pieces in the repertoire.

    (Jean During)

  • AZERBAIJAN xii. MONUMENTS

    xii. MONUMENTS The Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan, both West and East, possess a large number of monuments from all periods of history. In the following the more significant buildings, rock reliefs, and archeological sites are enumerated, classified according to cultural periods.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • AZES

    the name of two Indo-Scythian kings of the major dynasty ruling an empire based on the Punjab and Indus valley from about 50 BCE to CE 30.

    (D. W. Mac Dowell)

  • AẒFARĪ GŪRGĀNĪ

    18th-century Indo-Persian poet and lexicographer.

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • AZHAR-E ḴAR

    “Azhar the ass,” nickname of AZHAR B. YAḤYĀ B. ZOHAYR B. FARQAD, third cousin and military commander of the Saffarid amirs Yaʿqūb and ʿAmr b. Layṯ.

    (L. P. Smirnova)

  • AŽI AND AŽI DAHĀKA

    (DAHĀKA). See AŽDAHĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • AZILISES

    Indo-Scythian king of the dynasty of Azes in the Indus valley about the beginning of the Christian era.

    (D. W. MacDowall)

  • ʿAẒĪM NAVĀZ KHAN BAHĀDOR

    author of a Sunni account in Persian of the martyrdom of Imam Ḥosayn and superintendent of the compilation of a political and natural history of the Carnatic and of India in general. (fl. 1859).

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • ʿAẒĪMĀBĀD

    (Patna), ancient Pataliputra, present capital of Bihar state in northeast India.

    (Q. Ahmad)

  • ĀZĪN JOŠNAS

    (ĀḎĪN JOŠNAS), a military commander of the Sasanian Hormazd IV (r. 579-90), killed in Hamadān on his way to fight the rebellious general Bahrām Čōbin.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ĀŽĪR

    “Alarm bell,” a radical leftist Persian newspaper, printed at Tehran, May 1943 to June, 1945.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • AZIŠMĀND

    “obstructed or hampered justice," one of the few Middle Persian exclusively legal terms.

    (M. Shaki)

  • ʿAZĪZ KHAN MOKRĪ

    SARDĀR-E KOLL (1792-1871), an army chief and dignitary of Qajar Iran.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ʿAZĪZ NASAFĪ

    See NASAFĪ, ʿAZĪZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-DĪN, MOSTAWFĪ

    See ABŪ NAṢR MOSTAWFĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-MOLK

    See ʿALĪ EBRĀHĪM KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-SOLṬĀN

    (1879-1940), better known as Malījak(-e) Ṯānī [II], the boy favorite of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qājār.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • ʿAZIZALLĀH BEN NAʿIM

    See JEWS, PERSIAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ŠOJĀʾ FANNĀ ḴOSROW

    (936-83), the greatest Buyid monarch and the most powerful ruler in the Islamic East in the last years of his life.

    (Ch. Bürgel and R. Mottahedeh)

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA ŠĪRZĀD

    See ŠĪRZĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, SOLṬĀN-AḤMAD MIRZĀ

    Qajar prince and official as well as author of a history known as the Tāriḵ‑e ʿażodi

    (Manoutchehr M. Eskandari-Qajar)

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DĪN ĪJĪ

    famous Shafeʿite jurist and Asḥʿarite theologian.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-MOLK, ʿALĪ REŻĀ KHAN

    during the Tobacco protest of 1891-92, ʿone of the chief mediators between the shah and the ʿolamāʾ of Tehran; regent of Iran in 1909-10.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-MOLK, MOḤAMMAD ḤOSAYN

    (d. 1867), a senior official in the first part of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qājār’s reign.

    (Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • AZRAQĪ HERAVĪ

    the pen-name of Abū Bakr b. Esmāʿīl Warrāq of Herat, a Persian poet of the 5th/11th century.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ĀZŪITI-

    an Avestan word meaning “oblation of fat,” also a divine being representing Fatness or Plenty.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • Abbās Khāni - Navā

    (music sample)

  • Abu ‘Atā

    (music sample)

  • Afšāri

    (music sample)

  • Agar ān tork-e Širāzi

    (music sample)

  • Alimardan Khān

    (music sample)

  • Amiri-e kutāh o boland o Ṭālebā

    (music sample)

  • Āqor haley

    (music sample)

  • ‘Āref – Namidānam

    (music sample)

  • Armenian Šuštari

    (music sample)

  • ʿĀŠEQ JONUN

    (music sample)

  • Āvāz-e Dašti

    (music sample)

  • Āvāz-e Dašti

    (music sample)

  • As~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the As–Az entries

    (DATA)

  • BAAT

    an Iranian middle personal name; Baat is the name of a disciple of Mani mentioned in the Coptic “crucifixion narrative”. The word is borrowed in Armenian in the form “Bat” which translates to the name of the “nahapet” (family head).

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams, J. Russell)

  • BĀB (1)

    “door, gate, entrance,” a term of varied application in Shiʿism and related movements.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BĀB (2)

    Title given to certain Sufi shaikhs of Central Asia.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BĀB, ʿAli Moḥammad Širāzi

    (1819-1850), the founder of Babism, from a mercantile family with activities in Shiraz and Būšehr.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BĀB AL-ABWĀB

    Ancient city in Dāḡestān on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, located at the entrance to the narrow pass between the Caucasus foothills and the sea. See DARBAND (1).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀB AL-BĀB

    Shaikhi ʿālem who became the first convert to Babism, provincial Babi leader in Khorasan, and organizer of Babi resistance in Māzandarān (1814-49). See BOŠRŪʾĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀB-E FARḠĀNĪ

    title given to certain Sufi shaikhs of Central Asia. See BĀB (2).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀB-E HOMĀYŪN

    name of a gate and its connecting street in the Qajar citadel of Tehran. Once known as “Sardar Almasiya”, the gate was renamed to Bab-E Homayun and rebuilt as a two-storied structure.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • BĀB-E MĀČĪN

    title given to certain Sufi shaikhs of Central Asia. See BĀB (2).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀBĀ AFŠĀR

    MĪRZĀ. See ḤAKĪMBĀŠĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀBĀ AFŻAL-AL-DĪN

    (d. ca. 1213-14) poet and author of philosophical works in Persian. His works suggest a disdain for officials, and his tomb in Maraq is still a place of pilgrimage.

    (William Chittick)

  • BĀBĀ BEG

    See JŪYĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀBĀ-YE DEHQĀN

    a mythological and ritual character whose cult has been reported in agrarian communities of mountainous and lowland Tajikistan, northern Afghanistan, and adjacent countries.

    (Anna Krasnowolska)

  • BĀBĀ FAḠĀNI

    Persian poet of the 15th and 16th centuries, who wrote under his last name and also the pen-name Sakkaki.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BĀBĀ FARĪD

    a major Shaikh of the Češtīya mystic order, born in the last quarter of the 12th century in Kahtwāl near Moltān, Punjab. See GANJ-E ŠAKAR, Farid-al-Din Masʿud.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀBĀ ḤĀTEM

    11th-century mausoleum in northern Afghanistan, some 40 miles west of Balḵ. It follows the simple plan of the earliest Islamic mausoleums in the Iranian world—a single square room with a cupola resting on squinches.

    (A. S. Melikian-Chirvani)

  • BĀBĀ JĀN ḴORĀSĀNI

    16th-century calligrapher, poet, and craftsman, also known as Ḥāfeẓ Bābā Jān Torbatī.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • BĀBĀ JĀN TEPE

    an archeological site in northeastern Luristan, on the southern edge of the Delfān plain, near Nūrābād, important primarily for excavations conducted by C. Goff from 1966 to 1969.

    (R. C. Henrickson)

  • BĀBĀ KUHI

    popular name of Shaikh Abū ʿAbdallāh Moḥammad b. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿObaydallāh Bākūya Šīrāzī, Sufi of the 10th-11th centuries.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • BĀBĀ ŠAMAL

    a weekly satirical periodical, 1943-45, founded by Reżā Ganjaʾī. It was impartially opposed to all foreign intervention and influence in Iran. It had a wide circulation and dealt with the political issues of the day.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • BĀBĀ SAMMĀSĪ

    (d. 1354), Central Asian Sufi of the line known as selsela-ye ḵᵛājagān (line of the masters) which was inaugurated by Ḵᵛāja Abu Yaʿqūb Hamadānī.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BĀBĀ SANKŪ

    ecstatic Central Asian dervish of disorderly habits, contemporary with Timur (d. 1405) and one of several Sufis with whom Timur chose to associate for reasons of state.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BĀBĀ SHAH ESFAHĀNI

    calligrapher and poet who lived in Isfahan and Baghdad where he died in 1587-1588. He was a famous nastaʿlīq script writer.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • BĀBĀ ṬĀHER ʿORYĀN

    medieval dervish poet from the area of Hamadān, best known for his do-baytīs, quatrains composed in a simpler meter still widely used for popular verse.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • BĀBĀʾĪ BEN FARHĀD

    18th-century author of a versified history of the Jews of Kāšān with brief references to the Jews of Isfahan and one or two other towns.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • BĀBĀʾĪ BEN LOṬF

    Jewish poet and historian of Kāšān during the first half of the 17th century (d. after 1662).

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • BĀBĀʾĪ BEN NŪRĪʾEL

    rabbi (ḥāḵām) from Isfahan; at the behest of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47), he translated the Pentateuch and the Psalms of David from Hebrew into Persian.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • BABĀJĀʾĪ

    See KURDISTAN TRIBES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀBAK (1)

    (Mid. Pers. Pāpak, Pābag), a ruler of Fārs at the beginning of the third century, father of Ardašīr, the founder of the Sasanian dynasty.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • BĀBAK

    reformer of the Sasanian military and in charge of the department of the warriors (Diwān al-moqātela) during the reign of Ḵosrow I Anušervān in the 6th century CE.

    (Touraj Daryaee)

  • BĀBAK ḴORRAMI

    leader of the Ḵorramdīnī or Ḵorramī uprising in Azerbaijan in the early 9th century (d. 838), which engaged the forces of the caliph for 20 years before it was crushed in 837.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • BĀBAKĪYA

    See ḴORRAMĪS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BABAN

    (or Bavan), a small town in the medieval Islamic province of Bāḏḡīs, to the north and west of Herat.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BĀBĀN

    (or Baban), Kurdish princely family in Solaymānīya, ruling an area in Iraqi Kurdistan and western Iran (17th—19th centuries) and actively involved in the Perso-Ottoman struggles.

    (W. Behn)

  • BĀBĀN DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E BĀBĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀBAY

    catholicos of the Persian Church elected at the synod at Seleucia in 497 (d. 502).

    (A. Vööbus)

  • BĀBAY THE GREAT

    (d. 628), abbot and prominent leader in the Nestorian church in Iran under Ḵosrow II.

    (A. Vööbus)

  • BĀBAY OF NISIBIS

    Christian Syriac writer who flourished about the beginning of the seventh century CE; a homily of his is attested in Sogdian.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • BĀBEL

    See BABYLON.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BABILLA, ASHUR BANIPAL IBRAHIM

    In acting also, just as did Artaud, Bani placed heavy emphasis on invoking deeply rooted feelings of the actors and argued that “while actors are wearing masks in their daily lives, in theater, these masks are torn off and we are facing the inner self of the actor.”

    (Khosro Shayesteh)

  • BĀBIRUŠ

    See BABYLON.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BABISM

    a 19th-century messianic movement in Iran and Iraq under the overall charismatic leadership of Sayyed ʿAlī-Moḥammad Šīrāzī, the Bāb (1819-1850). Babism was the only significant millenarian movement in Shiʿite Islam during the 19th century.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BABISM iii. Babism in Neyriz

    In 1850, Sayyed Yaḥyā Dārābi, a Babi named as Waḥid arrived in Neyriz, a town in Fars. There was a violent confrontation between those who had converted to Babism and the governor of Neyriz. There were more periods of friendly relations with Bahais and Muslims as well as mayhem to come.

    (Hussein Ahdieh)

  • BĀBŌĒ

    catholicos (d. 481 or 484), orthodox leader of the Christian church in Iran under Pērōz, one of Barṣaumā’s chief opponents.

    (A. Vööbus)

  • BĀBOL

    town in Māzandarān, formerly Bārforūš.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BĀBOL i. The Town

    a small, local market-place, as indicated by its original name, Bārforūš; The settlement developed in early Safavid times on the site of the old town of Māmṭīr, and was favored by Shah ʿAbbās who built a garden there, Bāḡ-e Šāh or Bāḡ-e Eram.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • BĀBOL ii. Islamic Monuments

    Once the largest town in Māzandarān, Bābol was the site of numerous monuments, including mosques, quarters, madrasas, takias, shrines and so on; Yet today only two small ninth/fifteenth-century emāmzādas are classified as historical monuments.

    (S. Blair)

  • BĀBOL iii. Population, 1956-2011

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Bābol city: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • BĀBOLSAR

    town on the Caspian coast in the province of Māzandarān.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • BĀBOR, ABUʾL-QĀSEM MĪRZĀ

    Timurid prince (1422-1457), the youngest son of Bāysonqor and a great-grandson of the conqueror Tīmūr.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • BĀBOR, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    (1483-1530), Timurid prince, military genius, and literary craftsman, founder of the Mughal Empire in India.

    (F. Lehmann)

  • BĀBORĪ

    (or Bābor, Bābar; sing. Bāboray), a Paṧtūn tribe originally from the Solaymān mountains, now widely dispersed.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BABR

    “tiger.” The little evidence suggests only tentative differences between the Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) and the Indian tiger (P. t. tigris) or the Siberian tiger (P. t. altaica).

    (P. Joslin)

  • BABR-E BAYĀN

    (or babr, also called palangīna), in the traditional history, the name of the coat which Rostam wore in combat.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BABYLON

    The economic and cultural history of Babylon under the Persian Achaemenids rule matched the vicissitudes of its political life.

    (G. Cardascia)

  • BABYLONIA

    ancient state in southern Mesopotamia, present-day Iraq.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BABYLONIA i. History of Babylonia in the Median and Achaemenid periods

    The Medes, under their king Cyaxares, first seized the Assyrian province of Arrapha in 614 B.C. Then, in the autumn of the same year, and after a fierce battle, they gained control of Assyria’s ancient capital, Assur. Nabopolassar brought his Babylonian army and joined the Medes after Assur had fallen.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • BABYLONIA ii. Babylonian Influences on Iran

    In the Achaemenid period, the influence of Babylonia was strong in the fields of the arts, science, religion, and religious policies, even affecting the concept of kingship.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • BABYLONIAN CHRONICLES

    as sources for Iranian history. In a number of cases Babylonian chronicles provide valuable information about the political history of Iran. These chronicles, which are closely connected to one another, began with the reign of Nabu-nāṣir (747-734 B.C.E.) and continued as far as the reign of Seleucus II (245-226 B.C.E.).

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • BAČČA-YE SAQQĀ

    “the water-carrier’s child,” the derogatory name given to the leader of a peasants’ revolt which succeeded in placing him on the throne of Afghanistan in 1929.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BACHER, WILHELM

    (1850-1913), Hungarian scholar of Persian and Judeo-Persian language and literature.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • BACKGAMMON

    See NARD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BACTRA

    See BACTRIA i; BALKH vi.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BACTRIA

    Little information has been obtained from Achaemenid sites in Bactria. Bactra is deeply buried under the citadel (bālā-ḥeṣār) of present-day Balḵ. Drapsaca and Aornos, mentioned by the historians of Alexander, are usually identified with Kondūz and Tashkurgan, where excavations have yet to begin.

    (P. Leriche, F. Grenet)

  • BACTRIAN LANGUAGE

    The Iranian language of ancient Bactria (northern Afghanistan) of the Kushan period is the only Middle Iranian language whose writing system is based on the Greek alphabet.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • BĀD (1)

    “wind.” On the plateau of Iran and Afghanistan winds depend on a general regime of atmospheric pressures characterized, in the course of the year, by the succession of markedly distinct seasons with relatively stable barometric gradients.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • BĀD (2)

    (“wind”) in Perso-Islamic medicine: 1. wind as a medically relevant environmental factor; 2. “airiness” as internal physiological and pathological agent.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • BADʾ WAʾL-TAʾRĪḴ

    (The book of creation and history), an encyclopedic compilation of religious, historical, and philosophical knowledge written in Arabic by Abū Naṣr Moṭahhar b. al-Moṭahhar (or Ṭāher) Maqdesī in 966.

    (Michael Morony)

  • BĀDA

    one of several terms used in Persian poetry to mean wine, and, by extension, any intoxicating liquor.

    (J. W. Clinton)

  • BADĀʾ

    (Ar. appearance, emergence), as a theological term denotes a change of a divine decision or ruling in response to the emergence of new circumstances. It is upheld in Imami Shiʿite doctrine.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BADAḴŠĀN

    This highland has an extremely harsh climate. The annual rainfall, which can be as much as 800 to 1,500 mm on west-facing and northwest-facing massifs, falls to less than 200 mm on sheltered plateaus in the Pamir and less than 100 mm in the Oksu basin, with the result that these areas are highland deserts.

    (Xavier de Planhol, Daniel Balland, W. Eilers)

  • BADAḴŠĀNI, Sayyed SOHRĀB WALI

    the most prominent Central Asian Nezāri Ismaʿili theologian and author of the early centuries after the fall of Alamut .

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • BADAḴŠĪ, MOLLĀ SHAH

    (also known as Shah Moḥammad; 1584-1661), a mystic and writer of the Qāderī order, given both to the rigorous practice of asceticism and to the ecstatic proclamation of theopathic sentiment.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BADAḴŠĪ SAMARQANDĪ

    the poet laureate (malek-al-šoʿarāʾ) of the Timurid Mīrzā Uluḡ Beg (murdered 1449).

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BADAL

    See PAṦTŪNWĀLĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀDĀM

    “almond.” i. General. ii. As food. The genus Amygdalus is very common in Iran and Afghanistan and throughout the Turco-Iranian area.

    (Xavier de Planhol, N. Ramazani)

  • BĀDĀN B. SĀSĀN

    See ABNĀʾ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀDĀN PĪRŪZ

    See ARDABĪL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BADAŠT

    small village of about 1,000 inhabitants, site of a conference convened on the instructions of the Bāb in 1848.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • BADĀʾŪNĪ, ʿABD-AL-QĀDER

    (1540-ca. 1615), polyglot man of letters, historian, and translator of Arabic and Sanskrit works into Persian during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar.

    (A. S. Bazmee Ansari)

  • BĀDĀVARD

    (windfall), the name of one of the seven treasures of Ḵosrow Parvēz in the Šāh-nāma.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BADĀYEʿ

    collection of ḡazals by Saʿdī. See SAʿDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BADĀYEʿNEGĀR, ĀQĀ MOḤAMMAD-EBRĀHĪM

    See NAWWĀB-E TEHRĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAḎḎ

    or BAḎḎAYN (perhaps two places), a mountainous region (kūra) in Azerbaijan, site of the castle headquarters of Bābak Ḵorramī during his revolt against the ʿAbbasid caliphate (816-37).

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • BĀDENJĀN

    “eggplant, aubergine.” Solanum melogena L. of the Solanaceae family. i. The plant. ii. Uses of cooking.

    (F. Aubaile-Sallenave, ʿE. Elāhī)

  • BĀDGĪR

    (wind-tower), literally “wind catcher,” a traditional structure used for passive air-conditioning of buildings. Yazd is known as šahr-e bādgīrhā (the city of wind catchers) and is renowned for the number and variety of them, some of which date from the Timurid period.

    (S. Roaf)

  • BĀḎḠĪS

    During the first century of Islam, Bāḏḡīs passed into Arab hands, together with Herat and Pūšang, around 652-53, under the caliph ʿOṯmān, for already in that year there is mentioned a rebellion against the Arabs by an Iranian noble Qāren, followed by further unrest in these regions in 661-62.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth, Daniel Balland)

  • BĀDHĀ ḴABAR AZ TAḠYIR-e FAṢL MIDĀDAND

    (The winds presaged the changing of season), novel by the fiction writer and literary critic, Jamal Mirsadeqi. Set in the 1960s in Tehran, it revolves around the novel’s narrator and his friends and neighbors, of poverty-stricken families.

    (Soheila Saremi)

  • BADĪʿ (1)

    rhetorical embellishment. During the early Islamic period the word developed into a technical term through its use in discussions about Arabic poetry and ornate prose.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • BADĪʿ (2)

    designation of the calendar system of Babism and Bahaism, originally introduced by the Bāb.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BADĪʿ, ĀQĀ BOZORG

    (d. 1869), a young Bahai martyr who has gained a certain distinction in Bahai lore.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • BADĪʿ BALḴĪ

    Persian poet of the 10th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BADĪʿ-AL-ZAMĀN

    (d. ca. 1514), Timurid prince, who rebelled against his father, Sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā (r. Herat 1469-1506).

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • BADĪʿ-AL-ZAMĀN HAMADĀNĪ

    (968-1008), Arabic belle-lettrist and inventor of the maqāma genre. His maqāmāt are a set of adventures narrated in rhymed prose and poetry, revolving around a rogue hero and a narrator.

    (F. Malti-Douglas)

  • BADĪʿ-AL-ZAMĀN MĪRZĀ

    by most accounts the last of the Chaghatay/Timurid rulers of Badaḵšān (d. ca. 1603).

    (R. D. McChesney)

  • BADĪʿ-AL-ZAMĀN NAṬANZĪ

    See ADĪB NAṬANZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BADĪʿ KĀTEB JOVAYNĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    See KĀTEB JOVAYNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BADĪHA-SARĀʾĪ

    composition and utterance of something improvised (badīh), usually in verse. Among the Arabs, poetic improvisation was practiced and admired from pre-Islamic times. Among the Iranians, it has been a mark of poetical talent and skill.

    (F. R. C. Bagley)

  • BADĪLĪ, AḤMAD

    SHAIKH, a Sufi shaikh in 12th-century Sabzavār, renowned for his mastery of the exoteric as well as the esoteric science.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BĀDKŪBA

    See BAKU.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀDPĀYĀN

    See ARTHROPODS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BADR ČĀČĪ

    a Persian poet of the 14th century, born in the town or district of Čāč (also written Šāš) in Transoxiana.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • BADR-AL-DĪN EBRĀHĪMI

    author of the Persian dictionary Farhang-e zafāngūyā wa jahānpūyā (The eloquent and world-seeking dictionary) composed in India in the late 14th or early 15th century.

    (S. I. Baevskiĭ)

  • BADR-AL-DĪN SERHENDĪ

    (b. ca. 1593-94), a Sufi author, translator, and disciple of Aḥmad Serhendī.

    (Yaron Friedmann)

  • BADR-AL-DĪN TABRĪZĪ

    architect and savant active in Konya in Anatolia during the third quarter of the 13th century.

    (H. Crane)

  • BADR JĀJARMĪ

    a 13th-century poet popular in his own time for his rhetorical skills.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • BADR KHAN

    See BEDIR KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BADR ŠIRVĀNI

    9th/15th-century poet (b. 789/1387) in Šamaḵi.≤/p>

    (A. H. Rahimov)

  • BĀDRANG

    See BĀLANG; CITRUS FRUITS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BADRĪ KAŠMĪRĪ

    Persian poet in India in the second half of the 16th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BĀDRŪDI

    one of the local dialects of the Kāšān region, spoken in Bādrūd, a dehestān (rural district) of Naṭanz.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • BĀDŪSPĀN

    in medieval geography, a mountainous district of northern Iran on the Caspian side of the Alborz mountains, in Ṭabarestān (Māzandarān).

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • BADUSPANIDS

    a dynasty ruling Rūyān and Rostamdār from the late 11th to the 16th century with the title of ostandār and later of king.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BĀFQ

    a small oasis town of central Iran (altitude 1,004 m) on the southern fringe of the Dašt-e Kavīr, 100 km southeast of Yazd in the direction of Kermān.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BĀFQĪ, MOḤAMMAD-TAQĪ

    AYATOLLAH (1875-1946), a religious scholar known for his forthright opposition to Reżā Shah Pahlavī.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BĀḠ (BAGH)

    “garden.” In Iranian agriculture, the word bāḡ means, more precisely, an enclosed area bearing permanent cultures— all kinds of cultivated trees and shrubs, as opposed to fields under annual crops.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BĀḠ i. Etymology

    Bāḡ, the Middle and New Persian word for “garden,” as also the Sogdian βāγ, strictly meant “piece” or “patch of land.”

    (W. Eilers)

  • BĀḠ ii. General

    Whatever the water source may be, the gardens are usually clustered together close to the head-race of the irrigation network, around the village or just below it. This location allows to irrigate them as frequently as possible, every six to twelve days in the hot season, whereas the fields lying underneath are much less often irrigated.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • BĀḠ iii. In Persian Literature

    Bāḡ appears both as an object of description and as the prime source of nature imagery in Persian literature.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • BĀḠ iv. In Afghanistan

    The people inhabiting this land have cherished all forms of gardens, which have become an integral part of Afghan culture.

    (N. H. Dupree)

  • BĀḠ-E BĀLĀ

    See BĀḠ iv.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀḠ-E ERAM

    a famous and beautiful garden at Shiraz. Its site was formerly on the northwestern fringe of the city but is now well inside the greatly expanded urban area.

    (K. Afsar)

  • BĀḠ-E FĪN

    garden southwest of the city of Kāšān, where subterranean waters from the Dandāna and Haft Kotal mountains emerge to form the Fīn springs.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • BĀḠ-E GOLESTĀN

    See GOLESTAN PALACE

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀḠ-E JAHĀNNĀMA

    See SHIRAZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAG NASK

    one of the Avestan nasks of the gāhānīg group, that is, texts connected with the Gāθās; it is now lost almost in its entirety. This nask is listed in the survey of the Avesta in Dēnkard 8.1.9.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • BĀḠ-E PĪRŪZĪ

    “Garden of Triumph,” a garden constructed in Ḡazna by Sultan Maḥmūd (r. 998-1030), no longer extant.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • BĀḠ-E ŠĀH

    (the king’s garden). In the mid-Qajar period, the site was a broad, circular field about 1,000 m in diameter situated on the outskirts of the city and devoted to horseback riding and racing.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • BĀḠ-E SALṬANATĀBĀD

    See SALṬANATĀBĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAGA

    an Old Iranian term for “god,” sometimes designating a specific god. i. General. ii. In Old and Middle Iranian. iii. The use of baga in names.

    (H. W. Bailey, N. Sims-Williams, St. Zimmer)

  • BAGABUXŠA

    See MEGABYZUS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAGĀN YAŠT

    (1) one of the dādīg (legal) nasks of the Avesta, which contained descriptions of Ahura Mazdā and the other gods; (2) name of Yasna 19-21 of the Avesta.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • BAGARAN

    (lit. “the god’s place”; Turk. Pakran), a town founded by the Armenian King Orontes (Eruand) II (ca. 212-ca. 200 B.C.) to house the images of the gods and the royal ancestors.

    (R. H. Hewsen)

  • BAḠAVĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    ʿALĪ B. ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ B. MARZBĀN B. SĀBŪR, traditionist (moḥaddeṯ) and philologist in the 9th century.

    (H. Schützinger)

  • BAGAWAN (1)

    (Arm. Baguan or Aṭʿši Bagawan), ancient district lying along the right bank of the Araxes river and corresponding to the northeastern part of Iranian Azerbaijan.

    (H. R. Hewsen)

  • BAGAWAN (2)

    an ancient locality in central Armenia situated at the foot of Mount Npat (Gk. Niphates, Turk. Tapa-seyd) in the principality of Bagrewand west of modern Diyadin.

    (R. H. Hewsen)

  • BĀGAYĀDIŠ

    name of the seventh month (September-October) of the Old Persian calendar, mentioned in Darius I’s Behistun inscription.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • BAGAYAṞIČ

    site of the great temple of Mihr (Mithras), one of the eight principal pagan shrines of pre-Christian Armenia, traditionally built by Tigranes II the Great (r. 95-56 B.C.).

    (R. H. Hewsen)

  • BAGAZUŠTA

    Old Iranian personal name *Baga-zušta- “beloved of the god(s)” attested in the Achaemenid period and after.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • BAḠDĀD

    See BAGHDAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAḠDĀDI FAMILY

    designation of an Arab family of a Bābi, Shaikh Moḥammad Šebl, and his Bahai progeny, his son Moḥammad-Moṣṭafā Baḡdādi, and the latter’s sons, Żiāʾ Mabsuṭ Baḡdādi and Ḥosayn Eqbāl.

    (Kamran Ekbal)

  • BAḠDĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-QĀHER

    B. ṬĀHER ŠĀFEʿĪ TAMĪMĪ (ca. 961-1038), mathematician, Shafeʿite jurist, and Asḥʿarite theologian.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • BAḠDĀDĪ, ABU’L-FAŻL

    (d. 1155), Sufi whose name appears in the initiatic chain of the Neʿmatallāhī order.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BAḠDĀDĪ, BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    See BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN BAḠDĀDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAḠDĀDĪ, ḴĀLED ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    MAWLĀNĀ (1779-1827), the founder of a significant branch of the Naqšbandī Sufi order that has had a profound impact on his native Kurdistan and beyond.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BAGHDAD i. Before the Mongol Invasion

    Baghdad, whose official name was originally Madīnat-al-Salām, the City of Peace, was founded in 762 by the second ʿAbbasid caliph, Abū Jaʿfar al-Manṣūr as his official capital.

    (H. Kennedy)

  • BAGHDAD ii. From the Mongol Invasion to the Ottoman Occupation

    ii. From the Mongol Invasion to the Ottoman Occupation. Baghdad on the eve of the Mongol invasion. The Mongol capture of Baghdad in 1258 came at a time when Persian influence was on the rise but the city as a whole in decline.

    (ʿAbbās Zaryāb)

  • BAGHDAD PACT

    popular name for the 1955 pro-Western defense alliance between Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom.

    (J. A. Kechichian)

  • BAGINA

    reconstructed Old Iranian word for a temple housing a cult image; and BAGINAPATI, the master of such a temple. They have descendants in various Middle Iranian languages.

    (Frantz Grenet)

  • BAḠLĀN

    The temple excavated at this site appeared to be a fire-temple of dynastic character, dedicated for the rulers of the Kushan dynasty. It was founded perhaps early in the reign of Kanishka, and restored in the year 31 of a different era, probably of Kanishka I’s own enthronement.

    (A. D. H. Bivar, Daniel Balland, Xavier de Planhol)

  • BAGLEY, FRANK RONALD CHARLES

    (1915-1997), British diplomat, translator, and professor of Persian and Arabic at Durham University and McGill University.

    (EIr.)

  • BAGŌAS

    the chief eunuch and general under the Achaemenid Artaxerxes III, and kingmaker of his successors.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • BAGRATIDS

    The partition of Armenia in 387 into an Iranian and a Roman vassal state, then the annexation of the Western kingdom by the Empire, and finally the abolition of the East Armenian Monarchy in 428 placed these princes in the necessity of choosing between the two rival imperial allegiances.

    (C. Toumanoff)

  • BAHĀʾ-ALLĀH

    (1817-92), MĪRZĀ ḤOSAYN-ʿALĪ NŪRĪ, founder of the Bahai religion or Bahaism.

    (Juan R. I. Cole)

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ NAṢR FĪRŪZ

    See BUYIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DAWLA, ʿALĪ

    B. MASʿŪD. See ʿALĪ B. MASʿŪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿĀMELĪ

    (1547-1621), SHAIKH MOḤAMMAD B. ḤOSAYN BAHĀʾĪ, Imami scholar and author, a prolific writer, in Imami circles regarded as one of the leading lights of his age.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN BAḠDĀDĪ

    (d. after 1289), MOḤAMMAD B. MOʾAYYAD, a master of the art of Persian letter-writing (tarassol).

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DIN JOVAYNI, MOḤAMMAD B. ʿALI

    See JOVAYNI, MOḤAMMAD B. ʿALI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DIN JOVAYNI, MOḤAMMAD B. ŠAMS-AL-DIN

    See BAHĀʾ-AL-DIN JOVAYNI, MOḤAMMAD B. ŠAMS-AL-DIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN ḴARAQĪ

    (d. 1138-39), ABŪ BAKR MOḤAMMAD, author of a work was on astronomy, geography, and chronology.

    (David Pingree)

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD WALAD

    B. ḤOSAYN B. AḤMAD ḴAṬĪB BALḴĪ (1151-1231), scholar, father of the great Sufi poet Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Dīn Rūmī.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN NAQŠBAND

    (1318-91), ḴᵛĀJA MOḤAMMAD B. MOḤAMMAD BOḴĀRĪ, eponym of the Naqšbandīya, one of the most vigorous and widespread Sufi orders.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN SOLṬĀN WALAD

    (1226-1312), MOḤAMMAD, Sufi shaikh and poet, son and eventual successor of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Dīn Rūmī.

    (M. I. Waley)

  • BAHĀDOR

    a Turco-Mongol honorific title, attached to a personal name, signifying “hero, valiant warrior.”

    (Cornell H. Fleischer)

  • BAHĀDOR KHAN

    See ABŪ ḠĀZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHĀDOR SHAH I, II

    See MUGHALS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHĀDOR JANG, AMIR

    ḤOSAYN PASHA KHAN, the head of the royal guards (kešīkčībāšī) and minister of court under Moẓaffar-al-Dīn Shah (r. 1896-1907).

    (Ali Gheissari)

  • BAHAI FAITH OR BAHAISM

    or Bahai faith, a religion founded in the nineteenth century by Bahāʾ-Allāh that grew out of the Iranian messianic movement of Babism and developed into a world religion with internationalist and pacifist emphases.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BAHĀʾI TABRIZI

    AḤMAD (b. Tabriz, 1874, d. Istanbul, 1 June 1925), Persian calligrapher and poet.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • BAHAISM i. The Faith

    Bahaism as a religion had as its background two earlier and much different movements in nineteenth-century Shiʿite Shaikhism (following Shaikh Aḥmad Aḥsāʾī) and Babism.

    (J. Cole)

  • BAHAISM ii. Bahai Calendar and Festivals

    The Bahai year consists of 19 months of 19 days each, i.e., 361 days, with the addition of four intercalary days between the 18th and the 19th months in order to adjust the calendar to the solar year. The Bāb named the months after the attributes of God.

    (Amin Banani)

  • BAHAISM iii. Bahai and Babi Schisms

    Although it never developed much beyond the stage of a sectarian movement within Shiʿite Islam, Babism experienced a number of minor but interesting divisions, particularly in its early phase.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BAHAISM iv. The Bahai Communities

    Bahai expansion beyond the Middle East and the Iranian diaspora only began after the passing of Bahāʾ-Allāh (1892) and the succession of his son, ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ (1844-1921), as leader. In the 1890s, an active community developed in North America, Americans in turn establishing Bahai groups in England, France, Germany, Hawaii, and Japan.

    (P. Smith)

  • BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran

    With the Declaration of the Bāb in 1844, followed by his being accepted as the promised Qāʾem (the Hidden Imam) by a handful of early believers, the first Babi community was born in the city of Shiraz.

    (V. Rafati)

  • BAHAISM vi. The Bahai Community of Ashkhabad

    Attracted by religious freedom and economic opportunities unavailable to them in Iran, Iranian Bahais began to settle in Ashkhabad around 1884; the community prospered and reached its peak during the period 1917-28.

    (V. Rafati)

  • BAHAISM vii. Bahai Persecutions

    Bahai persecutions were a pattern of continuing discriminatory measures against adherents and institutions of the Bahai religion, punctuated by outbreaks of both random and organized violence.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BAHAISM viii. Bahai Shrines

    Of the Bahai sites of pilgrimage and visitation, the most important are the tombs of Bahāʾ-Allāh and the Bāb in Israel and the houses of the Bāb and Bahāʾ-Allāh in Shiraz and Baghdad.

    (J. Walbridge)

  • BAHAISM ix. Bahai Temples

    Although the faith originated in Iran, no Bahai temple was ever built in that country, due to local antagonism. However, since the time of Bahāʾ-Allāh, the Bahais of Iran have gathered in private Bahai homes to pray and to read the writings of the faith.

    (V. Rafati and F. Sahba)

  • BAHAISM x. Bahai Schools

    The Bahai schools were a series of government-recognized educational institutions conducted on Bahai principles from 1897 until 1929 in Ashkhabad and until 1934 in Iran.

    (V. Rafati)

  • BAHAISM xi. Bahai Conventions

    The first Bahai convention in the world was probably the meeting convened by the Chicago Spiritual Assembly on 26 November 1907 for the purpose of choosing a site for the House of Worship that was to be built.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • BAHAISM xii. Bahai Literature

    This article is concerned primarily with poetry and belles lettres rather than apologetic, didactic, historiographical, liturgical, or scriptural materials.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BAHAISM xiii. Bahai Pioneers

    “Pioneer” (in English) and mohājer (in Persian) are terms used in Bahai literature to designate those who leave their homes to settle in another locality with the intention of spreading the Bahai faith or supporting existing Bahai communities.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • BAHAISM xiv. Nineteen Day Feast

    a gathering of the Bahai community every nineteen days that has devotional, administrative, and social aspects and is the core of community life.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • BAHĀʾĪYA ḴĀNOM

    (1846-1932), eldest daughter of Bahāʾ-Allāh, considered by Bahais as the “outstanding heroine of the Bahai Dispensation.”

    (Moojan Momen)

  • BAHĀR (1)

    a Persian literary, scientific, political, and social-affairs monthly, 1910-11, 1921-22. Bahār represented a departure from traditional Persian journalism; readers found its willingness to discuss contemporary literature and literary criticism a refreshing change.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • BAHĀR (2)

    a newspaper founded by Shaikh Aḥmad Tehrāni (d. 1957), known as Aḥmad Bahār, in 1917, in Mašhad.

    (Esmāʿil Jassim)

  • BAHĀR

    name of several Persian periodicals. [ARCHIVED ARTICLE]

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • BAHĀR, MALEK-AL-ŠOʿARĀʾ

    poet, scholar, journalist, politician, and historian (1886-1951). i. Life and work. ii. Bahār as a poet.

    (M. B. Loraine, Jalal Matini)

  • BAHĀR-E KESRĀ

    “The spring of Ḵosrow,” one of the names of a huge, late Sasanian royal carpet measuring 60 cubits (araš, ḏerāʿ) square (ca. 27 m x 27 m). It was divided among the conquering Muslims after Madāʾen was captured in 637.

    (Michael G. Morony)

  • BAHĀRESTĀN (1)

    (Spring garden, Abode of spring), an anecdotal and moralistic work of belles-lettres in prose (both plain and rhythmic-rhyming) and verse, by ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmī, composed in the poet’s old age, in 1487.

    (G. Michael Wickens)

  • BAHĀRESTĀN (2)

    the name of a garden, public square, and complex of buildings in central Tehran.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • BAHĀRESTĀN-E ḠAYBĪ

    a detailed history in Persian of Bengal and Orissa for the period 1608-24 composed by Mīrzā Nathan ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn Eṣfahānī.

    (I. H. Siddiqui)

  • BAHĀRI

    (b. Tehran, 1284 Š./1905, d. Tehran, 20 Ḵordād 1374 Š./10 June 1995) master of the kamānča (long-necked bowed lute).

    (Mortażā Varzi)

  • BAHĀRLŪ

    a Turkic tribe of Azerbaijan, Khorasan, Kermān, and Fārs.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • BAHĀRVAND

    a Lur tribe now living mostly in the dehestāns (districts) of Kargāh and Bālā Garīva, south and southwest of Ḵorramābād.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • BAHDĪNĀN

    (Kurdish Bādīnān), name of a Kurdish region, river, dialect group, and amirate.

    (Amir Hassanpour)

  • BAḤĪRĪ FAMILY

    a major Shafiʿite family of Nishapur in the eleventh century.

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • BAHMAʾĪ

    a Lur tribe of the Kohgīlūya (Kūh[-e] Gīlūya).

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • BAHMAN

    author of Qeṣṣa-ye Sanjān.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHMAN (4)

    “avalanche." See BARF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHMAN (1)

    the New Persian name of the Avestan Vohu Manah (Good Thought) and Pahlavi Wahman.

    (J. Narten, Ph. Gignoux)

  • BAHMAN (2) SON OF ESFANDĪĀR

    son of ESFANDĪĀR, a Kayanian king of Iran in the national epic.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BAHMAN JĀDŪYA

    (or Jāḏōē), Sasanian general engaged in the defense of the Sawād of ʿErāq during the Muslim conquest in the 630s.

    (Michael Morony)

  • BAHMAN MĪRZĀ

    (d. 1883-84), the fourth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and brother of Moḥammad Shah (r. 1834-48). Throughout his relatively long exile, he enjoyed the protection and support of the Czarist government.

    (ʿA. Navāʾī)

  • BAHMAN MĪRZĀ BAHĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    37th son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah, born 1811 of Golbadan Bājī, originally a (Georgian?) slave girl of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah’s mother Mahd-e ʿOlyā. His diary contains notes on Qajar history.

    (ʿA. Navāʾī)

  • BAHMAN YAŠT

    Middle Persian apocalyptical text preserved in Pahlavi script, a Pāzand (i.e., Middle Persian in Avestan script) transliteration, and a garbled New Persian translation.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • BAHMANAGĀN

    See BAHMANJANA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHMAN-ARDAŠĪR

    (or Forāt Maysān), ancient and medieval town and subdistrict in Maysān in lower Iraq. The town of Forāt is known from the first century A.D. as a fortified terminus for caravan trade on the left bank of the lower Tigris, eleven or twelve miles downstream from Charax.

    (Michael Morony)

  • BAHMANBEYGI, MOHAMMAD

    (1922-2010), educator, writer, founder of tribal education in Iran. He was born in the Bahmanbeyglu clan, Qašqāʾi tribe, in Fars province, spent his childhood among the nomads, and graduated from the University of Tehran’s Faculty of Law and Political Sciences.

    (Ḥassan Mirʿābedini)

  • BAHMANID DYNASTY

    dynasty (1347-1528) in the Deccan, the tableland region in India. The Bahmanid kingdom was not only the first independent Muslim kingdom in southern India, but it was also one of the greatest centers of Iranian culture in the subcontinent.

    (N. H. Ansari)

  • BAHMANJANA

    Arabicized form of Mid. Pers. Bahmanagān, one of the Zoroastrian festival days which Muslim Iranians observed down to the Mongol invasion in 1219.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BAHMAN-NĀMA

    epic poem in Persian of about 9,500 lines recounting the adventures of Bahman son of Esfandīār.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • BAHMANŠĪR

    the name of the distributary which branches off the left bank of the Kārūn river in the Ḵūzestān plain a short distance above Ḵorramšahr, and of a dehestān near this town.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • BAHMANYĀR, AḤMAD

    scholar, educator, and man of letters (1884-1955). His written works are characterized by clarity and simplicity of language.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • BAHMANYĀR, KĪĀ

    RAʾĪS ABU’L-ḤASAN B. MARZBĀN AʿJAMĪ ĀḎARBĀYJĀNĪ (d. 1066), one of Ebn Sīnā’s pupils and known mainly as a commentator and transmitter of Ebn Sīnā’s philosophy.

    (H. Daiber)

  • BAḤR

    See BAḤR-E ṬAWĪL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAḤR-E ḴᵛĀRAZM

    See ARAL SEA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAḤR-E ḴAZAR

    See CASPIAN SEA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAḤR-E ʿOMĀN

    See OMAN, SEA OF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAḤR-E ṬAWĪL

    a type of Persian verse. generally the repetition of a whole foot (rokn) of the meter hazaj (ᴗ - - -) or of a whole foot of the meter ramal (- ᴗ - -) or a variation of the two.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • BAḤR-AL-ʿOLŪM

    (1155/1742-1212/1797), a Shiʿite scholar who exercised great influence both in Iraq and in Iran through the numerous students he trained.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BAHRA

    a term meaning “share,” “gain,” or “profit,” used within the economic context of Islamic Iran to mean “return on investment or production.”

    (P. Clawson and W. Floor)

  • BAHRAIN

    Ar. Baḥrayn, lit. “two seas,” the name originally applied to the area of the northeastern Arabian peninsula now known as Ḥasā (Aḥsāʾ). i. Geography. ii. Shiʿite elements in Bahrain. iii. History of political relations with Iran.

    (X. De Planhol, X. De Planhol, J. A. Kechichian)

  • BAHRĀM (Vərəθraγna)

    the Old Iranian god of victory, Avestan Vərəθraγna (“smiting of resistance”); Middle Persian Warahrān, frequently used as a male proper name.

    (Gherardo Gnoli, P. Jamzadeh)

  • BAHRĀM

    name of six Sasanian kings and of several notables of the Sasanian and later periods. The name derives from Old Iranian Vṛθragna, Avestan Vərəθraγna, the god of victory.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BAHRĀM i. Bahrām I

    the fourth Sasanian king and son of Šāpūr I.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • BAHRĀM ii. Bahrām II

    the fifth Sasanian king (r. 274-291), succeeding his father Bahrām I. In his reign, Sasanian art achieved a high degree of excellence especially in the representations of the king and his courtiers.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • BAHRĀM iii. Bahrām III

    the sixth Sasanian king, son of Bahrām II ruled for four months.

    (O. Klíma)

  • BAHRĀM iv. Bahrām IV

    succeeded Šāpūr III; Prior to his accession, Bahrām was governor of Kermān and bore the title Kermān Šāh.

    (O. Klíma)

  • BAHRĀM v. Bahrām V Gōr

    son and successor of Yazdegerd I, reigned for 18 years; indulged in pleasure-loving activities, particularly hunting and his memorable shooting of a wonderful onager, gōr, is said to have given origin to his nickname Gōr.

    (O. Klíma)

  • BAHRĀM vi. Bahrām Gōr in Persian Legend and Literature

    The relatively colorless and straightforward accounts by the early historians which emphasize Bahrām’s military prowess and his efforts to rule well, turn into legendary and adventurous figure in Persian literature.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • BAHRĀM vii. Bahrām VI Čōbīn

    chief commander under the Sasanian Hormozd IV and king of Iran, was a son of Bahrāmgošnasp, of the family of Mehrān, one of the seven great houses of the Sasanian period.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • BAHRĀM newspaper

    newspaper in Tehran, 1943-47.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • BAHRĀM-E GŌDARZ

    son of GŌDARZ, in the Šāh-nāma a hero in the reigns of Kay Kāōs and Kay Ḵosrow, renowned for his valiant service in all the wars.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BAHRĀM O GOLANDĀM

    See KĀTEBĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHRĀM B. MARDĀNŠĀH

    a Zoroastrian priest (mōbed) of the town of Šāpūr in Fārs, mentioned in several Arabic and Persian sources as a translator of the Xwadāy-nāmag from Pahlavi into Arabic.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BAHRĀM MĪRZĀ

    (1517-49), youngest son of Shah Esmāʿīl, full brother of Shah Ṭahmāsb, who relied on his loyalty and military valor for assistance against both his internal and external enemies.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • BAHRĀM MĪRZĀ, MOʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA

    (d. 1882), second son of the crown prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā, minor figure in military affairs and administration.

    (ʿA. Navāʾī)

  • BAHRĀM PAŽDŪ

    Zoroastrian poet of the 13th century. His only surviving poem celebrates spring, Nowrūz and those who had propagated the Zoroastrian religion.

    (Ž. Āmūzgār)

  • BAHRĀM SĪĀVOŠĀN

    (Bahrām son of Sīāvoš), in the Šāh-nāma a supporter of Bahrām Čōbīn in the power struggle during the reigns of Hormozd IV (578-90) and Ḵosrow II Parvēz (590-628).

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BAHRĀMĪ, FARAJ-ALLĀH

    (1878/79?-1951), DABĪR AʿẒAM, Reżā Shah’s personal secretary and an early supporter who played a key role in Reżā Shah’s control of absolute power.

    (Mehrdad Amanat)

  • BAHRĀMĪ SARAḴSĪ

    ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ, Persian poet and literary scholar, one of the many at the court at Ḡazna in the reigns of Sultan Maḥmūd (r. 998-1030) and his sons.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BAHRĀMŠĀH B. MASʿŪD (III)

    B. EBRĀHĪM, ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR, Ghaznavid sultan in eastern Afghanistan and northwestern India (r. 1117-1157?).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BAHRĀMŠĀH B. ṬOḠRELŠĀH

    See SALJUQS OF KERMĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAHRĀMŠĀH SHROFF

    See BEHRAMSHAH NAOROJI SHROFF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, AḤMAD

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. YŪSOF B. ṢĀLEḤ (d. 1690-91), described as the leading representative in his generation of Imami Shiʿite scholarship in Bahrain.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, HĀŠEM

    B. SOLAYMĀN (d. 1695-96), Imami Shiʿite scholar and author. The number of his books and treatises is said to have approached seventy-five.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    (also KAMĀL-AL-DĪN) ʿALĪ B. SOLAYMĀN SETRAWĪ, Imami Shiʿite scholar and philosopher inclining to mysticism (13th century).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, YŪSOF

    B. AḤMAD B. EBRĀHĪM DERĀZĪ (b. 1695-96, d. 1772), Imami Shiʿite author and jurisprudent.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • BAḤRAYN

    See BAHRAIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAḤRĪ, MAḤMŪD

    Sufi and poet of the Deccan (fl. late 17th century).

    (R. M. Eaton)

  • BAIDU

    See BĀYDŪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAIEV, GAPPO

    See BAYATI, GAPPO.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAILEY, HAROLD WALTER

    (b. Devizes, Wiltshire. Dec. 16, 1899; d. Cambridge, Jan. 11, 1996), one of the greatest scholars in the field of the comparative study of Iranian languages, especially notable for much ground-breaking work on the Middle Iranian Saka language of Khotan.

    (John Sheldon)

  • BĀJ (1)

    a principal Zoroastrian observance meaning primarily “utterance of consecration;” reference to bāj has been current in Mazdean literature since at least Sasanian times,

    (A. V. Williams)

  • BĀJ (2)

    a term denoting tribute to be paid by vassals to their overlord, in which sense it is also used as a generic term “tax,” or as referring to road tolls.

    (Willem Floor)

  • BĀJALĀN

    a Kurdish tribe in the dehestāns of Qūratū, Ḏohāb and Jagarlū in the šahrestān of Qaṣr-e Šīrīn, on the Iraqi border.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • BĀJARVĀN

    a town in the medieval Islamic province of Mūḡān, the area southwest of the Caspian Sea and south of the Kor (Kura) and Aras (Araxes) rivers.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BĀḴARZ

    or Govāḵarz, a district of the medieval Islamic province of Qūhestān/Qohestān in Khorasan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BĀḴARZĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ

    Iranian littérateur of the 11th century who composed poems in both Persian and Arabic, notable in the art of letter-writing (tarassol).

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BAKHSHIEV MISHI

    (1910-1972), Judeo-Tat author.

    (Michael Zand)

  • BAḴŠĪ

    a Buddhist lama or scholar, in particular during Mongol hegemony in Iran; subsequently, by extension, any kind of scribe or secretary.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • BAḴT

    “fate, destiny,” often with the positive sense of “good luck” (ḵᵛošbaḵtī). i. The term. ii. The concept.

    (W. Eilers, S. Shaked)

  • BAḴTAGĀN LAKE

    part of the Lake Nīrīz basin situated about 1,525 m above sea level in the province of Fārs, approximately 50 km east of Shiraz. At present, it is common to divide the basin of the Nīrīz into a northern portion (daryāča-ye Ṭašk) and a larger southern part (daryāča-ye Baḵtagān).

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • BAḴTAK

    a folkloric she-creature of horrible shape, personifying a nightmare. Baḵtak resembles the Āl, another “female devil” of Iranian folklore.

    (F. Gaffary)

  • BĀḴTAR (1)

    designation of the geographical “west” in Modern Persian, but its Pahlavi equivalent abāxtar means “north,” probably borrowed from Parthian.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • BĀḴTAR (2)

    name of an educational magazine (Isfahan, 1933-35) and a political newspaper (Isfahan and Tehran, 1935-45).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BĀḴTAR-E EMRŪZ

    (Today’s West), daily evening newspaper published in Tehran, 1949-53. The editor-publisher Ḥosayn Fāṭemī (1917-1954) was one of the principal associates of Dr. Moḥammad Moṣaddeq in the National Front (Jebha-ye Mellī).

    (ʿA. M. Š. Fāṭemī)

  • BAḴTĀVAR KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    (1620?-85), historian and official at the court of the Mughal emperor Awrangzēb (r. 1658-1707) and a patron of literature.

    (S. S. Alvi)

  • BAḴTĪĀR, ABŪ ḤARB

    B. MOḤAMMAD, the patron of the poet Manūčehrī (d. 1040-41) who praised his bravery, nobility, magnanimity, learning, and eloquence.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • BAḴTĪĀR, TEYMŪR

    (1914-1970), Iranian general. His meteoric rise to power began after the fall of Moṣaddeq in August, 1953, when he was called to Tehran, promoted to brigadier general, and put in charge of Tehran’s military governorship.

    (S. Zabih)

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ (2)

    in music, a gūša. See HOMĀYŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ (1)

    the nesba of a number of Baḵtīārī chiefs in the 18th-20th centuries.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī J.-P. Digard, ʿA.-Ḥ. Navāʾī)

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ MOUNTAINS

    The impressive basin-range-structure of the Baḵtīārī mountains, a result of the geological development of the Zagros system since late Cretaceous time and culminating in the orogenesis of Tertiary upfolding, is accentuated by the complicated and unique drainage system, which itself is the result of geology and topography.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ TRIBE

    The traditional Baḵtīārī way of life is typical of the long-distance nomadism which evolved in the Zagros highlands from the thirteenth century onward, at first under the impact of the Mongol invasions, in a defensive reaction against increasing fiscal and administrative pressures experienced under successive Iranian régimes.

    (J.-P. Digard, G. L. Windfuhr, A. Ittig)

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪS of AFGHANISTAN

    two small Paṧtō-speaking groups in the eastern part of the Irano-Afghan area bearing the name Baḵtīārī or Baḵtīār.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BAḴTĪĀR-NĀMA

    an example of early New Persian prose fiction in the form of a frame story and nine included tales, the earliest version of which seems to be from the late 12th-early 13th centuries.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • BAKTOḠDĪ

    See BEKTOḠDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAKU

    (Pers. Bādkūba), capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan and one of the chief ports on the Caspian sea.

    (S. Soucek, R. G. Suny)

  • BAKWĀ, DAŠT-E

    an extensive piedmont alluvial plain in the southwest of Afghanistan, drained by one of the Sīstān rivers, the Ḵospāsrūd. In past times it enjoyed a measure of prosperity based on qanāt irrigation.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BĀLĀBĀN

    a cylindrical-bore, double-reed wind instrument about 35 cm long with seven finger holes and one thumb hole, played in eastern Azerbaijan in Iran and in the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    (Ch. Albright)

  • BALADĪYA

    (Municipality), the name or part of the name of several newspapers and journals published in Iran and Afghanistan ca. 1907-39.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BALĀḎORĪ

    ABU’L-ḤASAN or ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD B. YAḤYĀ B. JĀBER, leading Arab historian of the 9th century, whose Ketāb fotūḥ al-boldān, in particular, contains much original information on the Arab conquests of Iran.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BALĀḠAT

    (Ar. balāḡa), one of the most general terms to denote eloquence in speech and writing. The branches of literary criticism which developed within Muslim civilization became known collectively as the science (ʿelm) or art (ṣenāʿa) of balāḡat.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • BALĀḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-JAWĀD

    B. ḤASAN B. ṬĀLEB B. ʿABBĀS RABAʿĪ NAJAFĪ (d. 1933), Imami author, poet, and polemicist.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • BALʿAMĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD

    B. MOḤAMMAD. See AMĪRAK BALʿAMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BALʿAMĪ, ABU’L-FAŻL MOḤAMMAD

    B. ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH B. MOḤAMMAD BALʿAMĪ TAMĪMĪ, vizier to the Samanid amir Naṣr b. Aḥmad (r. 913-42), father of the vizier and historian Amirak Baḷʿamī.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BĀLANG

    citron, the fruit of a species of citrus tree (Citrus medica cedrata). This article discusses the history of the word.

    (W. Eilers)

  • BALĀŠ

    the name of a number of kings and several dignitaries and notables during the Parthian and Sasanian periods. The Parthian form of the name, the oldest, is Walagaš. In Middle Persian it is Wardāxš, in Pahlavi Walāxš.

    (M. L. Chaumont, K. Schippmann)

  • BALĀSAGĀN

    “country of the Balās,” designating a region located for the most part south of the lower course of the rivers Kor (Kura) and the Aras (Araxes), bordered on the south by Atropatene and on the east by the Caspian Sea. i. In pre-Islamic times. ii. In Islamic times.

    (M. L. Chaumont, C. E. Bosworth)

  • BALĀSĀḠŪN

    a town of Central Asia, in early Islamic times the main settlement of the region known as Yeti-su or Semirechye “the land of the seven rivers,” now mainly within the eastern part of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BALĀSĀNĪ, MAJD-AL-MOLK ABU’L-FAŻL ASʿAD

    B. MOḤAMMAD QOMĪ (d. 1099), mostawfī or financial intendant to the Saljuq sultan Berk-yaruq (Barkīāroq) b. Malekšāh and then vizier.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BĀLĀSARĪ

    term used by the Shaikhis to distinguish ordinary Shiʿites from members of their own sect. The history of conflicts between the Shaikhi and Shiʿite communities is reviewed.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BĀLAVĪ

    See BĀLAWĪ FAMILY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BALAWASTE

    a ruin site in the eastern part of the Khotan oasis, near the village of Domoko. Fragments of manuscripts, pottery, and plaster were found at this site by Sir Mark Aurel Stein on his first and second expeditions in 1900.

    (Gerd Gropp)

  • BĀLAWĪ FAMILY

    prominent scholars in Nīšāpūr in the 10th-11th centuries.

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • BĀLAYBALAN LANGUAGE

    an a priori constructed language combining elements of the grammar of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, and known principally from a single text, a dictionary.

    (C. G. Häberl)

  • BALDARČĪN

    See BELDERČĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀLEḠ

    Ar. “of full age, adult, mature,” in contrast to the term ṣaḡīr (minor): coming of age in Islamic law.

    (S. H. Amin)

  • BALḴ

    Within this area and on the irrigated alluvial fan, at a distance of about 12 km from the mountains, the city was built on a site (the Bālā Ḥeṣār of today) which was probably coextensive with a slight rise in the plain and perhaps adjacent to an old arm of the river.

    (Xavier de Planhol, C. E. Bosworth, V. Fourniau, Daniel Balland, F. Grenet)

  • BALḴĀB

    (Bactros of the classical authors), the river of Balḵ. This perennial river is a major feature of the geography of northern Afghanistan.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BALḴĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ ABD-ALLĀH

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿALĪ (d. 907-08), a traditionist (moḥaddeṯ) and author.

    (H. Schützinger)

  • BALḴĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD

    B. AḤMAD. See ʿALĪ B. AḤMAD BALḴĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BALḴI, ABU’L-MOʾAYYAD

    See ABU’l-MOʾAYYAD BALḴI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BALḴĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABD-ALLĀH AḤMAD

    B. AḤMAD. See ABU’L-QĀSEM KAʿBĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BALḴI, ḤAMID-AL-DIN

    See ḤAMID-AL-DIN ABU BAKR ʿOMAR BALḴI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BALUCHISTAN

    generally understood by the Baluch and their neighbors to comprise an area of over half a million square kilometers in the southeastern part of the Iranian plateau, south of the central deserts and the Helmand river, and in the arid coastal lowlands between the Iranian plateau and the Gulf of Oman.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BALUCHISTAN i. Geography, History and Ethnography

    Baluchistan is generally understood by the Baluch and their neighbors to comprise an area of over half a million square kilometers in the southeastern part of the Iranian plateau, south of the central deserts and the Helmand river.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • BALUCHISTAN i. Geography, History and Ethnography (cont.)

    appears to have been divided throughout history between Iranian (highland) and Indian (lowland) spheres of influence, and since 1870 it has been formally divided among Afghanistan, Iran, and India (later Pakistan). Parts 8-11.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • BALUCHISTAN ii. Archeology

    may have been inhabited first during the Pleistocene as proposed by Hume (1976), based on Paleolithic sites found in the Ladiz valley.

    (J. G. Shaffer)

  • BALUCHISTAN iii. Baluchi Language and Literature

    Baluchi is the principal language of an area extending from the Marv (Mary) oasis in Soviet Turkmenistan southward to the Persian Gulf, from Persian Sīstān eastward along the Helmand valley in Afghanistan, throughout Pakistani Makrān eastward nearly to the Indus river, including in the south the city of Karachi.

    (J. Elfenbein)

  • BALUCHISTAN iiia. Baluchi Poetry

    divided into 4 periods: (1) classical, from ca. 1550-1700; (2) post-classical, from 1700-1800; (3) 19th century to early 20th century; (4) modern, after ca. 1930.

    (Joseph Elfenbein)

  • BALUCHISTAN iv. Music of Baluchistan

    usually connected with particular ceremonies (marāsem), religious rites, festivals, or holidays. The relationships between melodies and particular ceremonies are reflected in their names.

    (M. T. Massoudieh)

  • BALUCHISTAN v. Baluch Carpets

    a distinct group of carpets, woven by Baluch tribes in the northeastern Iranian province of Khorasan and the Sīstān area. These were not made in Makrān, where the main body of the Baluch tribes live.

    (S. Azadi)

  • BALŪHAR O BŪDĀSAF

    See BARLAAM AND IOSAPH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BALŪṬ

    common designation in New Persian both for acorn and oak, Quercus L. In west and southwest Iran, where well-defined stands of oak exist, their total surface area has been estimated at 3,448,000 hectares, divided into two main areas: west Kurdistan and the Sardašt region, and on the southwestern slopes of the Zagros.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BALYĀNI, AMIN-AL-DIN

    (d. 1345), a famous Sufi who lived at the time of the Inju dynasty in Fars. The principle source for his life is Meftāḥ al-hedāyat va meṣbāḥ al-ʿenāyat, written in 1346 by his disciple Maḥmud b. ʿOṯmān.

    (Denise Aigle)

  • BALYSA-

    (Khotan Saka), bārza- (Tumšuq Saka), a word adapted to Buddhist use for the transcendental Buddha, translating Buddhist Sanskrit buddha- and also several epithets of the Buddha.

    (H. W. Bailey)

  • BĀLYŪZĪ, ḤASAN MOWAQQAR

    (1908-1980), Bahai author and administrator.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • BAM (1)

    (also written bām) “bass,” the lowest-pitched string in music. The etymology is discussed.

    (W. Eilers)

  • BAM (2)

    (in Arabic, Bamm), a town in southeastern Iran, located on the southwestern rim of the Dašt-e Lūt basin at an altitude of 1,100 m. i. History and modern town. ii. Ruins of the old town.

    (X. De Planhol, M.-E Bāstānī Pārīzī)

  • BAM EARTHQUAKE

    OF DECEMBER 26, 2003 A moderate-magnitude (Mw 6.6) earthquake struck the city of Bam and its surroundings at 05:26 AM local time (01:56 GMT) on Friday, 5 Dey 1382 Š./26 December 2003, resulting in the highest casualty rate and the most profound social impact in the recorded post-1900 history of devastating urban earthquakes in Iran.

    (Manuel Berberian)

  • BĀMBIŠN

    See BĀNBIŠN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀMDĀD

    a weekly Persian newspaper published in Tehran, 1907.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BĀMDĀD, MAHDĪ

    (d. 1973), civil servant, author of the multi-volume dictionary of national biography of Iran.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • BĀMDĀD-E ḴOMĀR

    The book’s title is taken from a famous line by Saʿdi: Šab-e šarāb nayarzad be bāmdād-e ḵomār (The night of inebriation is not worth the morning of hangover). Encased by a frame story within which the main story is narrated, Bāmdād-e ḵomār, a love story with a moral lesson, is set in Tehran in the 20th century.

    (Ali Ferdowsi)

  • BĀMDĀD-E ROWŠAN

    a Persian journal of news and political comment published in Tehran, 1915-24.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BĀMĪA

    (or bāmīā), okra, the edible unripe seed-pods of Hibiscus esculentus of the Malvaceae or mallows. i. The plant. ii. In cooking. iii. The sweet. It was introduced into the culinary art of Persians by Arabs from Baghdad in the 19th century.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam, N. Ramazani)

  • BĀMĪĀN

    town and province in central Afghanistan. Bāmīān’s position midway between Balḵ and Peshawar at the approach to the most difficult passes and the resultant opportunities to purvey provisions and accommodation for caravans explain why it became a particularly important stopping place.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BAMPŪR

    i. Prehistoric Site. ii. In Modern Times. Bampūr is a baḵš and qaṣaba (borough) in the šahrestān of Īrānšahr in the province of Balūčestān o Sīstān. The plain of Bampūr is encircled by several high mountains.

    (B. de Cardi, ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • BAMPUR ia. PREHISTORIC SITE (Continued)

    Since Beatrice de Cardi’s excavations in 1966 (de Cardi, 1968; idem, 1970) no new work has taken place there. Nevertheless, objects recovered at Bampur in the 1960s can now be better dated and understood, thanks to discoveries in recent years at sites in Central Asia, the Indo-Iranian borderlands, and southeastern Arabia..

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • BĀMŠĀD

    named as a musician at the court of the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628).

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • BĀMŠĀD newspaper

    a Persian newspaper and a news and public affairs magazine published in Tehran, 1956-68.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BAN-e SORMA

    a necropolis of the Early Bronze Age, excavated in 1967 by the Belgian Mission in Iran. By analogy with the funeral furnishings from the Old Elamite period at Susa IV, the tombs must be situated in the Early Dynastic III period, about 2600-2400 B.C.

    (L. Vanden Berghe)

  • BĀNA

    a šahrestān in the province of Kurdistan, located in a mountainous, well-forested region of western Iran (lat 35°59′ N, long 45°53′ E).

    (ʿA. Mardūḵ)

  • BANAFŠA

    “violet,” common name for the genus Viola L. in New Persian. From certain botanical features of violas there have developed some violet-based similes and metaphors in classical Persian literature.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BANĀʾĪ HERAVĪ

    (1453-1512), KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ŠĪR-ʿALĪ, noted poet at various courts of Persia and Transoxania.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BANĀKAṮ

    or BENĀKAṮ, the main town of the medieval Transoxanian province of Šāš or Čāč; it almost certainly had a pre-Islamic history as a center of the Sogdians.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BANĀKATĪ, Abū Solaymān

    Dāwūd b. Abi’l-Fażl Moḥammad (d. 1329-30), poet and historian.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • BANĀN, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN

    (1911-1986), one of the foremost Persian singers of the 20th century, known for the quality of his voice and vast knowledge of āvāz repertory.

    (Margaret Caton)

  • BĀNBIŠN

    Middle Persian “queen”: etymology and occurrences in Middle Iranian.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • BAND “DAM”

    “dam, ” something that factually or figuratively binds, ties, or restricts (cf. Av. banda- “bond,” Eng. bond). In geographical nomenclature it is applied to ranges (mainly in Afghanistan), passes (darband), and old dams and barrages built to store or divert water.

    (X. De Planhol)

  • BAND-E AMĪR (1)

    (the amir’s dike) or Band-e ʿAżodī (for the Daylamite ruler ʿAżod-al-Dawla, r. 949-83), a dam or weir constructed across the Kor river at the southeast end of the Marvdašt plain in Fārs.

    (J. Lerner)

  • BAND-E AMĪR (2)

    the chain of natural lakes 90 km west of Bāmīān in Afghanistan (lat 30°12’ N, long 66°30’ E).

    (X. De Planhol)

  • BAND-E BAHMAN

    an ancient dam built on the Qara Āḡāj river nearly sixty km south of Shiraz, attributed to the legendary king Bahman son of Esfandīār.

    (K. Afsar)

  • BAND-E TORKESTĀN

    (boundary wall of Turkestan), the mountain range in northwestern Afghanistan which runs in a west-east direction for 200 km between the upper valley of the Morḡāb to the south and the plains of the Āmū Daryā to the north.

    (X. De Planhol)

  • BANDA

    “servant.” i. The term. ii. Old Persian bandaka. Banda (NPers.) and its precursors bandak/bandag (Mid. Pers.) and bandaka (OPers.) meant “henchman, (loyal) servant, vassal,” but not “slave.”

    (W. Eilers, C. Herrenschmidt)

  • BANDAR

    “harbor, seaport; commercial town.” The concept of bandar probably continues an old Oriental tradition. Its double meaning of “harbor” on a river or a sea and “town, center of commerce and communications” (also in the inland) agrees well with that of Akkadian kārum.

    (W. Eilers)

  • BANDAR-E ʿABBAS(I)

    a port city and capital of Hormozgan province on the Persian Gulf.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BANDAR-E ʿABBAS(I) i. The City

    At the entrance to the Persian Gulf, Bandar-e ʿ Abbās extends about 2 km along the shallow Clarence (Ḵ ūrān) strait between Qešm island and the mainland.

    (X. De Planhol)

  • BANDAR ABBAS ii. Basic Population Data, 1956-2011

    Bandar Abba has experienced a very high rate of population growth, increasing more than twenty five-fold from a population of 17,710 in 1956 to 435,751 in 2011.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • BANDAR-E GAZ

    a port on the southern shore of Astarābād Bay in the southeastern Caspian Sea, a few kilometers from a group of nine hamlets known collectively as Gaz. The installation of Russians on the Āšūrāda islands after 1837 made it very important strategically.

    (X. De Planhol)

  • BANDAR-E LENGA

    (lat 26° 33’ N, long 54° 53’ E), a small port on the coast of Lārestān.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • BANDAR-E MĀHŠAHR

    (Bandar-e Maʿšūr), a port at the western end of the Persian Gulf, on the northern bank of the Ḵor-e Mūsā tideway, which forms the lower course of the Jar(r)āḥī river.

    (X. De Planhol)

  • BANDAR-E PAHLAVĪ

    See ANZALĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BANDAR-E ŠĀH

    (now Bandar-e Torkaman), a port on the southeastern Caspian Sea at the entrance of Astarābād Bay and about eight km south of the mouth of the Atrak. It was constructed from scratch during the 1930s at the terminus of the trans-Iranian railroad.

    (X. De Planhol)

  • BANDAR-E ŠĀHPŪR

    (Bandar-e Emām Ḵomeynī since the revolution of 1979), a port at the terminus of the trans-Iranian railroad, about 70 km from the Gulf along the northern shore of the Ḵor Mūsā, the outlet of the Jarāḥī river, which flows down from the Zagros mountains.

    (X. De Planhol)

  • BANDARI

    the dialect spoken by the native population of Bandar ʿAbbās, administrative center of Hormozgān province, and of its environs.

    (Mikhail Pelevin)

  • BANG

    a kind of narcotic plant. In older Arabic and Persian sources banj is applied to three different plants: hemp (Cannabis sativa or indica), henbane (Hyoseyamus niger, etc.), and jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). i. In ancient Iran. ii. In modern Iran.

    (Gherardo Gnoli, ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • BANG KAUP, JOHANN WILHELM MAX JULIUS

    (known as Willy), German orientalist (1869-1934). From 1893 onward Bang Kaup also devoted time to research in the promising area of the Old Turkish stone inscriptions.

    (Peter Zieme)

  • BANGĀLA

    See BENGAL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BANGAṦ

    one of the least-known Pashtun tribes in the Solaymān range, Pakistan, and one of the few that are not named after eponymous ancestors.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BANĪ ARDALĀN

    a Kurdish tribe of northwestern Iran, now dispersed in Sanandaj (Senna) and surrounding villages.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • BANĪ ḤARDĀN

    a Shiʿite Arab tribe of Howayza (Ḥawīza) district in Ḵūzestān.

    (John R. Perry)

  • BANĪ LĀM

    a numerous and historically important Shiʿite Arab tribe of northwestern Ḵūzestān, southern Lorestān, and adjacent parts of Iraq.

    (John R. Perry)

  • BANĪ SĀLA

    a Shiʿite Arab tribe of Howayza (Ḥawīza) district in Ḵūzestān.

    (John R. Perry)

  • BANĪ TAMĪM

    an Arab tribe of western Ḵūzestān, both settled and nomadic, raising sheep and camels. Their range lies between Howayza and Ahvāz.

    (John R. Perry)

  • BANĪ ṬOROF

    (Banu Turuf), a large Shiʿite Arab tribe of Howayza (Ḥawīza) district in Ḵūzestān, mostly sedentary, centered north of Howayza between Sūsangerd and Bostān (Besaytīn).

    (John R. Perry)

  • BANISTER, Thomas

    (d. Arrash, 20 July 1571), British merchant and traveler to Persia who commanded the fifth voyage from Britain to Persia via Russia for the purpose of establishing trade.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • BĀNK-E MARKAZĪ-E ĪRĀN

    (Central Bank of Iran), a bank established under the Iranian Banking and Monetary Act of 28 May 1960 to undertake the central banking activities in the country. The functions and powers of Bānk-e Markazī were revised following the Islamic Revolution of February, 1979, which led to the nationalization of private banking.

    (M. Yeganeh)

  • BANKING

    The first modern bank in Iran was the British-owned New Oriental Bank, which in 1888 opened in Tehran, Mašhad, Tabrīz, Rašt, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Būšehr. The New Oriental Bank was shortly replaced by another British-owned bank, the Imperial Bank of Persia.

    (P. Basseer, P. Clawson and W. Floor)

  • BANNĀʾĪ

    While the term bannāʾī covers the entire construction field, in this brief study domestic building techniques, in particular, which are more or less part of the traditional crafts, and the recent evolution of popular housing will be emphasized.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • BANNERS

    (ʿalam, derafš). Countless references in epic literature as well as in chronicles show that, in the clouds of dust that enveloped troops as they fought in sandy land, the glitter of the banner was the only way that warriors had of following the moves of their commanders or of identifying the enemy.

    (A. S. Melikian-Chirvani)

  • BĀNŪ

    originally “lady,” now also in common use as an alternative to ḵānom “Madam, Mrs.” (from Turkish xan-ım “my lord”).

    (W. Eilers)

  • BANŪ ʿABBĀS

    See ABBASID CALIPHATE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BANŪ AMĀJŪR

    (or MĀJŪR), ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABD-ALLĀH and his son Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī, 10th-century astronomers.

    (David Pingree)

  • BANŪ ʿANNĀZ

    See ʿANNAZIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BANŪ LAḴM

    See ḤIRA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BANŪ MĀJŪR

    See BANŪ AMĀJŪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BANŪ MONAJJEM

    a family of intellectuals, closely connected to the caliphs of the 9th-10th centuries and claiming descent from an ancient Iranian lineage.

    (David Pingree)

  • BANŪ MŪSĀ

    name applied to three brothers, 9th-century ʿAbbasid astronomers and engineers.

    (David Pingree)

  • BANŪ OMAYYA

    See OMMAYADS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀNŪ PĀRS

    “Lady of Pārs,” the name of a Zoroastrian shrine in the mountains at the northern end of the Yazd plain.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • BANŪ SĀJ

    a family named after its ancestor Abu’l-Sāj which served the ʿAbbasid caliphate (9th-10th centuries).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BANŪ SĀSĀN

    a name frequently applied in medieval Islam to beggars, rogues, charlatans, and tricksters of all kinds, allegedly so called because they stemmed from a legendary Shaikh Sāsān.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BAQĀʾ WA FANĀʾ

    Sufi term signifying “subsistence and passing away,” that is, passing away from worldly reality and being made subsistent in divine reality.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • BĀQELĀ

    broad beans, the grains of Vicia faba L. In Iran, this crop is grown rather extensively in the Caspian provinces and, to a lesser extent, in the south and southwest.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BĀQER, ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD

    The fifth imam of the Twelver Shiʿites (7th-8th century).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BĀQER KHAN SĀLĀR-E MELLI

    one of the popular heroes of the Constitutional Revolution during the defense of Tabrīz in the period of the Lesser Autocracy (June, 1908-July, 1909).

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • BĀQĪBELLĀH NAQŠBANDĪ

    (d. 1603), ḴᵛĀJA ABU’L-MOʾAYYAD RAŻĪ-AL-DĪN OWAYSĪ; As a Naqšbandi, he represents the sober type of Sufi, adhering to the Islamic law (šarīʿa) and averse to ecstatic mystical experiences.

    (J. G. J. Ter Haar)

  • BĀQLAVĀ

    i. The word. ii. The sweet. Bāqlavā is a sweet pastry known throughout the Middle East, in Iran commonly made with almonds (bādām), less frequently with pistachios (pesta).

    (W. Eilers, N. Ramazani)

  • BAQLĪ, RŪZBEHĀN

    SHAIKH. See RŪZBEHĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAQQĀL-BĀZĪ

    (lit. grocer play), a form of improvised, popular slapstick comedy; it is distinguished among the various forms of popular comedy in Iran by its own set of rules.

    (F. Gaffary)

  • BĀR

    “audience.” The royal audience was one of the most important and enduring of the court ceremonies practiced in Iran. i. From the Achaemenid through the Safavid period. ii. The Qajar and Pahlavi periods.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BAR HEBRAEUS

    (b. Malaṭīa, 1225; d. Marāḡa, 1286), Syriac historian and polymath. See EBN AL-ʿEBRĪ, ABU’L-FARAJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAR KŌNAY, THEODORE

    8th-9th-century Nestorian teacher and writer from Kaškar in Mesopotamia. His The Book of Scholiais notable for its sections on Zarathustra and Mani.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • BAR-E MEHR

    a fire temple in Yazd. See DAR-E MEHR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BARĀ’A

    an Imami theological term denoting dissociation from the enemies of the imams. During the conflict between ʿAlī and Moʿāwīa, formulas of dissociation were used by both parties.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • BARĀDŪST

    name of a Kurdish tribe, region, mountain range, river, and amirate. The tribespeople, mostly settled now, are Shafeʿite Sunnis and speak the Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish mixed with the neighboring Sorani dialects.

    (Amir Hassanpour)

  • BARAḠĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-TAQĪ

    QAZVĪNĪ, ŠAHĪD-E ṮĀLEṮ, MOLLĀ, an important Shiʿite ʿālem of Qazvīn (d. 1847).

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BARAK

    a kind of firm and durable woven cloth used for coats, overcoats (labbāda), shawls (in Afghanistan), čūḵas (surcoats for shepherds) and leggings.

    (T. Bīneš)

  • BARAKĪ BARAK

    locality in the province of Lōgar, Afghanistan, the abode of the country’s last Ōrmuṛī speakers.

    (Ch. M. Kieffer)

  • BĀRAKZAY DYNASTY

    See AFGHANISTAN x. Political History ; and DORRĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀRAKZĪ

    (singular Bārakzay), an ethnic name common among the Pashtun of Afghanistan and Pakistan and the Baluch of southeastern Iran. The oldest settlement area is between Herat and the approaches to the Helmand valley.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BARĀMEKA

    See BARMAKIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀRĀN

    It is interesting to note that in modern Iranian languages violent and dangerous rainfall events are often designated by borrowings from Arabic (ṭūfān for typhoon, barq for lightning, raʿd for thunder, sayl for sudden deluge), whereas for phenomena considered beneficial a terminology of Iranian origin has been preserved.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BARANĪ, ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    Indian-born Muslim historian who wrote in the period of the Delhi sultanate (ca. 1285-1357).

    (P. Hardy)

  • BARĀQ BĀBĀ

    (b. 1257-58, d. 1307-08), a crypto-shamanic Anatolian Turkman dervish close to two of the Mongol rulers of Iran.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BARĀQ KHAN

    See NOWRŪZ AḤMAD KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BARAQĪ

    ḴᵛĀJA ʿABD-ALLĀH, 12th-century Sufi of Bukhara.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BARAŠNOM

    the chief Zoroastrian purification rite, consisting of a triple cleansing, with gōmēz (cow’s urine), dust, and water, followed by nine nights’ seclusion.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • BĀRBAD

    minstrel-poet of the court of the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628 A.D.).

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • BARBARO, GIOSAFAT

    Venetian merchant, traveler, and diplomat (1413-94), appointed Venetian ambassador to Persia (1473-78); author of a travel account.

    (A. M. Piemontese)

  • BARBAṬ

    the prototype of a family of short-necked lutes characterized by a rather flat, pear-shaped sound box.

    (Jean During)

  • BARBERRY

    (zerešk; Berberis spp., family Berberidaceae). Species of this genus are found in the northern, eastern, and southeastern highlands of Iran.

    (EIr)

  • BARBIER DE MEYNARD, CHARLES ADRIEN CASIMIR

    French orientalist (1826-1908). Among his works, the Tableau littéraire du Khorassan and Dictionnaire géographique attest the excellence of his Persian scholarship.

    (Charles Pellat)

  • BARD-E BAL

    a necropolis excavated in 1969-70 by the Belgian archeological mission in Iran, Īlām Province.

    (L. Vanden Berghe)

  • BARD-E BOT

    See ELYMAIS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BARD-E NEŠĀNDA

    a complex of ancient ruins in Ḵūzestān, situated 18 km northwest of the town of Masjed-e Solaymān (where similar ruins exist) at 675 m altitude on the edge of the Baḵtīārī mountains.

    (K. Schippmann)

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI

    Slaves and slavery. i. In the Achaemenid period. ii. In the Sasanian period. iii. In the Islamic period up to the Mongol invasion. iv. From the Mongols to the abolition of slavery. v. Military slavery in Islamic Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI i. Achaemenid Period

    At the beginning of the Achaemenid period, the institution of slavery was still poorly developed in Iran. In Media a custom existed whereby a poor man could place himself at the disposal of a rich person if the latter agreed to feed him. The position of such a man was similar to that of a slave.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI ii. In the Sasanian period

    The most commonly used expressions designating slaves in the Middle Persian sources are anšahrīg, literally “foreigner,” and bandag, literally “bound.” The latter term does not exclusively designate the slave but is used of every subject of the sovereign.

    (Maria Macuch)

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI iii. In the Islamic period up to the Mongol invasion

    Early Islamic society was essentially a slave-holding one, and it seems likely that Iranian society of the time exhibited two of the types of slavery known elsewhere in the pre-modern Old World—agricultural/industrial slavery and domestic slavery.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI iv. From the Mongols to the abolition of slavery

    After the Mongol period, the manner in which white slaves were obtained basically remained unchanged, that is, warfare and raids continued to be the main slave-producing activities.

    (Willem Floor)

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI v. Military slavery in Islamic Iran

    Military slavery may have been known in the Sasanian period, but, as the Sasanian army was based essentially on the free, mailed cavalryman, any slaves within it can only have been in the little-regarded following of infantrymen.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI vi. Regulations Governing Slavery in Islamic Jurisprudence

    Slavery is designated in feqh (religious law) as reqq “weakness.” The weakness in question is extrinsic to the person of the slave and results from his legal debarment (ḥejr).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BARḎAʿA

    or BARDAʿA (Arm. Partav, Georgian Bardavi, Mid. Pers. Pērōzāpāt), the chief town until the 10th century of the Islamic province of Arrān, the classical Caucasian Albania.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BARDAŠĪR

    old name of the city of KERMĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BARDESANES

    (Syr. Bar Dayṣān, Ar. Ebn Dayṣān), gnostic thinker (154-222) who occupies a position between the Syriac gnostic systems of the first two centuries A.D. and the Iranian gnostic system of Mani of the third century.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • BARDIYA

    the younger son of Cyrus the Great. Tarius in his Behistun inscription (DB 1.30-33) says that Cambyses, after becoming king, but before his departure to Egypt, slew Bardiya and that the assassination was kept a secret from the people.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • BAṚĒC(Ī)

    a Pashtun tribe in southern Afghanistan. Location of the Baṛēc at the southern extremity of Pashtun territory and at the limits of the Baluch has allowed multiple contacts with the latter and Brahui, including intermarriages, as well as linguistic or even genealogical assimilation.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BARĒLVĪ, AḤMAD ŠAHĪD

    Indo­-Muslim saint, author of Persian works, known for his reformist ideas, military ventures, and eventual martyr­dom (1786-1831).

    (Q. Ahmad)

  • BARƎSMAN

    See BARSOM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀREZĀNĪ

    See BĀRZĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BARF “SNOW”

    On the tropical margins of the Irano-Afghan plateau, snow is in fact exceptional below an altitude of 1,000 meters. Not that it cannot fall in abundance there, but then it is a memorable event. In the remaining two-thirds of the territory of Iran and Afghanistan snow is a common occurrence.

    (Daniel Balland, Bernard Hourcade, and C. M. Kieffer)

  • BĀRFORŪŠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ

    (1823-49), MOLLĀ, important figure in early Babism.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BARG-E BŪ

    (or deraḵt-e ḡār; Eng. laurel and sweet bay), Laurus nobilis, the most popular species of the family Lauraceae, the one used for laurel wreaths. The tree is common in Persian gardens.

    (Ahmad Parsa)

  • BARḠAŠI, ABU’L MOẒAFFAR MOḤAMMAD b. EBRAHIM

    vizier to two of the last Samanid Amirs of Transoxiana and Khorasan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BARGOSTVĀN

    horse armor, a distinctive feature of Iranian warfare from very early times on. The earliest known helmet (chamfron) has been excavated at Ḥasanlū from a 9th-century B.C. stratum.

    (A. S. Melikian-Chirvani)

  • BĀRHANG

    (also bārtang), plantain, general name for about 27 species of Plantago L. (family Plantaginaceae) in Iran, particularly the greater plantain, the lesser plantain, and fleawort.

    (Hakim M. Said)

  • BARĪD

    the official postal and intelligence service of the early Islamic caliphate and its successor states. The service operated by means of couriers mounted on mules or horses or camels or traveling on foot.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BARĪDŠĀHĪ DYNASTY

    The Barīdšāhī dynasty achieved its cultural apex in the mid-16th century, under the thirty-seven-year rule of ʿAlī Barīd. The first Barīdšāhī to adopt the title “king,” ʿAlī presided over the apogee of Barīdšāhī architecture, the most important specimens of which were his tomb and the Rangīn Maḥal, a palace adorned with wood carving and mother-of-pearl.

    (R. M. Eaton)

  • BARIKĀNU

    a town in Media, which was conquered and forced to pay a tribute by the Assyrian king Sargon II ca. 716 B.C.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • BARIŠ NASK

    one of the lost nasks of the Haδamąθra group of the Avesta, analyzed in Dēnkard 8.9.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • BARḴᵛARDĀR TORKMĀN

    MĪRZĀ, author of Aḥsan al-sīar, a history of Shah Esmāʿīl Ṣafawī, completed 1523-24 or 1530-31.

    (R. D. McChesney)

  • BARKĪĀROQ

    ROKN-AL-DĪN ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR B. MALEKŠĀH, Great Saljuq sultan (r. 1092-1105); his reign convention­ally marks the opening stages of the decline of Great Saljuq unity.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BARLAAM AND IOSAPH

    Persian Belawhar o Būdāsaf, a Greek Christian or Christianized novel of Buddhist origins. All the manuscripts are later than 1500. Being extremely popular it received various accretions and was often translated.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • BARLEY

    The cultivation of barley in Iran, like that of wheat, goes back to the origin of agriculture itself. Both botanical and archeological data locate the beginning of the “Neolithic revolution” in the Fertile Crescent, where both wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, and a wide-grain kind of wild wheat, Triticum dicoccoides can still be found.

    (Marcel Bazin, Daniel Balland)

  • BARM-e DELAK

    a site with a spring about 10 km southeast of Shiraz, where three panels bearing two Sasanian rock reliefs are carved in the mountain at a height of about 6.5 m above the ground.

    (L. Vanden Berghe)

  • BARMAKIDS

    or Barāmeka, fam­ily stemming from Balḵ, secretaries and viziers under the early ʿAbbasids, not before Hešām b. ʿAbd al-Malek (723-42), until 802 (under Hārūn al-Rašīd).

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • BĀRMĀN

    the son of Vīsa, one of the Turanian heroes mentioned in the Šāh-nāma as a member of the army that Afrāsīāb led into Iran during the reign of Nowḏar.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BARMĀYA

    in the traditional history, the name of a cow associated with Ferēdūn and eventually killed by Żaḥḥāk.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BARNĀMA-RĪZĪ

    “planning.” Among the countries of the Middle East Iran has a relatively long history of economic development planning. By the time of the revolution in 1979, five development plans of various durations had been implemented in ran over a thirty-year period.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • BARNAVĪ, ʿALĀ-AL-DĪN ČEŠTĪ

    See ČEŠTĪYA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BARQ

    (Lightning), the name of three Persian newspapers, 1910-17, 1943, 1950s.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • BARQ "ELECTRICITY"

    The electrification of individual government build­ings appears to have begun during the reign of Nāṣer-al-­Dīn Shah with the state armory and the shah’s residence in Tehran It was only in 1900 that the first electrical plant (of 6,6 kw) was built in Iran, in the city of Mašhad.

    (Willem Floor and Bernard Hourcade, Daniel Balland)

  • BARQĀNĪ, ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. AḤMAD B. ḠĀLEB (948-1034), a traditionist (moḥaddeṯ), philologist, and lawyer of the Shafeʿite school.

    (H. Schützinger)

  • BARR, KAJ

    Danish orientalist (1896-1970). Among his publications are an edition from F. C. Andreas’s papers of the Pahlavi Psalter fragments discovered at Turfan and a collaboration with A. Christensen and W. B. Henning to publish Andreas’s notes on Iranian dialects.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • BARRA

    or bāru, an Iranian loanword designating a tax in Babylonian texts. The word appears nearly seventy times between 442 and 417 B.C. almost exclusively in tax receipts.

    (G. Cardascia)

  • BARRASĪHĀ-YE TĀRĪḴĪ

    journal of historical studies of Iran, 1966-78. Some of the articles, particularly those bearing on the eighteenth and nineteenth cen­turies and descriptive geography, were well researched and original. The journal also published a number of historical documents.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BARŠABBĀ

    legendary bishop of Marv and founder of the Christian church in eastern Iran. The only completely preserved versions of the legend are found in Arabic sources.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • BARṢAUMĀ

    a 5th-century bishop of Nisibis. As a convinced Nestorian, he believed that the Persian church should follow this course, as it was in the interest of the Sasanian state to wean the church away from the West.

    (A. Vööbus)

  • BARSĪĀN

    a village in the dehestān of Barāʾān 45 km southeast of Isfahan on the north bank of the Zāyandarūd; situated on the old caravan route from Isfahan to Yazd, it prospered quickly in Saljuq times.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • BARSḴĀN

    or Barsḡān, a place in Central Asia, on the southern shores of the Ïsïq-Göl, in the region known as Semirechye or Yeti-su “the land of the seven rivers,” in what is now the Kyrgyz Republic.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BARSOM

    (Av. barəsman), sacred twigs that form an important part of the Zoroastrian liturgical apparatus. The number varies according to the ceremony to be performed. Today brass or silver wires are used in place of twigs.

    (M. F. Kanga)

  • BARSOM YAŠT

    in the liturgical manuscripts of the Avesta the name of the second hād (chapter) of the Yasna.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • BARTANGĪ

    The first text in Bartangī, a specimen of folk poetry, was published by Zarubin in 1924. The text corpus available now is limited: Zarubin, 1937 (poetry; prose text in Bartangī and Rōšanī); Sokolova, 1953 (text with versions in Šuḡnī, Rōšānī, Ḵūfī, and Bar­tangī); Sokolova, 1960.

    (G. Buddruss)

  • BARTHÉLEMY, ADRIEN

    French orientalist (1859-1949). A devoted linguist, he published a study of the Pahlavi Gujastag Abāliš, before a career in diplomacy led him to a monumental dictionary of eastern Arabic dialects.

    (Francis Richard)

  • BARTHOLD, VASILIĭ VLADIMIROVICH

    Russian orientalist (1869-1930). He was the first who put the study of the history of Central Asia on a firm scholarly basis and actually founded this branch of Oriental studies. But he never studied Central Asia in isolation.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • BARTHOLOMAE, CHRISTIAN

    German scholar of Iranian and Indo-European studies (1855-1925). Bartholomae devoted the main part of his life and work to Iranian linguistics, his chief endeavor being directed toward the integration of Iranian into the framework of Indo-European languages.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • BARTHOLOMAE’S LAW

    the name given to a rule of phonetic assimilation in the Indo-Iranian and probably also the proto-Indo-European languages first noted by Christian Bartholomae in 1882.

    (M. Mayrhofer)

  • BARTUS, BERNARD AUGUST THEODOR LUDWIG

    (1858-1941), technician and a key figure of the Turfan expeditions because of his autodidactical development of methods of removing inscriptions and works of art from rock walls and ruins without their getting damaged, as well as methods of their conservation and preservation.

    (Aloïs van Tongerloo)

  • BĀRŪ

    (or bāra), fortress in general, defensive wall, rampart. Defensive walls and earthworks dating from the start of human settlement in Iran still survive. Their forms evolved in parallel with the development of offensive and defensive weapons.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • BARUCH

    scribe and disciple of the prophet Jeremiah, at the time of the first Jewish exile to Babylonia (586 B.C.). Baruch was identified with Zoroaster by some Syriac authors, followed by some Arab historians.

    (Sh. Shaked)

  • BĀRŪT

    “gunpowder.” Guns and cannon, and thus gunpowder, probably were first introduced in Iran during Uzun Ḥasan Āq Qoyunlū’s reign; in 1473 he asked Venice for “artillery, arquebuses, and gunners.”

    (Willem Floor)

  • BARZAN

    part of a town, quarter (maḥalla), street (kūča). In modern Iranian place names the forms Varzan and Varzana are common.

    (W. Eilers)

  • BĀRZĀNĪ

    a Kurdish tribe from Bārzān, a town of northeastern Iraq. The shaikhs of Bārzān came to prominence in the disorder following sup­pression of the semi-independent Kurdish principalities in the mid-19th century.

    (W. Behn)

  • BARZĪN

    (from Pahlavi Burzēn), the name of several figures in the Šāh-nāma.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BAŠĀKERD

    a roughly rectan­gular mountainous district (dehestān) east of Mīnāb and north of Jāsk. The topography and the natural conditions are similar to Makrān to the immediate east.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • BASAWAL

    the site of a Buddhist cave temple complex in eastern Afghanistan. The caves, 150 in all, are partly hewn out in two rows and arranged in seven groups, which presumably corre­spond to the seven monastic institutions of Buddhist times.

    (Sh. Kuwayama)

  • BĀṢERĪ

    a pastoral nomadic tribe of Fārs belonging to the Ḵamsa confederacy. The nomads keep sheep, intermingled with 10-20 percent goats, and use donkeys for transport.

    (F. Barth)

  • BĀŠGĀH-E AFSARĀN

    (Officers’ Club), an impressive building in Tehran, built in 1939.

    (M. Ṣāneʿī)

  • BĀŠGĀH-E ARĀMENA

    (the Armenian Club), a non-profit, non-political social club, founded 1 January 1918 by Armenians in Tehran.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • BĀŠGĀH-E MEHRAGĀN

    (Mehragān Club), an organization of the Iran Teachers Association open to teachers, students, and other in­tellectuals in Tehran and eventually in the provinces, 1952-62.

    (Ḥ. Maḥmūdī)

  • BASIL

    Ocimum L. ssp. (fam. Labiatae), now commonly called rayḥān in Persian, an aromatic plant.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • BASILIUS OF CAESAREA

    or Basilius the Great (ca. A.D. 330-79), bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia from 370, after Eusebius, who wrote regarding the Magi.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • BAŠKARDI

    (Bašākerdī), collective designation for numerous dialects spoken in southeastern Iran from Bandar-e ʿAbbās eastward, forming a transition from the dialects spoken in Fārs and Lārestān to Baluchi.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • BASKERVILLE, HOWARD C.

    a teacher at the American mission in Tabrīz, killed 19 April 1909 during the siege of Tabrīz by royalist troops.

    (K. Ekbal)

  • BĀSMA

    a Turkish word which originally referred to a design applied (e.g., with a wood block) in ink, silver, and gold to paper, cloth, and other materials.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • BASRA

    (Ar. al-Baṣra), town located near the Šaṭṭ al-ʿArab river in southern Iraq, predominantly Arab, possessing a rich political, cultural, and economic history. This article concentrates mainly on describing the town’s many significant ties with Iran.

    (F. M. Donner)

  • BASSĀM-E KORD

    the Kharijite (fl. mid-9th century), one of the first poets in the New Persian language, active at the court of the Saffarids.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BAŠŠĀR-E MARḠAZĪ

    a Persian poet of the 10th century, apparently from Marv in Khorasan.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BAST

    (sanctuary, asylum), the designation of cer­tain sanctuaries in Iran that are considered inviolable and were often used by people seeking refuge from prosecution.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • BASṬĀM, BASṬĀMĪ

    See BESṬĀM, BESṬĀMĪ FAMILY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BASTANEGĀR

    a gūša in the instrumental repertory (radīf) of classical Persian music.

    (Jean During)

  • BASTŪR

    (Mid. Pers. Bastwar, Av. Bastauuairi), a hero of the Iranian national epic, son of Zarēr, King Goštāsp’s brother.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • BĀṬĀS

    a village in Iraq, Arbīl province. The nearby rock relief, no longer in good preservation, may depict Izates II, the king of Adiabene (ca. 36-62 A.D.), who was converted to Judaism. He is likely to have ordered the carving after the unexpected retreat of the Parthian king of kings, Vologases I.

    (R. M. Boehmer)

  • BĀṬEN

    (inner, hidden), the opposite of ẓāher (outer, visible). Both terms can be predicated of living beings. Most frequently, however, they are associated with the concept ʿelm (knowledge).

    (Bernd Radtke)

  • BĀṬENĪYA

    a generic term for all groups and sects which distinguished the bāṭen (inner, hidden) and the ẓāher (outer, visible) of the Koran and the Islamic law (Šarīʿa).

    (Heinz Halm)

  • BATHHOUSES

    In 1890 there were 72 bathhouses in Isfahan, which were of different quality and cleanliness; this is possibly an estimate, because only 31 public baths have been identified as remaining historical monuments. However, around 1920 there were some 85 bathhouse keepers.

    (Willem Floor, W. Kleiss)

  • BĀTMAN

    a measure of weight, the same as mann but more common in Central Asia, especially in modern times. There was a great variety of bātmans in different regions and for weighing different goods.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • BATRAKATAŠ

    place name, apparently the same as Pasargadae, which appears on the Elamite fortification tablets found at Persepolis.

    (H. Koch)

  • BATS

    (Pers. šabpara, mūš(-e)kūr; Ar. ḵoffāš). All but two Iranian bat species fall into one of three geographic groups in Iran. Rousettus aegyptiacus is known from Baluchistan, Qešm island, and three sites near Jahrom in Fārs. Records indicate that it ranges across southern Iran wherever dates and other fruits are grown.

    (A. F. DeBlase)

  • BAṬṬAI YAZDĀNĪ

    the 5th-century founder or reformer of the Kantheans, a sect related to the Mandeans.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BATTLE-AXES in Eastern Iran

    Battle-axes made of bronze appeared in Eastern Iran during the Bronze Age. One such object comes from a burial at the Sapalli-tepa settlement in southern Uzbekistan.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • BAUR, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN

    (1792-1860), German theologian and scholar of Manicheism. Most important was Baur’s view of Manicheism, as a religion born at the watershed of the ancient and Christian worlds.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • BAUSANI, ALESSANDRO

    (1921-1988), prolific Italian orientalist in several fields: Persian literature, Islam, linguistics, the history of Islamic science, Urdu, Indonesian, and other Islamic literatures.

    (Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti)

  • BAVĀNĀTĪ

    (d. 1892-93), MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD-BĀQER, Persian man of letters, poet, instructor of Persian in London, and self-styled prophet.

    (Iraj Afšār)

  • BĀVANDIDS

    See ĀL-E BĀVAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀVĪ

    (or Bābūʾī), a Luri-speaking tribe of the Kohgīlūya, in Fārs.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • BĀWĪYA

    a Shiʿite tribe of Ḵūzestān. They range east and south of Ahvāz, between the Kārūn and Jarrāḥī rivers, to the south of Band-e Qīr and north of Māred.

    (John R. Perry)

  • BÄX FÄLDISỊN

    “horse dedication,” a funeral rite practiced by the Ossetes until recent times.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • BAY

    See BARG-E BŪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BAYĀN (1)

    term (lit. “statement,” “exposition,” “explanation”) from an early date encompassing the various arts of expression in speech and writing. Often ʿelm-e bayān merely denotes rhetoric as a whole.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • BAYĀN (2)

    term applied to the writings of the Bāb in general and to two late works in particular, the Bayān-e fārsī and al-Bayān al-ʿarabī.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BAYĀNI, JĀR-ALLĀH-ZĀDA

    Shaikh Moṣtafā (d. 1005-6/ 1597), a Turkish poet who composed taḵmis (poems consisting of stanzas of five lines [meşrāʿ] each) on the ḡazals of Hāfeẓ.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • BAYĀNĪ, MEHDĪ

    (1906-68), specialist in Persian manuscripts and calligraphy and pioneer in the field of Persian librarianship.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • BAYĀT

    an important Turkish tribe. A substantial proportion of the Bayāt people must have entered Iran in the train of the Saljuq invaders in the first half of the 11th century.

    (Gerhard Doerfer)

  • BAYĀT(Ī)

    one of the old modes of the Irano-Arabic musical tradition, mentioned for the first time by Šayḵ Ṣafadī (15th century).

    (Jean During)

  • BAYĀT-E EṢFAHĀN

    or ĀVĀZ-e EṢFAHĀN, a musical system based on a specific collection of modal pieces (gūšahā) which are performed in a particular order.

    (Margaret Caton)

  • BAYĀT-E KORD

    or KORD-e BAYĀT, a part of the modal system (dastgāh) of Šūr in Persian music.

    (Margaret Caton)

  • BAYĀT-E TORK

    a musical system (āvāz, naḡma) and one of the branches of the modal system (dastgāh) of Šūr in traditional classical music.

    (Margaret Caton)

  • BAYĀT-E TORK-test1

    (music sample)

  • BAYATỊ, GAPPO

    (Ger.: Georg-Gappo Baiew; 1869-1939), Ossetic man of letters.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • BAYĀŻ

    literally “white,” usually a small paper notepad that opens lengthwise and was carried around in an inside pocket. Several such MS are found in various libraries.

    (M.-T. Dānešpažūh)

  • BAYAZIT

    (Bāyazīd; Osm. Bayezid), a stronghold located three kilometers southeast of the modern village of Doğubayazit, Turkey, and approximately twenty-five kilometers southwest of Mt. Ararat, important in the defense of Anatolia against invasion from Iran.

    (R. W. Edwards)

  • BĀYBŪRTLŪ

    (also Bāybūrdlū), a Turkic tribe of northwestern Iran whose only vestiges seem to be the names of a few historical personalities.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • BĀYDŪ

    a son of Ṭaraḡāy and grandson of Hülegü (Hūlāgū), reigned as il-khan in Iran, 1295.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • BAYHAQ

    a rural area (rostāq) of medieval Khorasan, between the district of Nīšāpūr and the eastern borders of Qūmes, and its town, also known as Sabzavār.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BAYHAQĪ, ABU’L-FAŻL

    MOḤAMMAD B. ḤOSAYN, secretary at the Ghaznavid court and renowned Persian historian (995-1077).

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • BAYHAQĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

    B. ŠOʿAYB ʿEJLĪ NAYSĀBŪRĪ (d. 936), a jurist who helped promote the spread of the Shafeʿite school of Islamic law in Khorasan.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • BAYHAQĪ, EBRĀHĪM

    B. MOḤAMMAD, 10th-century Arabic littérateur, author of a work of adab.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BAYHAQĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN

    ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ B. ZAYD (ca. 1097-1169), also known as Ebn Fondoq, an Iranian polymath of Arab descent, author of the Tārīḵ-e Bayhaq.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • BĀYJŪ

    Mongol general and military governor in northwestern Iran (fl. 1228-1259). He belonged to the Besüt tribe and was a kinsman of Jengiz Khan’s general Jebe (Jaba).

    (Peter Jackson)

  • BAYLAQĀN

    a town of the medieval Islamic region of Arrān, the classical Caucasian Albania, lying in the triangle between the Kor and Aras (Araxes) rivers.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BĀYQARĀ B. ʿOMAR ŠAYḴ

    (b. 1392-93, d. 1422-23?), a Timurid prince and grandson of Tīmūr, active in Fārs.

    (E. Glassen)

  • BAYRAM KHAN

    (or BAYRĀM) KHAN, Moḥammad Ḵān(-e) Ḵānān (d. 1561), an illustrious and powerful Iranian noble at the court of the Mughal emperors Homāyūn and Akbar.

    (N. H. Ansari)

  • BAYRĀMŠĀH

    (d. 1367-69), the beloved companion (nadīm) of Sultan Oways, second ruler (r. 1356 to 1374-75) of the Jalayerids.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • BAYRĀNAVAND

    a Lor tribe of the Pīš(-e)Kūh region in Lorestān.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • BĀYSONḠOR, ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN

    B. ŠĀHROḴ B. TĪMŪR (1397-1433), Timurid prince who played an important role as a statesman and a patron of art and architecture and was himself a first-class calligrapher.

    (H. R. Roemer)

  • BĀYSONḠORĪ ŠĀH-NĀMA

    an illuminated and gilded manuscript of Ferdowsī’s Šāh-nāma measur­ing 26.5 × 38 cm, containing 346 pages and twenty-one paintings, written in nastaʿlīq, and kept in the former Royal Library (Golestan Palace Museum, no. 6) in Tehran. i. The manuscript. ii. The paintings.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BĀYSONḠORĪ ŠĀH-NĀM i. THE MANUSCRIPT

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BĀYSONḠORĪ ŠĀH-NĀMA ii. THE PAINTINGS

    (T. Lentz)

  • BAYT

    a genre of Kurdish folk art, an orally transmitted story which is either entirely sung or is a combination of sung verse and spoken prose.

    (Amir Hassanpour)

  • BAYT-AL-ʿADL

    (House of Justice), a Bahai administrative institution.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • BAYTUZ

    a Turkish commander who controlled the town of Bost in southern Afghanistan during the middle years of the 10th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BAYŻĀ

    a town of medieval Islamic Fārs (modern Tall-e Bayżā), 25 miles north of Shiraz, 8 farsaḵs according to the medieval geographers and one stage east of the Sasanian and early Islamic town of Eṣṭaḵr.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BAYŻĀWĪ, NĀṢER-AL-DĪN

    Shafeʿite jurist, Asḥʿarite theologian, and renowned Koran commentator (13th-14th centuries).

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • BĀZ

    general term formerly applied particularly to birds from the genera Falco (falcons) and Accipiter (hawks), which were traditionally prized and trained for hunting game birds.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BAZAG

    “toilette.” See COSMETICS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀZA-ḴŪR

    (Baz-e Hur), a village and site of some important Sasanian structures on the road from Mašhad to Torbat-e Ḥaydarīya.

    (Dietrich Huff)

  • BĀZĀR

    “market (place),” term which may refer to: a market day, usually once a week, when farmers bring their wares to the market to sell; a fair held at specific times; and the physical establishments, the shops, characterized by specific morphology and architectural design.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BAZAR i. General

    Large interior courtyard caravanserais are an integral part of most bāzārs, particularly in the larger cities where international trade was once significant. Around the courtyard are single- or two-storied complexes of offices occupied by wholesalers, although the bottom level is more often for storage and even contains shopkeepers or craftsmen.

    (Michael E. Bonine)

  • BĀZĀR ii. Organization and Function

    Both weekly market days and regular fairs occurred in pre-Islamic times. Among the latter, for example, was the bāzār of Māḵ in Bukhara.

    (Willem Floor)

  • BAZAR iii. Socioeconomic and Political Role

    The bāzār in the Islamic city has been (1) a central marketplace and craft center located in the old quarters of the town; (2) a primary arena, along with the mosque, of extrafamilial sociability; and (3) a sociocultural milieu of a traditional urban life-style.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • BAZAR iv. In Afghanistan

    In Afghanistan a bāzār is a collection of shops and workshops forming a topographic unit. As regards size and layout, however, there can be great differences.

    (E. F. Grötzbach)

  • BAZAR v. Temporary Bazars in Iran and Afghanistan

    The most firmly established form of periodic bāzār is certainly the one observed in the Caspian lowlands of Iran and especially in the central plain of Gīlān, where weekly bāzārs (bāzār-e haftagī) are part of a particularly long tradition.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • BĀZĀR-E WAKĪL

    an architectural monument of Shiraz from the reign of Karīm Khan Zand (Wakīl, r. 1750-79) and still an important center of business.

    (Karāmat-Allāh Afsar)

  • BĀZARGĀN

    a village on the Turkish-Iranian frontier eighteen kilometers northwest of Mākū, West Azerbaijan province. The development of this village is very recent and limited, linked with the nearby frontier crossing.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • BĀZĀRGĀNĪ

    See COMMERCE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀZDĀRĪ

    (or bāzyārī, lit. “bāz keeping,” obs.), falconry, as a practical art and as a sport.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BĀZGAŠT-E ADABĪ

    “literary return,” a move­ment for a return to writing poetry in the Ḵorāsānī and ʿErāqī styles, which began in the mid-18th century and continued into the 20th century.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • BĀZĪ

    (games). The growing interest in Iranian folklore in recent decades has resulted in the publication of descriptions of many games played in various parts of Iran, often to be found in dialect glossaries.

    (Fereydūn Vahman)

  • BĀZ-NĀMA

    books or treatises on the keeping and training of falcons.

    (Moḥammad-Taqī Dānešpažūh)

  • BĀZRANGĪ

    the family name of a dynasty of petty rulers in Fārs overthrown during the rise of the Sasanians.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • BĀZYĀR

    See BĀZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĀZYĀRĪ

    See BĀZDĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BDEAXŠ

    See BIDAXŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BE SŪ-YE ĀYANDA

    (Toward the future), Per­sian daily newspaper and unofficial organ of the Communist Ḥezb-e Tūda (Tudeh party, 1950-53.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BEADS

    See JEWELRY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BEANS

    term applied to plants (and their seeds) of different genera of the vast family Leguminosae. In this article, discussion is confined to what is commonly called lūbīā in Persian.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BEAR

    (Pers. ḵers, Av. arša-). Two varieties of bears are found on the Iranian plateau: the Eurasian brown bear and the Baluchistan black bear. The Eurasian brown bear is the most common of all bears.

    (Paul Joslin)

  • BEAUSOBRE, ISAAC DE

    (1659-1738), Huguenot pastor, scholar and pioneer of modern studies of Manicheism.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • BEAVER

    Castor fiber L., semiaquatic mammalian rodent, in Persian commonly sag-e ābī (lit. “aquatic dog”), no longer extant in Iran. There appear to be references to beavers in Avestan and Pahlavi literatures.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BEČKA, Jiři

    (1915-2004), a noted Czech scholar of Iran, Afghanistan, and particularly, Tajikistan.

    (Manfred Lorenz)

  • BĒDIL

    See BĪDEL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BEDIR KHAN

    (Badr Khan; d. 1867), last ruler of the principality of Cizre-Botan, by extension, name of a Kurdish clan that has played important political, social, and cultural roles since the mid-19th century.

    (Mehmed Uzun)

  • BEDLĪS

    (Turk. Bitlis, Arm. Bałēš, Ar. Badlīs), town and province of Turkey, of Kurdish population, situated twenty km southwest of Lake Van, commanding the passes between the Armenian highlands and the Mesopotamian lowlands.

    (Robert Dankoff)

  • BEDLĪSĪ, ḤAKĪM-AL-DĪN EDRĪS

    B. ḤOSĀM-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ, MAWLĀNĀ (d. 1520), scholar, his­torian, poet, and statesman under the Ottoman Sultan Salīm I (r. 1512-20).

    (Cornell H. Fleischer)

  • BEDLĪSĪ, ŠARAF-AL-DĪN KHAN

    (b. 1543, d. 1603-04?), chief of the Rūzagī tribe of Kurds, whose traditional center was the town of Bedlīs; author of the Šaraf-nāma, a history of the Kurds in Persian.

    (Erika Glassen)

  • BEDLĪSĪ, ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿAMMĀR

    Sufi shaikh (d. between 1194 and 1207-08), teacher of Najm-al-Din Kobrā.

    (Edward Badeen)

  • BEDŽỊZATỊ ČERMEN

    (Russ.: Chermen Begizov; DAUỊTỊ FỊRT; 1899-1941), Ossetic writer and editor.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • BEECH

    Fagus L. Modern Iranian botanists tend to refer to this tree as rāš. Its timber is used more than any other wood for making doors, windows, inexpensive furni­ture, and tools.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BEET

    Beta vulgaris L., PERS. čoḡondar. The present distinction of beet varieties into vegetable (or red) beet, sugar beet, and fodder beet was unknown to the early Islamic botanists-pharmacologists.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BEG

    (Pers. also beyg) a Turkish title meaning “lord” or “chief,” later “prince,” equivalent to the Arabic-Persian amīr, fem. BEGOM.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • BEGGING

    (Pers. gadāʾī, takaddī, soʾāl). i. In the early centuries of the Islamic period. ii. In Sufi literature and practice. iii. In later Iran.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth, Hamid Algar, ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • BEGLERBEGĪ

    a Turkish title meaning “beg of begs,” “commander of commanders,” In the Il-khanid period sometimes employed to designate the leading amir in the state.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • BEGRĀM

    the site of ancient Kāpiśa, located 80.5 km north of Kabul overlooking the Panjšīr valley at the confluence of the Panjšīr and Ḡorband rivers.

    (Martha L. Carter)

  • BEGTOḠDÏ

    Turkish slave com­mander of the Ghaznavid sultans Maḥmūd and Masʿūd (d. 1040).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BEGTUZUN

    (Pers. Baktūzūn), a Turkish slave general of the Samanids prominent in the confused struggles for power during the closing years of the Samanid amirate (end of the 10th century).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BEH

    “quince, Cydonia.” i. The word. ii. The tree. iii. Culinary uses of the fruit. Wild quince trees are found in the Caucasus, and the cultivated variety may have originated there.

    (Wilhelm Eilers, Hūšang Aʿlam, Nesta Ramazani)

  • BEHĀFARĪD

    Zoroastrian heresiarch and self-styled prophet, killed 748-49.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • BEḤĀR AL-ANWĀR

    (Oceans of light) by Mollā Moḥammad-Bāqer b. Moḥammad-Taqī Majlesī (d. 1699 or 1700), an encyclopedic compilation in Arabic of Imamite traditions.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • BEH-ARDAŠĪR

    (Mid. Pers. Vēh-Ardaxšēr, Ar. Bahorasīr), name of two cities founded by the first Sasanian king of kings, Ardašīr I (r. 226-41).

    (Michael Morony)

  • BEHAZIN

    (1915-2006), noted translator, editor, fiction writer, and active Marxist who assumed other pseudonyms. In January 1938, he returned to Iran to serve in the navy in Ḵorramšahr, where he found ample leisure time to pursue his literary interests.

    (Ḥasan Mirʿābedini)

  • BEHBAHĀN

    Iranian city and county (šahrestān) in the province of Ḵūzestān.

    (Aḥmad Eqtedārī)

  • BEHBAHAN

    a city and sub-province in Khuzestan province.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BEHBAHAN ii. Population, 1956-2011

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Behbahan: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    See ʿABD-ALLĀH BEHBAHĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    (1874-1963), AYATOLLAH, a leading mojtahed of Tehran who played a role of some importance in the events of the first two postwar decades.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ

    (1731-1801) B. MOḤAMMAD-BĀQER, ĀQĀ, Shiʿite mojtahed celebrated primarily for his ferocious hatred of Sufis.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-BĀQER

    ĀQĀ SAYYED, Shiʿite mojtahed and champion of the Oṣūlī school in Shiʿite law (feqh).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BEHBAHANI, SIMIN

    (1927-2014), eminent Iranian poet and human rights activist noted for her innovative treatment of the traditional genre of ghazal.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BEHBAHANI, SIMIN i. Life

    (1927-2014), was introduced to Persian poetry since early childhood; her poems were tinged with shades of social commitment and with the onset of the 1979 revolution took on unprecedented dimensions of social consciousness which won her numerous awards and prizes.

    (Saeid Rezvani)

  • BEHBAHANI, SIMIN ii. Poetry

    Behbahani enjoyed a studied familiarity with Iran’s literary past. Over the course of several decades, she devoted her efforts toward the reinterpretation of the ghazal, and gave expression to new subject matters with new meanings not heretofore encountered in the classical tradition of the genre.

    (Saeid Rezvani)

  • BEHBAHANI, SIMIN iii. Prose

    Although more noted for her poems, Behbahani has also written extensively in prose, and her stories are characterized by experimentations with time and space, and reflect an imaginative approach to the remembrance of bygone days.

    (Houra Yavari)

  • BEHBAHANI, SIMIN iv. Selected Bibliography

    This article contains a selected bibliography of the works of Simin Behbahani.

    (Saeid Rezvani and Houra Yavari)

  • BEHBŪDĪ

    (1875-1919), MOLLĀ MAḤMŪD ḴᵛĀJA, one of the leaders of the Jadīd movement in Central Asia in the 1900s-1910s, journalist and playwright.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • BEHDĀRĪ

    (maintaining health), term applied to the entire organization and services provided either by government or by various other agencies to secure the health of the people, hospitals, clinics, centers and other supporting services.

    (Mohammad Ali Faghih)

  • BEHDĀŠT BARĀ-YE HAMA

    (“Health for All”), a magazine published by the Division of Public Health Education in Tehran from Āḏar 1332 (Dec. 1953) to Abān 1335 (Nov. 1956) and financed by the Public Health Cooperative Organization (PHCO), (Sāzemāne Hamkāri-ye Behdāšt) - a joint venture between the Ministry of Health of Iran and the U.S. Cooperation Mission in Iran.

    (Akbar Moarefi)

  • BEHDĪN

    “the Good Religion,” i.e., Zoroastrianism, or one of its adherents, in modern usage, specifically of the laity.

    (James R. Russell)

  • BEHDINĀN DIALECT

    a Central dialect spoken by the Behdīnān “the people of the Good Religion,” i.e., Zoroastrianism, who live in, or came from, the cities of Kermān and Yazd and surrounding towns and villages.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • BEHEŠT-E ZAHRĀʾ

    the chief cemetery of Teh­ran and principal shrine of the Islamic Revolution of 1357 Š./1978-79.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BEHĪZAK

    See CALENDARS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BEH-QOBĀD

    (Mid. Pers. Vēh-Kavāt), an administrative district created by the Sasanian king Qobād I in the early sixth century along the Babylon branch of the Euphrates.

    (Michael Morony)

  • BEHRAMSHAH NAOROJI SHROFF

    (1858-­1927), Parsi religions teacher and founder of the move­ment known as Ilm-i Khshnoom (ʿElm-e ḵošnūm; Path of knowledge).

    (John R. Hinnells)

  • BEHRANGĪ, ṢAMAD

    (1939-1968), teacher, social critic, folklorist, translator, and short story writer.

    (Michael C. Hillmann)

  • BEHRŪZ, ḎABĪḤ

    (1889-1971), Persian satirist, writer of highly popular parodies and burlesques.

    (Paul Sprachman)

  • BEHRŪZ DONBOLĪ

    AMĪR. See DONBOLĪ, AMĪR BEHRŪZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BEHŠAHR

    older Ašraf, a town situated at 36°41′55″ north latitude and 53°32′30″ east longitude in the eastern part of central Māzandarān.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • BEHSOTŪN, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    See BĪSOTŪN, ABŪ MANṢŪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BEHZĀD

    in the traditional history, the name of the black horse belonging successively to Sīāvoš, Kay Ḵosrow, and Goštāsb.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BEHZĀD, ḤOSAYN

    (1894-1968), lacquer artist, painter, and book illustrator.

    (Layla S. Diba)

  • BEHZĀD, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    master painter, proverbial for his skill, active in Herat during the reign of the Timurid Ḥosayn Bāyqarā (1470-1506).

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • BEKTĀŠ, ḤĀJĪ

    (d. 1270-71?), Khorasanian Sufi and eponym of the Bektāšī order, once widespread in Anatolia and the Balkans, with offshoots in Egypt, Iraq, and Western Iran.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BEKTĀŠĪYA

    a syncretic and heterodox Sufi order, found principally in Anatolia and the Balkans, with offshoots in other regions, named after Ḥājī Bektāš and regarding him as its founding elder (pīr).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BELBĀS

    a former Kurdish tribal confederacy of northwestern Iran and northeastern Iraq.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • BELDERČĪN

    (quail, Coturnix coturnix L.). The quail is mentioned in both the Bible and the Koran. Allusions to these Koranic reminiscences are occasionally found in Persian poetry. Various virtues are attributed to the quail in traditional or popular Islamic medicine.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BELGIAN-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    Official diplomatic relations between Belgium and Iran date from the end of the nineteenth century.

    (Annette Destrée)

  • BELGRĀMĪ, ʿABD-AL-JALĪL

    See ʿABD-AL­-JALĪL BELGRĀMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BELGRĀMĪ, ĀZĀD

    See ĀZĀD BELGRĀMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BELL, GERTRUDE Margaret Lowthian

    (1868-1926), British traveler, private scholar, archeolo­gist, sometime government servant, and a translator of Ḥāfeẓ.

    (G. Michael Wickens)

  • BELLES LETTRES i. SASANIAN IRAN

    Belles lettres, that is, entertaining works, are not lacking in Sasanian Iran but can by no means match with their development in New Persian literature, both for quality and quantity.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • BELLEW, HENRY WALTER

    (1834-92), surgeon and amateur orientalist. Throughout his service he took a lively interest in the languages and ethnography of the peoples within his charge.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • BELOVED

    (maʿšūq in Arabic and Persian), together with Lover (ʿāšeq) and Love (ʿešq), making the three concepts that dominate the semantic field of eroticism in Persian literature and mysticism.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • BELOWHAR O BŪDĀSAF

    See BARLAAM AND IOSAPH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BELQĪS

    the queen of Sheba (Sabā), whose meetings with Solomon (Solaymān) are a favorite theme in Persian and Arabic literature.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • BELTS

    (Mid. Pers, kamar, NPers. kamar-band). Investigation of representations of belts in Iran between the fall of the Achaemenid dynasty in the 4th century BC and the coming of Islam reveals that they were almost exclusively male accessories. Depictions of females wearing belts are rare.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BĒMA

    the chief festival of the Manicheans. The Greek word bēma meant “platform,” “stage,” or “judge’s seat.”

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • BENDŌY

    See BESṬĀM O BENDŌY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BENFEY, THEODOR

    German comparative philologist with a focus on Indian languages. His path-breaking research on the Pañcatantra made him one of the pioneers of comparative folklore studies.

    (Thomas Oberlies)

  • BENGAL

    the deltaic region of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers, and the easternmost haven of Indo-Iranian culture on the Indian subcontinent.

    (Richard M. Eaton, N. H. Ansari and S. H. Qasemi)

  • BENNIGSEN, ALEXANDRE

    (1913-1988), scholar of Soviet Islam.

    (Michael Rywkin)

  • BENVENISTE, ÉMILE

    (1902-76), French scholar, eminent Iranist, and one of the greatest linguists of his era. At a very young age he caught the attention of the dean of linguistics in France, Antoine Meillet, and was soon engaged in the research activities that he was to pursue through half a century.

    (Gilbert Lazard)

  • BERENJ “brass”

    Very few analyses have been carried out on Iranian metalwork. It would seem that brass was used for making many of the wares executed from sheet metal hammered into shape and then engraved and inlaid with silver that were the products of the Khorasan school in the later 12th and early 13th centuries.

    (A. Souren Melikian-Chirvani, James W. Allan)

  • BERENJ “rice”

    Rice farming is a marginal activity in arid regions where it is limited to a few areas with an adequate water supply: namely the lower Aras and Qezel Ozon valleys; the upper Isfahan oasis; some oases in Khorasan, Sīstān, and Baluchistan; parts of the alluvial plain of Ḵūzestān; the Marvdašt plain and other basins in Fārs.

    (Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger, Daniel Balland, Ṣoḡrā Bāzargān)

  • BEREZIN, IL’YA NIKOLAEVICH

    (1818-96), Rus­sian orientalist known for his works on Iranian, Arabic, and Turkish philology and dialectology and on Mongol history, and for his travel ac­counts.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • BERJĪS

    Arabic word listed in the dictionaries as meaning the planet Jupiter (usually al-Moštarī in Arabic, Hormozd in Persian).

    (Wilhelm Eilers)

  • BERK-YARUQ

    See BARKĪĀROQ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BEROSSUS

    Babylonian 4th-3rd-century priest-chronicler; he took note of Iranian actions insofar as they directly affected Babylon.

    (Stanley M. Burstein)

  • BERTHELS, EVGENIĭ ÈDUARDOVICH

    [BERTEL’S] (1890-1957), Soviet Iranologist, head of the Soviet school of Persian and Central Asian Turkic studies in the 1930s-50s.

    (Michael Zand)

  • BERYĀNĪ

    (from beryān “roast”), an Iranian meat dish usually served wrapped in flat bread.

    (Ṣoḡrā Bāzargān)

  • BĒŠĀPŪR

    See BĪŠĀPŪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BEŠĀRAT

    (Glad tidings), a weekly Persian journal of news and political comment, Mašhad, 1907.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BESĀṬ

    See CARPETS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BESĀṬĪ SAMARQANDĪ

    SERĀJ AL-DĪN, Per­sian poet (14th-15th centuries).

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BESMEL ŠĪRĀZĪ

    ḤĀJĪ ʿALĪ-AKBAR, also known as Nawwāb, Persian writer and poet of note of the 18th-19th centuries.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BESMEL ŠIRĀZI

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BESMELLĀH

    Islamic formula meaning “in the name of God,” more fully Besmellāh al-raḥmān al-raḥīm “in the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.”

    (Philippe Gignoux, Hamid Algar)

  • BESSOS

    satrap of Bactria and last Achaemenid king (ca. 336-329 BC). From his capital at Bactra (Zariaspa), in the area of modern Balḵ, Bessos exercised control over Bactria, Sogdia to the north, and border regions of India.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • BESṬĀM (1)

    (or Bestām), an Iranian man’s name; as a result of its past popularity, it is a fairly common component of place names.

    (Wilhelm Eilers)

  • BESṬĀM (2)

    (or Basṭām), Elamite Rusa-i Uru.Tur, the name of a village at the foot of the ruins of an ancient Urartian hill fortress in the province of West Azerbaijan (85 km southeast of Mākū and 54 km northwest of Ḵᵛoy; altitude ca. 1,300 m above sea level).

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • BESṬĀM (3)

    or Basṭām, a small town in the medieval Iranian province of Qūmes and modern Ostān-e Semnān. It is located in a large valley on the southern foothills of the Alborz.

    (Chahryar Adle)

  • BESṬĀM O BENDŌY

    maternal uncles of Ḵosrow II Parvēz and leading statesmen and soldiers under Hormozd IV and Ḵosrow Parvēz.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • BESṬĀMĪ family

    leading family among the Shafeʿites of Nīšāpūr from the late 4th/10th through the early 6th/12th century.

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • BESṬĀMĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    b. Moḥammad b. ʿAlī [Basṭāmī], al-Ḥanafī, al-Ḥorūfī (d.1454), Ottoman polymath of Khorasanian ancestry.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BESṬĀMĪ, BĀYAZĪD

    [Basṭāmī] (Abū Yazīd Ṭayfūr b. ʿĪsā b. Sorūšān), early (9th-century) Muslim mystic of Iran. Much of his fame is owing to ecstatic utterances, which he was the first to employ consistently as expressions of Sufi experience.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • BESṬĀMĪ, BĀYAZĪD

    [Basṭāmī], ABŪ MOḤAMMAD BĀYAZĪD b. ʿEnāyat-Allāh, a 16th-century faqīh and Sufi of Khorasan.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BESṬĀMĪ, ŠEHĀB-AL-DĪN

    [Basṭāmī], SHAIKH (d. 1405), a Sufi of Herat during the Timurid period.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BĒṮ ĀRAMAYĒ

    lit. “land of the Arameans,” the region and Sasanian province of Āsōristān in Iraq between the Jabal Ḥamrīn and Maysān.

    (Michael Morony)

  • BĒṮ DARAYĒ

    (Arabic Bādarāyā), a district southeast of the lower Nahrawān canal in Gōḵē (Arż Jūḵā), Iraq.

    (Michael Morony)

  • BĒṮ GARMĒ

    a region and province in northeastern Iraq named after a people, possibly a Persian tribe.

    (Michael Morony)

  • BĒṮ LAPAṬ

    the Syriac name for Vēh Antiōk Šāpūr (Gondēšāpūr), founded in ca. 260 by Šāpūr I in Ḵūzestān with the Roman captives from Valerian’s army.

    (Michael Morony)

  • BĒṮ SELŌḴ

    “house of Seleucos,” abbreviation of Karkā ḏe Bēṯ Selōḵ, “fortress of the house of Seleucos,” modern Kirkuk in Iraq.

    (Michael Morony)

  • BĒṬANĪ

    a Pash­tun tribe on the eastern edge of the Solaymān moun­tains. The recent history of the Bēṭanī has been largely determined by the land that they now inhabit, adjacent to the plains of the middle Indus and the Wazīr uplands.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BETLĪS

    See BEDLĪS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĒVARASP

    See ŻAḤḤĀK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BHADRA

    a magician, who according to Buddhist legend tried to deceive the Buddha by means of his magic powers in order to disprove the Buddha’s claim to omniscience.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • BHADRACARYĀDEŚANĀ

    the name of a Buddhist text belonging to the Mahāyāna Tantric tradition of which a Khotanese translation is extant.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • BHADRAKALPIKASŪTRA

    the name of a Buddhist Mahayanist text (Sanskrit sutra) concerning the names of the Buddhas to appear in the good aeon (Sanskrit bhadrakalpa).

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • BHAGARIAS

    lit. “Sharers,” one of the five groups (panth) of Parsi Zoroastrian priests on the coast of Gujarat.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. P. Kotwal)

  • BHAGVĀN DĀS HENDĪ

    Indian poet and author writing in Persian. He belonged to the Hindu Srīvāstava Kāyastha community, which is known for its deep interest in Persian.

    (N. H. Ansari)

  • BHAIṢAJYAGURUVAIḌŪRYAPRABHARĀJASŪTRA

    the name of a Buddhist Mahayanist text of which a number of fragments in Old Khotanese and Sogdian are extant.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • BHANDĀRĪ

    putative author of Ḵolāṣat al-tawārīḵ, a general history of India written in Persian during the reign of Awrangzēb (r. 1658-1707), with special emphasis on the rulers of Delhi.

    (N. H. Ansari)

  • BHARUCHA, SHERIARJI DADABHAI

    Parsi scholar (1843-1915). During the last years of his life he was criticized for his reformist views that the Zoroastrian religion was not meant for a particular fold but was open for all.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • BHARUCHAS

    the name of a group (panth) of Parsi Zoroastrian priests who had their headquarters at the ancient port of Bharuch (Broach) in Gujarat.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. P. Kotwal)

  • BHAVĀṄGA

    the name assigned by H. W. Bailey to ten fragmentary Khotanese folios, a transcription of which he published.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • BHOWNAGGREE, Mancherjee Merwanjee

    (1851-1933), Sir, Parsi statesman; His ancestors were from the principality of Bhāvnagar in Gujarat, whence his surname originates.

    (John McLeod)

  • BĪĀBĀN

    name of the coastal plain that extends south from the mouth of the Mīnāb river for 88 miles to the cape Raʾs al-Kūh, which is 30 miles west of the Jask promontory.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • BĪĀBĀN

    Persian word meaning “desert.” See DESERT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĪĀBĀNAK

    a group of isolated oasis settlements in central Iran, stretching over an area of 70 by 90 miles of what is mostly desert.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • BĪA-PAS, BĪA-PĪŠ

    See GĪLĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĪĀR

    (from Ar. plur. of beʾr “well, spring”), a small settlement of medieval Islamic times on the northern fringe or the Dašt-e Kavīr, modern Bīārjomand.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BĪBĪ KHANOM MOSQUE

    named after Bībī Khanom, otherwise known as Sarāy-Molk Khanom, chief wife of Tīmūr (r. 7/1370-1405).

    (Bernard O’Kane)

  • BĪBĪ ŠAHRBĀNŪ

    the dedication of a Moslem shrine on a hillside by Ray to the south of Tehran. The legend attached to it is that of Šahrbānū, a daughter of the last Sasanian king, Yazdegerd III (r. 632-51).

    (Mary Boyce)

  • BĪBĪ ZAYNAB, MAUSOLEUM OF

    named after Bībī Zaynab, its legendary occupant, together with her mother Oljā Aīm, the wet nurse of Tīmūr (r. 1370-1405). It is in the Šāh-e Zenda necropolis in Samarkand.

    (Bernard O’Kane)

  • BIBLE

    This series of articles covers various aspects of the Bible, as pertaining to Iran and Iranian lands.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BIBLE i. As a Source for Median and Achaemenid History

    The old biblical texts arose in various historic periods. Except for some parts of the books of Ezra and Daniel, composed in Aramaic, all these texts are written in Hebrew.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • BIBLE ii. Persian Elements in the Bible

    Identification of Persian elements in the Bible is difficult because: (1) nobody knows just what was “Persian” when the biblical books were being written. (2) many things then “Persian” were also elements of other cultures.

    (Morton Smith)

  • BIBLE iii. Chronology of Selected Persian Translations of Parts or the Whole of the Bible

    The following selection of translations, for which there are existing manuscripts, represents the diversity of translators as well as versions of particular historical significance or usage.

    (Kenneth J. Thomas and Fereydun Vahman)

  • BIBLE iii. Chronology of Translations

    (ARCHIVED VERSION) by: Kenneth J. Thomas As printed in EIr. Vol. IV, Fasc. 2, pp. 203-206

    (Kenneth J. Thomas)

  • BIBLE iv. Middle Persian Translations

    The only extant Middle Persian Bible version is represented by fragments of a translation of the Psalms. The Christians of Iran were dependent largely on the Syriac versions of the Bible, but the activity of creating new versions in the current vernacular must have been part of the missionary effort.

    (Shaul Shaked)

  • BIBLE v. Sogdian Translations

    The following manuscripts containing biblical texts in Sogdian have been made known. None of them survives in anything like complete form, and some are mere fragments.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • BIBLE vi. Judeo-Persian Translations

    Judeo-Persian or Jewish-Persian is the common designation for, Persian written with Hebrew characters. Among the earliest and most important Judeo-Persian texts are the Bible translations.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • BIBLE vii. Persian Translations

    (ARCHIVED VERSION) by: Kenneth J. Thomas and Fereydun Vahman As printed in EIr. Vol. IV, Fasc. 2, pp. 209-213

    (Kenneth J. Thomas and Fereydun Vahman)

  • BIBLE vii. Persian Translations of the Bible

    The Pentateuch, the books of the prophets, and the writings (Heb. ketūbīm), including the Psalms, from the Hebrew scriptures, collectively known as the Old Testament, and the Gospels and other writings in Greek, collectively known as the New Testament, have all been translated into Persian.

    (Kenneth J. Thomas and Fereydun Vahman)

  • BIBLE viii. Translations into other Modern Iranian Languages

    John Leyden, a gifted Scottish linguist and poet who went to Calcutta in 1803 as a surgeon’s assistant for the East India Company and subsequently became a professor at the College of Fort William, was involved in translating the Gospels into a number of languages, including both Pashto and Bal­uchi.

    (Kenneth J. Thomas)

  • BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES

    i. In the West. ii. In Iran. This series of articles covers the catalogues of manuscripts and bibliographies of printed works on Iran compiled by scholars in Iran, Europe (including Russia) and North America.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES i. In the West

    European interest in Iranian bibliography was awakened in the 16th and early 17th centuries, when manuscripts were brought to the West in ever-increasing numbers and became much sought after by humanists engaged in Oriental studies.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES ii. In Iran

    Persian-language catalogues of manuscripts preserved in libraries in Iran and elsewhere range from detailed works in book form to articles in journals and short lists published separately or as supplements to other publications.

    (Aḥmad Monzawī and ʿAlī Naqī Monzawī)

  • BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES ii. In Iran (continued)

    fehrest (lit. list, index). The word has now generally been superseded in Persian by ketāb-šenāsī.

    (Aḥmad Monzawī and ʿAlī Naqī Monzawī)

  • BĪČAGĀN LAKE

    See BAḴTAGĀN LAKE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BICKERMAN, ELIAS JOSEPH

    (1897-1981), a leading scholar of Greco-Roman history and the Hellenistic world, whose research interests extended to Judaism and some aspects of Iranian history.

    (Muhammed A. Dandamayev)

  • BICKNELL, HERMAN

    (1830-1875), a translator of Ḥāfeẓ. Some of his metered and rhymed translations replicate, or at least giving the impression of, Persian monorhyme patterns.

    (Michael C. Hillmann)

  • BĪD

    common desig­nation in modern Persian for the genus Salix L., willow. Willow trees are found in all the Iranian lands, mainly along streams and canals.

    (Wilhelm Eilers, Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BĪDĀD

    a melody (gūša) in the modal system (dastgāh) Homāyūn, one of the twelve modal systems of the contemporary tradition of Persian classical music. An important and popular gūša, Bīdād is always included in the performance of Homāyūn, even when the performance is short and selective.

    (Hormoz Farhat)

  • BĪDAR

    city in the state of Karnataka, India, about 80 miles northwest of Hyderabad, and also the surrounding district. In the 15th-16th centuries, under the Bahmanid dynasty, Bīdar was an important center of Persian cultural influence in the Deccan.

    (S. H. Qasemi)

  • BĪDĀR

    (lit. awake) the name of three Persian periodicals, two of which were published in Tehran in 1923 and 1951 and the other in Mazār-e Šarīf in 1925.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BĪDĀRĪ

    (lit. wakefulness) the name of three Persian newspapers published in Tehran (1907), Rašt (1920), and Kermān (1923-53) and also the name of several other Persian-language periodicals.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BĪDĀRĪ-E ĪRĀNĪĀN, TĀRĪḴ-E

    See TĀRĪḴ-E BĪDĀRĪ-E ĪRĀNĪĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĪDASTAR

    See BEAVER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BIDAXŠ

    title of an official, a word of Iranian origin found in various languages from the first to the eighth century.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • BĪDEL, ʿABD-AL-QĀDER

    (BĒDIL), the fore­most representative of the later phase of the “Indian style” (sabk-e hendī) of Persian poetry and the most difficult and challenging poet of that school (1644-1721).

    (Moazzam Siddiqi)

  • BĪDERAFŠ

    in the traditional history, a Turanian hero of the army of Arjāsp.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • BĪDGOL

    and BĪDGOLI dialect. Bīdgol and Ārān, two practically contiguous townships in the province of Kāšān, are located some 10 km to the north and slightly to the east of the city of Kāšān.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • BĪDMEŠK

    See BĪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BIDOḴT

    the center of a subdistrict (dehestān) in Gonābād šahrestān in central Khorasan and the seat of the Gonābādi Sufi order.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • BĪDPĀY

    the narrator of the animal fables known as Kalila wa Demna. See KALĪLA WA DEMNA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĪḠAMĪ

    MAWLĀNĀ SHAIKH ḤĀJĪ MOḤAMMAD, oral storyteller of the 8th/14th century, narrator of the romance Dārāb-nāma.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • BĪGĀR

    and BĪGĀRĪ, a term of taxation in Iran and Central Asia, generally meaning “corvıe,” the duty of supplying workers without pay, such as for the construction and repair of irrigation systems, roads, and public buildings.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • BĪGDELĪ

    (or Bēgdelī, also Bagdīlū), a former Turkish tribe; the name Bīgdelī appears to have survived only in personal names.

    (Gerhard Doerfer)

  • BĪGDELĪ, ĀḎAR

    See ĀẔAR BĪGDELĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BIHAR

    (Behār), a state in northeastern India, bounded by Nepal in the north, West Bengal in the east, Orissa in the south, and Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in the west. This article treats the influence of Persian language and culture in Bihar.

    (Syed Hasan Askari)

  • BĪJĀPŪR

    capital city and domain of the ʿĀdelšāhī dynasty (1489-1686), located on the western Deccan plateau. The ʿĀdelšāhīs established Shiʿism in Bījāpūr and actively encouraged the immigration of Persian writers and religious figures.

    (Muhammad Baqir)

  • BĪJĀR

    a town and a šahrestān (county) in the Kurdistan province of Iran. The town, which has the highest elevation in Iran (1,920 m), lies ca. 120 miles north-northwest of Hamadān.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • BĪLAQĀN(Ī)

    See BAYLAQĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BILGETIGIN

    Turkish name associated with personalities before and during the Ghaznavid period.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BILIMORIA, NUSHERWANJI FRAMJI

    (1852-1922), Zoroastrian journalist, editor, and publisher.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • BĪMA

    (bīme; Hindi bīmā), insurance. “Insurance” activities are re­ferred to for the first time in 1891, by Eʿtemād-­al-Salṭana in his diary entry of 13 Decem­ber.

    (Willem Floor)

  • BĪMĀRESTĀN

    "hospital." The oldest Iranian hospital about which we have some information was that at Jondīšāpūr (earlier Bēt Lapaṭ), which, with the attached school of medi­cine, was founded at an unknown date.

    (Ṣādeq Sajjādī)

  • BĪNĀLŪD, KŪH-E

    mountain range in northeast­ern Iran between Mašhad in the east and Nīšāpūr in the west with elevations of up to 3,211 m.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • BĪNAMĀZĪ

    NPers. “the state of being without prayer,” term for the state of a menstruant woman. i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Islam. All bodily discharges are regarded by Zoroastrians as violations of the wholeness of the person.

    (James R. Russell, Hamid Algar)

  • BĪNEŠ KAŠMĪRĪ, ESMĀʿĪL

    Persian poet of India in the 17th century. He left six maṯnawīs and a dīvān of ḡazals and qaṣīdas.

    (N. H. Ansari)

  • BINYON, (ROBERT) LAURENCE

    (ROBERT) LAURENCE (1869-1943), prolific English poet, translator, art historian and critic, notably of Oriental art.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • BIOGRAPHIES

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BIRCH

    (Pers.tūs), the genus Betula L., found in western Azer­baijan, along the Karaj river, and other locations on the southern slopes of the Alborz.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BIRD, ISABELLA L

    also known under her married surname of Bishop (1831-1904), British traveler in western Iran and Kurdistan during the late Victorian period.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BIRDS

    Of 324 breeding species, 131 occur widely in the Palearctic region, 81 are Western Palearctic species, reaching the easternmost extremities of their ranges in Iran, while 19 are typically Eastern Palearctic species, reaching the westernmost tip of their ranges in Iran.

    (Derek A. Scott)

  • BĪRĪ

    or BĪRĪTEKĪN. See BÖRI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BĪRJAND

    town and district in the southeastern part of the province of Khorasan (lat 32°52′ N, long 59°13′ E).

    (Moḥammad-Ḥasan Ganjī)

  • BIRJAND

    the capital and a sub-province in Khorasan-e Jonubi Province.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BIRJAND ii. Population, 1956-2011

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Birjand: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • BĪRŪNĪ

    the public or male quarters of wealthy households, used for the conduct of business, male religious ceremonies, and parties for men.

    (Mohammad Ali Djamalzadeh and Ḥasan Javādī)

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN

    scholar and polymath of the period of the late Samanids and early Ghaznavids and one of the two greatest intellectual figures of his time in the eastern lands of the Muslim world (973-after 1050).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN i. Life

    Bīrūnī was born in the outer suburb (bīrūn, hence his nesba) of Kāṯ, the capital of the Afrighid Ḵᵛārazmšāhs, and spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Ḵᵛārazm.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN ii. Bibliography

    Ca. 1035-36 Bīrūnī wrote a Resāla fī fehrest kotob Moḥammad b. Zakarīyāʾ al-Rāzī in two parts, the first devoted to Rāzī and his works, the second to the books that he himself had authored up to that time.

    (David Pingree)

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iii. Mathematics and Astronomy

    Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Bīrūnī were devoted to astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects like math­ematical geography.

    (George Saliba)

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iv. Geography

    Bīrūnī’s conceptions of the spherical shape of the earth and of the geographical features on its surface are those of Greek scientists, especially Ptolemy, as modified by earlier Muslim geographers.

    (David Pingree)

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN v. Pharmacology and Mineralogy

    Bīrūnī, a traveler proficient in several Asian languages and an inquisitive and attentive ob­server, was interested all his life in gathering precise information on plants and their medicinal uses.

    (Georges C. Anawati)

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vi. History and Chronology

    Bīrūnī’s main essay on political history is now known only from quotations. Discussions of historical events and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-Āṯār al-bāqīa and Qānūn, in India, and scattered throughout his other works.

    (David Pingree)

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vii. History of Religions

    In this article some of his remarks on pre-Islamic Iranian religions, on Christian­ity and Judaism, and on Muslim sects will be discussed.

    (François de Blois)

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN viii. Indology

    Bīrūnī’s magnum opus in Indology is Ketāb taḥqīq mā le’l-Hend men maqūla maqbūla fi’l-ʿaql aw marḏūla (The book confirming what pertains to India, whether rational or despicable).

    (Bruce B. Lawrence)

  • BĪŠĀPŪR

    ancient and medieval town in Fārs, in the Sasanian period the administrative center of one of the five districts in the province of Fārs.

    (Edward J. Keall)

  • BISHOP, ISABELLA L.

    See BIRD, ISABELLA L.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BISOTUN

    (Bīsetūn, Bīstūn, Behistun), the modern name of a cliff rising on the north side of the age-old caravan trail and main military route from Babylon and Baghdad over the Zagros mountains to Hamadān).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BISOTUN i. Introduction

    Bagistanon (ó;ros). As shown by its name, Bisotun had been holy from time immemorial and Darius’s monument was well known to the ancients.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • BISOTUN ii. Archeology

    Although the relief and inscription of Darius on the cliff have made Bīsotūn famous, there are also various other remains in the neighborhood, including some that were discovered or identified only in 1962 and 1963. Some Paleolithic cave finds are the earliest evidence of human presence at the spring-fed pool of Bīsotūn.

    (Heinz Luschey)

  • BISOTUN iii. Darius's Inscriptions

    Over the millennia all the inscriptions on the rock at Bīsotūn, especially the Babylonian version, have suffered severe damage from erosion. Calcareous deposits on the engraved cuneiform characters caused by water seepage have obscured several passages, but have also preserved them from weathering.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • BĪSOTŪN, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    b. Vošmgīr, ẒAHĪR-AL-DAWLA, Ziyarid amir in Ṭabarestān and Gorgān (r. 967-78). Much of his reign was spent in fending off Samanid claims to sovereignty over the Caspian provinces.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BĪSTGĀNĪ

    Persian term for pay and rations of troops used in classical texts, corresponding to Arabic ʿešrīnīya.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • BĪT BUNAKKI

    (or Bīt Burnakki/Purnakki), the name of an Elamite border city mentioned frequently in the eighth and seventh centuries in neo-Assyrian texts.

    (Louis D. Levine)

  • BĪT HAMBAN

    (also Bīt Habban), a district on the Iranian-Iraqi frontier which appears in Akkadian cuneiform sources after the fall of the Kassite dynasty (1157 B.C.) and disappears with the fall of the Assyrian empire in 612 B.C.

    (Louis D. Levine)

  • BĪT RAMATIYA

    a place name and personal name associated with Media in Asyrian sources.

    (Louis D. Levine)

  • BĪTĀB, ʿABD-AL-ḤAQQ

    b. Mollā ʿAbd-al-Aḥmad ʿAṭṭār, scholar and poet laureate (malek al-šoʿarāʾ) of Afghanistan (1883-1968).

    (Nāṣer Amīrī)

  • BĪṬARAF

    (The impartial), a news and political affairs journal published in Persian and French in Tehran (1913-14).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • BĪŽAN

    in the traditional history, son of Gīv by Rostam’s daughter Bānū Gošasp; he figures prominently in the Šāh-nāma as a hero in Kay Ḵosrow’s reign.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BĪŽAN-NAMA

    an epic poem of about 1,900 lines relating the adventures of the legendary hero Bīžan son of Gīv.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • BLACK SEA

    an almost entirely landlocked sea (lat 40°55’ to 46°32’ N, long 27°27’ to 41°42’ E). Its surface is more than 423,000 km2, and its maximum depth is 2,244 m. In this article only the Achaemenid period is considered.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • BLACK SHEEP DYNASTY

    Forthcoming online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BLEEDING

    See BLOODLETTING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BLOCHET (Gabriel Joseph) EDGARD

    French orientalist (1870-1937). His published works include editions and catalogues of manuscripts in Arabic and Turkish, but his main focus was the Iranian world.

    (Francis Richard)

  • BLOCHMANN, HEINRICH FERDINAND

    (also Henry), a German orientalist and scholar of Persian language and literature who spent most of his career in India (1838-1878).

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • BLOOD TRANSFUSION SERVICES IN IRAN

    A centralized, state-funded organization was established in 1974 for the recruitment of safe, voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors and the subsequent collection, testing, processing, and distribution of blood and blood products to hospitals.

    (Ali Ameri)

  • BLOODLETTING

    (Ar.-Pers. ḥejāmat, faṣd; Pers. ragzanī, ḵūn gereftan), a common medical treatment throughout Iranian history, though applied only in exceptional circumstances by modern medical practi­tioners.

    (Willem Floor)

  • BLUE MOSQUE (TABRIZ)

    See TABRIZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOAR

    (Sus scrofa, Pers. gorāz). The wild boar is found in a broad cross-section of habitats and has a range that extends over much of Europe and Asia.

    (Paul Joslin)

  • BOARD GAMES in pre-Islamic Persia

    Aside from chess and backgammon, due to the perishable material such as textile, leather, and wood used in making the artifacts, as well as because often the games were simply drawn on the ground, evidence is lacking in most cases, but many of them are still played nowadays.

    (Ulrich Schädler and Anne-Elizabeth Dunn-Vaturi)

  • BOČĀQČĪ

    a Turkic tribe of Sīrjān in Kermān province.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • BODHISATTVA

    in the Middle Iranian languages. The Sanskrit word Bodhisat(t)va, literally a being (blessed with) understanding, designates someone des­tined for Buddhahood later in life or in a future existence.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • BŌĒ

    (Gk. Boēs), the name of two of Kavād’s (r. 488-­96 and 498-531) generals.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • BOḠĀ

    See BŪQĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOḠRĀ KHAN

    ABŪ MŪSĀ HĀRŪN, the first Qarakhanid khan to invade the Samanid emirate from the steppes to the north in the 990s.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BOHLŪL

    a weekly comic illustrated paper, published in Tehran from 1911.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • BOHLŪL, ABŪ WOHAYB

    (d. ca. 805), b. ʿAmr b. Moḡīra Majnūn Kūfī, variously cited in later Persian literature as Bohlūl-e majnūn (Bohlūl the fool) or Bohlūl-e dānā (Bohlūl the wise), the archetype of the "wise fool" genre.

    (Ulrich Marzolph)

  • BOHRĀS

    See ISMAʿILISM xvi. MODERN ISMAʿILI COMMUNITIES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOḤŪR AL-ALḤĀN

    (Meters of melodies), a treatise on Persian music and prosody by Sayyed Mīrzā Moḥammad-Naṣīr Forṣat Šīrāzī (1855-1920).

    (Taqī Bīneš, Jean During)

  • BOIR AḤMADĪ

    the largest of the six tribal groups of Kūhgīlūya, inhabiting the mountainous territory from east of Behbahān and north of Dogonbadān to the Kūh-e Denā range in the northeast, an area of some 2,500 sq miles.

    (Reinhold Loeffler, Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • BOJNŪRD

    a town and district in Khorasan. i. The town and district. ii. History. The town (1976: 47,719 inhabitants; lat 37°29’ N, long 57°17’ E) is situated at the foot of the Ālādāḡ.

    (Eckart Ehlers, C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BOJNURD iii. Basic Population Data, 1956-2011

    Bojnurd has experienced a high rate of population growth, increasing more than tenfold from 1956 to 2011. During the period 1956-76, the average annual growth rate was approximately 4.5 percent. From 1976 to 1986, the population growth rate almost doubled. After the war with Iraq ended, the population growth started to decline. Since 1996, it has continued to decrease, falling to 2.48 percent in the years 2006-2011.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • BOḴĀRĀ

    See BUKHARA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOḴĀRĀ-YE ŠARĪF

    “Boḵārā the noble,” the first Central Asian newspaper published in Persian, 1912 to 1913.

    (Michael Zand)

  • BOḴĀRĪ, ʿABD-AL-KARĪM

    See ʿABD-AL-­KARĪM BOḴĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOḴĀRĪ, AMĪR AḤMAD

    (d. 1516), a Sufi instrumental in establishing the Naqšbandī order in Turkey.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BOḴĀRĪ, ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad, Hanafite scholar of feqh, legal method, kalām theology, and preacher and moftī in Bukhara (d. 1151).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BOḴĀRĪ, ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    b. Moḥammad (d. 1400), close associate and primary successor of Bahāʾ-al-Dīn Naqš­band, the eponym of the Naqšbandī Sufi order.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BOḴĀRĪ, JALĀL-AL-DĪN

    (1308-84), SHAIKH, popularly known as Maḵdūm-e Jahānīān and Jahāngašt, a celebrated Indo-Persian Sufi of Uch in the southern Punjab.

    (Richard M. Eaton)

  • BOḴĀRĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ŠARĪF

    ĀḴŪND MOLLĀ, also known as Šarīf-e Boḵārī and Mollā Šarīf, the leading Koran exegete and traditionist in Transoxiana (late 17th century).

    (Robert D. McChesney)

  • BOKĀVOL

    (büke’ül), a term used in the Il-khanid period and after for a royal food taster or, later and more commonly, a military commissariat officer.

    (David O. Morgan)

  • BOKAYR B. MĀHĀN

    MARVAZĪ, ABŪ HĀŠEM (d. 745-46), a leading ʿAbbasid propagandist (dāʿī).

    (ʿAbbās Zaryāb)

  • BOḴT-ARDAŠĪR

    name of a town (Mid. Pers. rōstāg) that Ardašīr I is said to have founded as an expression of his gratitude to God during his flight from the court of the last Parthian king, Ardawān.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • BOḴTĪŠŪʿ

    the name of the eponymous ancestor of a Syro-Persian Nestorian family of physicians from Gondēšāpūr, Ḵūzestān, 8th-11th centuries, and of several of its members.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • BOḴT-NARSA

    See NEBUCHADNEZZAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOLANDMĀZŪ

    See BALŪṬ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOLBOL “nightingale”

    “nightingale.” i. The bird. ii. In Persian literature. The term bolbol is applied to at least three species of the genus Luscinia (fam. Turdidae). To Persian poets, however, all refer to a single bird, characterized by its sweet or plaintive song, supposedly sung for its beloved, the rose.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam, Jerome W. Clinton)

  • BOLBOL, AŠRAF DAYRĪ

    Persian poet of Kashmir (1682-1775-6).

    (Giri L. Tikku)

  • BOLOD

    CHʿENG-HSIANG (Pers. Pūlād Čīnksāng; d. 1313), the representative of the Great Khan Qubilai at the court of the Il-khans of Iran.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • BOLOḠĀN ḴĀTŪN

    (Būlūḡān Ḵātūn), the name of three of the royal wives of the Mongol Il-khans in Iran. Of Mongol origin, the word Boloḡān, variously spelled in the Persian sources, means “sable.”

    (Charles Melville)

  • BOLŪḠ

    See BĀLEḠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOLŪR

    (Ar. ballūr, bellawr) “rock crystal.” See CRYSTAL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOMBAY

    Persian communities of Bombay.

    (John R. Hinnells, Momin Mohiuddin and Ismail K. Poonawala)

  • BOMBAY PARSI PANCHAYAT

    the largest Zoroastrian institution in modern history, originally founded in the 17th century in order to maintain Zoroastrian family and social values at a time of dramatic change, when Parsis were migrating from rural Gujarat to cosmopolitan Bombay.

    (John R. Hinnells)

  • BONDĀR RĀZĪ

    (or Pendār), poet in the 10th-11th centuries, named as the author of a small number of surviving poems, some in literary (Darī) Persian, others in his local dialect.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BONDĀRĪ, FATḤ B. ʿALĪ

    b. Moḥammad EṢFAHĀNĪ. See SUPPLEMENT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN

    (Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions.

    (EIr)

  • BONGĀH-E MOSTAQELL-E ĀBYĀRĪ

    (Inde­pendent irrigation agency), established by the Majles on 19 May 1943 to improve irrigation in Iran.

    (EIr)

  • BONGĀH-E TARJOMA WA NAŠR-E KETĀB

    “The [Royal] Institute for Translation and Publication,” founded 1953, since 1986 called the Scientific and Cultural Publication Company (Šerkat-e Entešārāt-e ʿElmī wa Farhangī).

    (Edward Joseph)

  • BONĪČA

    a tax assessed on a group as a single unit and particularly the base on which the tax was calculated—in Iran: a tax on guilds, an agricultural tax on villages and tribes, and a military tax on villages.

    (Willem Floor)

  • BONYĀD-E FARHANG-E ĪRĀN

    The "Iranian Culture Foundation" was established 16 September 1964.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • BONYĀD-E MOSTAŻʿAFĀN

    See MOSTAZ­AFAN FOUNDATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BONYĀD-E PAHLAVĪ

    See PAHLAVI FOUNDATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD

    The Bonyād officially started work on 9 April 1980. A decision taken by the Revolutionary Council on 13 June 1980 attached the Martyrs’ Foundation to the National Health Organization (Sāzmān-e Behzīstī-e Keš­var), itself administered under the supervision of the prime minister.

    (EIr)

  • BONYĀD-E ŠĀH-NĀMA-YE FERDOWSĪ

    a research institute, 1971-78, intended for preparation of a new critical edition of the Šāh-nāma.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • BOOK OF ZAMBASTA

    a Khotanese poem on Buddhism. It is the longest indigenous literary compo­sition in the Khotanese language and played a crucial role in the decipherment of the Khotanese language.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • BOOKBINDING (article 1)

    (tajlīd, ṣaḥḥāfī) in Iran at first followed the pattern of previous Near Eastern book covers, but subsequently Persian craftsmen developed new types.

    (Duncan Haldane)

  • BOOKBINDING (article 2)

    (ṣaḥḥāfi, jeld-sāzi), the traditional craft of binding new books and decorating the cover with embossed or painted designs, or of repairing worn out volumes by restoring their cover.

    (Iraj Afshar)

  • BOQʿA

    the mausoleum of a sacred or revered personage, sometimes taken to include additional structures adjoining the tomb or the open space surrounding it.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BORAGE

    See GĀV-ZABĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BŌRĀN

    (Pers. Pōrān, Pūrān), Sasanian queen ca. 630-31, daughter of Ḵosrow II (r. 590, 591-628). There are extant coins of Bōrān dated from the first, second, and third years of her reign.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • BORĀQ (1)

    ruler of the Chaghatay khanate in Transoxiana (1266-71), a great-grandson of Jengiz Khan and a son of Yesün-Toʾa.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • BORĀQ (2)

    See MEʿRĀJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BORĀQ, ḤĀJEB

    See QOṬLOQḴĀNĪYA (Kermān). 04032017 - Unpublished as per M.A. and E.D. emails.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BORĀZJĀN

    town and county (šahrestān) in Bushehr Province in southern Iran. The present town came into being in the late 12th/18th century.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • BORHĀN, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    See BORHĀN-E QĀṬEʿ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BORHĀN BALḴĪ

    BORHĀN-AL-DĪN MOẒAFFAR b. Šams b. ʿAlī b. Ḥamīd-al-Dīn, a poet of the 14th century from Balḵ. He was descended from Ebrāhīm b. Adham, the renowned Iranian Sufi of the 2nd/8th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BORHĀN-E JĀMEʿ

    (Comprehensive proof), title of a dictionary (completed 1833) by Moḥammad-Karīm b. Mahdīqolī Garmrūdī Šaqāqī.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • BORHĀN-AL-MAʾĀṮER

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BORHĀN NAFĪS

    BORHĀN-AL-DĪN NAFĪS b. ʿEważ b. Ḥakīm Kermānī, a physician of great renown in the 15th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BORHĀN-E QĀṬEʿ

    (Conclusive proof), the title of a Persian dictionary compiled in India in the 11th/17th century by Moḥammad-Ḥosayn b. Ḵalaf Tabrīzī, who used the pen-name Borhān.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • BORHĀN-AL-DĪN, ḴᵛĀJA ABŪ NAṢR FATḤ-ALLĀH

    a vizier (d. 1358) eulogized by Ḥāfeẓ in two ḡazals (nos. 374 and 478).

    (F. R. C. Bagley)

  • BORHĀN-AL-DĪN NASAFĪ

    (d. 1288), ABU’L-FAŻĀʾEL MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad b. Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-Allāh, Hanafite theologian, logician, and expert on legal points of disagreement (ḵelāf) and dialectic (jadal).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BORHĀN-AL-DĪN MOḤAQQEQ TERMEḎĪ

    See MOḤAQQEQ TERMEḎĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BORHĀNIDS

    See ĀL-E BORHĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BORHĀNPŪRĪ, BORHĀN-AL-DĪN

    Indo-Persian Sufi of the Šaṭṭārī order (d. 1089/1678).

    (Richard M. Eaton)

  • BÖRI

    or Böritigin, name of a Turkish commander in Ḡazna and of the ruler of the western branch of the Qarakhanid dynasty of Transoxania.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BORJ

    The use of a word meaning “tower” in this special astronomical sense presumably arose from the conception of the zodiac as a barrier between heaven and earth through which access was gained by means of twelve zodiacal gates, each of which was assumed to be guarded by a tower.

    (Abbas Daneshvari, David Pingree)

  • BORJ-E ṬOḠROL

    name commonly applied to a large tomb tower of the Saljuq period situated near Ray.

    (Bernard O’Kane)

  • BORJ-NĀMA

    a maṯnawi of twenty-six distichs in the motaqāreb meter by Anuširavān b. Marzbān Rāvari, who lived in the 11th/17th century.

    (Žāla Āmuzgār)

  • BOROUGH, Christopher

    (fl. 1579-1587), English merchant and linguist who traveled to Russia and Persia as an interpreter with the sixth voyage by the Muscovy Company to establish trade with these countries.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • BOROWSKY, ISIDORE

    ISIDORE, (b. Vilna, Poland ca. early 1770/d. Herat, ca. 1838,) Polish officer in the Persian army.

    (Bo Utas)

  • BORQAʿĪ

    (Ar. Borqoʿī), AYATOLLAH ʿALĪ-AKBAR (b. 1900), religious leader of the postwar period to whom leftist tendencies were imputed and whose name became embroiled in a significant incident in Qom in January, 1953.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BORŪJ

    See BORJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BORŪJERD

    (or Barūjerd), town and šahrestān in the province of Lorestān in western Iran. It has always been a road and railway junction of great strategic importance.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • BORUJERD

    town and sub-province in Lorestan Province in western Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BORUJERD ii. Population, 1956-2011

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Borujerd: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • BORŪJERDĪ, ḤOSAYN

    b. Moḥammad-Reżā Ḥosaynī, Shiʿite scholar of the Qajar period (d. ca. 1860); his main work was a collection of chronograms on the deaths of famous transmitters of ḥadīṯ.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BORŪJERDĪ, ḤOSAYN ṬABĀṬABĀʾĪ

    (1875-1961), AYATOLLAH ḤĀJJ ĀQĀ, director (zaʿīm) of the religious teaching institution (ḥawza) at Qom for seventeen years and sole marjaʿ-e taqlīd of the Shiʿite world for fifteen years.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • Borumand - Daramads of šur

    (music sample)

  • BORŪMAND, NŪR-ʿALĪ

    (1905-1977), one of the foremost authorities on the performance and history of Persian classical music in the 20th century.

    (Bruno Nettl)

  • BORZMEHR

    (Pahlavi, lit. “deep affection”) one of the priests (mōbed) and scribes who served Ḵosrow I (r. 531-79).

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BORZŪ-NĀMA (article 1)

    an epic poem of ca. 65,000 lines recounting the exploits and adventures of the legendary hero Borzū, son of Sohrāb.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • BORZU-NĀMA (article 2)

    an epic poem named after its main hero, Borzu, son of Sohrāb and grandson of Rostam. The Borzu-nāma belongs to the cycle of epics dealing with the dynasty of the princes of Sistān.

    (Gabrielle van den Berg)

  • BORZŪYA

    (also transcribed Burzōē), a physician of the time of Ḵosrow I (r. 531-79) and responsible for a translation of the Pañcatantra from Sanskrit to Pahlavi, the Persian translation of which is known as the Kalīla wa Demna.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BOSḤĀQ AṬʿEMA

    (d. 1420s), FAḴR-AL-DĪN ḤALLĀJ ŠĪRĀZĪ, satirical poet who used Persian culinary vocabulary and imagery and kitchen terminology to create a novel style of poetry.

    (Heshmat Moayyad)

  • BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina came to assimilate virtually all the cultural habits and interests of the Ottoman Turks; for the learned elite, this included an acquaintance with Persian language and literature.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BOŠRŪʾĪ, Mollā Moḥammad-Ḥosayn

    Shaikhi ʿālem who became the first convert to Babism, provincial Babi leader in Khorasan, and organizer of Babi resistance in Māzandarān (1814-49).

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • BOST

    archeological site and town located near the confluence of the Helmand and Arḡandāb rivers in southwest Afghanistan.

    (Klaus Fischer, Xavier de Planhol)

  • BOSTĀN AL-SĪĀḤA

    a descriptive geography book by a mystic writer of the early 19th century, Mast-ʿAlīšāh, Ḥājī Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn b. Mollā Eskandar Šīrvānī.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Šīrjānī)

  • BOSTĀNAFRŪZ

    amaranth, a medicinal and ornamental plant of the family Amaranthaceae.

    (Ahmad Parsa)

  • BOSTĪ, ABU’L-FATḤ

    NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN ʿAMĪD ʿALĪ b. Moḥammad b. Ḥosayn b. Yūsof Kāteb, a notable bilingual secretary and poet of the 10th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • BOSTĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    ESMĀʿĪL b. Aḥmad JĪLĪ, Muʿtazilite and Zaydī author of the late 10th and early 11th century.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BOT

    a term frequent in poetry with meanings ranging from an idol in the literal sense to a metaphor for ideal human beauty. These senses have been used since the earliest surviving Persian poetry.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF IRAN

    (Žurnāl-e giāhšenāsi-e Irān), begun in 1976 as an outcome of the National Botanical Garden of Iran. The contributions are in English with brief abstracts in Persian.

    (Valiolla Mozaffarian)

  • BOTANICAL STUDIES

    ON IRAN i. The Greco-Islamic tradition. ii. The Western tradition. iii. Persian Studies in the Western tradition. In the Islamic period, generally speaking, botany was an ancillary branch of medicine or, more precisely, pharmacology.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam, S.-W. Breckle, Hūšang Aʿlam and Aḥmad Qahramān)

  • BOUNDARIES

    i. With the Ottoman empire. ii. With Russia. iii. Boundaries of Afghanistan. iv. With Iraq. v. With Turkey.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BOUNDARIES i. With the Ottoman Empire

    shaped by conflict over an ill-defined strip of territory with constantly shifting outlines extending from the Caucasus to the Persian Gulf.

    (Keith McLachlan)

  • BOUNDARIES ii. With Russia

    West of the Caspian. The problem of drawing a stable territorial boundary between the Russian and Iranian powers must have arisen with the first arrival of the Russians in the Caspian area, after the conquest of Astrakhan in 1556.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • BOUNDARIES iii. Boundaries of Afghanistan

    None of these boundaries was established before the last third of the 19th century. It was the “great game,” the rivalry between Britain and Russia in Central Asia, that led the latter two states to contemplate creating a buffer state between their dependencies, a kind of defensive barrier.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • BOUNDARIES iv. With Iraq

    Efforts by Algeria to mediate during the summit meeting of OPEC on 6 March 1975 brought the shah together with Ṣaddām Ḥosayn, then vice-president of the Iraqi Revolutionary Council, to redefine their common frontier. In the resulting settlement 593 new border points were designated.

    (Joseph A. Kechichian)

  • BOUNDARIES v. With Turkey

    The Mixed Commission of 1914, on which Britain and Russia were vested with powers to arbitrate, had settled the line of the Perso-Ottoman frontier in detail for almost its whole length from the Persian Gulf to Mount Ararat.

    (Richard N. Schofield)

  • BOWAYH

    See BŌĒ; BUYIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOWAYHIDS

    See BUYIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOXTREE

    Buxus L. spp., šemšād, common name for numerous species of evergreen shrubs or trees of the family Buxaceae. The species B. sempervirens grows wild in lowland or plain forests of the Caspian provinces.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BOYCE, MARY

    (1920-2006), scholar of Zoroastrianism and its relevant languages, and Professor of Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London. In addition to her own contribution, Boyce was an outstanding teacher and supervised the research of many who went on to hold professorships.

    (John Hinnells)

  • BOYEKAN

    the name of a mec naxarar “great satrap,” defeated and killed at Ṭʿawrēš (Tabrīz) by the Armenian general Vasak under Šāpūr II (r. 309-79).

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • BOYLE, JOHN ANDREW

    (1916-78), British orientalist, will perhaps best remembered for his work on the Mongol period of Iranian history.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • BOYŪTĀT-E SALṬANATĪ

    (lit. royal houses), in the Safavid period (1501-1732) departments and production workshops within the royal household serving primarily the needs of the court.

    (Birgitt Hoffmann)

  • BOZ

    the domestic goat. The earliest evidence for domestication of the goat has been found in Iran (ca. 10,000 B.C.), as have the largest number of prehistoric sites (ca. 7000 B.C.) showing traces of the systematic breeding of this animal.

    (Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • BOZBĀŠ

    Azeri Turkish name for an Iranian dish usually called ābgūšt-e sabzī (green vegetable stew).

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • BOZGŪŠ

    the traditional reading of the name of a mythical tribe in Māzandarān mentioned in the Šāh-nāma.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • BOZKAŠĪ

    (lit. “goat-dragging”), an equestrian folk game played by Turkic groups in Central Asia. Its origins are obscure; quite probably the game first developed as a recreational extension of livestock raiding.

    (G. Whitney Azoy)

  • BOZORG

    one of the modes in traditional Iranian and Arabic music, mentioned for the first time by Ṣafī-al-Dīn ʿOrmavī among the twelve šodūd, later on called maqāmāt.

    (Jean During)

  • BOZORG, MĪRZĀ

    See QĀʾEMMAQĀM, MĪRZĀ BOZORG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BOZORGĀN

    the third class-rank of the four or five divisions of the early Sasanian aristocracy, namely šahryār “landholders,” wispuhr “princes” or members of the royal house, wuzurg “grandees,” āzād “nobles,” and kadag-xwadāy “householders.”

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • BOZORGMEHR-E BOḴTAGĀN

    identified in literature and legend as a vizier of Ḵosrow I Anōšīravān (r. 531-78). According to Persian and Arabic sources, he was characterized by ex­ceptional wisdom and sage counsels.

    (Djalal Khaleghi Motlagh)

  • BOZORG-OMĪD, KĪĀ

    the second Ismaʿili ruler of Alamūt (1124-38). He was of Deylami origin from the region of Rūdbār.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • BOZPAR

    a valley situated about 100 km southwest of Kāzerūn and 11 km by donkey path through the mountains from Sar Mašhad, Fārs. The most important ruin in the Bozpār valley is the building known locally as Gūr-e Doḵtar.

    (Louis Vanden Berghe)

  • BOZPAYIT

    Middle Persian name, attested only in Armenian, of a Zoroastrian school or body of religious teaching in the Sasanian period.

    (James R. Russell)

  • BRAHM

    “manner, fashion, costume,” Middle Persian word used in connection with human beings, referring either to mode of behavior or to outward appearance.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • BRĀHMĪ

    Indian script used for a variety of languages in Chinese Turkestan, including Iranian languages. From the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang, China) we have first-millennium documents in Brāhmī script in several Iranian languages.

    (Douglas A. Hitch)

  • BRAHUI

    As “long-distance cattle-herders” in 1880 no fewer than 80 percent of these tribesmen were tent-dwelling nomads; fewer than 20 percent were described as settled. In 1975 the proportions were almost exactly the reverse, and Brahui settlement in large towns has been increas­ing ever more rapidly.

    (Josef Elfenbein)

  • BRASS

    See BERENJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BRAZIER

    two distinct types of utensil traditionally used in Iran. One type is a closed container on legs, a kind of stove that holds slowly burning coals for heating.

    (Asadullah Souren Melikian-Chirvani, Jaʿfar Šahrī)

  • BRAZMANIY(A)

    See AŠA ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BREAD

    Persian nān. In modern Iran bread is the dietary staple food for the population and accounts, on the average, for 70 percent of the daily caloric intake.

    (Hélène Desmet-Grégoire)

  • BRĒLVĪ

    See BARĒLVĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BREST-LITOVSK TREATY

    treaty signed by the Central Powers and Soviet Russia on 3 March 1918 that was consequential in the history of modern Iran.

    (Joseph A. Kechichian)

  • BRETON, LE

    See LE BRETON.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BRICK

    blocks of tempered mud, either sun-dried (ḵešt) or baked in a kiln (ājor), the traditional building material in most of Iran. It has customarily been made from a mixture of water-soaked earth (gel-čāl), straw, and chaff.

    (Guitty Azarpay)

  • BRICKS AND CERAMICS INDUSTRY

    Traditional brick-kilns are still found all over the country. A European established the first modern brick-kiln around 1905. However, it was only in 1935 that a German engineer constructed the so-called “Hoffman brick-kiln,” with its characteristic high chimney, in south Tehran.

    (Willem Floor)

  • BRIDGES

    (Pers. pol, Mid. Pers. pohl, Av. pərətu-). i. Pre-Islamic bridges. ii. Bridges in the Islamic period. Bridges may have existed in the Iranian highlands as monuments of vernacular architecture since prehistoric times.

    (Dietrich Huff, Wolfram Kleiss)

  • BRITAIN

    See ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS; GREAT BRITAIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BRỊTʾIATỊ (COPANỊ FỊRT) ELBỊZDỊQO

    (Russian: Elbyzdyko Britaev), playwright regarded as the founder of Ossetic drama(1881-1923). His first plays (two short comedies) were published in 1905.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • BRITISH COUNCIL

    The first British Council representative was appointed to Iran in 1942. The priority was English language teaching, and by 1944 the Council was teaching over 4,000 students.

    (EIr)

  • BRITISH MUSEUM and BRITISH LIBRARY

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BRITISH PETROLEUM

    See ANGLO-PERSIAN OIL COMPANY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BROACH

    See BHARUCHAS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BROAD BEANS

    See BĀQELĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BROADBEAN

    See BĀQELĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BROCHT

    See QEŠM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BROCKELMANN, CARL

    German orientalist (1868-1956). During a long and serene life as a scholar Brock­elmann produced a wealth of fundamental publications. His monumental output represents the unity of Oriental studies in his time.

    (Rudolph Sellheim)

  • BRONZE

    an alloy of two metals, copper and tin. When tin is alloyed with copper, it decreases the temperature at which the two metals will melt, increases fluidity during casting, and acts as a deoxidant. Although copper deposits occur with reasonable frequency throughout the highland zones of south­western, sources of tin are far less common.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BRONZE i. In pre-Islamic Iran

    Current understanding of early developments in copper-base metallurgy on the Iranian plateau is based largely on archeological excavations and archeometallurgical field surveys conducted by a number of scholars.

    (Vincent C. Pigott)

  • BRONZE ii. In Islamic Iran

    The most common copper alloys in use in Iran were brass and a quaternary alloy of copper, lead, zinc, and tin. As for bronze, two alloys should be differentiated: low-tin bronze, with a tin content of 10 percent or less, and high-tin bronze, with a tin content of about 20 percent.

    (James W. Allan)

  • BRONZE AGE

    in Iranian archeology a term used informally for the period from the rise of trading towns in Iran, ca. 3400-3300 B.C., to the beginning of the Iron Age, ca. 1400-1300 B.C. It has long since lost any precise meaning in relation to technology.

    (Robert H. Dyson, Jr., and Mary M. Voigt)

  • BRONZES OF LURISTAN

    The British Museum had acquired the first of its Luristan bronzes in 1854, followed by others in 1885, 1900, 1914, and 1920. Until the late 1920s such objects continued to appear sporadi­cally, but mass plundering of Luristan tombs seems to have begun in that decade.

    (Oscar White Muscarella)

  • BROWNE, EDWARD GRANVILLE

    eminent British Iranologist (1862-1926). i. Browne’s life and academic career. ii. Browne on Babism and Bahaism. iii. Browne and the Persian Constitutional movement.

    (G. Michael Wickens, Juan Cole, Kamran Ekbal)

  • BRYDGES, HARFORD JONES

    (1764-1847), Sir, English diplomat and author, ambassador to the court of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qājār from 1807 to 1811.

    (John R. Perry)

  • BŪ DOLAF

    See ABŪ DOLAF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BŪ ḤALĪM ŠAYBĀNĪ FAMILY

    (or Bāhalīm), military commanders and governors in northern India under the later Ghaznavid sultans in the late 5th/11th and early 6th/12th centuries.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BŪ KORD DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E BŪ KORD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BŪ NAṢR MOŠKĀN

    See ABŪ NAṢR MOŠKĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BŪ ŠOʿAYB HERAVĪ

    See ABŪ ŠOʿAYB HERAVĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BŪDAG

    Middle Persian term, in Mazdean theological and philosophical texts as “material becoming, genesis,” the counterpart of āfrīdag “spiritually/ideally created."

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • BŪDANA

    See BELDERČĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BUDĀQ MONŠI QAZVINI

    (b. 1510-11), author of the Jawāher al-aḵbār, a universal history of a substantial part of the Persianate world, and member of the Safavid financial administration during the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsb I.

    (Tilmann Trausch)

  • BŪḎARJOMEHR

    See BOZORGMEHR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BŪḎARJOMEHRĪ, Karīm Āqā

    (1886-1951), Major General (sar-laškar), military officer, mayor of Tehran, and minister of Public Welfare.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • BUDDHISM

    Among Iranian peoples. This series of articles covers Buddhism in Iran and Iranian lands: i. In pre-Islamic times. ii. InIslamic times. iii. Buddhist Literature in Khotanese and Tumshuqese. iv. Buddhist Sites in Afghanistan and Central Asia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BUDDHISM i. In Pre-Islamic Times

    Origin and early spread of Buddhism. Buddhism arose in northeast India in the sixth century b.c. as the result of the teaching of the historical Buddha Śākyamuni, who died about 483 b.c.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • BUDDHISM ii. In Islamic Times

    The Muslim conquerors of eastern Iran, Afghanistan, and Transoxania in the mid-8th century found Buddhism flourishing in a series of prosperous trading communities along the old caravan routes to India and China.

    (Asadullah Souren Melikian-Chirvani)

  • BUDDHISM iii. Buddhist Literature in Khotanese and Tumshuqese

    Khotan played an important role in the transmission of Buddhism during the period represented by the extant material (probably from around 700 to the end of the kingdom of Khotan ca. 1000).

    (Ronald F. Emmerick and Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • BUDDHISM iv. Buddhist Sites in Afghanistan and Central Asia

    The spread of Buddhism beyond the Indian subcontinent accelerated under the Mauryan king Aśoka (r. 265–238 BCE). An active proponent of Buddhism, he sent out religious missions.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • BŪF

    owl, commonly called joḡd. Eleven species, from two families, occur in Iran.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BŪF-E KŪR

    (The blind owl), the chef d’œuvre of Ṣādeq Hedāyat (1903-51) and one of the first major modernist Persian novels.

    (Michael C. Hillmann)

  • BŪKĀN

    (Kurd. Bōkān), name of a town, a baḵš (district), and a river in the šahrestān (county) of Mahābād, West Azerbaijan.

    (Amir Hassanpour)

  • BUKHARA

    i. In pre-Islamic times. ii. From the Arab invasions to the Mongols. iii. After the Mongol invasion. iv. The khanate of Bukhara and Khorasan. v. Archeology and monuments. vi. The Bukharan school of miniature painting. vii. Bukharan Jews.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BUKHARA i. In Pre-Islamic Times

    one of many settlements in the large oasis formed by the mouths of the Zarafshan (Zarafšān) river in ancient Sogdiana.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • BUKHARA ii. From the Arab Invasions to the Mongols

    The first appearance of Arab armies there is traditionally placed in Moʿāwīa’s caliphate when, according to Naršaḵī, ʿObayd-Allāh b. Zīād b. Abīhe crossed the Oxus and appeared at Bukhara (673-74).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • BUKHARA iii. After the Mongol Invasion

    conquered by Chingiz Khan on 10 February 1220, and the citadel fell twelve days later. All the inhabitants were driven out, their property pillaged, and the city burned; the defenders of the citadel were slaughtered.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • BUKHARA iv. Khanate of Bukhara and Khorasan

    The first distinctive political separation of Transoxania from Persia took place in 873/1469 when the Timurid empire was finally divided into two independent states, Transoxania and Khorasan, ruled by the descendants of Abū Saʿd and ʿOmar Shaikh, respectively.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • BUKHARA v. Archeology and Monuments

    The earliest settlement levels at Bukhara can be dated to the 5th-2nd centuries B.C. During this period Bukhara consisted of a citadel on a hill and a large, sprawling settlement.

    (G. A. Pugachenkova and E. V. Rtveladze)

  • BUKHARA vi. Bukharan School of Miniature Painting

    As far as is known, illustrated manuscripts were produced in Bukhara only under the Shaibanid (1500-98) and Janid (also known as Tughay -Timurid; 1599-1785) dynasties. Partly as a result of frequent raids on Herat by ʿObayd-Allāh Khan (918-46/1512-39) Persian manuscripts, artists, and calligraphers were brought to Bukhara.

    (Barbara Schmitz)

  • BUKHARA vii. Bukharan Jews

    “Bukharan Jews” is the common appellation for the Jews of Central Asia whose native language is the Jewish dialect of Tajik.

    (Michael Zand)

  • BUKHARA viii. Historiography of the Khanate, 1500-1920

    About 70 extant works of Persian historiography focus on the politics of the Shïbanid–Abulkhayrid (Shaybanid) dynasty (r. 1500-99), the Janids (also known as Toqay-Timurids or Ashtarkhanids, r. 1599-1747), and the Manḡïts (r. 1747-1920).

    (Anke von Kügelgen)

  • BULAYÏQ

    town in eastern Turkestan, modern Chinese Sinkiang, situated about ten km north of Turfan. At the nearby ruin of Shüī-pang, a library of fragmentary Christian manuscripts (thought to be of the 9th-10 cents.) was discovered in 1905, and the site is judged to be that of a Nestorian monastery.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • BULLAE

    the sealings, usually of clay or bitumen, on which were impressed the marks of seals showing ownership or witness to whatever was attached to the sealing.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • BULSARA, SOHRAB JAMSHEDJI

    (1877-1945), Parsi scholar of Avestan, Pahlavi, Pazand, and Persian and Iranian history, born to a middle class family in Bulsar, Gujarat.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • BŪM

    See BŪF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BUNDAHIŠN

    “Primal creation,” traditional name of a major Pahlavi work of compilation, mainly a detailed cosmogony and cosmography based on the Zoroastrian scriptures.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • BUNTING, Basil Cheesman

    (1900-1985), British poet, linguist, translator, journalist, diplomat, and spy.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • BUN-XĀNAG

    term in the inscriptions of Kirdīr at Naqš-e Rostam (KKZ and KNRm), variously interpreted.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • BŪQĀ

    (Būqāy, Boḡā), Mongolian Boḡa, Mongol general who took part in the fighting between the il-khans Aḥmad Takūdār (Tegüder) and Arḡūn in 1284 and then became the vizier.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • BŪQALAMŪN

    term applied to a variety of objects or animals exhibiting changing colors, such as (silk) fabrics, the gemstone jasper, the chameleon, and the turkey.

    (Hūšanḡ Aʿlam)

  • BŪRĀN

    (Middle Pers. Bōrān) also called Ḵadīja (807-84), wife of al-Maʾmūn and daughter of Ḥasan b. Sahl, probably so named after the Sasanian queen Bōrān.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • BŪRĀNĪ

    (rarely būlānī), generic term for a category of Iranian dishes, now usually prepared with yogurt and cooked vegetables and served either hot or cold.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • BURBUR CASTLE

    The village has changed hands several times between Burbur family members, the Qajar aristocracy, and the central government in the last few centuries. In the 1840s, Esmāʿil Khan Burbur bought back the estate from ʿIsā Khan Biglarbegi Qajar, the governor of Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Tuyserkān, for 36,000 tomans.

    (Dariush Borbor)

  • BURBUR TRIBE

    a Lor tribe dispersed throughout Persia, especially in Azerbaijan , Varāmin, northern Khorasan, Fārs , and Kermān.

    (Dariush Borbor)

  • BURBUR, ʿALI

    administrative and military official under the Qajars.

    (Dariush Borbor)

  • BURDAR

    Pahl. burdār “carrier, sustainer, bringer,” attested in Armenian as a proper name.

    (James R. Russell)

  • BURHANPUR

    (Borhānpūr), city in Madhya Pradesh (formerly Central Provinces and Berar), India, on the Tapti river, 275 miles northeast of Bombay.

    (Nisar Ahmed Faruqi)

  • BURIAL

    This series of articles covers burial practices in Iran and Iranian lands.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BURIAL i. Pre-Historic Burial Sites

    The earliest human skeletal remains found in Persia (pre-8th millennium B.C.) are from several cave dwelling sites: Hotu Cave (Angel) and Belt Cave, both on the south­eastern shore of the Caspian Sea; Behistun (Bīsotūn) Cave near Kermānšāh; and Konjī and Arjana Caves in Luristan.

    (Ezzatollah Negahban)

  • BURIAL ii. Remnants of Burial Practices in Ancient Iran

    The burial practices of pre-Islamic Iran are known partly from archeological evidence, partly from the Zoroastrian scriptures, namely the Avesta and the later Pahlavi and Persian literature.

    (Frantz Grenet)

  • BURIAL iii. In Zoroastrianism

    Death being regarded as an evil brought about by Aŋra Mainyu, the Destructive Spirit, the corpse of a holy creature, particularly man or dog, is considered to be greatly infested by the druj Nasu.

    (James R. Russell)

  • BURIAL iv. In Islam

    In the handbooks of feqh that the detailed procedures for washing, enshrouding, praying over, and burying the dead are expounded, with little variation among the different schools of Islamic law.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • BURIAL v. In Bahai Communities

    Bahai laws on burial are limited to a few basic principles that are binding on all Bahai communities around the world.

    (Vahid Rafati)

  • BURNES, ALEXANDER

    (1805-41), author of Travels into Bukhara (published in 1834), an account of his exploratory mission to Afghani­stan, Turkestan, and Iran.

    (Malcolm E. Yapp)

  • BURNOUF, EUGÈNE

    (1801-52), virtually the founder of Iranian linguistics, as well as of the study of the history of Buddhism.

    (Clarisse Herrenschmidt)

  • BURTON, RICHARD

    Sir (b. 1821 at Toquay, Devonshire, d. 1890 at Trieste, Italy), well-known traveler (Africa, the Near East, India), orientalist, and translator.

    (EIr)

  • BURUSHASKI

    language spoken in Hunza-Karakorum, North Pakistan, containing some Iranian loanwords of various origins.

    (Hermann Berger)

  • BURZĒNMIHR

    See ĀDUR BURZĒNMIHR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • BŪSALĪK

    a maqām in Arabian, Turkish, and Persian musical traditions to this day; however, the contemporary form of the maqām of Būsalīk differs from that which is given by the classical scholars.

    (Hormoz Farhat)

  • BŪŠĀSP

    demon of slothfulness and procrastination in Zoroastrianism.

    (Allan V. Williams)

  • BUSCARELLO DE GHIZOLFI

    Genoese merchant and diplomat who served the il-khan Arḡūn (r. 1284-91). Buscarello belonged to a great family of Genoa that played an important role in the maritime trade of the city.

    (Jean Richard)

  • BŪŠEHR

    (Ar. Būšahr, European spellings Bushire, Busheer, Bouchir), port city in southern Iran on the Persian Gulf. i. The city. ii. Music of Būšehr.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • BŪŠEHR i. THE CITY

    Ar. Būšahr, European spellings Bushire, Busheer, Bouchir), port city in southern Iran on the Persian Gulf.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • BŪŠEHR ii. MUSIC OF BŪŠEHR

    local styles of music known as šarva and yazla.

    (Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿūdīya)

  • BŪŠEHRĪ, ḤĀJĪ MOḤAMMAD

    MOʿĪN-AL-TOJJĀR (1859-1933), a merchant active in the Constitutional Revolution.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • BŪSTĀN

    in early sources referred to as Saʿdī-nāma, a moralistic and anecdotal verse work consisting of some 4,100 maṯnawī couplets by Shaikh Moṣleḥ-al-Dīn Saʿdī, completed in 1257.

    (G. Michael Wickens)

  • BŪSTĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD

    ʿABD-AL-ʿAẒĪM SĀMĪ, poet and historian of Bukhara (b. ca. 1840, d. after 1914).

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • BUSTARD

    any of a family (Otididae) of game birds of which three species, generally called hūbar(r)a in contemporary Persian, occur in Iran.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam and Derek A. Scott)

  • BŪTĪMĀR

    a semilegendary aquatic bird; in Persian literature its lore that can be traced back at least as far as the time of Jāḥeẓ (d. 255/868).

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • BUYIDS

    (also Bowayhids, Buwaihids, etc.; Pers. Āl-e Būya), dynasty of Daylamite origin ruling over the southern and western part of Iran and over Iraq from the middle of the 4th/10th to the middle of the 5th/11th centuries.

    (Tilman Nagel)

  • BŪZĪNA

    monkeys. Other names: meymūn (common), ʿantar (vulgar), kappī (Mid. Pers. kabīg, from Indian kapi). Two myths of the creation of monkeys exist in the Zoroastrian literature.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • BŪZJĀNĪ, ABU’L-WAFĀʾ

    See ABU’L-WAFĀʾ BŪZJĀNĪ.

    (Cross-reference)

  • BŪZJĀNĪ, DARWĪŠ ʿALĪ

    (d. after 1522), a Sufi scholar of Khorasan attached to Aḥmad-e Jām.

    (Heshmat Moayyad)

  • BYRON, ROBERT

    (1905-1941), British travel writer and amateur historian of architecture.

    (Robert Irwin)

  • BYZANTINE-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    From the middle of the 1st century B.C. the Middle East was dominated by the political rivalries of the empires of Rome and Iran. In 298 a treaty of peace had been signed between the Roman and Sasanian emperors; it lasted until after Constantine’s conversion to Christianity.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • BYZANTIUM

    (Byzantion): contact with the Achaemenids (ca. 513-439 BCE). The Greek polis of Byzantium, in the European province of Thrace (OPers. Skudra), played a pivotal role in the Greco-Persian wars.

    (Jack Martin Balcer)

  • Bahrām Yašt

    (music sample)

  • Baktiāri karnā

    (music sample)

  • Baluchistan Ḏekr

    (music sample)

  • Banān - Kasi ke dar sar-e u

    (music sample)

  • Bandbāz

    (music sample)

  • Bastanegār

    (music sample)

  • Battle between Rostam and Sohrāb, The

    (music sample)

  • Bayāt-e Kord

    (music sample)

  • Bayāt-e Tork I (vocal)

    (music sample)

  • Bayāt-e Tork II (setār)

    (music sample)

  • Bayt Mahmud Kolāhpizah

    (music sample)

  • Bidād

    (music sample)

  • Bozorg

    (music sample)

  • BAYĀT-E TORK

    sample of Bayāt-e Tork: a musical system (āvāz, naḡma) and one of the branches of the modal system (dastgāh) of Šūr (q.v.) in traditional classical music.

    (music sample)

  • B~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter B entries.

    (DATA)

  • CABBAGE

    (Pers. kalam).Many medicinal properties and uses have been attributed in the Islamic period to the leaves and seeds of the karanb, most of which can be traced to the writings of the Greek masters Dioscorides, Galen, and others.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ČĀČ

    (Ar. Šāš), the name of a district and of a town in medieval Transoxania; the name of the town was gradually supplanted by that of Tashkent from late Saljuq and Mongol times onwards.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ČAČ-NĀMA

    Persian translation of an early anonymous Arabic history of Sind compiled at Arōr in the 3rd/9th century.

    (D. N. MacLean)

  • CADMAN, JOHN

    Director and later chairman of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) during the reign of Reżā Shah (b. Silverdale, Staffordshire, England, 7 September 1877, d. Bletchley, Buckingham, 31 May 1941).

    (Kamran Eqbal)

  • ČĀDOR (1)

    A portable dwelling characteristic of certain nomad groups. It consists of a canopy of cloth or skin supported by upright posts and anchored to the ground by means of pegs and ropes. See TENTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČĀDOR (2)

    A loose female garment covering the body, sometimes also the face.

    (Bijan Gheiby, James R. Russell, Hamid Algar)

  • CADUSII

    an Iranian tribe settled between the Caspian and the Black sea.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ČAGĀD Ī DĀITĪ

    (or Dāityā), lit. “summit of the law," a peak of the mythical mountain Harburz, located in Ērānwēǰ in the middle of the world.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • ČAḠADĀY

    second son of Čengīz Khan. See CHAGHATAYID DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČAḠĀNA

    the name given to four types of musical instruments. This spelling is found in most dictionaries. Sachs’ Real-Lexikon has čaqāna, and other forms are also found: čaḡān, čaḡana, and čaḡba; in Arabic jaḡāna or jafāna.

    (Ḥosayn ʿAlī Mallāḥ)

  • ČAḠANĪ, ṬĀHER

    b. Abi’l-ʿAbbās Fażl b. Abī Bakr Moḥammad b. Abī Saʿd Moẓaffar b. Moḥtāj, prince and poet of the ancient Iranian Āl-e Moḥtāj, ruler of Čaḡānīān (Čaḡān Ḵodāt).

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ČAḠĀNĪĀN, Chaghanids

    See ĀL-E MOḤTĀJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČAḠĀNĪĀN

    Middle Pers. form Čagīnīgān, Arabic rendering Ṣaḡānīān, with the common rendering of Iranian č as ṣ.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ČAḠĀNRŪD

    Čaḡānīrūd in Farroḵī, the seventh and last right-bank tributary of the Oxus or Amu Darya.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ČAḠATĀY

    See CHAGHATAY LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE and CHAGHATAYID DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČAḠČARĀN

    Principal town and administrative capital of the province of Ḡōr, in the mountains of central Afghanistan.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • ČAḠRĪ BEG DĀWŪD

    b. Mīḵāʾīl b. Saljūq, Abū Solaymān, a member of the Saljuqs, the leading family of the Oghuz Turks, who with his brother Ṭoḡrel (Ṭoḡrïl) Beg founded the Great Saljuq dynasty in Persia in the 5th/11th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ČAḠRĪ KHAN ʿALĪ

    See ILAK-KHANIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČĀH

    “well”; together with qanāt (subterranean water canals), wells play a great part in the mobilization of the groundwater resources of Persia.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • ČĀH-E NAḴŠĀB

    See MOQANNAʿ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČAHĀR AYMĀQ

    See AYMĀQ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČAHĀR BĀḠ

    See ČAHĀRBĀḠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČAHĀR DOWLĪ

    (Davālī), or ČĀR DOWLĪ, a tribe of western Iran.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ČAHĀR LANG

    (ČĀR LANG). See BAḴTĪĀRĪ TRIBE i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČAHĀR MAḤĀ(L) WA BAḴTĪĀRĪ

    second smallest province (ostān) of Persia in area, located in the Zagros mountains of southwestern Persia.

    (Eckart Ehlers and Hūšang Kešāvarz)

  • ČAHĀR MAQĀLA

    persian prose work written in the 6th/12th century by Abu’l-Ḥasan Neẓām-al-­Dīn (or Najm-al-Dīn) Aḥmad b. ʿOmar b. ʿAlī Neẓāmī ʿArūżī Samarqandī, originally entitled Majmaʿ al-nawāder.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ČAHĀR ONṢOR

    (Four elements), an autobiographical work in prose by the poet and Sufi Abu’l-Maʿānī Mīrzā ʿAbd-al-Qāder Bīdel.

    (Sharif Husain Qasemi)

  • ČAHĀRBĀḠ

    lit. “four gardens,” a rectangular garden divided by paths or waterways into four symmetrical sections.

    (David Stronach)

  • ČAHĀRBĀḠ-E EṢFAHĀN

    the name of a broad avenue which was a key feature of the city of Isfahan as replanned by Shah ʿAbbās I after he had designated the city the new capital of the Safavid state in 1006/1597-98.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ČAHĀRBĀḠ-E GARRŪS

    (ČĀRBĀḠ-E GARRŪS), a park no longer in existence in the south of the town of Bījār, center of Garrūs šahrestān in Persian Kurdistan.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ČAHĀRBĀḠ-E MAŠHAD

    name of a royal garden and palace at Mašhad; under the Qajars and up to the present time it has been the name of an old quarter in the city.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ČAHĀR-BAYTI

    See DO-BAYTI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČAHĀRDAH MAʿṢŪM

    the fourteen inerrant or immaculate personages venerated by Twelver Shiʿites, i.e., the Prophet Moḥammad, his daughter Fāṭema, and the twelve imams.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ČAHĀRGĀH

    the name of one of the twelve dastgāhs (modes) of traditional Persian music in the 14th/20th century.

    (Bruno Nettl)

  • ČAHĀRJŪY

    See ĀMOL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČAHĀRMEŻRĀB

    a genre of traditional rhythmic instrumental music.

    (Jean During)

  • ČAHĀRŠANBA-SŪRĪ

    (usually pronounced Čāršamba-sūrī), the last Wednesday of the Persian solar year, the eve of which is marked by special customs and rituals, most notably jumping over fire.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff and ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • ČAHĀRṬĀQ

    literally “four arches,” a modern term for an equilateral architectural unit consisting of four arches or short barrel vaults between four corner piers, with a dome on squinches over the central square. this unit became the most prominent element in traditional Iranian architecture after the ayvān.

    (Dietrich Huff, Bernard O’Kane)

  • ČAHĀRTĀR

    (lit. four-strings), a musical instrument belonging to the family of long-necked lutes.

    (Jean During)

  • ČĀH-BAHĀR

    Name of a town and bay on the Makrān coast of Persian Baluchistan facing the coast of Oman.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ČAHRĪQ

    a dehestān, village, and fortress in Salmās (Šāhpūr in the Pahlavi period) šahrestān in Azerbaijan between Ḵᵛoy and Urmia.

    (Amir Hassanpour, Juan R. I. Cole)

  • ČAIŠPIŠ

    See ČIŠPIŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CAITYAPRADAKṢIṆĀGĀTHĀ

    lit. “the song (Skt. gāthā) about circumambulating (Skt. pradakṣiṇā) a holy place (Skt. caitya),” the title of a Buddhist text, a Khotanese version of which is extant.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • ČAK

    legal document, testament, money draft, check.

    (Willem Floor)

  • ČAḴĀNSŪR

    principal town of the large Ḵāšrūd delta oasis in northeastern Sīstān.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • ČĀKAR

    personal soldier-retainer of the nobility in pre-Islamic Central Asia.

    (Etienne de la Vaissiere)

  • ČAKAR

    a Middle Persian legal term denoting a widow who at the death of her “authorized” (pādixšāyīhā) husband without issue was obliged to enter into a levirate marriage (čakarīh) in order to provide him with male offspring (frazand).

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • ČAKĀVAK

    (Mid. Pers. čakōk). i. The lark. ii. A melody in Persian music.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam, Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ČAKZĪ

    See ACƎKZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČĀL

    Like most Persian villages, Čāl had several quarters (maḥallas), but the major division was between Upper and Lower Čāl (locally Gali-kiá; and Jarina-ma:la, respectively), with some local variation between the dialects, for instance, Upper Čāli berbinden “to cut,” veškenja “sparrow,” nāngun “pinch” versus Lower Čāli bervinden, meškenja, and nāngur.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ČĀL TARḴĀN

    (Čāl Tarḵān-ʿEšqābād), a site about 20 km southeast of Ray with remains from the late Sasanian and early Islamic periods.

    (Jens Kröger)

  • ČALABĪ, ʿĀREF

    See ČELEBĪ, ʿĀREF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČALABĪĀNLŪ

    a Turkicized tribe dwelling, for the most part, in the dehestān of Garmādūz in Aras­bārān region of northern Azerbaijan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ČĀLDERĀN

    battle of, an engagement fought near Ḵᵛoy in northwestern Azerbaijan on 23 August 1514, resulting in a decisive victory for the Ottoman forces under Sultan Salīm I over the Safavids led by Shah Esmāʿīl I. No single event prompted Salīm’s decision to wage war. It was the direct and inevitable result of the establishment of the Safavid state.

    (Michael J. McCaffrey)

  • CALENDARS

    i. Pre-Islamic calendars. ii. In the Islamic period. iii. Afghan calendars. iv. Other modern calendars. Although evidence of calendrical traditions in Iran can be traced back to the 2nd millennium B.C., before the lifetime of Zoroaster, the earliest calendar that is fully preserved dates from the Achaemenid period.

    (Antonio Panaino, Reza Abdollahy, Daniel Balland)

  • ČĀLI

    See ČĀL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CALIPHS AND THE CALIPHATE

    as viewed by the Shiʿites of Persia.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • CALLIAS, PEACE OF

    peace made by Xerxes and/or Artaxerxes I with Athens and her confederacy in the 5th century B.C.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • CALLIGRAPHY

    (ḵaṭṭāṭī, ḵᵛošnevīsī), the writing system in use in Persia since early Islamic times, which grew out of the Arabic alphabet. Comparison of some of the scripts that developed on Persian ground, particularly Persian-style Kufic, with the Pahlavi and Avestan scripts reveals a number of similarities between them.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • CALLIGRAPHY (continued)

    In the handwriting of the various Muslim peoples, three distinct styles are recognizable: Turco-Arab, Persian, and Indo-Afghan. In the style once current in Turkey and the similar styles now prevalent in the Arab countries, most scripts are written with sharp outlines and a downward slope.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • CALLISTHENES

    the name of a 4th-century BCE Greek historian of the period of Alexander the Great. On Aristotle’s recom­mendation Alexander engaged Callisthenes to write the history of his planned expedition against Persia. The existing History of Alexander is now commonly referred to as “Pseudo Callisthenes” or the Alexander Romance.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • CALMEYER, Peter

    German archaeologist and Iranologist (b. 5 September 1930 in Halle, d. 22 November 1995 in Berlin).

    (Wolfram Kleiss and A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ČĀLŪS

    a small town in western Māzandarān (šahrestān of Nowšahr, baḵš of Čālūs) located about 8 km from the Caspian coast at an elevation of 7 m.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • CAMA, KHARSHEDJI RUSTAMH

    (1831-1909), Parsi Zoroastrian scholar and community leader. Cama worked for the organization of Parsi madres­sas (madrasas), and his consultation was sought also in the establishment of Hindu and Muslim schools. He was associated with the University of Bombay.

    (James R. Russell)

  • CAMA ORIENTAL INSTITUTE

    (K. R. Cama Oriental Institute), a research institute in Bombay established in memory of the Parsi orientalist, teacher, and social reformer Kharshedji Rustomji Cama, inaugurated 18 December 1916.

    (M. F. Kanga, Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • CAMBADENE

    the name of a region (dahyāuš) in ancient Media and present Persian Kurdistan.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF IRAN

    a survey of the history and historical geography of the land which is present-day Iran, as well as other territories inhabited by peoples of Iranian descent, from prehistoric times up to the present in seven volumes (vol. III being a double volume), published 1968 to 1989.

    (Hubert S. G. Darke)

  • CAMBYSENE

    Whether or not Cambysene was part of the Achaemenid Empire is unknown. When the Artaxid dynasty of Armenia was at the peak of its power this region was one of its provinces or districts; it remained so until it was conquered by the Albanians, probably after the defeat of Tigranes the Great in 69 b.c.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • CAMBYSES

    (OPers. Kambūǰiya-, Elamite Kanbuziya, Akkadian Kambuziya, Aram. Knbwzy), the name of two kings of the Achaemenid dynasty.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ČAMČAMĀL

    (Kurdish čam “river” and Čamāl/Jamāl, personal name; in the sources also writ­ten Jamjamāl), a fertile dehestān of Ṣaḥna baḵš in Kermānšāhān (Bāḵtarān) province located to the south and west of Ṣaḥna on the Kermānšāh-Hamadān road and watered by Gāmāsb and Dīnavar rivers.

    (Abdollah Mardukh)

  • CAMEL

    (šotor). Artifacts from ancient Iran indicate that only the Bactrian camel was part of the native fauna of greater Iran, though it was probably not numerous. Possibly the earliest evidence is a painted image on a ceramic shard from Tepe Sialk, probably datable between 3000 and 2500 B.C.

    (Richard W. Bulliet, Moḥammad-Nāṣer Ḡolāmreżaʾī, Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾī, Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • CAMEL THORN

    (Alhagi Adans. spp.), common name for wild thorny suffrutescent plants of the Papilionaceae family, called šotor-ḵār and ḵār-e šotor (lit. “camel’s thorn”) in Persian.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CAMERON, GEORGE GLENN

    philologist and his­torian, b. 30 July 1905 in Washington, Pennsylvania, d. 14 September 1979 in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • CAMPBELL, JOHN

    (1799-1870), British envoy to Persia, 1830-35.

    (Kamran Ekbal)

  • CAMPBELL, JOHN NICHOLL ROBERT ii. The Archives

    (1799-1870), British envoy to Iran from 1831 to 1835. The archives left behind by Campbell provide scholars with a comprehensive first-hand account of British and foreign involvement in Iran and Central Asia in the 1800s.

    (Roya Arab)

  • CAMPHOR

    a strong-smelling volatile white solid essential oil obtained from two genera of the camphor tree and used from ancient times in Persia as an aromatic with antiseptic and insect-repelling properties.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ČAMRŪŠ

    a mythical bird that in the Pahlavi books, of all birds of land and sky, is second only to the Sēn bird in worth.

    (Alan V. Williams)

  • CANADA i. Iranian Studies in

    several factors in the last half-century have led to a rapid expansion of Iranian studies in Canada in the fields of history, literature, language, philosophy, religion, art history, and archaeology.

    (Colin Paul Mitchell)

  • CANADA v. Iranian Community in Canada

    v. Iranian Community in Canada The immigration records of the organization Statistics Canada for the period between 1896 and 1915 date the arrival of the first Iranian immigrants to between 1901 and 1902. Although the following year saw a steep rise to forty immigrants from Iran, the numbers fluctuate considerably over the next sixty years, reaching an average of around 100 annual immigrants by 1961. By 1970, the average had risen to 660, a change that, according to the publications of the Government of Canada, was due to the “massive flow of students to North American Universities that began after 1965,” and the fact that many of these students chose to remain in Canada after having completed their studies and having obtained immigrant status.

    (M. Mannani, N. Rahimieh, K. Sheibani)

  • ČANDARBHĀN BARAHMAN

    See ČANDRA BHĀN BARAHMAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CANDLE

    (Pers.-Ar. šamʿ); the Arabic word literally means “beeswax."

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar, J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • CANDLESTICKS

    from the late 6th/12th through the early 10th/16th century one of the most common types of implement produced as a luxury metalware in Iran. Their form, decoration, and epigraphic program reflect contemporary trends in Iranian metalwork.

    (Linda Komaroff)

  • ČANDRA BHĀN

    (or Čandarbhān Barahman), Indian poet and writer in Persian (b. Lahore, date unknown, d. Lahore 1073/1662-63).

    (Sharif Husain Qāsemī)

  • ČANDŪ LAʿL ŠĀDĀN

    Maharaja, states­man and poet in Persian and Urdu (b. 1175/1761-62, d. 7 Rabīʿ II 1261/15 April 1845 at Hyderabad).

    (Sharif Husain Qasemi)

  • CANDYS

    name probably of Iranian origin used by Greek authors for a Persian garment.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ČANG

    In Persian literature, particularly in poetry, the harp kept an important place. In the Pahlavi text on King Ḵosrow and his page the čang player is listed among the finest of musicians. The harp was also one of the instruments played by the inmates of the harem.

    (Ḥosayn-ʿAlī Mallāḥ)

  • ČANGRANGHĀČA-NĀMA

    a narrative work in Persian verse by Zartošt or Zarātošt, son of Bahrām-e Paždū, a poet of the 7th/13th century.

    (Žāla Āmūzgār)

  • CANNIZZARO, FRANCESCO ADOLFO

    (b. Messina, 13 July 1867; d. Rome, 24 April 1914), Italian autodidact of Oriental languages and translator of the Vidēvdād.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • ČĀP

    “print, printing,” a Persian word probably derived from Hindi chāpnā, “to print.”

    (Willem Floor)

  • ČĀPĀR

    (or čapar < Turk. čapmak “to gallop”), post rider.

    (Willem Floor)

  • CAPITAL CITIES

    these centers played important diplomatic and administrative roles in Iranian history, closely linked to the fortunes of the ruling families.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi, C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • CAPITALS

    in architectural terminology, tran­sitional elements between weight-bearing supports (see COLUMNS) and the roofs or vaults supported. The development of the capital began in Assyria, when a tree trunk was inserted in the earth with another trunk or branch laid in the fork to carry the roof construction.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • CAPPADOCIA

    Anatolian Achaemenid satrapy, Hellenistic-era Iranian kingdom, and imperial Roman province. A rolling plateau cut by mountains, Cappadocia in the east contains bare central highlands, in the west a nearly treeless land­scape, and in the north mountainous tracts marked by fertile valleys, especially on the lower Halys river.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • CAPUCHINS IN PERSIA

    From 1626 onward the French Capuchins established a number of missionary posts in the Near East. Capuchin monks lived solely on the alms that were given to them. The first Capuchins at Isfahan assiduously learned Persian and Turkish.

    (Francis Richard)

  • ČĀR BAKR

    (lit. “four Bakrs”), family necropolis of the powerful Jūybāri shaikhs near the village of Sumitan.

    (G. A. Pugachenkova)

  • CARACAL

    (Felis caracal Schreber = Lynx caracal, Caracal caracal), also called “desert lynx” or “Persian lynx”; in Persian, sīāhgūš, lit. “black-eared.”

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CARACALLA

    the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, known as Caracalla because of his hooded robe (b. 188, d. 217), who conducted a campaign against the Parthians.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • CARAKA

    the name of an Indian physician associated with one of the major works on Indian medicine (the Carakasaṃhitā), as well as the name of King Kaniṣka’s physician.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • ČARAND PARAND

    (Čarand o parand), literally “fiddle-faddle,” the title of satirical pieces of social and political criticism in the form of short narratives, brief announcements, telegrams, news reports, etc., by ʿAlī-Akbar Dehḵodā.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • CARAVAN

    a form of collective transport of men and goods.

    (Bert G. Fragner)

  • CARAVANSARY

    a building that served as the inn of the Orient, providing accommodation for commercial, pilgrim, postal, and especially official travelers. The term kārvān-sarā was commonly used in Iran and is preserved in several place names. The normal caravansary consisted of a square or rectangular plan centered around a courtyard.

    (Moḥammad-Yūsuf Kīānī and Wolfram Kleiss)

  • CARD GAMES

    (ganjafa-bāzī, waraq-bāzī), card games were invented in China in the 7th-8th centuries and via India were brought to Persia, whence they reached the Arab world and Europe.

    (Mahdi Roschanzamir)

  • CARDAMOM

    hel in modern Persian (from Skt. elā), the aromatic seeds of several plants of the family Zingiberaceae.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CARDINAL POINTS

    See BĀḴTAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CARDUCHI

    warlike tribes that in antiquity occupied the hilly country along the upper Tigris near the Assyrian and Median borders, in present-day western Kurdistan.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ČARḠ

    See BĀZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CARIA

    in the area of southwestern Turkey, under Achaemenid rule first as a part of the satrapy of Sparda (Lydia; 540s-390s B.C.), then as a separate satrapy (390s-30s B.C.) under the Hecatomnid family, whose prominence and self-promotion created a number of mostly Greek epigraphic documents detailing the development of 4th-century Caria.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • ČĀRĪKĀR

    main town of Kōhdāman and the administrative capital of the Afghan province of Parwān, located about 63 km north of Kabul. Throughout history there has been an important urban center at the northern end of the long Kōhdāman depression.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • ČĀRJŪY

    See ĀMOL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČARḴ

    a common toponym all over the Iranian world.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • ČARḴ-E ČĀH

    (lit. “well wheel”), a device for drawing water from a well or river or for removing soil during the excavation of a well. It is a type of windlass, consisting of a hollow horizontal cylinder around which a rope is coiled or uncoiled to raise or lower a bucket attached to the end. Formerly they were common.

    (Nāṣer Ḡolām-Reżāʾī)

  • ČARKAS

    (Cherkes), term used in Persian, Arabic, and Turkic for the Circassian people of the northwest Caucasus who call themselves Adygeĭ and speak a language of the Abazgo-Circassian branch of Caucasian (see caucasian languages).

    (Beatrice Manz, Masashi Haneda)

  • ČARḴĪ, Mawlānā Yaʿqūb

    an early shaikh of the Naqšbandī order and author of several works in Persian (d. 851/1447).

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ČARM

    (Av. čarəman-, OPers. čarman-, Khot. tcārman-, etc.), skin, hide, and leather, which have had a variety of uses in Persia.

    (Willem Floor)

  • CARMANIA

    ancient region east of Fārs province, approximately equivalent to modern Kermān. The Old Persian form is attested only once in inscriptions.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CARMATIANS

    (Ar. Qarāmeṭa; sing. Qarmaṭī), the name given to the adherents of a branch of the Ismaʿili movement during the 3rd/9th century.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • CARMELITES IN PERSIA

    In 1604 Pope Clement VIII dispatched a mission of Discalced Carmelite fathers to Persia; the embassy represented the culmination of a policy of seeking alliances against the Ottoman empire that had been initiated by Pius V.

    (Francis Richard)

  • ČĀROḠ

    or čāroq, etc. See CLOTHING xx, xxv, xxviii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CARPETS

    (qālī; Ar. and Pers. farš), heavy textiles used as coverings for floors, walls, and other large surfaces, as well as for various kinds of furnishing.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CARPETS i. Introductory survey

    the history of Persian carpet manufacture.

    (Roger Savory)

  • CARPETS ii. Raw materials and dyes

    for centuries Persian carpet weaving has depended primarily on local materials processed by traditional traditional techniques. Such materials include sheep wool, camel hair, goat hair, and natural dyes. This article discusses use and preparation of dyes and materials used to make carpets.

    (Jasleen Dhamija)

  • CARPETS iii. Knotted-pile carpets: Techniques and structures

    The techniques of carpet making are the processes of weaving, knotting, and finishing; structure is the complex of interrelations among the elements of the finished carpet.

    (Annette Ittig)

  • CARPETS iv. Knotted-pile carpets: Designs, motifs, and patterns

    In this discussion “design” refers to the overall composition of decorative elements on a carpet; the simplest elements in designs are single motifs, which are most frequently combined in more complex units; these units in turn may be arranged in various combinations and sequences to form patterns.

    (Annette Ittig)

  • CARPETS v. Flat-woven carpets: Techniques and structures

    Most of the structures in Persian flat-woven carpets belong to the category called “interlacing” by textile specialists; the term designates the most straightforward way in which each thread of a fabric passes under or over threads that cross its path.

    (Sarah B. Sherrill)

  • CARPETS vi. Pre-Islamic Carpets

    Evidence for textiles of all kinds in pre-Islamic Iran is very sparse. It is necessary to supplement the few remains of actual textiles with examination of representations in art and other kinds of indirect evidence of production, for example preserved impressions and pseudomorphs from excavations.

    (Karen S. Rubinson)

  • CARPETS vii. Islamic Persia to the Mongols

    Because of the scarcity of surviving materials it is difficult to separate the history of carpet making in Iran from that of the rest of the Islamic world before the Mongol invasion (656/1258). Furthermore, the kind of rigid distinction between carpet and other textile designs that characterizes later production probably did not exist in the early Islamic period.

    (Barbara Schimtz)

  • CARPETS viii. The Il-khanid and Timurid Periods

    Carpet production in Persia in the 14th-15th centuries has been inferred from written sources. Carpets and weavings from contemporary Anatolia and the Turkman tribal confederations, and possibly also from Egypt and even Spain, also permits the inference.

    (Eleanor Sims)

  • CARPETS ix. Safavid Period

    The high point in Persian carpet design and manufacture was attained under the Safavid dynasty (1501-1739). It was the result of a unique conjunction of historical factors, such as royal patronage and influence of court designers at all levels of artistic production.

    (Daniel Walker)

  • CARPETS x. Afsharid and Zand Periods

    Although it is probable that magnificent silk-and-brocade rugs in the style of the Safavid court manufactories were no longer produced in significant quantities, it seems reasonable to assume that production of less luxurious wool rugs continued in many traditional centers, even though on a smaller scale and mainly for domestic consumption.

    (Layla S. Diba)

  • CARPETS xi. Qajar Period

    There were dramatic alterations in the traditional organization and orientation of the Persian carpet industry and, consequently, in the carpets themselves. Particularly significant was the increase in the number of looms and volume of carpet exports from the 1870s to World War I.

    (Annette Ittig)

  • CARPETS xii. Pahlavi Period

    Throughout the 14th/20th century carpet manufacturing has been, from the point of view of both employment and domestic and foreign market demand, by far the most important Persian industry after oil refining.

    (Willem Floor)

  • CARPETS xiii. Post-Pahlavi Period

    In the period immediately following the shah’s flight from the country in 1358 Š./1979 the prices for Persian carpets reached record highs on Western markets.

    (P. R. Ford)

  • CARPETS xiv. Tribal Carpets

    In Persia rural carpets have been made in nearly every possible technical variation and for a wide range of uses. Yet there are many nomadic groups whose works are absolutely unknown, and the weavings of other groups have been only very imperfectly studied and described.

    (Siawosch Azadi)

  • CARPETS xv. Caucasian Carpets

    The oldest surviving rugs produced in the Caucasus may be a group with representations of dragons and phoenixes in combat. There is, however, no evidence to permit attribution to the Caucasus.

    (Richard E. Wright)

  • CARPETS xvi. Central Asian Carpets

    These include those woven in the former Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, Karakalpak Autonomous, Kirgiz, and Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republics; extreme northern and northeastern Persia; Afghanistan; and the Turkic (Uighur) areas of Sinkiang (Xinjiang) in western China.

    (Walter Denny)

  • CARRHAE

    (Ḥarrān), town in Mesopotamia where in May 53 B.C. a decisive battle was fought between the Parthians commanded by a member of the Sūrēn family and the Romans under the triumvir M. Licinius Crassus.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • CARROT

    the taproot of Daucus L. subspp., etc. (family Umbelliferae), traditionally called gazar (arabicized as jazar) or zardak (lit. “the little yellow one”), and later also havīj in Persian.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ČARS

    See BANG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CARTER ADMINISTRATION

    (1977-81): POLICY TOWARD PERSIA. When the administration of President Jimmy Carter took office in January 1977, United States foreign relations overall were remarkably stable. A modus vivendi had been established with the Soviet Union.

    (Richard W. Cottam)

  • CARUS

    Imperator Caesar MARCUS AURELIUS (Augustus), Roman emperor (r. 282-83).

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • ČARZA

    village in the mountainous area of the Upper Ṭārom district (baḵš) in the šahrestān of Zanjān, at 49°1′ E, 36°52′ N, 42 km north of the district center, Sīrdān. It is one of the few villages in Ṭārom where Iranian Tati dialects have not yet given way to Turkish.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • CASARTELLI, LOUIS CHARLES

    (1852-1925), scholar of ancient Iranian languages and religions and particularly of Pahlavi literature.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • CASES

    term "case" used on at least three linguistic levels: 1. semantic role of a noun (phrase), such as agent, patient, experiencer, and possessor; 2. syntactic function, such as subject, direct object, and indirect object; 3. morphological means, such as nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • ČAŠMA

    “spring.” Iran and Afghanistan, as well as wide parts of Central Asia, have a great variety of natural springs. A very general classification divides all springs into (1) those produced by gravity acting on the groundwater, (2) those that have their origins in tectonic volcanic forces within the earth’s crust.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ČAŠMA(-YE) ʿALĪ

    lit. “fountain of ʿAlī,” the name for various natural springs in Iran, the two best-known of which are located near Dāmḡān and Ray respectively.

    (Abbas Alizadeh)

  • ČAŠMHĀYAŠ

    (1952; tr. by John O’Kane as Her Eyes , 1989), a novel considered by many critics as the most important contribution of the noted Persian novelist Bozorg Alavi.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • ČAŠM-PEZEŠKĪ

    ophthalmology.

    (Ṣādeq Sajjādī)

  • ČAŠM-ZAḴM

    (lit. “a blow by the eye”), the evil eye: the supposed power of an individual to cause harm, even illness or death, to another person (or animals and other possessions) merely by looking at him or complimenting him.

    (Ebrāhīm Šakūrzāda and Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • ČĀŠNĪGĪR

    literally “taster” (Pers. čāšnī “taste”), the official who at the court of Turkish dynasties in Iran and elsewhere, from the Saljuq period onwards, had the responsibility of tasting the ruler’s food and drink in order to ensure that it was not poisoned.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • CASPIAN SEA

    actually a lake, the largest in the world (estimated surface area in 1986: 378,400 km², volume 78,600 km³; approx. between lat 37° and 47° N, long 46° and 54° E); it is bounded on the south by Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CASPIAN SEA i. GEOGRAPHY

    The Caspian “sea” consists of three distinct basins, each characterized by different features. hese differences are reflected in the levels of salinity.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • CASPIAN SEA ii. DIPLOMATIC HISTORY IN MODERN TIMES

    A new area of sub-systemic studies in international relations, which encompasses the Caspian basin and its immediate surroundings, emerged in the post-Soviet Union era.

    (Guive Mirfendereski)

  • CASPIAN DIALECTS

    Iranian dialects spoken along the Caspian littoral, including Ṭāleši, Gīlakī, Māzandarāni, and related subdialects, and the extinct dialect of Ṭabarestān. See individual entries.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CASPIAN GATES

    an ancient toponym identifying a ground-level pass that runs east and west through a southern spur of the Alborz Mountains in north central Iran.

    (John F. Hansman)

  • CASPIAN SEAL

    (Phoca caspica), the only mammal in the Caspian Sea. It is a relict species, endemic to the Caspian Sea and the deltas of rivers that discharge into it—the region where its ancestors lived when the sea was still connected to the oceans.

    (Eskandar Firouz)

  • CASPIANS

    name of an ancient people dwelling along the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea, whether north or south of the river Kura is not clear.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CASSANDANE

    wife of Cyrus II, an Achaemenian, sister of Otanes and daughter of Pharnaspes.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • CASSIA

    a genus of shrubs and trees of the family Leguminosae (or Caesalpiniaceae in some classifications).

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CASSIODORUS, Magnus Aurelius

    (b. ca. 485, d. after A.D. 580), Latin author of three historical works containing material on Iran.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • CASTLES

    primarily fortified country manors but also permanently inhabited defensive installations, maintained by the authorities along important land routes, and urban citadels, which functioned as administrative centers and places of refuge for inhabitants under siege, particularly in prehistoric and early historic times.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • CASTOLUS

    a plain east of Sardis, site of the mustering of troops from the satrapy of Sparda (Lydia) during Achaemenid times.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • CASTOREUM

    See BEAVER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CASTRATION

    (of men; ḵaṣī kardan, ḵāya kešīdan, ḵᵛāja kardan), discussion of castration in Islamic medical literature, on its legal status, and on its historical attestation in Islamic Persia.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • CAT I. In Mythology and Folklore

    Cats are not mentioned in literary Persian sources until late Sasanian times. In Zoroastrian mythology the cat (gurbag) is said to have been created by the Evil Spirit, and in the Pahlavi texts it is classed in the much despised “wolf species.”

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • CAT II. Persian Cat

    In western Europe and in North America, what are called “Persian cats” are a breed of longhaired domestic cats with a massive body, measuring 40 to 50 cm in length, and up to 30 cm in the height of their withers. According to the standards, these cats must present a strong bone structure, important muscular masses, and short, straight paws.

    (Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • CATALOGUES

    See BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CATECHISMS

    treatises for instruction in the fundamental tenets of a religious faith, cast in the form of questions and answers.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • CATHARS, ALBIGENSIANS, and BOGOMILS

    Manichaeism is said to have been passed via the Paulicians and the Bogomils to re-emerge in the European Cathars but this supposed historical transmission is difficult to demonstrate.

    (J. L M. van Schaik)

  • ČATR

    parasol or umbrella, an attribute of royalty in Iran.

    (Eleanor Sims)

  • CATTLE

    the word “cattle” has no precise equivalent in Iranian languages, in which bovines are commonly designated by the words for “cow,” “bull,” and “calf."

    (Jean-Pierre Digard, Mary Boyce)

  • CAUCASUS AND IRAN

    The Iranian world is bordered in the northwest by the high mountain barrier of the Caucasus, which separates it from the vast Russian plains beyond. In relief, structure, and ecology the Caucasus constitutes a clear frontier between eastern Europe and western Asia, though it is more closely related to the latter.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CAUCASUS i. Physical Geography, Population, and Economy.

    The northern side of the range consists of a series of monoclinal folds, in the form of cuestas, with escarpments facing toward the main chain and the more gradual back slopes fanning out into plateaus of varying sizes, all inclining toward the north.

    (Pierre Thorez)

  • CAUCASUS ii. Language contact

    Languages of the Caucasus. Including Caucasian (or Ibero-Caucasian), Turkic, Indo-European, Iranian languages, Kurdish, Tati, Ṭāleši, Ossetic, and others.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • CAUCASUS, iii. ACHAEMENID RULE IN

    Achaemenid rule in the Caucasus region was established, at the latest, in the course of the Scythian campaign of Darius I in 513-12 BCE.

    (Bruno Jacobs)

  • CAUTES AND CAUTOPATES

    the two dadophoroi or torch bearers who often flank Mithras in the bull-slaying scene and who are sometimes shown in the birth scenes of Mithras.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • ČĀV

    paper currency issued in Mongol Iran in 693/1294.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • CAVALRY

    See ASB; ASB-SAVĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CAVES OF THE THOUSAND BUDDHAS

    Ch’ien Fo Tung (Qianfodong), a large group of grottoes and cave temples carved out of Ming-sha hill in the southeastern Tun-huang (Dunhuang) district of Kansu (Gansu) province, China.

    (Xin-jiang Rong)

  • CAVIAR

    ḵāvīar in Persian, the processed non-fertilized roe of sturgeons and some other large fishes, highly valued as a gourmet delicacy. In Iran the roe for caviar is obtained mainly from three species of sturgeon (family Acipenseridae) caught in the southern littoral or fluvial waters of the Caspian Sea.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ČĀVOŠ

    or ČĀVŪŠ, used in classical Persian texts with the meanings of 1. army commander; 2. master of ceremony or person in charge of the servants; 3. caravan leader; or, more specifically, 4. a guide on the road to Mecca or holy shrines.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ČAXRĀ

    town mentioned in the Avesta. See ČARḴ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČĀY

    shrub of the genus Camellia and beverage made from its leaves, probably the most popular drink throughout the Iranian world. It is not known when Persians first became acquainted with the beverage. Bīrūnī, in his Ketāb al-ṣaydana, written in the first half of the 11th century, gave some details about the plant čāy and its use as a beverage in China and Tibet.

    (Daniel Balland and Marcel Bazin)

  • ČĒČAST

    a mythical lake in eastern Iran, later identified in the Pahlavi and Persian sources with Lake Urmia in Azerbaijan.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • CEDRENUS, GEORGIUS

    twelfth-century Byzantine historian who edited the Synopsis Historiōn of John Skylitzēs.

    (James R. Russell)

  • ČEGEL

    (Jekel), name of a Turkish people in Central Asia known in Persian poetry for the extraordinary beauty of their youths.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ČEGĪNĪ

    or Čeganī, a tribe that originated in northwestern Persia but is now scattered in Luristan, the Qazvīn region, and Fārs.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ČEHEL SOTŪN, ISFAHAN

    Safavid royal palace used for coronations and the reception of foreign embassies. It stands in the center of a large garden between the Meydān-e Šāh and the Čahārbāḡ. The layout of these gardens, with three walks shaded by plane trees, dates from the period of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1588-1629).

    (Ingeborg Luschey-Schmeisser)

  • ČEHEL SOTŪN, KABUL

    palace on a small, terraced hill rising at the southern end of a 30-acre walled garden about six miles south of the city center. According to a commemorative marble plaque at the base of the hill the cornerstone of the palace was laid in 1888, and the palace was completed as a seat for Prince Ḥabīb-Allāh three years later.

    (Nancy Hatch Dupree)

  • ČEHEL SOTŪN, QAZVIN

    a Safavid pavilion that stands amid gardens in the central meydān (square) of the old city and in which the Qazvīn museum is installed.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • ČEHEL TANĀN

    (“the forty dervishes,” popularly called Čeltan), a minor takīya (monastery) situated in the northeastern section of Shiraz, a short distance north of the tomb of Ḥāfeẓ and south of Haft Tanān (“the seven dervishes”).

    (Kerāmat-Allāh Afsar)

  • ČEHEL ṬŪṬĪ

    (forty parrot [stories]), the designation of collections of entertaining stories about the wife of a merchant and a pair of parrots, several versions of which are current in Persia and which are derived from older collections called ṭūṭī-nāmas (book of the parrots).

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • ČEHR

    two homographic neuter substantives čiθra- in Avestan, one meaning “face, appearance,” which is translated in Pahlavi as paydāg, and another rendered in Pahlavi as tōhmag and denoting “origin, lineage,” as well as “seed,” although the latter sense is attested only in compounds.

    (Bruce Lincoln)

  • ČEHRANEMĀ

    (lit. “mirror”), the name of an illustrated Persian newspaper and periodical published in Egypt (1322-1338 Š./1904-59, with interruptions).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ČELEBĪ, ʿĀREF

    (670-719/1272-1320), the son of Bahāʾ-al-Dīn Solṭān Walad and the grand­son of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Dīn Moḥammad Rūmī.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ČELEBĪ, FATḤ-ALLĀH ʿĀREF

    10th/16th-century poet and author of a Šāh-nāma (Solaymān-nāma) extolling the Ottoman rulers.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ČELLA

    term referring to any forty-day period. i. In Persian folklore. ii. In Sufism.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar, Hamid Algar)

  • ČELOW

    See BERENJ “rice” i. In Iran, sec. “Rice in the Iranian diet. ”

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČELOW-KABĀB

    a popular Persian dish which consists of cooked rice (čelow; see berenj) and a variety of broiled (kabāb, see below) mutton or veal (though less popular) and is served with butter, egg yolk, powdered sumac, raw onions, broiled tomatoes, and fresh sweet basil.

    (Ṣoḡrā Bāzargān)

  • CEMETERIES

    (qabrestān, gūrestān) in Persian folklore; cemeteries are found both inside and outside cities and villages, usually close to a holy shrine, or emāmzāda, in order to partake of its blessing.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • ČEMĪKENT

    See ASFĪJĀB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČENĀR

    “Oriental plane (tree),” indigenous from southeastern Europe to the Iranian plateau. In Persia proper, spontaneous planes have been observed by botanists. Cultivated planes are popular as ornamental or shade trees.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ČENGĪZ KHAN

    (Mong. Chinggis), probably born in 1167 in northeastern Mongolia, d. 1227, founder of the Mongol empire, the most extensive land empire known to history. Čengīz’s achievement, though hardly positive from the point of view of Persia, was by no means wholly a military and a destructive one. In the 1250s, a relatively coherent Mongol kingdom, the Il-khanate, was set up under Čengīz’s grandson Hülegü.

    (David O. Morgan)

  • CENSORING AN IRANIAN LOVE STORY

    the first novel published in English by noted modernist writer Shahriar Mandanipour.

    (Sara Khalili)

  • CENSORSHIP

    (sānsūr) in Persia; censorship has been exercised in most societies, including Persia, by the religious establishment, by the political authority, and by unofficial groups.

    (Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak)

  • CENSUS

    (Pers. sar-šomārī). No census for the purpose of ascertaining the population and acquiring statistical data was taken in Persia until the present century.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CENSUS i. In Iran

    No census for the purpose of ascertaining the popu­lation and acquiring statistical data was taken in Persia until the present century, but information about num­bers of persons or families was sometimes collected for the purpose of fixing tax dues or conscript quotas.

    (Fīrūz Tawfīq)

  • CENSUS ii. In Afghanistan

    The first national census of Afghanistan was not conducted until 1979, but the idea of such a survey had already taken root during the reign of Šēr-ʿAlī Khan in the 19th century, due to new taxation regulations.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • CENTRAL ASIA

    This series of articles covers Central Asia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CENTRAL ASIA i. Geographical Survey

    The central expanse of the Asian continent, the land mass situated approximately between 55° and 115° E and 25° and 50° N, comprises two geographically distinct areas.

    (EIr)

  • CENTRAL ASIA ii. Demography

    The combined population of the Uzbek, Kirgiz, Tajik, and Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republics totals more than 30 million people, one tenth of the population of the Soviet Union.

    (Richard H. Rowland)

  • CENTRAL ASIA iii. In Pre-Islamic Times

    The main evidence for the history of Central Asia before the coming of Islam comes from archeological excavations, while written sources con­tain little information.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • CENTRAL ASIA iv. In the Islamic Period up to the Mongols

    In early Islamic times Persians tended to identify all the lands to the northeast of Khorasan and lying beyond the Oxus with the region of Turan, which in the Šāh-nāma of Ferdowsī is regarded as the land allotted to Ferēdūn’s son Tūr.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • CENTRAL ASIA v. In the Mongol and Timurid Periods

    At the death of Čengīz (Chinggis) Khan in 624/1227 the territory he had conquered was divided between his sons.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • CENTRAL ASIA vi. In the 16th-18th Centuries

    In the 16th-17th centuries Central Asia, includ­ing Transoxania, Greater Balḵ, and Ḵᵛārazm, witnessed a neo-Chingizid (Jochid) political revival, spearheaded by the ʿArabshahid/Shibanid (Shaibanid) lineage in Ḵᵛārazm and the Abulkhairid/Shibanid and Toqay-Timurid lines in Transoxania and Greater Balḵ. In the main, political life was shaped by the neo-Chingizid appanage system of state and its internal dynamic.

    (Robert D. McChesney)

  • CENTRAL ASIA vii. In the 18th-19th Centuries

    By the beginning of the 12th/18th century Central Asia was in a state of a deepening political and economic crisis.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • CENTRAL ASIA viii. Relations with Persia in the 19th Century

    The question of Central Asia in the 13th/19th century, from the Persian point of view, was a promi­nent one not only because of Persian territorial claims over Marv, Ḵīva, Saraḵs, and other peripheral regions, but also because of the threat of the Turkmen frontier tribes of Tekka, Yomūt, and Gūklān to the security of Khorasan, Astarābād, and Māzandarān.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • CENTRAL ASIA ix. In the 20th Century

    Technology brought by the Russian military and the colonial administration from Europe included advanced arms and material, as well as railroad, telegraph/telephone, and printed com­munication.

    (Edward Allworth)

  • CENTRAL ASIA x. Economy Before the Timurids

    Climate and geography have, of course, in large measure determined economic pursuits in pre-industrial times.

    (Peter B. Golden)

  • CENTRAL ASIA xi. Economy from the Timurids until the 18th Century

    The economy of Central Asia after the fall of Central Asia to the descendants of Čengīz Khan and during their rule was centered on agriculture, but with important contributions from pastoralism, especially the breeding and export of horses.

    (Robert D. McChesney)

  • CENTRAL ASIA xii. Economy in the 19th-20th Centuries

    When the Russians arrived in Central Asia in the 1860s they found a predominantly agrarian economy. The main grain crops were wheat, barley, and sorghum.

    (Ian Matley)

  • CENTRAL ASIA xiii. Iranian Languages

    Central Asia was the ancient homeland of the Iranians and therefore also of the Iranian languages.

    (Ivan M. Steblin-Kamenskij)

  • CENTRAL ASIA xiv. Turkish-Iranian Language Contacts

    Three Turkish languages came together in Central Asia, the territory covered by the modern Turkmen, Uzbek, Kazakh, Kirghiz, and Tajik SSRs, excluding Chinese Turkestan: 1. the Uighur or Eastern Turks, 2. the Oghuz, speaking Khorasani Turkish, 3. and the Kipchaks

    (Gerhard Doerfer)

  • CENTRAL ASIA xv. Modern Literature

    Central Asian literatures in the twentieth century have developed under diverse influences. Beside classical and modern Persian literature and the poetic traditions and folklore of the Central Asian peoples themselves, Rus­sian thought and letters have been predominant.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • CENTRAL ASIA xvi. Music

    In modern times Central Asia as a musicological unit can be defined as the area extending from Afghanistan north of the Hindu Kush, all of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan in the west, Kirgizia and Chinese Turkestan in the east, and Kazakhstan in the north.

    (Walter Feldman)

  • CENTRAL DIALECTS

    designation of a number of Iranian dialects spoken in the center of Persia, roughly between Hamadān, Isfahan, Yazd, and Tehran, that is, the area of ancient Media Major, which constitute the core of the western Iranian dialects.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

    When the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was established in September 1947, its predecessors had been operating in Persia for a number of years.

    (Mark J. Gasiorowski)

  • CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION

    (CENTO), a mutual defense and economic cooperation pact among Persia, Turkey, and Pakistan, with the participation of the United Kingdom and the United States as associate members.

    (Joseph A. Kechichian)

  • ČERĀḠ

    lamps. Various kinds of lamps were used in Persia before the introduction of electric light. The simplest and cheapest was the čerāḡ-e mūšī “mouse lamp,” so called probably because of its small size and poor light.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • ČERĀḠ-E DEHLĪ

    (b. at Avadh, ca. 675/1276-77; d. at Delhi, 18 Ramażān 757/14 September 1356), the title of Shaikh Naṣīr-al-Dīn Maḥmūd, the last of the five great early saints of the Indian Češtī order (see češtīya).

    (Sharif Husain Qasemi)

  • ČERĀḠ-E HEDĀYAT

    (“lamp of guidance”), a monolingual Persian dictionary by the Indo-Muslim poet and scholar Serāj-al-Din ʿAli Khan Ārzu. Its title was taken from a verse by Neẓāmi (ed. Dabirsiāqi, p. 2), and also alludes to the author’s reputed ancestor, Naṣir-al-Din Čerāḡ-e Dehli.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ČERĀḠ KHAN ZĀHEDĪ

    b. Shaikh Šarīf, a descendant of Shaikh Zāhed Gīlānī, the celebrated moršed (spiritual director) of Shaikh Ṣafī-al-Dīn, the eponymous founder of the Safavid order (Ṣafawīya); hence Čerāḡ Khan was also known as Pīrzāda.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ČERĀḠ-ʿALĪ KHAN SERĀJ-AL-MOLK ZANGANA

    (d. after 1281/1864-65), a leading govern­ment official during the early reign of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • ČERĀḠĀNĪ

    (also čerāḡān, čerāḡbānī, čerāḡbārān), the decoration of buildings and open spaces with lights during festivals and on occasions like weddings, coronations, royal birthdays, circumcision ceremonies, and so on.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • ČERĀḠHĀ RĀ MAN ḴĀMUŠ MIKONAM

    (I turn off the lights, Tehran, 2001), the first and most acclaimed novel by Zoya Pirzad (Zoyā Pirzād, b. Abadan, 1952), and the second to be penned by an Iranian-Armenian writer, after Ālice Ārezumāniān’s Hama az yek (All from one, Tehran, 1963).

    (Elham Gheytanchi)

  • ČERĀM

    or ČORŪM, a small tribal confederacy (īl) inhabiting the dehestān of Čerām, in the Kūhgīlūya region, in southwestern Persia.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • CERAMICS

    Ceramics in Persia from the Neolithic period to the 19th century.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CERAMICS i. The Neolithic Period through the Bronze Age in Northeastern and North-central Persia

    The ceramic tradition of northeastern Persia devel­oped in parallel but distinct sequences in the Gorgān lowlands and the Dāmḡān highlands, including the parts of the Atrak region adjacent to both.

    (Robert H. Dyson)

  • CERAMICS ii. The Neolithic Period in Northwestern Persia

    The initial occupation of Persian Azerbaijan by farming groups took place in the second half of the 7th millennium B.C.E. The best known site of this period is Hajji Firuz (Ḥājī Fīrūz) Tepe, located in the Ošnū-­Soldūz valley and approximately contemporary with Hasanlu X (ca. 6000-5000 B.C.E.).

    (Mary M. Voigt)

  • CERAMICS iii. The Neolithic Period in Central and Western Persia

    Present knowledge is based primarily on evidence from three excavated sites and from surveys carried out southwest of Harsīn, on the Māhī­dašt plain, and in the Holaylān valley.

    (Peder Mortensen)

  • CERAMICS iv. The Chalcolithic Period in the Zagros Highlands

    The Zagros Chalcolithic may be divided into Early, Middle, and Late subperiods. Within each several distinctive regional assemblages are known in varying arche­ological detail.

    (Elizabeth F. Henrickson)

  • CERAMICS v. The Chalcolithic Period in Southern Persia

    The most fully excavated corpus of ceramics from the Chalcolithic of southern Persia comes from Tal-i Iblis and Tepe Yahya. Ex­tensive surface collections by Sir Mark Aurel Stein in Baluchistan and more recently have provided important supplementary material.

    (Thomas W. Beale)

  • CERAMICS vi. Uruk, Proto-Elamite, and Early Bronze Age in Southern Persia

    Lapui common ware consists of a red paste tempered with rather coarse black grit. It is not as well fired as the fine ware, and frequently the sherds reveal an unoxidized gray core.

    (William M. Sumner)

  • CERAMICS vii. The Bronze Age in Northwestern, Western, and Southwestern Persia

    During the 3rd millennium BCE there were two major ceramic traditions in northwestern Persia, shifting ceramic traditions in central western Persia, and polychrome ware in northern Susiana.

    (Robert C. Henrickson)

  • CERAMICS viii. The Early Bronze Age in Southwestern and Southern Persia

    The ceramic repertoire of the 2nd millennium B.C.E. in Ḵūzestān is dominated by plain buff-ware forms, the development of which can be traced through approximately 1,000 years, with four major sub­divisions. The most common and long-lived forms are illustrated in this article.

    (Elizabeth Carter)

  • CERAMICS ix. The Bronze Age in Northeastern Persia

    Archeologists have traditionally linked the ap­pearance of burnished gray wares at Tepe Hissar (Ḥeṣār) and Tureng (Tūrang) Tepe in Gorgān during the second half of the 4th millennium b.c., and their possible diffusion westward in the first half of the 2nd millennium.

    (Serge Cleuziou)

  • CERAMICS x. The Iron Age

    The pottery of Iron Age Persia presents a vast array of problems, not least the huge area and long span of time that must be taken into consideration.

    (Robert C. Henrickson)

  • CERAMICS xi. The Achaemenid Period

    Although information on architecture and sculpture at major Achaemenid sites in Persia is plentiful, knowl­edge of the pottery of this period is almost totally lacking.

    (Rémy Boucharlat and Ernie Haerinck)

  • CERAMICS xii. The Parthian and Sasanian Periods

    the distribution pattern of pottery characterized by a wide range of different techniques and styles was quite complex, probably owing to diverse environments that have traditionally been reflected in major differences in the material culture of Persia.

    (Rémy Boucharlat and Ernie Haerinck)

  • CERAMICS xiii. The Early Islamic Period, 7th-11th Centuries

    Early Islamic pottery has been found in two main regions of Persia: Ḵūzestān and the Persian Gulf and the Persian plateau, including Khorasan. Study of all Islamic pottery of the first four hundred years has been dominated by the finds from Sāmarrā in Meso­potamia.

    (David Whitehouse)

  • CERAMICS xiv. The Islamic Period, 11th-15th centuries

    A large variety of pottery types from different parts of the country has been attributed to this general period, notably incised and slip-carved earthenwares, which have been published under a variety of labels, as proper attributions have so far been impossible.

    (Ernst J. Grube)

  • CERAMICS xv. The Islamic Period, 16th-19th centuries

    Although several European travelers to Persia in the 17th century reported active potteries at some cities, there are no detailed records that would assist in attributing specific pieces surviving from the rule of the Safavid dynasty (1501­-1732) to any one of them.

    (Yolande Crowe)

  • CEREALS

    See under individual cereals.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČERĪK

    (also jerīk, from Mongol tserig “warrior[s]”), originally troops sent by an individual or camp (yort) to serve in the royal army.

    (Willem Floor)

  • ČERKES

    See ČARKAS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CERULLI, Enrico

    (born Naples, 15 February 1898; died 1988), Italian orientalist and diplomat.

    (Filippo Bertotti)

  • CERVIDAE

    See ĀHŪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CEŠT

    a small settlement on the north bank of the Harirud and to the south of the Paropamisus range in northwestern Afghanistan, lying approximately 100 miles upstream from Herat in the easternmost part of the modern Herat welāyat or province.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ČEŠTĪYA

    the name of an influential Sufi order in India, derived from the name of the village of Češt.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • CHAARENE

    (Gk. Chaarēnḗ), in Achaemenid times one of the easternmost Iranian provinces and the one closest to India.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CHAGHATAY LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

    Of all the Turkic languages Chaghatay enjoyed by far the greatest prestige. For instance, the khans of the Golden Horde and of the Crimea, as well as the Kazan Tatars, wrote in Chaghatay much of the time.

    (Gerhard Doerfer)

  • CHAGHATAYID DYNASTY

    name given to the descendants of Čengīz Khan’s second son Čaḡatai, who reigned in Transoxania until ca. 771/1370 and in parts of Turkestan down to the 11th/17th century.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • CHALAVID DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E AFRĀSĪĀB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CHALCOLITHIC ERA

    in Persia; chalcolithic is a term adopted for the Near East early in this century as part of an attempt to refine the framework of cultural developmental “stages” (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron Ages) and used by students of western European prehistory.

    (Elizabeth F. Henrickson)

  • CHALDEANS

    (Kaldu), West Semitic tribes of southern Babylonia attested in Assyrian texts from the early 9th century B.C.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, INDUSTRIES, AND MINES OF PERSIA

    a national federation of local chambers and syndicates created in Esfand 1348 Š./March 1970 through the merger of various local chambers of commerce and the national chamber of industries and mines of Iran.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • CHAMBER of GUILDS

    (Oṭāq-e aṣnāf), a federation of various guilds formed in 1350 Š./1971 under the “guild-organization act” (Qānūn-e neẓām-e ṣenfī) in most urban centers.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • CHAMBERLAIN

    See ḤĀJEB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CHAMPION, JOSEPH

    (1750-ca. 1813), English poet and translator. His three books devoted to Persian litera­ture were all first published in India. The earliest contains English odes in imitation of the poems of Ḥāfeẓ, mostly on the theme of wine and drinking.

    (Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak and Estelle Whelan)

  • CHĀNGĀ ĀSĀ

    an eminent Parsi layman who lived in the 15th-16th centuries A.D. at Navsari in Gujarat.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal)

  • CHARACENE and CHARAX

    (Spasinou) in pre-Islamic times; Characene is the name Pliny gives for the later region of Mesene (called Mēšān or Mēšūn in Middle Persian, Maysān/Mayšān in Syriac, and Maysān in Arabic) in southernmost Mesopotamia, which formed a political district of that name in the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian periods.

    (John F. Hansman)

  • CHARAX

    town in the Seleucid and Parthian province of Rhagiana, the area around modern Ray.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • CHARCOAL

    car­bonized wood and other vegetal material, an important household and industrial fuel in Persia and Afghanistan.

    (Willem Floor)

  • CHARDIN, Sir JOHN

    (born Paris, 16 November 1643, died Chiswick, London? 5 January 1713), an Huguenot jeweler who traveled extensively in Asia and wrote the most detailed foreign account of the Persia of his time.

    (John Emerson)

  • CHARES of MITYLENE

    Greek historiographer, who participated in Alexander’s expedition and wrote “Stories about Alexander” (Perì Aléxandron historí;ai), of which fragments remain.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CHARIOT

    chariots in ancient Iran were light horse-drawn, two-wheeled vehicles designed for speed and maneuverability in battle and races.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • CHARITABLE FOUNDATIONS

    (MPers. ruwānagān lit. “relating to the soul”), pious endow­ments to benefit the souls of the dead, as specified by the individual founders. i. In the Sasanian period. ii. Among Zoroastrians in Islamic times.

    (Maria Macuch; John R. Hinnells, Mary Boyce, and Shahrokh Shahrokh)

  • CHARMS

    originally verbal formulas recited to prevent or ward off potential harm by magical power but now also denoting written and even talismanic magic.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • CHARON OF LAMPSACUS

    Greek historiographer, son of Pytho­cles or Pythes.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CHARPENTIER, JARL

    (Hellen Robert Toussaint; b. 17 December 1884, d. 5 July 1935), Swedish Indologist, Indo-Europeanist, and Iranist, born in Gothenburg as the son of an army officer.

    (Bo Utas)

  • CHASE

    See HUNTING IN IRAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CHASE, THORNTON

    (b. Springfield, Mass., 22 February 1847), regarded by Bahais as the first Amer­ican Bahai and the first Bahai of the West.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • CHAVANNES, EMMANUEL-ÉDOUARD

    (b. Lyons, France, 5 October 1865, d. Fontenay-aux-Roses, 29 January 1918), French sinologist who also contributed to the study of Iranian history and religions.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • CHEESE

    In Persia and Afghanistan both nomadic pastoralists and sedentary peasants make the same basic kinds of domestic cheese. The only clear distinction is between acid and rennet cheeses, both made from mixed milks, except in Gīlān; there acid cheeses are usually prepared from cow’s and buffalo’s milk and rennet cheeses from ewe’s and goat’s milk.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • CHEMISTRY

    See KĪMĪĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CHESS

    a board game.

    (Bo Utas,Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • CHESTER BEATTY LIBRARY

    a collection of manuscripts, printed works, and artifacts, predominantly Oriental, assembled by Alfred Chester Beatty and opened to the public in Dublin in 1954.

    (Wilfrid Lockwood, J. T. P. de Bruijn, Michel Tardieu)

  • CH’IEN HAN SHU

    (Qian Han shu) “History of the Former Han Dynasty,” a historical work which includes information on Iran.

    (Edwin G. Pulleyblank)

  • CHILAS

    township in the upper Indus valley in Pakistani-controlled Jammu and Kashmir, almost directly south of Gilgit and located on the new Karakorum high­way between Pakistan and China.

    (Karl Jettmar)

  • CHILDREN

    This series of articles covers children and child-rearing in Iran and Iranian lands.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CHILDREN i. Childbirth in Zoroastrianism

    The Zoroastrian community has traditionally regarded marriage as having a threefold function: to propagate the human race, to spread the Zoroastrian faith, and to contribute to the victory of the good cause. The birth of a child furthers each of these objec­tives.

    (Jenny Rose)

  • CHILDREN ii. In Modern Persian Folklore

    Childbirth ( zāymān , formal ważʿ-e ḥaml ) in traditional Persian society, as in many other cultures, has generally been associated with magical practices and superstitions.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • CHILDREN iii. Legal Rights of Children in the Sasanian Period

    Although the corpus of Sasanian civil law was designed primarily to regulate matters among the lower classes, that is, the common people and slaves, the portions on adop­tion, inheritance, guardianship, and the like were equally applicable to the upper classes.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • CHILDREN iv. Legal Rights of Children in Modern Persia

    A person is consid­ered a minor ( ṣaḡīr ) until he or she has attained the physical and psychological growth necessary for full participation in society. When a child has reached the age of maturity ( bolūḡ ) determined by the law he ir she is consid­ered mature ( bāleḡ ).

    (Shirin Ebadi)

  • CHILDREN v. Child Rearing in Modern Persia

    The topic of child rearing (from birth to social adulthood in the mid-teens) is largely neglected in systematic research; there are no comparative studies of child-rearing practices among different ethnic and cultural groups in the country and only a few specialized studies.

    (Erika Friedl)

  • CHILDREN vi. Child Rearing Among Zoroastrians in Modern Persia

    In the first half of the 13th/20th century most children were born at home with the assistance of the midwife. Immediately after birth the infant was bathed to cleanse it of polluting substances and wrapped in pieces of cloth called landog .

    (Janet Kestenberg Amighi)

  • CHILDREN vii. Children's Literature

    Up to the Constitutional movement the standard curriculum of traditional Persian elementary schools (maktabs), which were pri­vately operated, included the alphabet, the Koran, selec­tions from popular Persian poetry and prose, and the traditional sciences.

    (EIr)

  • CHILIARCH

    Greek title of one of the chief offices of state in Achaemenid Persia, presumably translated from Old Persian hazārapati-, attested in Greek as azarapateîs, explained as eisaggeleîs, that is, announcers or ushers.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    This series of articles deals with Chinese-Iranian relations spanning from Pre-Islamic times to the Constitutional Revolution in Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS i. In Pre-Islamic Times

    Contact between China and Iran was initiated toward the end of the 2nd century B.C.E. by the envoy Chang Ch’ien (Zhang Qian), who searched for the Yüeh-chih (Yue-zhi), a people that had migrated from the borders of China after having been defeated by the Hsiung-nu (Xiongnu).

    (Edwin G. Pulleyblank)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS ii. Islamic Period to the Mongols

    Ṣīn in Arabic sources referred not only to China but also to eastern Turkestan and the Far East as a whole, whereas Chinese texts rarely distinguished among Persian, Central Asian, and Arab Muslims.

    (John Michael Rogers)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS iii. In the Mongol Period

    The incorporation of Persia into a vast empire that extended as far as China, following the conquests of Čengīz (Chinggis) Khan (602-24/1206-27) and his grandson Hülegü (Hūlāgū; 654-63/1256-65), inaugurated an era of intense contact between Persia and China.

    (Liu Yingsheng and Peter Jackson)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS iv. The Safavid Period, 1501-1732

    In the Safavid period relations with China were, unsurprisingly, indirect. In eastern Khorasan the Uzbeks and their successors blocked the land route to northwest­ern China through Transoxania.

    (John Michael Rogers)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS v. Diplomatic and Commercial Relations, 1949-90

    There were three distinct periods in Chinese-Persian diplomatic relations: 1328-49 Š./1949-70, 1350-57 Š./ 1971-78, and 1358-69 Š./1979-90.

    (Parviz Mohajer)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS vi. Relations with Afghanistan in the Modern Period

    Throughout history China and Afghanistan shared a certain amount of trade, mostly tea and fruit, via the direct caravan route from Chinese Turkestan across the high passes of the Pamirs and the Wāḵān corridor to northern Afghanistan.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS vii. Persian Settlements in Southeastern China during the T’ang, Sung, and Yuan Dynasties

    Chinese authorities granted the foreign merchant communities in the major port cities a certain amount of autonomy.

    (Chen Da-Sheng)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS viii. Persian Language and Literature in China

    The earliest Persian inscription in China is the tombstone of the Zoroastrian Ma (Pahl. *Māhnūš), wife of General Su-liang (Pahl. Farroxzād; Humbach), inscribed in both Pahlavi and Chinese and dated 874, has been discovered at Xi-an, the capital of Shan-xi province.

    (EIr)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS ix. Persian Language Teaching in Modern China

    Persian has been taught in Muslim schools in China since the 1920s.

    (EIr)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS x. China in Medieval Persian Literature

    In medieval writings Čīn may mean either China proper or eastern Turkestan; when it refers to the latter China proper is sometimes called Māčīn (contraction of Skt. Mahāčīna “great China”).

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xi. Mutual Influence of Chinese and Persian Ceramics

    Chinese ceramics were the single most important stimulus to the development of fine pottery in the Islamic world, arriving first in the 3rd/9th century.

    (Oliver Watson)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xii. Mutual Influences in Painting

    In the Chinese cultural sphere Persian artistic influence was at its peak under the Tang dynasty (618-906 c.e.), contemporary with the end of the Sasanian period (30/651) and the first centuries after the Islamic conquest.

    (Toh Sugimura)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xiii. Eastern Iranian Migrations to China

    There are two different stages in the history of Eastern Iranian migrations to China: the first, still extremely obscure, is dominated by Bactrian immigrants, coming from Bactriana and the Kushan empire, and the second, from the fourth to the ninth century CE is dominated by Sogdians.

    (Étienne de la Vaissière)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xiv. The Influence of Eastern Iranian Art

    Aspects of the artistic taste in personal adornment of the nomadic tribal confederations of northeast Asia, can be seen in the late 1st-millennium Chinese decorative metalwork.

    (M. L. Carter)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xv. THE LAST SASANIANS IN CHINA

    Information on those Sasanians who avoided the submission to the Arabs and lived in Central Asia or at the Tang court can be found in the works of Muslim authors and in Chinese sources.

    (Matteo Compareti)

  • CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS xvi. Impact of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran

    The Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11 attracted the attention of the Chinese constitutionalists and revolutionaries immediately upon breaking out.

    (Yidan Wang)

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN

    (Sinkiang, Xinjiang), IRANIAN ELEMENTS IN.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN i. Geographical Overview

    The eastern portion of the Central Asian land mass (see central asia i. geography), between 70° and 100° E and 25° and 45° N, encompasses Chinese Turkestan, now Sinkiang (Xin-jiang) Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China.

    (EIr)

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN ii. In Pre-Islamic Times

    In antiquity the Tarim and Dzungar (Zungar, Jungar) basins lay at the crossroads of three main Eurasian routes including the Southern Silk Road, the Northern Silk Road, and a northern route passing between the Bogdo-ola (Bo-ko-tuo) range and the Tien Shans.

    (Victor Mair and Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN iii. From the Advent of Islam to the Mongols

    Chinese influence in the Tarim basin began to wane after the battle of Talas (Ṭarāz) in 134/751, though Islam did not gain a permanent foothold there until much later.

    (Isenbike Togan)

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN iv. In the Mongol Period

    On the eve of the Mongol conquests the eastern oases were inhabited by the Uighur Turks. T he eastern oases south of the Takla Makan were controlled by the Tangut. The western portion of the Tarim basin was inhabited by a mixture of Turkic and Iranian peoples, many of whom were Muslims.

    (Morris Rossabi)

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN v. Under the Khojas

    Although an indigenous Muslim and non-Muslim Turkic literature is attested in eastern Turkestan from an early period, the earliest surviving works embodying the historical traditions of the Chaghatayids in the 16th century are in Persian.

    (Isenbike Togan)

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN vi. Iranian Groups in Sinkiang since the 1750s

    Between the late 17th and 19th centuries many Iranian-speaking peoples from Šeḡnān (Shughnan) and Wāḵān (Wakhan) migrated to the region of the eastern Pamirs around Lake Zorkul, and mingled with the nomadic groups of Iranian descent already established there.

    (Kim Ho-Dong)

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN vii. Manicheism in Chinese Turkestan and China

    Manicheism was probably introduced into Inner Asia by Sogdian (Hu) merchants, though the process of its diffusion there is entirely obscure.

    (Samuel Lieu)

  • CHINESE TURKESTAN viii. Turkish-Iranian Language Contacts

    Contacts between the Iranian peoples and the Turks occurred at least as early as 552 C.E., when the Turks spread from their northern settlements and established an empire extending from the Greater Khingan mountains to the Aral Sea and Sogdians farther west.

    (Gerhard Doerfer)

  • CHINGGIS KHAN

    See ČENGĪZ KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CHINKARA

    or Chikara (Gazella bennetti, Indian gazelle), a small antelope of slender build; its tawny coat has poorly marked facial and body stripes.

    (Khushal Habibi)

  • CHIONITES

    a tribe of probable Iranian origin that was prominent in Bactria and Transoxania in late antiquity.

    (Wolfgang Felix)

  • CHITON

    See CLOTHING i. Median and Achaemenid periods, iii. Sasanian period.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CHITRAL

    The Chitral river drains the eastern Hindu Kush in the north and a spur of the Hindu Raj on the south and east. With its deeply incised bed and braided stream channels it constitutes the upper tract of the Kunar (Konar), which debouches into the Kabul river, a tributary of the Indus.

    (Nigel J. R. Allan, Georg Buddruss)

  • CHLORITE

    Chlorite ranges in color from light gray to deep green and darkens when exposed to fire; it was highly valued during certain prehistoric periods. Elaborate stone ves­sels carved with repeating designs, both geometric and naturalistic, in an easily recognizable “intercultural style,” were made primarily of chlorite.

    (Philip Kohl)

  • CHOAMANI

    name of an eastern Iranian tribe (perhaps located in western Bactria), mentioned only by Pomponius Mela in an enumeration of the inhabitants of the interior lands.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CHOANA

    the name of two Iranian towns mentioned by Ptolemy.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CHOARA

    or CHOARENE; a town or village in Parthia mentioned by Ptolemy (6.5.3) and called “the most attractive place of Parthia” by Pliny.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CHOASPES

    (or Coaspēs), ancient name of three rivers.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CHOBANIDS

    Although at first the Chobanids maintained the fiction that they were vassals of the ruling house of Hülegü (Hūlāgū), after the collapse of Il-khanid authority they became effectively independent rulers of the areas that they were able to seize.

    (Charles Melville and ʿAbbās Zaryāb)

  • CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO

    (b. 30 August 1804, in Krzywicze, Poland in the Russian Empire [the city is now in Belarus] , d. Noisy-le-Sec, near Paris, 19 December 1891), Polish poet and diplomat, the first European scholar to work on Persian folklore.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • CHOLERA

    It is possible to extrapolate some general conclusions about the routes by which cholera reached Persia. It arrived three times via Afghanistan, three times overland from the west, only twice through the Persian Gulf (the second time without spreading to the plateau), and perhaps once across the Caspian.

    (Xavier De Planhol, Daniel Balland)

  • CHORASMIA

    region on the lower reaches of the Oxus (Amu Darya) in western Central Asia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CHORASMIA i. Archeology and pre-Islamic history

    At the turn of the 3rd millennium b.c.e. the Neolithic Kel’teminar culture flourished in the Chorasmian oasis (Vinogradov, 1968; idem, 1981). Remains of the Bronze Age Suyargan.

    (Yuri Aleksandrovich Rapoport)

  • CHORASMIA ii. In Islamic times

    The Islamic history of Ḵᵛārazm begins with the two invasions of Arab troops under the governor of Khorasan Qotayba b. Moslem Bāhelī in 93/712, who intervened in the region on the pretext of internecine strife among members of the native Afrighid dynasty of ḵᵛārazmšāhs

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • CHORASMIA iii. The Chorasmian Language

    Old Chorasmian was written in an indigenous script descended from the Aramaic, brought to the region by the administration of the Achaemenid empire and characterized by heter­ography, that is, the occasional writing of Aramaic words to represent the corresponding Chorasmian.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • CHORASMIAN COINAGE

    In the mid-19th century, coins that had been found in Russia and showed certain similarities to Indo-Parthian and Kushan coinages were for the first time identified as Chorasmian. In 1938, Sergei P. Tolstov (1907-76), who had conducted preliminary archeological fieldwork in the lower basin of the Oxus river, accepted this interpretation.

    (B. I. Vainberg)

  • CHORIENES

    Sogdian nobleman and opponent of Alexander.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • CHRISTENSEN, ARTHUR EMANUEL

    (b. Copenhagen 9 January 1875, d. Copenhagen 31 March 1945), Danish orientalist and scholar of Iranian philology and folklore.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • CHRISTIANITY

    This entry treats Christianity in pre-Islamic Persia as seen through literary sources and material remains, in Central Asia, in Christian literature in Middle Iranian languages, in Manicheism, and in Persian literature. It also covers Christian influences in Persian poetry and Christian missions in Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CHRISTIANITY i. In Pre-Islamic Persia: Literary Sources

    In Middle Persian there are three terms used for Christians: KLSTYDʾN and NʾCLʾY in the inscription on the Kaʿba-ye Zardošt of the 3rd-century Zoroastrian high priest Kartir; and tarsāq, Sogdian loan-word trsʾq, New Persian tarsā.

    (James R. Russell)

  • CHRISTIANITY ii. In Pre-Islamic Persia: Material Remains

    Although Christians may have been among the deportees from Roman Syria who worked on the monuments of Šāpūr I (240-70 c.e.) at Bīšāpūr (q.v.) and the dam at Šūštar, nothing identifiably Christian has been excavated in Persia itself.

    (Judith Lerner)

  • CHRISTIANITY iii. In Central Asia And Chinese Turkestan

    By the late 3rd century the Syrian church was strongly established in the western Persian empire. The Nestorian church of Persia (“Church of the East”) conducted the most significant and endur­ing missionary work in Transoxania and beyond.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • CHRISTIANITY iv. Christian Literature in Middle Iranian Languages

    In Persia itself Syriac eventually regained its status as the sole literary and liturgical language of the church, with the result that none of this Christian Persian literature survived, apart from a few texts preserved in Syriac translation, such as two legal works by the metropolitans Išoʿbōḵt and Simon.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • CHRISTIANITY v. Christ in Manicheism

    In Manicheism, as in earlier gnostic systems, the terms Christ (Gk. “the anointed”) and Jesus Christ were used in various ways, though less commonly than the name Jesus alone.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • CHRISTIANITY vi. In Persian Literature

    Christian beliefs and institutions are frequently mentioned in various genres (lyric, epic, didactic, mystic), and many works contain allusions to legends of Christian saints, martyrs, and ascetics.

    (Qamar Āryān)

  • CHRISTIANITY vii. Christian Influences in Persian Poetry

    Persian poetry contains a good number of allusions to Jesus Christ (ʿĪsā Masīḥ), Mary (Maryam), and Christians (naṣārā, tarsā) in general. Most of the images and ideas expressed in poetry are elaborations of the Koranic data about Jesus and his virgin mother, though sometimes developed very ingeniously.

    (Annemarie Schimmel)

  • CHRISTIANITY viii. Christian Missions in Persia

    Christianity was introduced in Persia in the Parthian period, and several bishoprics were established there. The Persian church was itself active in proselytizing abroad at the end of the Sasanian period (224-651) and immediately after.

    (Yahya Armajani)

  • CHRISTIE, CHARLES

    Captain (d. 1812), of the Bombay Regiment, an Anglo-Indian officer under the command of Sir John Malcolm.

    (Kamran Ekbal)

  • CHROMITE

    FeCr2O4, a dark-brown or black mineral from which chromium is refined.

    (Raḥmat-Allāh Ostovār)

  • CHRONICLE OF ARBELA

    a Syriac church history of Adiabene, written in the 6th century by Mĕšīḥā-Zĕḵā. A remarkable account from the Parthian period is that of the Feast of the Magi in the month of Iyyār. Equally noteworthy is the account of the fall of the Arsacids and the beginning of the reign of the Sasanians in 224.

    (Peter Kawerau)

  • CHRONICLE OF EDESSA

    a short local history of Edessa (modern Urfa), written in Syriac by an anonymous author and covering chiefly the period from 201-540 C.E. Events such as incursions by the Huns (403-04, 531) and relations be­tween the Byzantine and Sasanian empires are noted briefly.

    (Sebastian P. Brock)

  • CHRONOGRAMS

    dates incorporated into Persian texts in disguised form, espe­cially those in which the letters of the alphabet have numerical value.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • CHRONOLOGY

    See CALENDARS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CH’ÜAN-CHOU

    (Quan-zhou, formerly Jin-jiang; in Islamic sources Zaytūn), Chinese city in southeastern Fu-jian (Fukien) province on the lower reaches of the Jin-jiang river. See CHINA VIII. PERSIAN SETTLEMENTS IN SOUTHEASTERN CHINA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CHUBAK, Sadeq

    (1916-1998), one of most acclaimed Persian short story writers and novelists of the 20th century.

    (Mohammad R, Ghanoonparvar)

  • CHUPANIDS

    See CHOBANIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN PERSIA

    IN PERSIA. See ENGLAND, CHURCH OF, IN PERSIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CHURNS AND CHURNING

    There are three distinct ways in which milk is normally processed. In the first it is heated, pressed, and squeezed dry to make cheese (panīr). Cheese making is uncommon in the Persian world. The other two methods begin with conversion of the milk into yogurt.

    (Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger)

  • CIA

    See CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (CIA) IN PERSIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČIÇANTAXMA

    an Iranian personal name signifying “brave in lineage.”

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CICAST

    See ČĒČAST.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CICERO

    as a source for Parthian history; letters written by Roman statesman and political philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 b.c.e.) preserve a virtually unique con­temporary extra-Iranian source on Parthian military and diplomatic activities and the Roman response to them, particularly during the military-campaign season of 51­-50 b.c.e.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • ČĪDAG ANDARZ Ī PŌRYŌTKĒŠĀN

    (Selected precepts of the ancient sages), a post-Sasanian compendium of apothegms intended to instruct every Zoroastrian male, upon his attaining the age of fifteen years, in fundamental religious and ethical principles, as well as in the daily duties incumbent upon him.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • CIGARETTES

    See DOḴĀNĪYĀT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČIHRDĀD NASK

    one of the lost nasks of the Avesta.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • CILICIA

    the southeastern portion of the present Turkish coast, a satrapy of the Achaemenid empire (6th-4th centuries BCE, subsequently incorporated into the Macedonian and Roman empires.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • ČĪM Ī DRŌN

    See DRŌN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČĪM Ī KUSTĪG

    See KUSTĪG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CIMMERIANS

    a nomadic people, most likely of Iranian origin, who flourished in the 8th-7th centuries B.C.

    (Sergei R. Tokhtas’ev)

  • ČĪN TĪMŪR

    the first governor of Khorasan and Māzandarān on behalf of the Mongols.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • CINEMA

    This series of articles treats the history of cinema in Persia, Persian feature film, Persian documentary films, film censorship in Persia, and filmography in Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CINEMA i. History of Cinema in Persia

    Regularly scheduled film screenings were introduced in Tehran by Ārdāšes Batmāngarīān, known as Ardašīr Khan, who had worked at Pathé in Paris at the turn of the century.

    (Farrokh Gaffary)

  • CINEMA ii. Feature Films

    Feature-film production in Persia spans six decades and can be divided into four distinct periods, each reflecting contemporary social, cultural, and political realities.

    (Jamsheed Akrami)

  • CINEMA iii. Documentary Films

    Be­fore World War I most Persian documentaries were sponsored and viewed only by the Qajar ruling family and the upper classes. They were apparently technically primitive and in a simple narrative format, consisting of footage of news events, topics of current interest, and spectacles, usually filmed in long shot.

    (Hamid Naficy)

  • CINEMA iv. Film Censorship

    Persian cinema has been subject from its beginnings to official censorship responding to the concerns of the government, religious establishments, professional groups, and even film distributors.

    (Jamsheed Akrami)

  • CINEMA v. Filmography

    A list of films discussed in i-iv above, listed here by year of release and alphabetically within each year. When the information is available producers are listed after the translated titles.

    (EIr)

  • ČĪNĪ

    (lit. “Chinese”; borrowed in Arabic as ṣīnī), generic term for Chinese ceramic wares, including porcelain, a translucent, white-bodied ware fired at very high temperatures.

    (John Carswell)

  • CINNAMON

    See DĀRČĪNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CINNAMUS

    putative rival of Artabanus II (12-38) as king of the Arsacids.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • CINTĀMAṆI

    the “wish-fulfilling jewel,” a motif consisting of either a single globe with a pointed extension at the apex or three such globes; either version could be surrounded by a flaming halo.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ČINWAD PUHL

    traditionally thought to mean “the bridge of the separator” but recently shown to be “the bridge of the accumulator/collector,” the name of a bridge that, according to a Mazdayasnian/Zoroastrian eschatological myth, leads from this world to the next and must be crossed by the souls of the departed.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • CIRCASSIANS

    See ČARKAS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CIRCESIUM

    a Roman border fortress in Mesopotamia, on the spit of land formed where the Ḵābūr, the present-day al-Boṣayra, flows into the Euphrates (see maps in Kettenhofen).

    (Joseph Wieseh)

  • CIRCUMCISION

    Pers. ḵatna, sonnat (formally also taṭhīr or ḵetān), ḵatnakonān, and sonnatkonān; the last two terms also refer to the festivities associated with the circumcision ritual.

    (Ebrāhīm Šakūrzāda and Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • ČIŠPIŠ

    (ca. 675-640 BCE), the son of Achaemenes, legendary founder of the Achaemenid dynasty and father of Darius’s great-grandfather Ariaramnes.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CISSIANS

    a name for the Susians, the Elamite inhabitants of Susiana.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ČISTĀ

    and Čisti; Avestan derivatives of the verb cit “to notice, to understand.”

    (Jean Kellens)

  • ČĪSTĀN

    See RIDDLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CISTERN

    See ĀB-ANBAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČĪT

    cotton cloth decorated with block-printed or painted designs in multiple colors.

    (Jennifer M. Scarce)

  • CITIES

    i. Geographical introduction. ii. City planning, construction, and architecture. See Supplement. iii. Administration and social organization. iv. Modern urbanization and modernization in Persia. v. Modern urbanization and modernization in Afghanistan. vi. Urban Informal Settlements in Modern Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CITIES i. Geographical Introduction

    There is a long history of settlement on Persian territory, where urban life was firmly established in antiquity, and cities continued to proliferate, though, owing to fluctuations in the population, they were highly unstable.

    (Xavier De Planhol)

  • CITIES iii. CITY PLANNING, CONSTRUCTION, AND ARCHITECTURE

    See SUPPLEMENT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CITIES iii. Administration and Social Organization

    This article on the administration and social organization of Persian cities in the Islamic period discusses the following terms and offices: aḥdāṯ, amīr, amīr al-sūq, beglarbegī, ʿasas, čerāḡčī, dārūḡa, dārūḡa-šāgerd, dārūḡačī, dīvānbegī, farrāš, gazma, goḏaṛčī, ḥākem, kadḵodā, kalāntar, mehmāndār-bāšī, mīr-šab, mīrāb, moḥaṣṣes, moḥtaseb, moqtaʿ, naqīb, naqīb al-ašrāf, raʾīs, ṣāḥeb al-šorṭa, šeḥna, wālī.

    (Ann K. S. Lambton)

  • CITIES iv. Modern Urbanization and Modernization in Persia

    Over a period of decades the rapidly growing popula­tion of Persia has simultaneously become increasingly urbanized. More and more people live in increasingly larger cities, and the largest cities tend to grow at a rate above the average.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • CITIES v. Modern Urbanization and Modernization in Afghanistan

    Since 1359 Š./1980 the flight of millions of Afghans, not only out of the country but also to relatively secure cities like Kabul and Mazār-e Šarīf, has been reflected in a sharp increase in the level of urbanization.

    (Erwin Grötzbach)

  • CITIES vi. Urban Informal Settlements in Modern Iran

    This article discusses the development of informal settlements in Iran and the evolution of government policies and programs dealing with them.

    (Pooya Alaedini)

  • CITIZENSHIP

    the legal, political, and social status of every person who belongs to a state.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CITIZENSHIP i. IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • CITIZENSHIP ii. IN THE SASANIAN PERIOD

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • CITIZENSHIP iii. IN MODERN TIMES

    (Naser Yeganeh)

  • ČIΘRA

    See ČEHR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČIΘRAFARNAH

    Iranian personal name meaning “with shining splendor.”

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CITRON

    See BĀLANG; CITRUS FRUITS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CITRUS FRUITS

    in Persia, only the citrus trees and fruits of the genus Citrus L. (family Rutaceae, subfamily Aurantioideae) need be considered.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CITY COUNCILS

    (anjoman-e šahr) in Persia.

    (Ḥosayn Farhūdī)

  • CIVIL CODE

    (qānūn-e madanī) of Persia, a series of regulations controlling all civic and social relations between individuals in the various circumstances of their lives.

    (Naser Yeganeh)

  • CLASS SYSTEM

    (ṭabaqāt-e ejtemāʿī), a generic term referring to various types of social group, including castes, estates, status groups, and occupational categories.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CLASS SYSTEM i. In the Avesta

    The evidence for the existence of a highly developed class structure in the community in which the Avestan texts were composed is very slight, and the available information must be culled from sources chronologically as far apart as the Avesta itself and the Pahlavi texts.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • CLASS SYSTEM ii. In the Median and Achaemenid Periods

    There are strong grounds for supposing that, for some purposes at least, Persians still defined their class structure in terms of the ancient Iranian social divisions outlined in parts of the Avesta, where individuals are classified by basic function as priests, warriors, and farmers.

    (Pierre Briant)

  • CLASS SYSTEM iii. In the Parthian and Sasanian Periods

    The scant and fragmentary information available on the Parthian period does not permit a comprehensive descrip­tion of social structure; in fact, the vast but decentralized empire encompassed a variety of social structures.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • CLASS SYSTEM iv. Classes In Medieval Islamic Persia

    A new social stratification and conception of inequality seems to have gradually emerged under the influence of: (1) Islamic ideals of equality and merit; (2) pre-Islamic Persian and Arabian ideals and practices of social inequality; and above all (3) rivalries among social groups over wealth, prestige, and power.

    (Ahmad Ashraf and Ali Banuazizi)

  • CLASS SYSTEM v. Classes in the Qajar Period

    During the Qajar period there continued to be a fundamental division between a narrow stratum of courtiers, state officials, tribal leaders, religious notables, landlords and great merchants at the top and the vast majority of peasants, tribespeople, and laborers in agriculture, traditional industries, and services at the bottom.

    (Ahmad Ashraf and Ali Banuazizi)

  • CLASS SYSTEM vi. Classes in the Pahlavi Period

    The major social classes leading to the revolution in 1979, consisted of professionals, bureaucrats, the bourgeoisie, the traditional middle and lower-middle classes, the heterogeneous working classes, and the agrarian classes.

    (Ahmad Ashraf and Ali Banuazizi)

  • CLAVIJO, RUY GONZÁLEZ DE

    (d. 2 April 1412), ambassador from King Henry III of Castile and Leon to Tīmūr in the years 805-08/1403-06 and author of an important travel account.

    (Beatrice Forbes Manz and Margaret L. Dunaway)

  • CLEANSING

    This article treats cleansing practices in Zoroastrianism and in Islamic Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CLEANSING i. In Zoroastrianism

    Cleansing is conceived as a cosmic and individual activity is an essential element in Zoroastrianism, which teaches that the assault of the Evil Spirit, Angra Mainyu, brings defilement on all the good creations of Ahura Mazdā and that they, in their struggle for salvation, must ceaselessly strive to rid themselves of it.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • CLEANSING ii. In Islamic Persia

    The identification of unclean objects (najāsāt) and of the factors or agents that, within certain limits, may cleanse them (moṭahherāt) depends more on the interpretation of prophetic tradition and on juristic deduc­tion than it does on clear Koranic injunctions.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • CLEARCHUS

    (b. ca. 390 or 410 BCE, the latter date based on Memnon’s report of his age as fifty-eight years at his death in 352), tyrant of Pontic Heracleia (modern Ereğli) in 363-52 BCE.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CLEARCHUS OF SPARTA

    (b. Sparta ca. 450 BCE, d. Babylon 401 BCE), son of Rhamphias, Greek general in the service of Cyrus the Younger.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CLEITARCHUS

    (Gk. Kleí;tarchos), Greek histo­rian of the 4th century BCE, son of the historian Dinon of Colophon and author of a history of the exploits of Alexander the Great.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CLEMEN, CARL CHRISTIAN

    (1865-1940), Ger­man Protestant theologian and historian of religions who compiled the classical passages on Iranian reli­gion.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CLEMENT of Alexandria

    (Titus Flavius Clemens, probably b. Athens ca. 150 C.E., d. Cappadocia ca. 215), Greek convert to Christianity who became the leading theologian of his time, a polemicist particularly noted for his attempts to reconcile Greco-Roman thought with Christian teachings.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • CLEMENT, PSEUDO-

    the unknown author of a work of fiction falsely ascribed to Pope Clement I (88-­97 CE) and now generally known as the Pseudo­-Clementines, which contains passages reflecting myths and teachings of Persian origin.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • CLIBANARIUS

    in Roman sources a designation for a Parthian armored cavalryman. See ASB; ASB-SAVĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CLIMATE

    The Persian national weather service first began publishing its observations only in the year 1956, when a network of synoptic observation stations was first constructed in confor­mity with international standards; detailed data for many parts of the country are thus available for only about twenty-five or thirty years.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • CLIME

    (kešvar), ancient division of the earth’s surface.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • CLOCKS

    devices for measuring and registering time.

    (Willem Floor)

  • CLOQUET, LOUIS-ANDRÉ-ERNEST

    (1818-1855), French anatomist and French minister to the court at Tehran 1846-55, serving as personal physician to Moḥammad Shah (r. 1834-48) and Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah Qājār (r. 1848-96).

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • CLOTHING

    (Ar. and Pers. lebās, Pers. pūšāk, jāma, raḵt). The articles in this series are devoted to clothing of the Iranian peoples in successive historical periods and of various regions and ethnic groups in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CLOTHING i. General remarks

    Of the twenty-seven subsequent articles in this series eleven are devoted to clothing of the Iranian peoples in successive historical periods and fourteen to modern clothing of various regions and ethnic groups in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Persia. The remaining two are compilations of terminology for various types of garment in these settings.

    (EIr)

  • CLOTHING ii. In the Median and Achaemenid periods

    Several overgarments were associ­ated with court dress. The vest was worn by Darius the Great, the Persepolitan monster-slaying hero, and the Persian and Elamite throne bearers represented on the tombs. IBeing sleeveless, it left the wearer free to move quickly.

    (Shapur Shahbazi)

  • CLOTHING iii. In the Arsacid period

    The Parthian period, when the Arsacid dynasty ruled, or claimed to rule, Persia, was the period in which trousers and sleeved coats became common garb throughout the Near East. These garments, the direct ancestors of modern dress, crossed political and ethnic boundaries and were worn from northern India to Syria, continuing Achaemenid styles.

    (Trudi Kawami)

  • CLOTHING iv. In the Sasanian period

    Variation of the veiled tunic is seen on a series of silver-gilt vases and ewers depicting female dancers and generally dated to the 5th and 6th centuries. In these images the veil, instead of being worn over the shoulder, is draped below the hips, with its ends wrapped around the arms.

    (Elsie H. Peck)

  • CLOTHING v. In Pre-Islamic Eastern Iran

    Modern knowledge of the dress of the eastern Iranian peoples is derived from literary and archeological sources, which can be compared, though with caution. Although there were regional differences, as well as a broad change over time, on the whole the costume remained fairly uniform.

    (Gerd Gropp)

  • CLOTHING vi. Of the Sogdians

    The most common type of male outer garment was a caftan with long, tapered sleeves; a round neck; and slits on the sides of the skirt. The neckline, lapels, cuffs, hem, and side slits were trimmed with fabric of another pattern. The caftan was worn belted.

    (Aleksandr Naymark)

  • CLOTHING vii. Of the Iranian Tribes on the Pontic Steppes and in the Caucaus

    Both sexes wore caftans open in front, trou­sers, and a tunic with a round neck opening and long side slits, convenient for riding horses.

    (S. A. Yatsenko)

  • CLOTHING viii. In Persia from the Arab conquest to the Mongol invasion

    There is evidence that styles of the late Sasanian period in Persia continued to be worn for some time after the Islamic conquest. The costume worn by “Bahrām Gōr” in a relief from the same site probably reflects that of a man of high rank.

    (Elsie H. Peck)

  • CLOTHING ix. In the Mongol and Timurid periods

    The few Mongol and Timurid garments that survive almost all come from tombs; they reveal more about material and weaves, designs and colors, than about cut.

    (Eleanor Sims)

  • CLOTHING x. In the Safavid and Qajar periods

    Pictorial sources for both the Safavid and Qajar periods provide a comprehensive survey of costume types and are thus an important tool, as long as it is remembered that Persian painting is often idealized and standardized.

    (Layla S. Diba)

  • CLOTHING xi. In the Pahlavi and post-Pahlavi periods

    Office workers and other urban residents who favored modernity gradually adopted the sardārī (frock coat), trousers, and even on occasion Western suits. In 1928 the cabinet resolved that all male Persians dress uniformly in Western style.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • CLOTHING xiii. Clothing in Afghanistan

    The most diagnostic item of clothing is headgear; and even the ubiquitous turban (Pers. langōtā, dastār, Pashto paṭkay, pagṛi), which can vary in length from 3 to 6 m, takes on distinguishing characteristics, depending on the arrangement of folds.

    (Nancy Hatch Dupree)

  • CLOTHING xiv. Clothing of the Hazāra tribes

    In the 1950s Hazāra women made all the family clothing, and they also wove barrak on a horizontal loom of a type common in Afghanistan. Cotton is cultivated in the warmer southern part of Hazārajāt, for example, in Šahrestān (formerly Sepāy) in Dāy Zangī and farther south in Orūzgān and Jāḡūrī; profes­sional male weavers make the traditional cotton cloth called karbās on a loom of a type found extensively in southern and western Asia.

    (Klaus Ferdinand)

  • CLOTHING xv. Clothing of Tajikistan

    The most common traditional garment is a straight dress, widening at the bottom, worn over trousers. The long, full sleeves generally cover the hands, though in some mountain regions sleeves are closely fitted to the wrists. Another type of dress is cut straight, with a yoke and inset sleeves.

    (Guzel’ Maĭtdinova)

  • CLOTHING xvi. Kurdish clothing in Persia

    In western Azerbaijan Mahābād is the main urban center for the Kurds. Women there wear balloon-shaped trousers (darpe), 4-6 m wide, fitted at the ankles, and a long pleated dress (kerās), 4-5 m wide, with a round neck­line and long sleeves.

    (Shirin Mohseni and Peter Andrews)

  • CLOTHING xvii. Clothing of the Kurdish Jews

    Everyday men’s clothes were made from handwoven sheep’s wool. Suits for weddings and other festive occasions were of handwoven mohair. These suits were embellished with embroi­dery. According to infor­mants, expensive fabrics for women’s and children’s clothes were also handmade of wild silk, from worms that feed on oak trees in the region.

    (Ora Shwartz-Beeri)

  • CLOTHING xviii. Clothing of the Baluch in Persia

    The basic garments are variations of the traditional and tribal costume characteristic of Persia as a whole: a long, loose robe with a round neckline, a slit down the center of the bodice, and long, wide sleeves tapering toward the wrists, worn over a chemise and wide trousers narrowing at the ankles and with a drawstring at the waist.

    (Iran Ala Firouz and Mehremonīr Jahānbānī)

  • CLOTHING xix. Clothing of the Baluch in Pakistan and Afghanistan

    There is some variation in apparel among tribes, especially in specific embroidery designs and in the terminology applied to garments and embroidery patterns. The northern tribes wear heavier clothing as protection in the colder climate.

    (Pamela Hunte)

  • CLOTHING xx. Clothing of Khorasan

    The male costume includes either a tasseled black cap, around which a shawl is wrapped; a hood woven of black lamb’s wool, which covers the head from above the eyebrows to the neck; a traveling hood, which covers the face, with an opening for the eyes; or a hat made of lambskin.

    (Ḥosayn-ʿAlī Beyhaqī)

  • CLOTHING xxi. Turkic and Kurdish clothing of Azerbaijan

    Traditional costume, now worn largely in a tribal context, retains the form of garments as they were at the end of the 19th century; it is only among Kurdish, rather than Turkic, men that elements have survived the reforms of Reżā Shah in everyday wear.

    (P. A. Andrews And M. Andrews)

  • CLOTHING xxii. Clothing of the Caspian area

    In several aspects the traditional dress (Gīlaki lebās ; Ṭāleši ḵalā ) of Gīlān and Māzandarān bears a struc­tural resemblance to that of other rural regions of Persia. It is constructed in successive layers, often of similar pieces superimposed, like women’s skirts or men’s shirts in winter.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • CLOTHING xxiii. Clothing of the Persian Gulf area

    Hormozgān is the main focus here. Women’s clothing consists of four basic parts: head covering, dress, trousers, and shoes. The normal head covering is a rectangular black scarf of thin silk (maknā) wrapped round the head and fastened on top with a metal pin (čollāba).

    (R. Shahnaz Nadjmabadi)

  • CLOTHING xxiv. Clothing of the Qašqāʾī tribes

    In the 19-20th centuries the Qašqāʾī constituted a tribal confederacy of people of ethnolinguistically diverse origin; they were predominantly nomadic pastoralists who migrated seasonally between the low­lands and the highlands in the southern Zagros mountains. They created their own distinctive dress from market-derived goods and the work of village and urban craft specialists.

    (Lois Beck)

  • CLOTHING xxv. Clothing of the Baḵtīārīs and other Lori speaking tribes

    Members of the Lori-speaking ethnic groups, including the Lors themselves, the Baḵtīārīs, and the Boīr-Aḥmadīs are characterized by similar styles of dress, with variations reflecting differences in tribe and social class of the wearer, variations that can have strong symbolic meaning, particularly among the Baḵtīārīs.

    (Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • CLOTHING xxvi. Clothing and jewelry of the Turkmen

    Until the 1970s the clothing and jewelry of the Turkmen formed the most elaborate tribal costume still used in Persia. The principal women’s garment is a shift (köynek), formerly of silk, now replaced by synthetic fibers.

    (P. A. Andrews)

  • CLOTHING xxvii. Historical lexicon of Persian clothing

    The lexicon has been compiled from personal observations, descriptions in Persian and other sources, and from old paintings, drawings, and photographs.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī)

  • CLOTHING xxviii. Concordance of clothing terms among ethnic groups in modern Persia

    This concordance has been compiled from xiii-xxvi, above.

    (EIr)

  • CLOUDS

    Large tracts of central Persia and the adjacent arid plateaus of Afghanistan lie under cloudless skies for most of the year, which contributes to typical “conti­nental” climatic conditions.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • CLOVER

    See ŠABDAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CLOWN

    See DALQAK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COAL

    Ordinary Per­sians claimed that, as they could not burn coal in their water pipes, they had no need of it. Only Europeans living in Tehran and Tabrīz used coal for heating; they collected it from the surface in bas­kets.

    (Willem Floor)

  • COASTAL REGION

    See BALUCHISTAN, FĀRS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COBALT

    a chemical element that imparts a blue color to glass and glazes and to certain pigments.

    (Elisabeth West FitzHugh and Willem M. Floor)

  • ČOBĀN

    eponymous founder of the Chobanid dynasty and the leading Mongol amir of the late Il-khanid period.

    (Charles Melville)

  • ČŌBĪN, BAHRĀM

    See BAHRĀM ČŌBĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COCK

    the male of the subfamily Phasianinae (pheasants), usually having a long, often tectiform tail with fourteen to thirty-two feathers.

    (James R. Russell, Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • COCKSCOMB

    See BOSTĀNAFRŪZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COCONUT

    the fruit of the palm Cocos nucifera L., which grows in the East Indies, as well as in most other humid tropical regions.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CODES

    It is likely that substitution ciphers were used by early Persian states, for nearly identical versions were still in use in Qajar Persia. During the reigns of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and Moḥammad Shah (1834-48) the minister Abu’l-Qāsem Qāʾemmaqām devised a number of letter-substitution codes for communicating with different princes and viziers.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • CODEX CUMANICUS

    a manuscript of eighty-two paper leaves, measuring approximately 20 x 14 cm, preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale of the cathe­dral of San Marco in Venice and comprising princi­pally vocabularies and texts of the Northwest Middle Turkic language of the Cumans, or Komans, recorded in Latin script.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • CODICES HAFNIENSES

    forty-three Avestan and Pahlavi codices acquired by Rasmus Kristian Rask (1787-1832) in Bombay, India, and Niels Ludvig Westergaard (1815-1878) in Persia, all originally de­posited in the library of the University of Copenhagen but later transferred to the Royal Library.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • CODOMANNUS

    See DARIUS III.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COFFEE

    a drink made by steeping in boiling water the dried, roasted, and ground berries of the coffee tree (Coffea arabica).

    (ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd)

  • COFFEEHOUSE

    a shop and meeting place where coffee is prepared and served.

    (ʿAlī Āl-e Dawūd)

  • COFFEEHOUSE PAINTING

    See PAINTING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČOḠĀ BONUT

    Čoḡā Bonut is important because it has provided evidence of the earliest stages of settled agricultural life in Ḵuzestān. It is a small mound; in its truncated and artificially rounded state it has a diameter of about 50 m and rises just over 5 m above the surrounding plain.

    (Abbas Alizadeh)

  • ČOḠĀ MĪŠ

    Čoḡā Mīš was occupied continuously, except for one or two presumably short breaks, from approximately the late 6th millennium to the late 4th millennium b.c.e. and must have played a key role in the cultural and social development of the region.

    (Helene J. Kantor)

  • ČOḠĀ SAFĪD

    prehistoric site on the Dehlorān (Deh Luran) plain, dating back to the 8th millennium BCE. Excavation of a step trench in 1969 uncovered six archeological phases representing some 1,500 years of occupation, but there remain older deposits as yet unexcavated.

    (Frank Hole)

  • ČOḠĀ ZANBĪL

    or Chogha Zanbil, a city founded by the Elamite king Untaš Napiriša (ca. 1275-40 B.C.E.) about 40 km southeast of Susa at a strategic point on a main road leading to the highlands. After his death it remained a place of religious pilgrimage and a burial ground until about 1000 B.C.E.

    (Elizabeth Carter)

  • ČOḠONDAR

    See BEET.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČOḠŪR

    (also čoḡor, čogūr, more commonly called sāz in former Soviet Azerbaijan), is the typical pyriform lute of the ʿāšeq, the professional minstrel of Azerbaijan.

    (Jean During)

  • COINS AND COINAGE

    During the reign of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (1797-1834) the first steps toward a modern currency were taken. At the Tabrīz and Isfahan mints well-executed silver and gold coins were struck along with the normal, less carefully minted products, with full, even pressure and reeded edges similar to those found on contemporary British Indian coins.

    (Stephen Album, Michael L. Bates, Willem Floor )

  • COLCHIS

    ancient Greek name of the region at the eastern end of the Black Sea and south of the Caucasus mountains, corresponding to the Georgian provinces of Imeretia, Mingrelia (Samegrelo), Guria and Ač’ara and the Pontic regions of northeastern Turkey.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • COLETTI, Alessandro

    (b. Trieste, 1928, d. Rome, 1985), Italian scholar of Iranian languages and general oriental subjects, co-author with his wife, Hanne Grünbaum, of the most comprehensive Persian-Italian dictionary (1978) published in modern times.

    (Adriano Rossi)

  • COLLEGE

    term used to designate the American College, founded by Presbyterians and later renamed: see ALBORZ COLLEGE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COLLEGES

    For important individual colleges, see EDUCATION; FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COLOGNE MANI CODEX

    or Codex Manichaicus Coloniensis, a lump of parchment fragments the size of a matchbox, containing a portion of the life and teachings of Mani, discovered in 1969 at an indeterminate spot in the area of Asyūṭ (ancient Lycopolis) in upper Egypt, the smallest ancient codex known to date.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • COLOR

    (Pers. rang). i. Color symbolism in Persian literature. ii. Use and importance of color in Persian art.

    (Annemarie Schimmel, Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • COLUMNS

    one of several kinds of upright, load-bearing architectural members encompassed, along with piers, in the term sotūn. In the Achaemenid palaces at Persepolis and Susa columns, whether plain or fluted, reached a height of 19 m and a diameter up to 1.60 m; they were topped by double-protome capitals, themselves an additional 8 m high.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • COMISENE

    See KŪMEŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COMMAGENE

    the portion of southwestern Asia Minor bordered on the east by the Euphrates river, on the west by the Taurus mountains, and on the south by the plains of northern Syria. It was part of the Achaemenid empire and successor kingdoms and did not achieve status as an independent kingdom until the mid-2nd century BCE.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • COMMERCE

    within Persia and between Persia and other regions.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • COMMERCE i. In the prehistoric period

    In this early period “commerce” is best defined as the movement or exchange of material or goods between cultures within the present boundaries of Persia and those in other regions.

    (Oscar White Muscarella)

  • COMMERCE ii. In the Achaemenid period

    The longest of many caravan routes was the Royal Road, which stretched for nearly 2,400 km from Sardis in Asia Minor through Mesopotamia and down the Tigris to Susa; stations with service facilities were located every 25-30 km along its length.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • COMMERCE iii. In the Parthian and Sasanian periods

    There are few contemporary sources on commerce in the Parthian period, and no archeological site on the Persian plateau has yielded finds that shed light on the subject.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • COMMERCE iv. Before the Mongol Conquest

    There were no centers of trade of supraregional importance in either Persia or Central Asia during the Middle Ages. In the Islamic world Baghdad, the seat of the caliphate, was the primary center for the exchange of goods, which arrived overland or by sea through the port of Baṣra at the mouth of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • COMMERCE v. IN THE MONGOL AND TIMURID PERIODS

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COMMERCE vi. In the Safavid and Qajar periods

    The Dutch and English East Indies companies were the first well-capitalized trading partners established in Persia, initially providing a much-needed source of cash for the shahs. In return the companies demanded and obtained treaties (in 1617 and 1623) granting them freedom of trade.

    (Willem Floor)

  • COMMERCE vii. In the Pahlavi and post-Pahlavi periods

    A prominent feature of Persian export trade was the steady rise in both the value and volume of oil shipments through almost the entire Pahlavi period until the Revolution, when this trend was reversed. Because of the large increase in price in 1352 Š./1973 the value of Persian oil exports climbed substantially more than the volume in the 1970s. Other exports fared less well.

    (Vahid Nowshirvani)

  • COMMUNICATIONS in Persia

    the growth of post, telegraph, and telephone service in Persia was closely linked with the growth of railway and highway networks and other modern transportation systems; it was thus a central element in the development of a modern infrastructure in Persia.

    (Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi and ʿAlī Mohammadi)

  • COMMUNISM

    Communism i. In Persia to 1941, ii. In Persia from 1941 to 1953, iii. In Persia after 1953, iv. In Afghanistan, v. In Tajikistan (see Supplement).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • COMMUNISM i. In Persia to 1941

    The Persian communist movement was born among Persian immigrant workers in the Baku oilfields. In the years 1323-25/1905-07 some of them had founded Ferqa-ye ejtemāʿīyūn-e ʿāmmīyūn-e Īrān.

    (Cosroe Chaqueri)

  • COMMUNISM ii. In Persia from 1941 to 1953

    With the Anglo-Soviet occupation of Persia and the abdication of Reżā Shah on 25 Šahrīvar 1320 Š./16 September 1941, the climate for resumption of political activities was vastly improved.

    (Sepehr Zabih)

  • COMMUNISM iii. In Persia after 1953

    Whereas in the previous period Persian communism had been embodied primarily in the Tudeh party, which followed the ideological and political dicta of the Soviet Union, after the coup d’etat of 1332 Š./1953 it was characterized by ideological and organizational diversity.

    (Torāb Ḥaqšenās)

  • COMMUNISM iv. In Afghanistan

    The Afghan Communist party, Ḥezb-e demōkrātīk-e ḵalq-e Afḡānestān was officially founded in 1344 Š./1965, at a time when political parties were illegal in Afghanistan. Two other durable Afghan Marxist-Leninist groups were active in the same general period.

    (Anthony Arnold)

  • COMMUNISM v. IN TAJIKISTAN

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČOMOT

    See TURKMEN TRIBES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COMPUTERS in Persia

    electronic data-processing equipment, in Persia.

    (Moḥammad-Reżā Moḥammadīfar)

  • CONCESSIONS

    (emtīāzāt), grants by a state to citizens, aliens, or other states of rights to carry out specific economic activities and of capitulatory rights on its territory.

    (Willem Floor, Mansoureh Ettehadieh [neẓām māfī])

  • CONCOBAR

    See KANGĀVAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CONFEDERATION OF IRANIAN STUDENTS, NATIONAL UNION

    (Konfederāsīūn-e jahānī-e moḥaṣṣelīn wa dānešjūyān-e īrānī etteḥādīya-ye mellī), an organization purporting to be the political and corporate (ṣenfī) representative of Persian students abroad, as well as in Persia, during the 1960s and 1970s.

    (Afshin Matin-Asgari)

  • CONFEDERATIONS, TRIBAL

    tribal groups commonly comprise several levels of organization, from a nomad camp to (sometimes) a nation-state, with different criteria defining membership of groups at each level.

    (Richard Tapper)

  • CONFESSIONS

    i. In the Zoroastrian faith. ii. In Manicheism.

    (Jes P. Asmussen)

  • CONGRATULATIONS

    the custom of conveying congratulations on such happy occasions as the birth of a child, a birthday anniversary, a marriage, a coronation, or a national or religious festival.

    (Žāla Āmūzgār)

  • CONIFERAE

    See DERAḴT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CONJUNCTIONS

    See QERĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CONON OF ATHENS

    (b. before 444 BCE., d. after 392 BCE), a leading Athenian admiral during the Peloponnesian and Corinthian wars.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CONSERVATION

    See ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION OF PERSIAN MONUMENTS

    in almost every historical period some restoration of Persian monuments has been undertaken either by state authorities or through the efforts of charitable individuals.

    (Eugenio Galdieri and Kerāmat-Allāh Afsar)

  • CONSPIRACY THEORIES

    a complex of beliefs attributing the course of Persian history and politics to the machinations of hostile foreign powers and secret organizations.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • CONSTANTIUS II

    See Šāpur II.

    (Cross-reference)

  • CONSTELLATIONS

    The first and only two constellations to be named in Old Iranian sources are Ursa Major and the Pleiades, in the Younger Avesta. The next possible mentions of constellations are of two kinds, both dating from late Middle Persian times but only actually attested in works or manuscripts from the Islamic period.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • CONSTITUTION OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    In 1979, Persia was declared an Islamic republic. Until then there had been little discussion, outside religious circles, of the conception of welāyat-e faqīh (lit. “mandate of the jurist”) propounded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

    (Said Amir Arjomand)

  • CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN

    When Amir ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Khan (r. 1297-1319/1880-1901) acceded to power, he established a centralized monarchy in Afghanistan for the first time.

    (M. Ḥassan Kākaṛ)

  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION

    (Enqelāb-e mašrūṭa) of 1323-29/1905-11, during which a parliament and constitutional monarchy were established in Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION i. Intellectual background

    The establishment of a constitutional regime in Persia was the chief objective of the Revolution of 1323-29/1905-11.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION ii. Events

    After 1308/1890 the Persian government found itself in increasing financial difficulties, as inflation produced a sharp decline in the value of the land tax and the silver qerān lost value against the pound sterling with the rapid fall of international silver prices at the end of the 19th century.

    (Vanessa Martin)

  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION iii. The Constitution

    The term for “constitution” in Persia, qānūn-e asāsī (lit. “fundamental law”), was borrowed from the Ottoman empire in the 19th century.

    (Said Amir Arjomand)

  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION iv. The aftermath

    In the decade 1329-39/1911-21, from the Russian ultimatum and the dissolution of the Second Majles until the coup d’etat of 1299 Š./1921, the Constitution was put to a series of crucial tests.

    (Mansoureh Ettehadieh)

  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION v. Political parties of the constitutional period

    Political parties were first officially organized after Moḥammad-ʿAlī Shah was forced to abdicate in 1327/1909, at about the time elections for the Second Majles were beginning.

    (Mansoureh Ettehadieh)

  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION vi. The press

    There are no statistics on literacy in Qajar Persia, but it can be conjectured that the literate population was very small. Until the beginning of the Pahlavi era there were people who could “read” the Koran and prayer books, for teaching in religious schools consisted of memorizing koranic passages.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION vii. The constitutional movement in literature

    “constitutional literature” refers here to literature produced from the late 19th century until 1339=1300 Š./1921, under the impact of aspirations for reform and the constitutional movement.

    (Sorour Soroudi)

  • CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES in Persian architecture

    The most frequent building material in Iranian cultural areas has always been mud, which is available everywhere. When wet, it can simply be plastered on walls without shaping. Alternatively, it can be tempered and formed into large blocks with more or less rectangular sides.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INDUSTRY

    In 1933, Iran’s first cement plant, the state-owned company Simān-e Ray (100 tons per day), became operational in Ray. It had only 360 workers in 1936, but after expansion in 1939 to a capacity of 300 tons per day it had 1,000 workers. Its output did not suffice to satisfy domestic demand.

    (Willem Floor)

  • CONSUMERS AND CONSUMPTION

    See ECONOMY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CONTARINI, AMBROGIO

    (1429-99), Venetian merchant and diplomat, author of a noteworthy report on Persia under the Āq Qoyunlū Uzun Ḥasan.

    (Filippo Bertotti)

  • CONTI, NICOLÒ DE’

    (1395-ca. 1469), Venetian merchant who traveled in the east from 1414 until 1438.

    (Paola Orsatti)

  • CONTINENTS

    See KEŠVAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CONTRACTS

    (usually ʿaqd), legally enforceable undertakings between two or more consenting parties.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev, Mansour Shaki, EIr)

  • CONVERSION

    the act of adopting another religion.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CONVERSION i. Of Iranians to the Zoroastrian faith

    Although modern Zoroastrians question whether their religion even allows conversion, Zoroastrianism, as an ethical and essentially monotheistic religion based on a historical figure, originally had pronounced missionary characteristics, as is clear from the extent of its dissemination.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • CONVERSION ii. Of Iranians to Islam

    Iranians were among the very earliest converts to Islam, and their conversion in significant numbers began as soon as the Arab armies reached and overran the Persian plateau.

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • CONVERSION iii. To Imami Shiʿism in India

    South Asians adopted Imami, or Twelver, Shiʿism in great numbers, mostly after the Safavid conquest of Persia in the first decade of the 16th century.

    (Juan R. I. Cole)

  • CONVERSION iv. Of Persian Jews to other religions

    In the Achaemenid, Seleucid, and Parthian periods relations between the Jews and the Persian authorities were friendly, and there is no evidence of forced or voluntary conversion of Jews to Zoroastrianism.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • CONVERSION v. To Babism and the Bahai faith

    In 1279/1863 the prominent Babi Bahāʾ-Allāh, while in exile in Baghdad, had declared himself to a very small group of close disciples and relatives as the messianic figure ( man yoẓheroho ʾllāh ) whose advent had been pre­dicted by Sayyed ʿAlī-Moḥammad Šīrāzī, the Bāb.

    (Juan R. I. Cole)

  • CONVERSION vi. To Protestant Christianity in Persia

    The conversion of Armenians, Assyrians, Jews, Muslims, and Zoroastrians in Persia to Protestantism as the result of missionary activity by foreign societies and national churches is discussed here.

    (Paul S. Seto)

  • CONVERSION vii. To the Zoroastrian faith in the modern period

    Modern Zoroastrians disagree on whether it is permissible for outsiders to enter their religion. Now scattered in small minority communities in Persia, India, Europe, and North America and without a reli­gious hierarchy, the Zoroastrians are governed by councils and high priests whose authority is only local.

    (Pargol Saati)

  • COOKBOOKS

    classical, in Persian; relatively few books in Persian exclusively devoted to the prepa­ration of food are known, even though references to a highly developed cuisine in Persia in premodern times are found in medical, religious, historical, and poetic texts.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • COOKIES

    (kolūča, nān-e kolūča, kolīča) in Persia; in this article the cookies most frequently made in major Persian cities today, both traditional types and those reflecting foreign influence, will be described.

    (Ṣoḡrā Bāzargān)

  • COOKING

    i. In ancient Iran. ii. In Pahlavi literature. iii. Principles and ingredients of modern Persian cooking. iv. In Afghanistan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • COON, CARLETON STEVENS

    (b. Wakefield, Massa­chusetts, 23 June 1904, d. Gloucester, Massachusetts, 4 June 1981), American anthropologist and educator.

    (Robert H. Dyson, Jr.)

  • COOPERATIVES

    (šerkat-e taʿāwonī), economic organizations owned jointly by and operated for the benefit of groups of individuals. Such cooperatives were first introduced and recognized in Persia under the Commercial code (Qānūn-e tejārat) of 1303 Š./1924, which provided for both production (tawlīd) and consumer (maṣraf) cooperatives.

    (Amir I. Ajami)

  • ČOPOQ

    or ČEPOQ, a long-stemmed pipe with a small bowl for smoking tobacco, distinct from the ḡ/qalyān, or water pipe.

    (Willem Floor)

  • COPPER i. In Islamic Persia

    the metallic element Cu.

    (James W. Allan and Willem Floor)

  • Copper ii. Copper resources in Iran

    With the advancement of the knowledge of metallurgy in the Achaemenid era, finely crafted copper and bronze objects were created, continuing on through ancient times. The medieval Arab traveler Abu Dolaf wrote about the Nišāpur copper mine, but the extent of the deposits in Iran became known only from accounts of European travelers from the Safavid period onwards.

    (Manṣur Qorbāni and Anuširavān Kani)

  • COPRATES

    See ĀB-E DEZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COPTIC MANICHEAN TEXTS

    primary source text fragments, written in previously undeciphered or little-known languages and scripts which considerably changed the interpretation and apprecia­tion of Manicheism.

    (Aloïs van Tongerloo)

  • COPYRIGHT

    (ḥaqq-e moʾallef), a direct translatof the French droit d'auteur; the exclusive right to reproduce, publish, and sell the matter or form of a created work, for example, a novel or musical compo­sition.

    (Karīm Emāmī)

  • CORAL

    the skeletal deposit of marine polyps, often treated as a gem material.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ČORĀS, ŠĀH-MAḤMŪD

    b. Mīrzā Fāżel, historian of the 17th-century Chaghatay khanate in Moḡūlestān and hagiographer and staunch supporter of the “Black Mountain” khojas.

    (Robert D. McChesney)

  • CORBIN, HENRY

    (b. Paris 14 April 1903, d. Paris 7 October 1978), French philosopher and orientalist best known as a major interpreter of the Persian role in the development of Islamic thought.

    (Daryush Shayegan)

  • CORIANDER

    an herb indigenous to the Mediterranean area, the Caucasus, and Persia and valued for its aromatic leaves and seeds.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ČORMĀGŪN

    Mongol general and military gov­ernor in Persia, d. ca. 639/1242.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • CORMICK, JOHN

    one of the first English surgeons to work in Persia and personal physician to the crown prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā.

    (Kamran Ekbal and Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • CORMICK, WILLIAM

    (b. Tabrīz 1822, d. Tabrīz 25 Ḏu’l-ḥejja 1294/30 December 1877), a British physician in Tabrīz.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • CORN

    See ḎORRAT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CORNELIAN CHERRY

    the male cornel tree, a dogwood shrub with edible berries.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CORONATION

    in ancient Iran, the ceremonial act of investing a ruler with a crown.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • CORPSE

    disposal of, in Zoroastrianism; in Zoroastrianism the corpse of a righteous believer was held to be the greatest source of pollution in the world, as the death of such a one represented a triumph for evil, whose forces were thought to be gathered there in strength.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • CORPUS INSCRIPTIONUM IRANICARUM

    (C.I.I.), an association devoted to the col­lection and publication of Iranian inscriptions and documents.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • CORRESPONDENCE

    Correspondence i. In pre-Islamic Persia, ii. In Islamic Persia, iii. Forms of opening and closing, address, and signature, and iv. On the subcontinent of India.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CORRESPONDENCE i. In pre-Islamic Persia

    There is no information about correspondence in Median times, except for a fictitiously paraphrased letter from Cyrus to Cyaxares that began “Cyrus to Cyaxares, greeting!”

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • CORRESPONDENCE ii. In Islamic Persia

    In Islamic Persia letter writing (Ar.-Pers. tarassol < Ar. r-s-l “to send”) developed into a genre of great literary, historical, and social importance.

    (Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabāʾī)

  • CORRESPONDENCE iii. Forms of opening and closing, address, and signature

    In this article the parts of the Persian letter are surveyed section by section, with comments on the general features, style, and stock formulas characteris­tic of each from early Islamic times to the present.

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • CORRESPONDENCE iv. On the subcontinent of India

    The chancellery of official and diplomatic correspondence was an organ of Indian Muslim political organization. At various times it was known as dīvān-­e resālat , dīvānal-enšāʾ , dīvānal-rasāʾel , or dār al-­enšāʾ .

    (Momin Mohiuddin)

  • ČORTKA

    (or čortaka, čotka < Russ. schëty “abacus”), an ancient calculation device, a rectangle strung with parallel metal wires along which clay, metal, or wooden beads can be moved.

    (Yaḥyā Ḏokāʾ)

  • ČORŪM

    See ČERĀM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CORVÉE

    See BĪGĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CORVIDAE

    See CROW.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COSMETICS

    prepara­tions for personal beautification, in Persian tradition used mainly by women on special occasions.

    (This article is based on information provided by Žāla Mottaḥedīn and Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾī.)

  • COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY

    theories of the origins and structure of the universe.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY i. In Zoroastrianism/Mazdaism

    The “orthodox” myth . The extant Avesta contains no systematic exposition of the cosmological beliefs of the people among whom it was composed and who eventually brought Zoroastrianism to western Iran.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY ii. In Mithraism

    That Mithraism had an elaborate cosmology, central to its doctrines, is proven first by the structure of its cult shrines (mithraea), which took the form of caves (real or artificial). As Porphyry (6) stated, the cave is an “image of the cosmos.”

    (Roger Beck)

  • COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY iii. In Manicheism

    Manicheism, like contemporary Zoroastrianism and various gnostic sects, offered a detailed cosmogonic myth, or cosmology.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY iv. In the Mazdakite religion

    The most important source for modern knowledge of Mazdakite cosmogony is the description of the Mazdakite religion in Ketāb al-melal wa’l-neḥal , writ­ten by Abu’l-Fatḥ Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-al-Karīm Šahrestānī, in 624/1227, several hundred years after the period in which the sect flourished.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY v. In Twelver Shiʿism

    Imami traditions contain a chaotic abundance of material portraying the origin and structure of the universe. Book XIV, “On the heavens and the earth,” of Moḥammad-Bāqer Majlesī’s Beḥār al-anwār , fills ten volumes (LVII-LXVI) in the most recent edition and contains several thousand traditions.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY vi. In Ismaʿilism

    The physical world consists of nine celestial spheres, the highest sphere, the sphere of the fixed stars, the seven spheres of the planets, as well as the sublunar world of generation and corruption.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY vii. In Shaikhism

    It is in some respects redundant to speak of a “Shaikhi cosmology” distinct from that of Imami Shiʿism as a whole. Shaikhi ideas never developed independently of ordinary Shiʿite thought but were either part of it or in dialogue or conflict with it.

    (Denis M. MacEoin)

  • COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY viii. In the Bahai faith

    First, the human mind is strictly finite and limited in knowledge and understanding. Second, no absolute knowledge of God or reality or the cosmos is therefore available to man. Third, from the above it follows that all conceptualizations and attempts by men to portray cosmology are “but a reflection of what has been created within themselves.”

    (Moojan Momen)

  • COSSACK BRIGADE

    a cavalry unit in the Persian army established in 1879 on the model of Cossack units in the Russian army. The formation of the Cossack Brigade was part of a larger process in which the Persian government, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, engaged various European soldiers to train units of the Persian armed forces.

    (Muriel Atkin)

  • COSSAEANS

    a tribe of mountain people settled in western Iran; their land was called Cossaea/Kossaîa.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • COSTE, Pascal-Xavier

    (1787-1879), French architect, famous for the illustrated account of his travels in Persia. See FLANDIN AND COSTE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COTTAM, Richard

    Cottam was convinced of the moral superiority of U.S. and allied forces in their fight against fascism in Europe and the Far East. This belief lingered for some time after the end of the war, allowing him to form an idealistic view of the validity of U.S. values in its post-war struggle against communism.

    (Susan Siavoshi)

  • COTTON

    Cotton (panba < Mid. Pers. pambag; katān; in Isfahan kolūza; genus Gossypium), particularly the short-staple species Gossypium herbaceum, is cultivated in almost all parts of Persia, and is of great economic importance both for home consumption and for export.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • COTTON i. Introduction

    Cotton ( panba < Mid. Pers. pambag ; katān ; in Isfa­han kolūza ; genus Gossypium ), particularly the short-staple species Gossypium herbaceum , is cultivated in almost all parts of Persia, and is of great economic importance both for home consumption and for export.

    (Eckart Ehlers and Ahmad Parsa)

  • COTTON ii. Production and Trade in Persia

    Cotton was one of the first vegetable fibers used to make textiles, and, despite competition from synthetic fibers in recent times, it remains the most important nonfood agricultural commodity in the world.

    (Hassan Hakimian)

  • COTTON iii. In Afghanistan

    Two Iranian words, paḵta (< Tajik) and pomba (Pers. panba < Pahl. pambag), are currently used in Afghani­stan to designate raw cotton. Most people use them fairly indiscriminately, but specialists tend to confine the former to unginned, or seed, cotton and the latter to ginned, or fiber, cotton (Pashto mālūǰ/č).

    (Daniel Balland)

  • COUP D’ETAT OF 1299/1921

    the military coup that eventually led to the founding of the Pahlavi dynasty.

    (Niloofar Shambayati)

  • COUP D’ETAT OF 1332 Š./1953

    the appointment of Moḥammad Moṣaddeq as prime minis­ter of Persia on 9 Ordībehešt 1330 Š./29 April 1951 and the nationalization two days later of Persia’s British-owned oil industry initiated a period of tense confrontation between the Persian and British govern­ments.

    (Mark J. Gasiorowski)

  • COURTS AND COURTIERS

    Courts and courtiers i. In the Median and Achaemenid periods, ii. In the Parthian and Sasanian periods, iii. In the Islamic period to the Mongol conquest, iv. Under the Mongols, v. Under the Timurid and Turkman dynasties, vi. In the Safavid period, vii. In the Qajar period, viii. In the reign of Reżā Shah Pahlavī, ix. In the reign of Moḥammad-Reżā Shah. See SUPPLEMENT, x. Court poetry

    (Multiple Authors)

  • COURTS AND COURTIERS i. In the Median and Achaemenid periods

    From Herodotus’ report of the child Cyrus’ playing at being king it seems that the Median court included bodyguards, messengers, the “king’s eye," and builders, for it is likely that the game was modeled on the existing court.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • COURTS AND COURTIERS ii. In the Parthian and Sasanian periods

    In the absence of records, a full picture of court life under the Parthians and Sasanians cannot be pieced together.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • COURTS AND COURTIERS iii. In the Islamic period to the Mongol conquest

    In Persia the organization of courts (Pers. bār, bādrgāh, dargāh, darbār; in Arabic, there exists no more precise designation than majles, lit. “session”), including the formation of a circle of courtiers in the early centuries after the Islamic conquest, was directly inspired by the court life of the ʿAbbasid caliphs at Baghdad and Sāmarrāʾ.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • COURTS AND COURTIERS iv. Under the Mongols

    During the early stages of the Mongol presence Persia was ruled, on behalf of the great khan (qaḡan, qaʾan/qāʾān) in Mongolia, by military governors based in Azerbaijan and in Khorasan, but, with the coming of Hülegü (Hūlāgū) in 654/1256 and the establishment of the Il-khanid state, the country was once again the seat of a resident sovereign.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • COURTS AND COURTIERS v. Under the Timurid and Turkman dynasties

    Timurid and Turkman rulers and princes established outside of Samarquand and built them into important political and especially religious and cultural centers.

    (Monika Gronke)

  • COURTS AND COURTIERS vi. In the Safavid period

    The organization of the court and its administration.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • COURTS AND COURTIERS vii. In the Qajar period

    The court (darbār, darbār-e aʿẓam, dar(b)-e ḵāna) in the Qajar period was essentially organized on the ancient Perso-Turkish model inherited from the Safavid and Zand courts but with modifications in practice and function largely designed to accommo­date the Qajars’ nomadic habits.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • COURTS AND COURTIERS viii. In the reign of Reżā Shah Pahlavī

    When Reżā Shah (r. 1304-20 Š./1925-1941) acceded to the throne he retained a number of lower officials from the royal court of the Qajars, specifically those who had not been vocal in support of republicanism.

    (A. Reza Sheikholeslami)

  • COURTS AND COURTIERS x. Court poetry

    Until modern times there were strong incentives to patronize poets and other writers wherever the seat of power was renowned as a center of culture.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • COURTS OF LAW

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. Judicial System in the 20th Century.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČOVĀRĪ

    See LORESTĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COW

    See CATTLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COWELL, EDWARD BYLES

    EDWARD BYLES (1826-1903), polymath, scholar, and translator from Indian languages and Persian.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • ČOWGĀN

    See POLO. Article Pending.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • COX, PERCY ZACHARIAH

    (1864-1937), Sir, officer of the political service in the British Indian government who held several diplomatic posts in the Persian Gulf re­gion in 1893-1923 and played a leading role in nego­tiating the Anglo-Persian Agreement of 1919.

    (Floreeda Safiri)

  • COYAJEE, JEHANGIR COOVERJI

    (1875-1943), Sir, Parsi economist and student of ancient Iranian mythology.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • CRAFTS

    Although crafts have always played a predominant role in the artistic history of Persia, in this century new market forces and social currents have interacted with deeply rooted traditions to produce new types of objects, as well as variations on more familiar ones.

    (compiled from personal observations and reports by Carole Bier, Mehdī Ebrāhīmīān, Iran Ala Firouz, and Jay Gluck.)

  • CRANE

    (kolang), any of the large migratory wading birds of the family Gruidae. The kolang is mentioned in the Bundahišn as one of 110 species of birds. In classi­cal Persian poetry the crane’s ability to fly high and far; its order, discipline, and characteristic whooping sounds in flight are mentioned.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CRASSUS

    See CARRHAE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CREATION

    See COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CREMATION

    See BURIAL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CRIMEAN TATAR

    (Krim-Tatar, Qırım-Tatar), name for various Turkic peoples who moved to the Crimean peninsula in the past and are now in other areas as well.

    (Dan Shapira)

  • CRIMINAL LAW

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. Judicial System in the 20th Century.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CRIMINOLOGY

    the study of the causation, prevention, and correction of crime.

    (Parviz Saney)

  • CROCODILE

    (nahang, Baluchi gandū), Croco­dylus palustris, the marsh crocodile. It inhabits fresh-water marshes, pools, and rivers, and probably the only suitable croco­dile habitat in Persian Baluchistan is along the Sarbāz river. The present intermittent distribution of this species in Pakistan and Persian Baluchistan represents a fragmentation of a once more continuous range during moister climatic regimes in the recent past.

    (Steven C. Anderson)

  • CROCUS

    generic name of a large number of hardy bulbous flowering plants of the family Iridaceae.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CROESUS

    last king of Lydia (r. ca. 560-546 B.C.E.) who pioneered the coining of gold and silver money, was defeated and captured by Cyrus in the plain beside Sardis.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • CROSBY, OSCAR TERRY

    (born Ponchatoula, Loui­siana, 21 April 1861, d. Warrenton, Virginia, 2 Janu­ary 1947), collector of an important group of Khotanese texts.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • CROW

    a bird of the family Corvidae, represented in Persia and Afghanistan by six genera. Several of their features are more or less reflected in Persian literature and folklore. In poetry the blackness of the feathers (par[r]-e zāḡ) has often been used in similes to emphasize the blackness or darkness of a lock of hair, a certain night, clouds, and the like.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CROWN

    (Pers. and Ar. tāj), royal and divine headdress.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CROWN i. In the Median and Achaemenid periods

    In the Achaemenid period rulers were represented wearing two different kinds of crown. Most common was a rigid cylinder with crenellated decoration, which had a long tradition in Persia; crenellations appeared on the Elamite rock relief at Kūrāngūn in Fārs and were revived again for the crown of the Pahlavi dynasty.

    (Peter Calmeyer)

  • CROWN ii. From the Seleucids to the Islamic conquest

    It was under the Sasanian mon­archs that the crown, quintessential symbol of royal power, received its most elaborate and varied forms. From the earliest representations it is clear that new shapes were not adopted immediately; rather, the royal headgear of the conquered enemy was at first contin­ued.

    (Elsie H. Peck)

  • CROWN iii. On monuments from the Islamic conquest to the Mongol invasion

    One of the most durable types of royal headgear was the winged crown, first observed on coins and reliefs of the Sasanian Bahrām II.

    (Elsie H. Peck)

  • CROWN iv. Of Persian rulers from the Arab conquerors

    Despite abhorrence of imperial titles and regalia in early Islamic traditions, Omayyad and ʿAbbasid governors, and the rulers of Ṭabarestān, continued to employ on their coins the iconography of the coins of the Sasanian rulers Ḵosrow II and Yazdegerd III.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • CROWN v. In the Qajar and Pahlavi periods

    Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (r. 1797-1834) ordered the cre­ation of a tall, jeweled crown with eight peaks on a red velvet cap, the Kayānī crown. From that time on all Qajar kings wore this crown, which is now kept in the Bānk-e markazī-e Īrān (Central bank of Iran).

    (Yaḥyā Ḏokāʾ)

  • CROWN JEWELS of Persia

    the assemblage of jewels collected by the kings of Persia, kept now in the Bānk-e markazī-e Īrān (Central bank of Iran) in Tehran.

    (Patricia Jellicoe)

  • CROWN LANDS

    See ḴĀṢṢA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CROWN PRINCE

    the officially recognized heir apparent to the throne.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • CROYANCES ET COUTUMES PERSANES

    by the French orientalist Henri Massé (b. Lunéville, France, 2 March 1886, d. Paris, 9 November 1969), published in 1938, one of the most compre­hensive and reliable texts on general Persian folklore in a Western language.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • CRUSADES

    in relation to Persia; the term “crusade” refers to a series of Christian holy wars fought in the Middle Ages against the Muslims in Syria and Palestine and subsequently elsewhere in the Near East and, by extension, to wars against other enemies, both within and outside Christendom, that were put on the same spiritual footing by the popes.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • CRYSTAL

    originally a type of fine glass developed in England in the 17th century and owing its special clarity and brilliance to the high refractive index of lead oxide in the metal; the term is often applied to fine glass in general.

    (Layla S. Diba)

  • CRYSTAL, ROCK

    a pure, transparent variety of quartz, usually called “rock crystal” to distinguish it from crystal glass.

    (Brigitte Musche, Jens Kröger)

  • CTESIAS

    (Gk. Ktēsí;as), Greek physician at the Achaemenid court and author of Persiká; (b. perhaps ca. 441 BCE).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CTESIPHON

    (Ṭīsfūn), ancient city on the Tigris adjacent to the Hellenistic city of Seleucia, ca. 35 km south of the later site of Baghdad.

    (Jens Kröger)

  • ČŪB BĀZĪ

    a category of folk dance found all over Persia (Hamada) and distinguished from other types of folk dance by the fact that the dancers carry sticks, which they strike together.

    (Robyn C. Friend)

  • ČŪB ḴAṬṬ

    a stick 20-30 cm long formerly used by neighborhood shopkeepers, especially butchers and bakers, to keep accounts.

    (Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yusofi)

  • Čub-bāzi

    (music sample)

  • CUCUMBER

    Cucumis sativus L. (of the family Cucurbitaceae), in Persia generally called ḵīār (with occasional slight variants), a term that is also em­ployed to designate the fruit of certain other plants.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CUCURBITAE

    See CUCUMBER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CULTURE

    See FARHANG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CUMIN

    an umbelliferous plant of the Old World and its aromatic seeds.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CUMONT, FRANZ VALÉRY MARIE

    classical philologist and historian of religions, whose research resulted in a substantial contribution to the understanding of Mithraism and other oriental reli­gions in the Roman empire.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • CUNAXA

    the Greek form of the name of a village located some 50 miles north of Babylon, where a decisive battle was fought on 3 September 401 B.C.E. between Cyrus the Younger and his brother Artaxerxes II.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • CUNEIFORM SCRIPT

    the conventional name for a system of writing ultimately derived from the pictographic script developed by the Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia (Uruk) around 3000 B.C.E. Cuneiform was written with a reed stylus, which left wedge-shaped impressions on soft clay tablets.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ČŪPA

    See DANCE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ČŪPĀN

    or čōbān “shepherd” (Mid. Pers. and NPers. šobān); even today the shepherd remains a central figure, in both the technological life and consequently the symbolic life, of all systems of animal husbandry.

    (Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • ČUPĀNĪĀN

    See CHOBANIDS; ČOBĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CUPBEARER

    one who fills and distributes cups of wine, as in a royal household.

    (James R. Russell)

  • CUPPING

    See BLOODLETTING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • CURTIUS RUFUS, QUINTUS

    (probably fl. 1st century CE), author of the only extant Latin mono­graph on Alexander the Great, usually called Historiae Alexandri Magni, in many respects the most complete and liveliest account of Alexander’s exploits in Asia.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • CURZON, GEORGE NATHANIEL

    (1859-1925), 1st Marquess of Kedleston, British statesman, traveler, and writer.

    (Denis Wright)

  • CUSTOMS DUTIES

    a tax levied on the movement of trade. A new law ensuring Persian autonomy in establishing tariffs (ḥoqūq-e gomrokī) was enacted on 1 May 1928; it provided for an ad valorem tariff on most goods, with special rates for certain luxuries like gold, silver, and tobacco.

    (Willem Floor)

  • CUT PAPER

    (qeṭʿa “decoupage,” also monabbat-kārī “filigree work”), a type of applied ornament documented in Persian manuscripts and sometimes on bookbindings from the approximate period 895-1060/1490-1650.

    (Barbara Schmitz)

  • CYAXARES

    (Gk. Kyaxá;rēs) king of Media in the 6th century B.C.E.

    (I. M. Diakonoff)

  • CYLINDER SEALS

    CYLINDER SEALS. The seals of ancient Persia correspond in their types and use to those of Mesopotamia, beginning with amuletic pendants, which could also be used as seals, and developing into elaborately engraved seal stones, with a change in the Uruk period from stamp to cylinder seals.

    (Edith Porada)

  • CYPRESS

    (sarv), Cupressus (Tourn.) L. The genus Cupressus is represented in Persia by one spe­cies (sempervirens L.), with three varieties: the cereiform (cereiformis Rehd.), called sarv-e nāz in Shiraz; the more common pyramidal or fastigiate, variously called sarv-e šīrāzī (Shiraz cypress) and sarv-e kāšī (Kāšān cypress); and the horizontal, known popularly by several names but usually referred to as zarbīn by modern Persian botanists.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • CYPRUS

    The historical tradition, preserved for the most part by Diodorys Siculus, was much influenced by Isocrates’ erroneous perception of the Achaemenid empire as in a state of decline, seething with discontent and secret disloyalty to the great king.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • CYPRUS in the Achaemenid Period

    in the Achaemenid period. The kings of the southeastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus reportedly submitted willingly to Cyrus II and offered military assistance to the Persians in their campaigns against Caria and Babylon (539 BCE).

    (Antigone Zournatzi)

  • CYRIACUS AND JULITTA, ACTS OF

    Chris­tian martyrological text.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • CYROPAEDIA

    (Gr. Kú;rou paideí;a, The educa­tion of Cyrus), a partly fictional biography of Cyrus the Great (559-29 b.c.e.), founder of the Achaemenid empire.

    (Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg)

  • CYROPOLIS

    (Latin form of Gr. Kuroú;polis), ancient town in Central Asia probably founded by Cyrus the Great (559-30 B.C.E.).

    (Igor V. P’yankov)

  • CYRTIANS

    a tribe dwell­ing mainly in the mountains of Atropatenian Media together with the Cadusii, Amardi (or “Mardi”), Tapyri, and others.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CYRUS

    a Persian name, most notably of the founder of the Achaemenid empire, Cyrus the Great.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • CYRUS i. The Name

    Cyrus is a Persian name, most notably of the founder of the Achaemenid empire, Cyrus the Great and of the second son of Darius II.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CYRUS ii. Cyrus I

    The evidence on the early Achaemenid king Cyrus I is as follows. Herodotus attested that Cyrus the Great was the son of Cambyses and grandson of Cyrus.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • CYRUS iii. Cyrus II The Great

    Cyrus II the Great (also known to the Greeks as Cyrus the Elder; b. ca. 600 B.C.E., d. 530 B.C.E.) was the founder of the Achaemenid empire.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • CYRUS iiia. Cyrus II as Portrayed by Xenophon and Herodotus

    Xenophon, in his work The Education of Cyrus, makes Cyrus’s imperial founding the theme of a biography; for Herodotus, that founding dominates only Book 1 of nine parts apparently devoted to the Persian-Greek wars decades later.

    (Robert Faulkner)

  • CYRUS iv. The Cyrus cylinder

    The Cyrus cylinder is a fragmentary clay cylinder with an Akkadian inscription of thirty-five lines discovered in a foundation deposit by A. H. Rassam during his excavations at the site of the Marduk temple in Babylon in 1879.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • CYRUS v. The Tomb of Cyrus

    The tomb of Cyrus is generally identified with a small stone monument approximately 1 km southwest of the palaces of Pasargadae, in the center of the Morḡāb plain. According to Greek sources, the tomb of Cyrus II 559-29 B.C.E.) was located in the royal park at Pasargadae.

    (Antigone Zournatzi)

  • CYRUS vi. Cyrus the Younger

    (ca. 423-01 b.c.e.), the second of the four sons of Darius II (ca. 424-05) and Parysatis and a younger brother of Arsaces/Arsicas, later Artaxerxes II (405/4-359/8).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • CYRUS RIVER (1)

    River in Fārs. See KOR.

    (Cross-reference)

  • CYRUS RIVER (2)

    River in Central Asia. See KURA.

    (Cross-reference)

  • Čahār pāra

    (music sample)

  • Čahārmezrāb-e Homāyun

    (music sample)

  • Čahāršamba-suri

    (music sample)

  • Čakāvak

    (music sample)

  • Chahārgāh

    (music sample)

  • Čol Iroq

    (music sample)

  • C~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter C entries

    (DATA)

  • DA AFḠĀNESTĀN TĀRĪḴ ṬŌLANA

    See Anjoman-e Tāriḵ-e Afḡānestān.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀ O DOḴTAR

    (lit. “Mother and daughter”), an important rock-cut tomb, probably of the early Hellenistic period, at the northwestern corner of the Mamasanī region of Fārs. Among all the rock-cut tombs of the former territory of Media and of Fārs, it most closely resembles the royal Achaemenid tombs.

    (Hubertus Von Gall)

  • DABBĀḠĪ

    tanning, the process by which animal skins are made into leather.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • DABESTĀN

    (elementary school). See EDUCATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DABESTĀN JOURNAL

    (“school”), Persian monthly cultural journal published in Mašhad, 1922-27.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DABESTĀN-E MAḎĀHEB

    (school of religious doctrines), an important text of the Āḏar Kayvānī pseudo-Zoroastrian sect, written between 1645 and 1658.

    (Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabāʾī)

  • DABĪR

    "secretary, scribe." i. In the pre-Islamic period. ii. In the Islamic period.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī, Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • DABĪR-E AʿẒAM

    See BAHRAMĪ, FARAJ-ALLĀH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DABĪR-AL-MOLK FARĀHĀNĪ

    or Mīrzā Moḥammad-Ḥosayn (1810-80), director of the private royal secretariat under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah.

    (Guity Nashat)

  • DABĪRE, DABĪRĪ

    a term designating the “seven scripts” supposedly used in the Sasanian period.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DABĪRESTĀN

    secondary school. See EDUCA­TION x. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DABĪRESTĀN-E NEẒĀM

    military secondary school. See pending entry MILITARY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀBŪYA DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E DĀBŪYA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DABUYIDS

    the dynasty of espahbads ruling Ṭabarestān until its conquest by the Muslims in 144/761.

    (Wilfred Madelung)

  • DĀD (1)

    (Av. dāta- “law, right, rule, regulation, statute, command, institution, decision”), in the Zoroastrian tradition the most general term for law.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DĀD (2)

    a vocal and instrumental gūša (motif), in reality more of a melodic type than a modal structure.

    (Jean During)

  • DĀD (3)

    (lit., “justice”), a Tehran afternoon newspaper, 1942-61.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DĀD NASK

    (law book), one of the three divisions of the Avesta, comprising seven nasks, subdi­vided into the five strictly legal (dādīg) nasks (Nikātum, Duzd-sar-nizad, Huspāram, Sakātum, and Vidēvdād) and the two disparate nasks, Čihrdād and Bagān Yašt.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DADA ʿOMAR ROŠENĪ

    cofounder of the Ḵalwatī Sufi order. See DEDE ÖMER RUŞENĪ

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DADARSIS

    Old Persian name derived from darš “to dare”; three men with this name are known.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • DADESTAN

    (dād “law,” with the formative suffix -stān), a Middle Persian term used with denota­tions and connotations that vary with the legal, reli­gious, philosophical, and social context.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DĀDESTĀN Ī DĒNĪG

    (Religious judgements), Pahlavi work by Manūščihr, high priest of the Persian Zoroastrian community in the 9th century.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DADESTAN Ī MENOG Ī XRAD

    (Judgments of the Spirit of Wisdom), a Zoroastrian Pahlavi book in sixty-three chapters (a preamble and sixty-two ques­tions and answers).

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DĀDGĀH "COURT"

    court of law. See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTURY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀDGĀH "TEMPLE FIRE"

    See ĀTAŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀDGAR, ḤOSAYN

    ʿAdl-al-Molk (b. Tehran ca. 1299/1881, d. 1349 Š./1970), at various times president of the Persian Majles, cabi­net minister, and senator under the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • DĀDGOSTARĪ, WEZĀRAT-E

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀDĪŠOʿ

    (Syr. “beloved of Jesus”; Payne Smith, col. 824, s.v.; Pers. “given by Jesus”), catholicus of the Sasanian “Nestorian” church in 420/21-455/56.

    (Erica C. D. Hunter)

  • DĀDIŠOʿ

    (d. ca. 604), head of the Great monastery on Mount Izla in Ṭur ʿAbdin, north of Nisibis. He completed the monastic reform (6th-7th century) with his own rules, reinforcing the cenobitic way of life.

    (Florence Jullien)

  • DADISOʿ QATRAYA

    (late 7th century), Nestorian author of ascetic literature in Syriac. Pre­sumably a native of Qaṭar, as his surname suggests, he lived for a time at the monastery of Rabban Šābūr, near Šostar in Ḵūzestān. His writings included commentaries on the Paradise of the Fathers and on the 26 “discourses” of Abbā Isaiah; fragments of the latter are found in Sogdian translation.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • DĀḎMEHR b. FARROḴĀN

    espahbad of Ṭabarestān. See Dabuyids.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DADWAR, DADWARIH

    respectively judge, administrator of justice, lawgiver, lit., “bearer of law.”

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DADYSETH, Dadibhai Noshirwanji

    (1734-99), a distinguished Parsi philanthropist.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal)

  • DADYSETH AGIARY

    in 1771 C.E. Dadibhai Noshirwanji Dadyseth established an agiary with an Ādarān fire for the sake of the soul of his first wife, Kunverbai, in the Fort district of Bombay.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal)

  • DADYSETH ATAS BAHRAM

    the oldest Ātaš Bahrām of Bombay, consecrated and installed according to Kadmi rites in the district of Fanaswadi on the day of Sarōš, month of Farvardīn 1153 A.Y./29 September 1783.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal)

  • DAĒNA

    See DĒN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAF(F) AND DAYERA

    terms applied to types of frame drum common in both the art music and popular traditions of Persia. Such drums have long been known throughout Asia in various forms and under different names. The term dāyera originally referred to the flat, circular drums of pre-­Islamic Arabia.

    (Jean During, Veronica Doubleday)

  • DAFTAR

    an administrative office, as well as a notebook or booklet, more especially an account book or correspondence regis­ter, used in such an office.

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • DAFTAR-E ASNĀD-E RASMĪ

    (Registry of official documents), a government department where documents and records of transactions, contracts, marriages, divorces, and the like are kept and signa­tures verified.

    (Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī)

  • DAFTAR-ḴĀNA-YE HOMĀYŪN

    royal sec­retariat; a Safavid administrative unit headed by the daftardār, or chief secretary.

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • DĀḠ

    “brand.” According to Rašīd-al-Dīn Fażl-Allāh, “The tamḡā was a special emblem or mark that the Turkish and Mongol peoples stamped on decrees and also branded on their flocks.” Each of the twenty-four tribes of the Oḡuz Turkmen had its own tamḡā, with which it branded its flocks.

    (Ṣādeq Sajjādī)

  • DĀḠESTĀN

    (Daghestan). The many-faceted relationship between Dāḡestān (ancient Albania), a region in the eastern Caucasus, and Persia since antiquity has yet to be studied as a whole, though there is considerable historical, linguis­tic, folkloric, literary, and art-historical evidence bear­ing on it.

    (Gadzhi Gamzatovich Gamzatov, Fridrik Thordarson)

  • DĀḠESTĀNĪ, FATḤ ʿALĪ KHAN

    b. Alqāṣ Mīrzā b. Ildirim Khan Šamḵāl, grand vizier (wazīr-e aʿẓam, eʿtemād-al-dawla) under Shah Solṭān-Ḥosayn I Ṣafawī (1105-35/1694-1722).

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • DAGH BARY

    part of the defensive system in the eastern Caucasus constructed during the reign of Ḵosrow I (r. 531-79).

    (Murtazali Gadjiev)

  • DAGUERREOTYPE

    the first practical photo­graphic process, introduced into Persia in the early 1840s, shortly after its official presentation to the French Académie de Science in Paris in 1839. Acceptance of the medium of photography in Persia reflected the cultural value attached to painting in general and portraiture in particular.

    (Chahryar Adle)

  • ḎAHABĪYA

    a Sufi order of Shiʿite allegiance, ultimately derived from the Kobrawīya order.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DAHAE

    i. The name. ii. The people.

    (François de Blois, Willem Vogelsang)

  • DAHAN-E ḠOLĀMĀN

    “Gateway of the slaves,” site ca. 30 km southeast of Zābol in Sīstān. It is the sole large provincial capital surviving from the Achaemenid empire; excavations there have brought to light a combination of “imperial” elements, identified in the public buildings, and local elements.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • DAHBĪDĪYA

    a hereditary line of Naqšbandī Sufis centered on the shrine at Dahbīd, a village about 11 km. from Samarqand.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DAHM YAZAD

    the Middle Persian name of the Zoroastrian divinity (also known as Dahmān Āfrīn and Dahmān) who is the spirit or force inherent in the Avestan benediction called Dahma Vaŋuhi Āfriti, or Dahma Āfriti.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • DAHRĪ

    (< Ar.-Pers. dahr “time, eternity”), a theological term referring either to an atheist or to an adherent of the doctrine that the universe had no beginning in time.

    (Mansour Shaki, Daniel Gimaret)

  • DAHYU

    country (often with reference to the people inhabiting it).

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • DAʿĪ

    he who summons; a term used by several Muslim groups, especially the Ismaʿilis, to designate their propagandists or missionaries.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • DĀʿĪ

    the pen name of Aḥmad b. Ebrāhīm b. Moḥammad, Turkish scholar and poet who wrote in both Persian and Turkish.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • DĀʿĪ BOḴĀRĪ

    (d. 1885), poet from Bukhara, probably born during the reign of Amir Naṣr-Allāh (1827-60).

    (Cathérine Poujol)

  • DĀʿĪ-AL-ESLĀM, SAYYED MOḤAMMAD ʿALĪ

    Per­sian scholar, preacher, and lexicographer, born 1295/1878 at Lārījān.

    (M. Saleem Akhtar)

  • DĀʿĪ ELAʾL-ḤAQQ, ABŪ ʿABD ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    b. Zayd b. Moḥammad b. Esmāʿīl b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb (d. 287/900), brother and successor of Ḥasan b. Zayd, founder of Zaydī rule in Rūyān and Ṭabarestān.

    (Wilfred Madelung)

  • DĀʿĪ JĀN NĀPELʾON

    lit., “Uncle Napoleon”, a satirical novel written in 1348-49 Š./1969-70 by Īraj Pezeškzād, who was already known in Persia for writing such satirical novels.

    (Nasrin Rahimiyeh)

  • DĀʿĪ-E KABĪR

    See ḤASAN b. ZAYD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀʿĪ-E ṢAḠĪR

    See ḤASAN b. QĀSEM ʿALAWĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀʿĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    (1407-65), poet, preacher, and leader of the Neʿmat-Allāhī Sufi order in Fārs.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • DĀITYĀ, VAŊHVĪ

    the name of a river connected with the religious law, frequently identified in scholarly literature with the Oxus or with rivers of the northeastern region.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • DAIUKKU

    See DEIOCES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • *DAIVA

    Old Iranian noun (Av. daēuua-, OPers. daiva-) corresponding to the title devá;- of the Indian gods and thus reflecting the Indo-European heritage (*deiu̯ó;-).

    (Clarisse Herrenschmidt and Jean Kelllens)

  • DAIVADANA

    lit., "temple of the daivas," Old Persian term that appears in the “daiva inscrip­tion” of Xerxes at Persepolis.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • DAJJĀL

    lit. "the great deceiver"; in Islamic tradition the maleficent figure gifted with supernatural powers whose advent and brief, though quasi-universal, rule will be among the signs heralding the approach of the resurrection.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ḎAKAʾ-AL-MOLK

    See FORŪḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ; FORŪḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAKANĪ, SAYYED MĪR ʿABD AL ḤAMĪD MAʿṢŪM ʿALISĀH

    (ca. 1738-97), the “renewer” (mojadded) of the Neʿmat-Allāhī Sufi order in Persia and thus the initiatory ancestor of all present­-day Neʿmat-Allāhīs.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DAKANĪ, REŻĀ ʿALĪŠĀH

    also known as Shah ʿAlī-Reżā (1683-1799), leader (qoṭb, lit., “pole”) in the years 1741-99 of the Neʿmat-­Allāhī Sufi order in Hyderabad (Deccan), India.

    (Javad Nurbakhsh)

  • DAḴĪL

    lit. “interceder”; a piece of rag or cord or a lock fastened (daḵīl bastan) on a sacred place or object, for example, the railing around a saint’s tomb or grave or a public fountain (saqqā-ḵāna), the branch of a tree considered sacred, or another plant, in order to obtain a desired benefit.

    (Ḥosayn-ʿAlī Beyhaqī)

  • ḎAḴĪRA-YE ḴᵛĀRAZMŠĀHĪ

    early 13th-century Persian ency­clopedia of medical knowledge compiled by Sayyed Esmāʿīl b. Ḥosayn Jorjānī.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • DAḴMA

    in Zoroastrian practice, enclosure or structure for the exposure of the dead. See CORPSE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DALMĀ TEPE

    The excavations revealed a mass of handmade, chaff-­tempered pottery with fine grit inclusions, fired to orange or pink, frequently with a gray core. A few sherds have smoothed, undecorated surfaces and have been labeled “Dalma plain ware.”

    (Robert H. Dyson, Jr.)

  • DALQAK

    buffoon, court jester, also sometimes known as masḵara.

    (Farrokh Gaffary)

  • DAL’VERZIN TEPE

    a large site in southern Uzbekistan located not far from the bank of the Surkhan­darya river near Denau, a small city approximately 60 km northeast of Termez; it has yielded valuable data on the civilization and arts of northern Bactria and Tokharistan.

    (G. A. Pugachenkova)

  • DAM (1)

    See BAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAM (2)

    archeological site in Afghanistan, 30°55’ N, 62°01’ E, located approximately 20 km east of the Helmand delta.

    (Klaus Fischer)

  • DĀM-DĀRĪ

    animal husbandry. In gen­eral, livestock raising in the Persian-speaking world is dominated by small animals, with a large proportion of goats, which in certain provinces of Persia itself are even more numerous than sheep. Cattle and equines, especially donkeys, are far less important.

    (Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • DĀM PEZEŠKĪ

    veterinary medicine.

    (Mansour Shaki, Ḥasan Tājbaḵš, and Ṣādeq Sajjādī)

  • DĀMĀD, MĪR(-E), SAYYED MOḤAMMAD BĀQER

    b. Mīr Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad Ḥosaynī Astarābādī (d. 1041/1631), leading Twelver Shiʿite theologian, philosopher, jurist, and poet of 17th-century Persia.

    (Andrew J. Newman)

  • DAMASCUS, Zoroastrians at

    The earliest evi­dence for the presence of Zoroastrians at Damascus is provided by Berossus, who stated that this was one of the cities of the Achaemenid empire at which Artaxerxes II (404-358 b.c.e.) had a statue set up for “Anaitis”

    (Mary Boyce)

  • DAMASPIA

    name of a Persian queen, wife of Artaxerxes I and mother of his legal heir, Xerxes II (424/3 B.C.E.).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DAMĀVAND

    mountain, town, and administrative district (šahrestān) in the central Alborz region.

    (Bernard Hourcade, Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DĀMDĀD NASK

    the Middle Persian (Pahlavi) name of one of the lost nasks of the Avesta.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DAMELĪ

    See DARDESTĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀMḠĀN

    (Damghan) Persian town located on a plain south of the Alborz range, 342 km east of Tehran. Situated on the main highway from Tehran to Nīšāpūr, Mašhad, and Herat, it also dominates less important roads north to Sārī and Gorgān, as well as tracks leading south to Yazd and Isfahan via Jandaq.

    (Chahryar Adle)

  • DĀMḠĀNĪ (1)

    nesba of a leading family of jurists of Persian origin, descendants of Abū ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Kabīr (b. Dāmḡān 1007, d. Baghdad 1085), a well-known exponent of Hanafite law, who served as the chief magistrate (qāżī al-qożāt) of Baghdad.

    (EIr)

  • DĀMḠĀNĪ (2)

    nesba of a father and two sons from Dāmḡān who worked as engineers, builders, and stucco carvers in the early 14th century.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • DĀMḠĀNĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ DĀMḠĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀMI-

    Avestan word, probably the noun of agency connected with Old Avestan dāman- “stake," thus “the one who drives the stake.”

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DAMIRI, MOḤAMMAD

    MOḤAMMAD b. Musā b. ʿIsā Kamāl al-Din Ebn Elyās b. ʿAbd-Allāh al-Damiri (b. Cairo, A.H. 745/A.D. 1342, d. Cairo, A.H. 808/ A.D. 1405), a tailor turned Shāfiʿi theologian, is best known for his Ḥayātal-ḥayawān (Animal Life). It is a comprehensive work on all that pertains to animals, which became widely disseminated in the Islamic world in three recensions--long (kobrā), intermediate (wosṭā), and short (şoḡrā).

    (Gül A. Russell)

  • DAMPOḴT(AK)

    or DAMĪ, terms referring to rice cooked in a single pot.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • DANCE

    (raqṣ). Single dancers or groups of dancers represented on pottery from prehistoric Iranian sites (e.g., Tepe Siyalk, Tepe Mūsīān) attest the antiquity of this art in Iran. According to Duris of Samos (apud Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae), the Achaemenid Persians learned to dance, just as they learned to ride horseback.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi, Robyn C. Friend)

  • DANDĀN ÖILÏQ (“ivory houses”)

    lit. “ivory houses”; ruined city located about 50 km north of the Domoko oasis in the eastern portion of the oasis complex of Khotan, in Chinese Turkestan.

    (Gerd Gropp)

  • DANDĀNQĀN

    a small town of medieval Khorasan, in the Qara Qum, or sandy desert, between Marv and Saraḵs, 10 farsaḵs from the former, on which it was administratively dependent.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DĀNEŠ

    lit., “knowledge”; title of seven newspa­pers and journals published in Persia and the Indian subcontinent, presented here in chronological order.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DĀNEŠ, AḤMAD MAḴDŪM

    b. Mīr b. Yūsof ḤANAFĪ ṢEDDĪQĪ BOḴĀRĪ (1242-1314/1827-97), known as Aḥmad Kallā and Mohandes (lit., “engineer”), a historian and progressive Tajik writer of Bukhara.

    (Vincent Fourniau)

  • DĀNEŠ, ḤOSAYN

    (b. Istanbul 1870, d. Ankara 1943), a leading Turco-Persian poet, journalist, and scholar who wrote on literary, political, and social issues for many Persian newspapers.

    (Peter J. Chelkowski)

  • DĀNEŠ, REŻĀ KHAN ARFAʿ

    pen name of MOʿĪN-AL-WEZĀRA MĪRZĀ REŻĀ KHAN ARFAʿ (Arfaʿ-al-Dawla; ca. 1846-1937), also known as Prince Reżā Arfaʿ, diplomat and poet of the late Qajar period.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • DĀNEŠ, TAQĪ

    (b. Tabrīz, 1861, d. Tehran 24 February 1948), poet and govern­ment official.

    (Īraj Afšār)

  • DĀNEŠ-NĀMA YE ʿALĀʾĪ

    Persian philosophical treatise written by Avicenna (980-1037).

    (Hamid Dabashi)

  • DĀNEŠ-NĀMA-YE ĪRĀN WA ESLĀM

    Encyclopedia of Iran and Islam.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • DĀNEŠ-NĀMA-YE QADAR KHAN

    (Book of knowledge [dedicated to] Qadar Khan), a Persian dictionary compiled by Ašrāf b. Šaraf Moḏakker Fārūḡī primarily in Malwa, India, and completed in 1405.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE ʿĀLĪ

    See EDUCATION; TEACHERS' TRAINING. See also JĀMEʿA-YE LISĀNSIAHĀ-YE DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE ʿĀLI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE MOQADDAMĀTĪ

    See EDUCATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNESF(AH)ĀN

    locally Donesbon, a village located at 49°45′ E, 35°47′ N in the southern part of the Rāmand district of Qazvīn province, 30 km west and slightly north of Būyīn; it has a population of a little over 3,000.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • DĀNEŠGĀH

    See EDUCATION; entries on indi­vidual universities.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNEŠGĀH-E JANG

    See MILITARY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DANESHVAR, REZA

    (1948-2015), fiction writer, and playwright, who received substantial recognition both in Iran and abroad.

    (Forogh Hashabeiky and Behrooz Sheyda)

  • DĀNEŠKADA

    a monthly literary journal published from Ṯawr 1297/April 1918 to Ṯawr 1298/April 1919 in Tehran by the distinguished poet, literary critic, and scholar Moḥammad-Taqi Malek-al-Šoʿarāʾ Bahār, considered the leading Persian literary figure of his time. It was named for a literary society founded by Bahār a year earlier.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DĀNEŠKĀDA

    See EDUCATION; FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNEŠKĀDA-YE AFSARĪ

    See MILITARY.

    (Cross-reference)

  • DĀNEŠKADA-YE EṢFAHĀN

    a monthly literary journal and the organ of a society of the same name, published in two series in Isfahan by the poet and calligrapher Mirzā ʿAbbās Khan Dehkordi Šeydā (1299/1882-1328 Š./1949), who, in 1908, also published Baladiya-ye Eṣfahān (see Baladīya).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DĀNEŠMAND

    (d. 1104), Amir Ḡāzī Taylu Gümüš tigin Aḥmad (or Moḥammad), founder of a Turkman dynasty in northern Cappadocia toward the end of the 11th century.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • DĀNEŠMAND

    See ʿABD-AL-BĀQI TABRIZI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNEŠMAND BAHĀDOR

    Mongol com­mander (d. 1306).

    (Peter Jackson)

  • DĀNEŠMAND-E ḤĀJEB

    Muslim officer in Mongol service in the first half of the 13th century.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • DANESTAMA

    a mud-brick structure on diaper masonry foundations located on the left bank of the Sorḵāb river, 34 km north of Doāb-e Mīḵzarīn on the road to Došī.

    (Klaus Fischer)

  • DĀNG

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNĪĀL B. MOŠEH QŪMESĪ

    Persian Jewish scholar and exegete of the Karaite sect, the members of which rejected rabbinical writings later than the Bible itself.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • DĀNĪĀL-E NABĪ

    Dānīāl is not mentioned in the Koran but is venerated as a prophet in Muslim tradition. Eschatological statements and the prophecy recounted in Daniel 12:12 (supposedly concerning the year 1335) have been interpreted by Jews as referring to the coming of the Messiah.

    (Amnon Netzer, Nicholas Sims-Williams, Parvīz Varjāvand, Amnon Netzer)

  • DANISH-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    See DENMARK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAQĀYEQĪ MARVAZĪ, ŠAMS-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿAlī, the supposed author of a version of the Baḵtīār­nāma, who lived from the late 12th to the 13th century.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • DAQĪQĪ, ABŪ MANṢŪR AḤMAD

    b. Aḥmad, one of the famous poets of the last years of the Samanid (819-1005) dynasty.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • DAQQĀQ, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ DAQQĀQ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎARʿ

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀR AL-FONŪN

    lit., “polytechnic college”; a college founded in Tehran in 1268/1851 by Mīrzā Ṭāqī Khan Amīr-e Kabīr, which marked the begin­ning of modern education in Persia.

    (John Gurney and Negin Nabavi)

  • DĀR AL- ḤARB

    “the realm of war”; lands not under Islamic rule, a juridical term for certain non-­Muslim territory, though often construed, especially by Western writers, as a geopolitical concept implying the necessity for perpetual, even if generally latent, warfare between the Muslim state and its non-Muslim neighbors.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DAR-E MEHR

    a Zoroastrian term first recorded in the Persian Rivāyats and Parsi Gujarati writings.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • DĀR AL-ŠŪRĀ-YE KOBRĀ

    See WEZĀRAT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀR(- E) TANHĀ

    lit., “the lonely tree”; an ar­cheological site in the district of Badr, near the village of Jabar, ca. 70 km east-southeast of Īlām, in the province of Pošt-e Kūh.

    (Ernie Haerinck)

  • DĀR AL-ŻARB

    See ŻARRĀB-ḴĀNA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀ

    the name of a Parthian city and of a Byzan­tine garrison town of the Sasanian period.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • DĀRĀ(B) (1)

    or DĀRĀB, the name of two kings of the legendary Kayanid dynasty.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DĀRĀ

    See ĀL-E BĀVAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRA, MIRZĀ

    See ʿABDALLĀH MĪRZĀ DĀRĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀ ROSTAM

    See ĀL-E BĀVAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀ ŠOKŌH

    (b. near Ajmer, 20 March 1615, d. Delhi, 12 August 1659), first son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān and his wife Momtāz Maḥall, religious thinker, mystic, poet, and author of a number of works in Persian.

    (Annemarie Schimmel)

  • DĀRĀB

    the name Dārāb refers both to a šahrestān (subprovince) of Fārs province and to its chief city.

    (Massoud Kheirabadi, Dietrich Huff, Georgina Herrmann)

  • DARAB PAHLAN, DASTUR

    Zoroastrian priest and author (b. Navsari, Gujarat, 1668, d. Navsari, 1 September 1734), eldest son of Pahlan Fredoon, who was accorded the title “dastur” (high priest) and the privilege of occupying the second chair in the Zoroastrian assembly of the small port of Navsari in 1670 or perhaps earlier.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • DĀRĀB-NĀMA

    prose romance of the 12th century, by Abū Ṭāher Moḥammad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Mūsā Ṭārsūsī (or Ṭarṭūsī), in which the adventures of the legendary Kayanid king Dārāb, son of Bahman (also called Ardašīr) and Homāy, variously identified as the daughter of king Sām Čāraš of Egypt or of Ardašīr (=Bahman), are recounted.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • DĀRĀBGERD

    See Dārā(b) II.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀBĪ

    See CITRUS FRUITS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀBĪ SAYYED JAʿFAR

    b. Abī Esḥāq Mūsawī Borūjerdī Kašfī (b. Eṣṭahbānāt in Fārs, 1775, d. Borūjerd 1851), religious scholar, nephew of the Aḵbārī Yūsuf b. Aḥmad Baḥrānī and father of Sayyed Yaḥyā Waḥīd Dārābī.

    (Andrew J. Newman)

  • DĀRĀBĪ SAYYED YAḤYĀ

    (b. Yazd, ca. 1811, d. Neyrīz, 1850), Babi leader usually known as Waḥīd (unique), a title given him by the Bāb; the eldest son of Sayyed Jaʿfar Kašfī Eṣṭah-bānātī, he received a Muslim religious education and, like his father, was associated with the Qajar court.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • DARAFŠ -E KĀVĪĀN

    See DERĀFŠ-E KĀVĪĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀʾĪ, WEZĀRAT

    See FINANCE MINISTRY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARĀMAD

    lit., “introduction”; an episode in the course of a musical performance, the nature and length of which vary with the material introduced.

    (Jean During)

  • DARARIĀN, Vigen

    (1929-2003) renowned pop singer and performer on the guitar.

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi)

  • DARĀZ-DAST

    See DERĀZ-DAST; ARDAŠĪR; BAHMAN (2).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARB -E EMĀM

    large shrine complex in the old Sonbolestān quarter of Isfahan. The main structure, consisting of entrance portal (sar-dar), vestibule, and tomb, was built in 1453 and expanded and modified several times during the Safavid period.

    (Parvīz Varjāvand)

  • DARBAND

    (Ar. Bāb al-Abwāb), ancient city in Dāḡestān on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, located at the entrance to the narrow pass between the Caucasus foothills and the sea.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • DARBAND EPIGRAPHY

    epigraphic remains on the walls of Darband, from Sasanian through Medieval Islamic times.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • DARBAND EPIGRAPHY i. MIDDLE PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS

    Thirty-two Pahlavi inscriptions of the mid-6th century CE are engraved on the defensive walls of the city of Darband.

    (Murtazali Gadjiev)

  • DARBAND EPIGRAPHY ii. DAR-E QIĀMAT SHRINE

    a medieval Muslim cultic site, now forgotten and non-functioning, in Darband.

    (Murtazali Gadjiev)

  • DARBAND QUARTER

    a former village in the summer resort (yeylāq) of Šamīrān, situated at an elevation of 1,700 m on the extreme northern edge of the capital, where the Alborz foothills begin.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • DARBANDĪ, MULLA ĀQĀ

    b. ʿĀbed b. Ramażān, commonly known as Fāżel Darbandī (d. Tehran, 1869-70), Shiʿite scholar and preacher of the Qajar period, renowned for his disputatious and irascible character.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DARBĀR

    See BĀR; COURTS AND COURTIERS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARBĀR -E AʿẒAM

    lit., “the great court”; a council of ministers established in October 1872 as one of several experiments undertaken in the reign of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96) to reorganize and rationalize the Persian administration on the model of Western cabinet government.

    (Guity Nashat)

  • DĀRČĪNĪ

    lit., “Chinese tree/wood."

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • D'ARCY, JOSEPH

    (Pers. “Mester Bārūt,” “Qūlūnel Khan,” “Qonsūl Khan”; b. Portsmouth, England, 14 March 1780, d. Lymington, England, 17 February 1848), major (later lieutenant colonel) in the British Royal Artillery who arrived in Persia in 1226/1811 with the ambassador Sir Gore Ouseley; he was one of a group of British officers and enlisted men who were to reform and equip the Persian army.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • D'ARCY, WILLIAM KNOX

    (b. Newton Abbot, Devonshire, England, 11 October 1849, d. Stanmore, Middlesex, England, 1 May 1917), petroleum entrepreneur and founder of the oil industry in Persia and the Middle East.

    (Fuad Rouhani)

  • DARD, ḴᵛĀJA MĪR

    (b. Delhi, 13 September 1721; d. 11 January 1785), poet and author of prose works on mystical theology.

    (Annemarie Schimmel)

  • DARDESTĀN

    The toponym Dardestān is a social and political construct. Its currency toward the end of the 19th century in many ways reflected an attempt by supporters of imperial India to link the Indian northwestern frontier tracts to Kashmir, with which the British had treaties.

    (Nigel J. R. Allan, D. I. Edel’man)

  • DĀREMĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿOṮMĀN

    b. Saʿīd b. Ḵāled SEJESTĀNĪ, Persian traditionist and jurist (b. ca. 816, d. February 894).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • DARGĀHĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    (b. Zanjān, 1899, d. Tehran, 1952), first chief of the state police under Reżā Shah.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • DARGĀHQOLĪ KHAN ḎU’L-QADR

    also known as Moʿtaman-al-Dawla Moʿtaman-al-Molk Sālār-Jang Ḵān-e Dawrān Nawwāb (b. Sangamnēr, Deccan, 1710, d. Awrangābād, 22 October 1766), Persian official at Hyderabad and Awrangābād, best known for his description of Delhi.

    (M. Saleem Akhtar)

  • DARGAZĪNĪ

    nesba (attributive name) for Dargazīn (or Darjazīn), borne by several viziers of the Great Saljuqs in the 12th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DARĪ

    name given to the New Persian literary language at a very early date and widely attested in Arabic and Persian texts since the 10th century.

    (Gilbert Lazard)

  • DARĪ IN AFGHANISTAN

    See AFGHANISTAN v. LANGUAGES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎARĪʿA elā TAṢĀNĪF al-ŠĪʿA

    a comprehensive bibliography of Imami Shiʿite works in twenty-five volumes compiled by Shaikh Moḥammad-Moḥsen Āqā Bozorg Ṭehrānī (1876-1970); it contains about 55,000 entries for works written up to 1950-51.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • DARIC

    Achaemenid gold coin which was introduced by Darius I toward the end of the 6th century.

    (Michael Alram)

  • DARĪGBED

    title of a low-ranking official at the Sasanian court.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • DARIUS

    (NPers. Darīūš, Dārā), name of several Achaemenid and Parthian rulers and princes.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • DARIUS i. The Name

    the common Latin form of Greek Dareîos, itself a shortened rendering of Old Persian five-syllable Dārayavauš, the throne name of Darius the Great and two other kings of the Achaemenid dynasty, which thus enjoyed considerable popularity among noblemen in later periods

    (Rudiger Schmitt)

  • DARIUS ii. Darius the Mede

    In the Old Testament Book of Daniel Darius the Mede is mentioned (5:30-31) as ruler after the slaying of the “Chaldean king” Belshazzar.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • DARIUS iii. Darius I the Great

    third Achaemenid king of kings (r. 29 September 522-October 486 BCE). Once he gained power, Darius placed the empire on foundations that lasted for nearly two centuries and influenced the organization of subsequent states, including the Seleucid and Roman empires.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • DARIUS iv. Darius II

    the sixth Achaemenid king of kings (r. February 423- March 403 B.C.E.). He had been satrap of Hyrcania. Darius was his throne name; his given name is reported in classical sources as Ochus.

    (Heleen Sanchisi-Weerdenburg)

  • DARIUS v. Darius III

    (b. ca. 380 BCE, d. mid-330), the last Achaemenid king. The lack of sources is especially severe for his life and reign. There are no Persian royal texts or monuments, and what is known comes almost solely from the Greek historians, who depicted his career mainly as a contrast to the brilliant first few years of Alexander the Great.

    (EIr.)

  • DARIUS vi. Achaemenid Princes

    the name of two Achaemenid princes in addition to the emperors who bore it.

    (Rudiger Schmitt)

  • DARIUS vii. Parthian Princes

    In 64 B.C.E. while his father, Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus (ca. 121/20-63 B.C.E.), was fighting his last, losing campaign against the troops of the Roman general Pompey (106-48 B.C.E.), the child Darius was taken prisoner, along with several brothers and his sister Eupatra, in Phanagoria

    (Rudiger Schmitt)

  • DARIUS viii. Darius Son of Artabanus

    A son of the Parthian king Artabanus II named Darius was sent as a hostage to Rome shortly after an interview between Artabanus and the Roman legate for Syria, Vitellius, in 37 C.E.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • DARJAZĪN

    (or Dargazīn), name of two rural subdistricts (dehestāns) and a village in the Razan district (baḵš) of Hamadān province.

    (Parviz Aḏkāʾī)

  • DARKE, Hubert Seymour Garland

    In 1961 Darke was appointed University Lecturer in Persian at Cambridge, where he taught language and literature for the next twenty years. His particular interests were Early New Persian and Persian prosody. His major research achievement was the definitive edition and translation of the Siar al-moluk, a manual of government by the celebrated Saljuq vizier Neẓām-al-Molk.

    (John R. Perry)

  • DARMESTETER, JAMES

    (b. Château-Salins, Alsace, 12 March 1849, d. Paris, 19 October 1894), the great Iranist, was the son of a Jewish bookbinder, who in 1852 moved to Paris to improve his children’s educational opportunities.

    (Mary Boyce and D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DARRA-YE BARRA

    lit. "Valley of the lamb", a locality in Fārs province, 2.5 km east-northeast of the Achaemenid royal tombs at Naqš-e Rostam. Several rock-cut monuments are scattered on steep scree and in the cliff on the north side of the valley. The most outstanding feature is the tallest fire altar so far found in Fārs.

    (Rémy Boucharlat)

  • DARRA-YE NŪR

    name of a small tributary valley on the right bank of the Konar river in eastern Afghanistan and the corresponding subdistrict of Nangrahār province.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DARRA-YE ṢŪF

    name of a valley in northern Afghanistan, drained by a tributary of the right bank of the Balḵāb, and of the adjoining mountain district and its administrative center in Samangān province.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DARRAGAZ

    or DARGAZ (Valley of the tamarisks), a fertile valley about 50-55 km east-west and 30-35 km north-south in the Kopet Dagh range in northern Khorasan, at about 450 m above sea level, in which are located a šahrestān (subprovince) and a town of the same name.

    (Massoud Kheirabadi, Philip Kohl)

  • DARRAŠŪRĪ

    one of the five major tribes of the Qašqāʾī tribal confederation.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • DARRŪS

    district in northern Tehran east of Qol-hak and south of Qayṭarīya, all former suburbs of the city; it is located about 8 km from the center of the modern city.

    (Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd, John Curtis)

  • DĀRŪ

    See DRUGS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRŪḠA

    See CITIES iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARVĀZ

    a largely autonomous principality with territory on both sides of the upper course of the Āmū Daryā, known as the Panj, until the partition between czarist Russia and the Afghan kingdom in the last quarter of the 19th century.

    (Jan-Heeren Grevemeyer)

  • DARVĀZA

    (gateway), generally an entrance opening wide enough to permit passage of vehicles, in contrast to doorways, which are smaller openings to permit passage through a wall or fence.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • DARVĀZA TEPE

    (or Tall-e Darvāza), a village site in the southeastern Kor river basin, in Fārs province, occupied in three stages from 1800 B.C.E. to 800 B.C.E., according to radiocarbon dates of the finds, and characterized by an essential continuity in both architecture and other aspects of material culture.

    (Linda K. Jacobs)

  • DARVĪŠ

    a poor, indigent, ascetic, and abstemious person or recluse.

    (Mansour Shaki, Hamid Algar)

  • DARVĪŠ, ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD ṬĀLAQĀNĪ

    See ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD ṬĀLAQĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARVĪŠ AḤMAD QĀBEŻ

    (d. 1507), Timurid vizier.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • DARVĪŠ ʿALĪ BŪZJĀNĪ

    See BŪZJĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARVĪŠ ʿALĪ, AMĪR NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN KüKäLTĀŠ KETĀBDĀR

    Timurid amir under Solṭān-Ḥosayn Bāyqarā (1469-1506) and younger brother of ʿAlī-Šīr Navāʾ.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • DARVĪŠ KHAN, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN

    (b. Tehran, 1872, d. Tehran, 23 November 1926), master musician, renowned teacher, and innovative composer of Persian classical music.

    (Margaret Caton)

  • DARVĪŠ REŻĀ

    (d. 1040/1631), a qezelbāš functionary who claimed to be the awaited Mahdī.

    (Kathryn Babayan)

  • DARYĀ

    sea or river.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • DĀRYĀ

    a Tehran morning daily of news and politics, published with a number of interruptions from May 1944 to March 1951.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DARYĀ-YE ḴAZAR

    See CASPIAN SEA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARYĀ-YE MĀZANDARĀN

    See CASPIAN SEA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARYĀ-YE NŪR

    lit., “sea of light”; one of the largest diamonds in the world, kept and exhibited in the Jewel museum of the Central bank of Persia (Bānk-e markazī-e Īrān).

    (Yaḥyā Ḏokāʾ)

  • DARYĀ-YE ʿOMĀN

    See ʿOMĀN, SEA OF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARYĀ-YE SĪĀH

    See BLACK SEA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARYĀBEYGĪ

    lit. "sea lord"; originally an Ottoman naval title dating from the 15th century.

    (Guity Nashat)

  • DARYĀČA

    For individual lakes, see entries under the respective names.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRZĪN

    village on the road between Kermān and Bam on the site of a large, early medieval town. Ruins of buildings of different periods still stand. The earliest are probably three small forts of similar form, built of straw-tempered rectangular mud bricks, which may date from the 8th or 9th century.

    (Mehrdad Shokoohy)

  • DĀŠ ĀKOL

    a story in the first collection of short stories by Sadeq Hedayat.

    (Soheila Saremi)

  • DASĀTĪN

    the term for modes in early musical theory, translated into Arabic as aṣābeʿ (fingers) and sometimes also as mawājeb “obligations, laws.”

    (Jean During)

  • DASĀTĪR

    the most important tract of the Āḏar Kayvānī sect, almost certainly the work of its founder, Āḏar Kayvān.

    (Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabaʾī)

  • DASCYLIUM

    Achaemenid satrapy in northwestern Anatolia, part of the Persian empire until the 330s BCE. The borders varied, extending as far south as the Mysian plain and the southern Troad and east into the land of the Bithynian peoples; some satraps controlled both sides of the Hellespont.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • DASKARA(T AL- MALEK)

    or DASKARAT AL-MALEK. See DASTGERD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAŠLĪ

    or Dashly; oasis situated south of the Āmū Daryā, on the desert plain of northern Afghanistan, ancient Bactria, now in the province of Jūzjān ca 35 km northeast of Āqča.

    (Pierre Amiet)

  • DAŠNAK

    short name for Hay Yełapʿoxakan Dašnakcʿutʿiwn (Armenian revolutionary federation [A.R.F.]) or its members.

    (Aram Arkun)

  • DAŠT

    lit. "plain, open ground"; Persian term for a very specific type of landscape, the extended gravel piedmonts and plains that are almost ubiquitous in arid central Persia.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • DAŠT-E ARŽAN

    (also Arjan, Arzan, lit., “plain of the mountain or bitter almond”), a mountain basin ca. 14 x 5-6 km situated 1,500 m above sea level on the road from Shiraz to Kāzerūn.

    (Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd)

  • DAŠT-E MOḠĀN

    See MOḠĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAŠT-E NĀWOR

    lit. “plain of the lake”; a depression (average elev. 3,100 m) 60 x 15 km with a brackish lake in the center, located at 33° 41’ N and 67° 46’ E, about 60 km west of Ḡaznī.

    (Gérard Fussman)

  • DAŠT-E QALʿA

    lit., “plain of the fortress”; small bāzār village on an irrigation canal near the junction of the Kōkča and Āmū Darya rivers in the province of Badaḵšān, northeastern Afghanistan, the site of several earlier settlements.

    (Henri-Paul Francfort)

  • DASTA

    the most common term for a ritual procession held in the Islamic lunar month of Moḥarram and the following month of Ṣafar, both periods of mourning for Imami Shiʿites. The procession commemorates the tragic death of Ḥosayn, grandson of the prophet Moḥammad and the third imam of the Shiʿites.

    (Peter J. Chelkowski)

  • DAŠTAKĪ, ʿAṬĀ-ALLĀH

    (d. 1506, 1511, or 1520), a scholar of Hadith in Khorasan in the late Timurid and early Safavid periods.

    (Andrew J. Newman)

  • DAŠTAKĪ, GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN

    b. Ṣadr-al-Dīn Moḥammad Šīrāzī Ḥosaynī (1462-1541), scholar, philosopher, and motakallem (theologian) of the late Timurid and early Safavid period, and, for a brief interval under Shah Ṭahmāsb, one of two ṣadrs (chief clerical overseers).

    (Andrew J. Newman)

  • DASTĀN

    a term used in two different contexts in Persian music- melody and fingering system.

    (Jean During)

  • DASTĀN (1)

    See ZĀL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀSTĀN (2)

    story, tale, parable. See FICTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DASTĀN [1994]

    (ARCHIVED VERSION)

    by Jean During. As printed in EIr. Vol. VII, Fasc. 1, p. 102.

    (Jean During)

  • DĀSTĀN-SARĀʾĪ

    (storytelling), term used for written and oral genres of fictional narrative.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • DAŠTESTĀN

    or šahrestān, lit. "subprovince" on the Persian Gulf coast in Būšehr province, bounded on the north and east by Fārs province, on the south by the šahrestān of Daštī, and on the west by the šahrestāns of Būšehr, Tangestān, and Ganāva.

    (Jamšīd Ṣadāqat-Kīš)

  • DASTGĀH

    modal system in Persian music, representing a level of organization at which a certain number of melodic types (gūšas) are regrouped and ordered in relation to a dominant mode (māya).

    (Jean During)

  • DASTGERD

    lit. “made by hand, handiwork”; a term originally designating a royal or seigneurial estate.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • DAŠTĪ (subprovince)

    šahrestān (subprovince) on the Persian Gulf in Būšehr province, corresponding approximately to the area referred to as Māndestān and Sīf Āl Moẓaffar in early sources.

    (Jamšīd Ṣadāqat-Kīš)

  • DAŠTĪ (musical mode)

    one of the twelve modal systems in the repertoire of traditional music (radīf); it is an āvāz, or auxiliary modal system, derived from or attached to the dastgāh Šūr.

    (Jean During)

  • DAŠTĪ, ʿALĪ

    (ca. 1894–1982), man of letters, journalist, and politician. Perhaps his innovative and “personal” studies of the principal Persian classical poets will prove the most enduring of his writings; they broke sharply with traditional Persian literary criticism focused on anecdotes, prosody, and explication de textes.

    (J. E. Knörzer)

  • DASTJERDĀNĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    Il-khanid bureaucrat.

    (David O. Morgan)

  • DASTŪR

    in the Sasanian period dastwar had a wide range of meanings, primarily denoting “one in authority, having power”; from that time, the semantic range was increasingly widened to convey different meanings at different times.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DASTŪR AL-AFĀŻEL FĪ LOḠĀT AL-FAŻĀʾEL

    lit. "manual of the learned for learned words"; an early Persian-to-Persian dictionary (farhang-nāma), compiled in India in 1342, during the reign of Moḥammad b. Tōḡloq Shah by Ḥājeb Ḵayrāt Rafīʿ, a poet from Delhi, for his patron Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Jajnīrī.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • DASTŪR-E DABĪRĪ

    comprehensive manual of letter writing by Moḥammad Meyhanī, consisting of an introduction (dībāča) and two chapters (qeṣm; comp. December 1189-January 1190).

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • DASTŪR AL-KĀTEB FĪ TAʿYĪN AL-MARĀTEB

    administrative manual written by Moḥammad Naḵjavānī (ca. 1280-after 1366), son of Faḵr-al-Dīn Hendūšāh b. Sanjar Naḵjavānī, author of Tajāreb al-salaf.

    (David O. Morgan)

  • DASTUR AL-MOLUK

    a manual of administration in Persian from the end of the Safavid period.

    (M. Ismail Marcinkowski)

  • ḎĀT-AL-SALĀSEL

    lit., “provided with chains”; place near Obolla in southern Iraq where in 633 C.E., one of Ṭabarī’s informants, Ḵāled b. Walīd and an Arab force of about 18,000 men defeated a small Sasanian garrison led by a frontier commander named Hormoz.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • DĀTA

    Old Iranian term for “law” attested both in Avestan texts (Old and Younger Av. dāta-) and in Achaemenid royal inscriptions.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DĀTABARA

    title of a high official in the Achaemenid legal and juridical system.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DATAMES

    Iranian personal name, reflecting Old Iranian *Dātama- or *Dātāma-, either a two-stem shortened form *Dāta-m-a- from a compound name like *Dātamiθra- or an unabridged compound *Dātāma-from *Dāta-ama-“to whom force is given.”

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DĀTAMIΘRA

    Iranian personal name resulting from an inversion of Miθra-dāta- “given by Mithra” and continued in the New Persian Dādmehr.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DATAPHERNES

    name of an Iranian (perhaps Bactrian) officer in the entourage of Bessos, murderer of Darius III (336-30 B.C.E.).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DATE PALM

    indigenous to the geobotanical “Sahara-Sind region,” a desert or semidesert belt extending from the Indus valley to North Africa. It is believed by some authorities to be native to the Persian Gulf area and by others to have been derived from the the wild or date-sugar palm of western India.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DATES AND DATING

    in Old and Middle Iranian. The only dating formulas preserved in an Old Iranian language are those found in Old Persian in the Bīsotūn inscriptions of Darius I; by the time of the earliest dated Middle Iranian documents, the Parthian ostraca from Nisa of the 1st century B.C.E., the Zoroastrian (so-called Avestan) calendar was in use.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DATIS

    Iranian personal name.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DAULIER DESLANDES

    (b. Montoire-sur-le-Loir, 1621, d. Paris, 23 October 1715), author of Les Beautez de la Perse ..., a brief but valuable description of Safavid Persia in the years 1075-76/1664-65.

    (Anne Kroell)

  • DAURISES

    name of a Persian general during the Ionian revolt, a son-in-law of Darius I (522-486 B.C.E.).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DAVĀL-PĀ(Y)

    or dovāl-pā, an imaginary evil anthropoid creature characterized by flexible legs (pā) resembling leather straps, which he uses as tentacles to grip and enslave human beings, who then have to carry him on their shoulders or backs and labor for him until they die of fatigue.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DAVALLU

    See QAJAR TRIBES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAVĀN

    village located 12 km northeast of Kāzerūn in Fārs; a distinctive dialect is spoken there. Arable land is very limited and located mostly in the foothills; dry farming is the prevailing form of agriculture. Products include barley, wheat, and fruits—grapes, figs, pomegranates, and pears.

    (Hamid Mahamedi)

  • DAVĀNĪ, JALĀL-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    b. Asʿad Kāzerūnī Ṣeddīqī (b. Davān, q.v., near Kāzerūn in Fārs, 1426-27, d. 1502), often referred to as ʿAllāma Davānī, leading theologian, philosopher, jurist, and poet of late 15th-century Persia.

    (Andrew J. Newman)

  • DĀVAR

    See DĀTABARA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀVAR, ʿALĪ-AKBAR

    (b. Tehran, 1885, d. Tehran, 10 February 1937), journalist, politician, statesman, and founder of the modern Persian judicial system, as well as of several state enterprises in the time of Reżā Shah.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • DĀVARĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ, Mīrzā Moḥammad

    (b. Shiraz 1822-23, d. Shiraz, 1866), poet, calligrapher, and painter of some renown in Qajar Persia and a contemporary of Moḥammad Shah and Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah.

    (ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb Nūrānī Weṣāl)

  • DAVĀZDAH EMĀMĪ

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; IRAN ix. Relgions in Iran (2) Islam in Iran.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAVĀZDAH HŌMĀST

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAVĀZDAH ROḴ

    lit. "twelve combats"; designation of a relatively long episode in the Šāh-nāma (2,500 verses), in which a battle takes place on the borders of Tūrān between Iranians under the command of Gūdarz and Turanians under the command of Pīrān.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • DAVID OF ASHBY

    (fl. 1260-75), Dominican friar and visitor to Il-khanid Persia.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • DAVID, JACOB

    (1873-1967) Assyrian pastor and relief worker. In Urmia, from 1904 to 1918, he assisted Dr. William Shedd (1865-1918) in teaching and administering Maʿrefat, an American school for boys from all ethnic groups. In 1918-21, he served as superintendent of the refugee schools and the Near East Relief Orphanage in Tabriz.

    (Eden Naby)

  • DAWĀ

    See DRUGS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAʿWA

    “mission,” a term used already by the ʿAbbasids but especially associated with the Ismaʿilis. See DAʿĪ .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAWĀ(T)DĀR

    lit. “keeper, bearer of [the royal] inkwell or inkstand”; title of various officials in medieval Islamic states.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DAWĀMĪ, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    (b. Ṭā near Tafreš, 1891; d. Tehran, 10 January 1981), a master of classical Persian vocal music with a perfect command of the radīf (repertoire), as well as a gifted player of the Persian drum (tonbak) and a virtuoso of rhythmic (żarbī) pieces and songs (taṣnīf).

    (Dariush Safvat)

  • DAWĀNUS

    the name of a man seen in the other world by Ardā Wirāz, as described in both the Middle Persian and the Zoroastrian Persian versions of the Ardā Wirāz-nāmag.

    (Dariush Kargar)

  • DAWĀT

    lit. "inkwell"; a utilitarian receptacle that also served as a symbol or metaphor for the instrument of state, with a long history in Islamic Persia. Inkwells were characterized in Persian poetry and historical works from the 10th century on as symbols of royal and by extension ministerial office.

    (Linda Komaroff)

  • DAʿWAT AL-ESLĀM

    A biweekly Persian journal published in Bombay by Ḥājj Sayyed Moḥammad Dāʿī-al-Eslām from 19 October 1906 until the end of 1909.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DAʿWAT-E ESLĀMĪ

    lit. "the Islamic call"; a monthly religious journal published in Kermānšāh from November-December 1927 to June 1936.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DAWLATĀBĀD

    name of several localities in Afghanistan that have grown up around civil or military government buildings.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, SAYYED ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD

    (b. Dawlatābād, 1868, d. Tehran, Šawwāl May-June 1923), prominent politician and deputy of the Persian parliament.

    (Cyrus Amir-Mokri)

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, ṢEDDĪQA

    (b. Isfahan, 1883, d. Tehran, 28 July 1961), journalist, educator, and pioneer in the movement to emancipate women in Persia.

    (Mehranguiz Manoutchehrian)

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, SAYYED YAḤYĀ

    (b. Dawlatābād. near Isfahan, 8 January 1863, d. Tehran, 26 October 1939), educator, political activist, and memoirist of the constitutional and postconstitutional periods.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • DAWLATḴĒL

    tribal name common among the eastern Pashtun at various levels of tribal segmentation.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DAWLATŠĀH, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ MĪRZĀ

    (1789-1821), eldest son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and powerful prince-governor of western provinces of Persia.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • DAWLATŠĀH SAMARQANDĪ

    (b. ca. 1438, d. 1494 or 1507), one of the few authors before the 16th century to have devoted a work entirely to poets, arranged more or less chronologically.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • DAWLATSHAH, MOHAMMAD-ALI MIRZA

    (1789-1821), eldest son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and powerful prince-governor of western provinces of Persia. See DAWLATŠĀH, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ MĪRZĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAWLATZĪ

    (singular Dawlatzay), ethnic name common among the eastern Pashtun on both sides of the Durand Line.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DAWR (1)

    (Ar. and Pers.), period, era, or cycle of history, a term used by Ismaʿilis in connection with their conceptions of time and the religious history of mankind.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • DAWR (2)

    (Ar. and Pers. “circle”), term applied to scales and also to rhythmic cycles, both commonly diagramed as circles in classical musicology of Persian, Arab, and Turkish groups. Such diagrams are appropriate for representing both the cyclical nature of the scales and the periodic nature of rhythmic formulas.

    (Jean During)

  • DAWRA

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAWRAQ

    or Dawraq al-Fors; name of a district (kūra), also known as Sorraq, and of a town that was sometimes its chef-lieu in medieval Islamic times.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DAWTĀNĪ

    Most Dawtānī nomads wintered in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, in either southern Waziristan or Dērajāt. A minority wintered in southern Afghanistan, mainly in the Qandahār oasis, where some owned houses, or in the middle Helmand valley.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DĀWŪD

    or DĀʾŪD; the biblical David, mentioned in a number of passages in the Koran as the hero who fought with and killed Jālūt, the prophet who received the Book of Psalms (Zabūr) from God, and the king who was given the power to rule, enforce justice, and distinguish between truth and falsehood.

    (Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabāʾī)

  • DĀWŪD B. MOʾMEN

    See JEWISH PERSIAN LITERATURE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀWŪD KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    (b. Kabul, 1909; d. Kabul, 27 April 1978), prime minister (1953-63) and first president of Afghanistan (1973-78). During his tenure as minister (known as “Dāwūd’s decade”), he transformed the Afghan state.Throughout his career he combined a strong desire to modernize the country with a close identification with the military.

    (Barnett Rubin)

  • DAY

    (Av. daδuuah-, Pahl. day “creator”), an epithet of Ahura Mazdā that became the name of the tenth month, as well as of the eighth, fifteenth, and twenty-third days in each month of the Zoroastrian calendar.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • DĀYA

    wet nurse.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar and Theresa Omidsalar)

  • DĀYA, NAJM-AL-DĪN ABŪ BAKR ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Moḥammad b. Šāhāvar b. Anūšervān Rāzī (1177–1256), mystic and author.

    (Moḥammad-Amīn Rīāḥī)

  • DAYEAKUTʿIWN

    a form of child rearing practiced in Armenia and other parts of the Caucasus.

    (Robert G. Bedrosian)

  • DĀYERAT AL-MAʿĀREF-E FĀRSĪ

    the first general encyclopedia in Persian compiled along modern lines.

    (Dāryūš Āšūrī)

  • DAYLAMITES

    people inhabiting a shifting region in northern Persia and adjacent territories, including the Deylamān uplands. See DEYLAMITES; BUYIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAYR

    monastery; in early Islamic Arabic and Persian literature usually a building in which Christian monks (rāheb) lived and worshiped.

    (Qamar Āryān)

  • DAYR AL-ʿĀQŪL

    lit., “the monastery at the bend in the river”; a medieval town in Iraq situated on the Tigris 15 farsangs (= 80 km) southeast of Baghdad.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DAYR-E GAČĪN

    lit., “gypsum hospice”; Sasanian caravansary situated in the desert halfway between Ray and Qom, on the ancient route from Ray to Isfahan. It is recorded in most early Muslim geographies. Over time, it underwent major reconstruction at least twice.

    (Mehrdad Shokoohy)

  • DAYSAM

    b. Ebrāhīm KORDĪ, ABŪ SĀLEM, Kurdish commander who ruled sporadically in Azerbaijan between 938 and 955 after the period of Sajid domination there.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DA’TID BAHRANA

    (with the Persian title Āyanda-ye rowšan “Bright future”), Assyrian bilingual periodical published in Tehran in 1951.

    (Eden Naby)

  • DE BODE

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DE BRUIN, CORNELIS

    or de Bruyn, also known as Corneille Le Brun or Le Bruyn (b. The Hague 1652, d. Utrecht 1726 or 1727), Dutch painter and author of two accounts of his travels in Persia and other eastern lands.

    (Willem Floor)

  • DE GOEJE, MICHAËL JAN

    (b. Dronrijp, Friesland, 18 August 1836, d. Leiden, 17 May 1909), Dutch orientalist and chief editor of Ṭabari’s world history, Taʾriḵ al-rosol wa’l-moluk.

    (A. J. M. Vrolijk)

  • DE MECQUENEM

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DE MORGAN, Jacques

    (1857-1924), French archeologist and prehistorian. He came from an exceptionally gifted family, in which cultivation of humane learning was combined with scientific rigor. It seems clear that he was less interested in Elamite history than in the overall prehistory of the East.

    (Pierre Amiet)

  • DEAD SEA SCROLLS

    parchment and papyrus scrolls written in Hebrew, mainly of the 1st centuries B.C.E. and C.E., found in caves around Qomrān on the northwest coast of the Dead Sea and considered to represent a sect of Judaism.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • DEATH (1)

    AMONG ZOROASTRIANS

    (Mary Boyce)

  • DEATH (2)

    IN RELIGIONS OTHER THAN ZOROASTRIANISM. See CORPSE and BURIAL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEBEVOISE, NEILSON CAREL

    (1903-1992), American archeologist and scholar of the history and culture of ancient Mesopotamia and Iran.

    (M. J. Olbrycht and V. P. Nikonorov)

  • DECCAN

    or Dakhan, Pers. Dakan; the south-central plateau of India, bounded on the north by the Narbada river, on the west by the Sea of Oman, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, and on the south by the Tungabhadra river.

    (Carl W. Ernst, Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • DECORATION

    the use of consciously designed patterns to embellish building surfaces and objects for aesthetic effect. Despite progress in identifying or classifying the features of Persian decorative patterns, few scholars have attempted to explain why particular designs were used in specific periods, regions, or circumstances.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • DECORATIONS

    In Persia there were no orders in the Western sense, but only decorations and medals. The practice of awarding such honors was initiated by Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah, who introduced the Lion and Sun (nešān-e šīr o ḵoršīd) in 1808, apparently inspired by the Red Crescent adopted by the Ottoman sultan Salīm III.

    (Yaḥyā Šahīdī)

  • DEDE BEG ḎU’L-QADAR

    See ABDĀL BEG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEDE ʿOMAR RŪŠANĪ

    (b. Güzel Ḥeṣār, Aydın province, in western Anatolia, at an indeterminate date; d. Tabrīz, 1487), Turkish Sufi who wrote poetry in both Persian and Turkish.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • DEDE YŪSOF SĪNAČĀK

    (b. Yenice on the Vardar in Ottoman Māqadūnīā [modern Macedonia] at an indeterminate date, d. Istanbul, 1546), Mawlawī Sufi shaikh, poet, and author.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • DĒDMARĪ, ḴᵛĀJA MOḤAMMAD-AʿẒAM

    (1691-1765), historian, poet, and Sufi of Kashmir.

    (Shamsuddin Ahmad)

  • DEER

    See ĀHŪ, RED DEER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEFRÉMERY, Charles-François

    (b. Cambray, France, 18 December 1822, d. St.-Valéry-en Caux, France, 18 August 1883), French orientalist and scholar.

    (Francis Richard)

  • DEH

    village, in Persia and Afghanistan.

    (Daniel Balland and Marcel Bazin)

  • DEH-BOKRĪ

    Kurdish tribe of Kurdistan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • DEH MORĀSĪ ḠONDAY

    a Bronze Age archeological site located at 34° 90’ N, 65° 30’ E, adjacent to the village of Deh Morāsī, approximately 27 km southwest of Qandahār and 6.5 km east-southeast of Pahjwāʾī in southeastern Afghanistan.

    (Jim G. Shaffer)

  • DEH-E NOW

    site of a group of four rock-cut tombs of the 4th-3rd centuries BCE, located about 25 km south of Bīsotūn in Kermānšāhān. It is possible that at least the two smaller tombs were astōdāns.

    (Hubertus von Gall)

  • DEHBĪD

    town in the šahrestān of Ābāda, Fārs (30° 37’ N, 53° 12’ E), situated on the Shiraz-Isfahan road in a plain 191 km northeast of Shiraz.

    (Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd)

  • DEHDĀR ŠIRĀZI, ʿEMĀD-al-DIN

    with pen name taḵalloṣ ʿEyāni, the most prolific Persian author on lettrism in the 10th/16th century; has long been overshadowed by both his father , an astronomer-philosopher and his son, a mystical-philosopher.

    (Matthew Melvin-Koushki)

  • DEHESTĀN

    (in modern Persian administrative usage a rural district consisting of a number of villages), the name of a region in medieval Gorgān and a town in Bādḡīs and another in Kermān.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DEHESTĀNĪ , AʿAZZ-AL-MOLKNEẒĀM-AL-DĪN ABU’L-MAḤĀSEN ʿABD-AL-JALĪL

    b. ʿAlī, twice vizier to the Saljuq sultan Barkīāroq (1094-1105).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DEHESTĀNĪ, ḤOSAYN

    b. Asʿad b. Ḥosayn Moʾayyadī, Persian translator of the Arabic work al-Faraj baʿd al-šedda by Abū ʿAlī Moḥassen (939-94), a collection of poems, anecdotes, sayings, and didactic remarks arranged in thirteen chapters on the general theme of joy following hardship.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • DEHḴᵛĀRAQĀN

    See ĀẔARŠAHR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEHḴODĀ, MĪRZĀ ʿALĪ-AKBAR QAZVĪNĪ

    (ca. 1879–1956), scholar, poet, and social critic. In all his writing Dehḵodā was a perfectionist and a meticulous craftsman. He was a nationalist, outspoken in his convictions, indifferent to the wrath of powerful men, and a firm believer in Persian culture.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • DEHLAVĪ, ŠĀH WALĪ-ALLĀH QOṬB-AL-DĪN AḤMAD ABU’L-FAYYĀŻ

    (1703-62), leading Muslim intellectual of India and writer on a wide range of Islamic topics in Arabic and Persian; more than thirty-five of his works are extant.

    (Marcia K. Hermansen)

  • DEHLĪ

    See DELHI SULTANATE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEHLORĀN

    (Deh Lorān), the name of a šahrestān (subprovince) in Īlām province in southwestern Persia, and of the main town.

    (Frank Hole)

  • DEHQĀN

    arabicized form of Syriac dhgnʾ, borrowed from Pahlavi dehgān (older form dahīgān).

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DEIOCES

    (Gk. Dēïó;kēs), name of a Median king.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DEIPNOSOPHISTAÍ

    lit. "Banquet of the Sophists"; a miscellany in the form of dialogues ostensibly conducted at table, including approximately one hundred passages pertaining to Persia.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • DEITY

    See under ACHAEMENID RELIGION; AHRIMAN; AHURA MAZDĀ; MANICHEISM ii. The Manichean Pantheon; ZOROASTRIANISM; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEJLA

    See ARVAND-RŪD; TIGRIS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎEKR

    lit., “remembrance”; the act of reminding oneself of God.

    (Gerhard Böwering, Moojan Momen)

  • ḎEKRĪS

    See BALUCHISTAN i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DELĀRESTĀQ

    also Delārostāq, Dīlārostāq; dehestān (administrative district) in the šahrestān of Āmol (Lārījān baḵš), on the northeastern slope of Mount Damāvand in Māzandarān.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • DELBARJĪN

    urban site 40 km northwest of Balḵ, on the northern limit of an oasis irrigated by the Balḵāb, near a defensive wall built during the Greek period (ca 329-130 BCE) to protect the oasis. The earliest stage of the citadel may date from the Achaemenid period.

    (Paul Bernard)

  • DELDĀR-ʿALĪ

    b. Moḥammad-Moʿīn NAṢĪRĀBĀDĪ, Sayyed Ḡofrān-maʾāb (b. Naṣīrābād near Lucknow, 1753, d. Lucknow ca. 1820), Shiʿite cleric of northern India who helped to establish the Shiʿite form of Friday prayers and propagated the rationalist Oṣūlī school of jurisprudence in the Avadh region.

    (Juan R. I. Cole)

  • DELDĀR,YŪNES MELA RAʾŪF

    (b. in the sanjaq of Ḵoy in the Ottoman empire, 20 February 1918; d. Erbīl, Iraq, 12 October 1948), Kurdish poet and humanist.

    (Joyce Blau)

  • DÉLÉGATIONS ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES

    bodies established by the French government to conduct archeological investigations in Persia and Afghanistan respectively.

    (Francine Tissot)

  • DELHI SULTANATE

    Muslim kingdom established in northern India by Central Asian Turkish warlords at the turn of the 13th century and continuing in an increasingly persianized milieu until its conquest by Bābor in 1526. The political style of the rulers of Delhi reflected traditional concepts of Persian kingship.

    (Gavin R. G. Hambly, Catherine B. Asher)

  • DELĪKĀNLŪ

    tribe of the Ḵalḵāl region in eastern Persian Azerbaijan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • DELKAŠ

    stage name of ʿEṣmat Bāqerpur Panbaforuš (b. Bābol, Māzandarān, 1924; d. Tehran, 2004) popular Persian singer and actress of the mid-20th century.

    (Erik Nakjavani)

  • DELKAŠ (1)

    (b. Bukhara at an indeterminate date, d. Bukhara, 1902), Tajik poet and musician known and revered for melodies performed on the tanbūr.

    (Cathérine Poujol)

  • DELKAŠ (2)

    an important modal unit (šāh gūša) linked to the dastgāh Māhūr, constituting one of its four main modulations, perhaps the most important in expressive function, which contrasts strongly with that of Māhūr itself.

    (Jean During)

  • DELLA VALLE, PIETRO

    (b. Rome, 11 April 1586, d. Rome, 21 April 1652), one of the most remarkable travelers of the Renaissance, whose Viaggi is the best contemporary account of the lands between Istanbul and Goa in the early 17th century.

    (John Gurney)

  • DELOUGAZ

    (b. Ukraine, 16 July 1901, d. Čoḡā Mīš, Persia, 29 March 1975), archeologist and excavator of the ancient site of Čoḡā Mīš in Persia.

    (Ezat O. Negahban)

  • DELŠĀD BARNĀ

    (1800-1905), Tajik educator, historian, and poetess bilingual in Persian and Chaghatay Turkish.

    (Evelin Grassi)

  • DELŠĀD ḴĀTŪN

    eldest daughter of the Chobanid Demašq Ḵᵛāja and Tūrsīn Ḵātūn, granddaughter of the Il-khanid sultan Aḥmad Takūdār.

    (Charles Melville)

  • DEMARATUS

    king of Sparta (from at least as early as 510 B.C.E.) who took refuge with Darius I.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DEMAŠQ ḴᵛĀJA

    third son of the amir Čobān, possibly born in 1300, when his father was on campaign in Damascus.

    (Charles Melville)

  • DEMETRIUS

    name of two Greco-Bactrian kings.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • ḎEMMĪ

    See PEOPLE OF THE BOOK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEMOCEDES

    (Gk. Dēmokḗdēs), Greek physician attached to the court of Darius I and praised as “the most skillful physician of his time” by Herodotus.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DEMOCRACY

    See ANJOMAN; CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION i-v; ELECTIONS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEMOCRAT PARTY

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION v.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEMOGRAPHY

    the statistical study of characteristics of human populations. Since World War II Persia, formerly a rural and tribal country dominated by elderly notables and with low population growth, has come to have a majority of young urban dwellers, mostly literate and multiplying rapidly.

    (Bernard Hourcade, Daniel Balland)

  • DEMOTIC CHRONICLE

    Egyptian papyrus document of the early 2nd century B.C.E. in which anti-Persian themes, especially focused on Cambyses, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes III, were elaborated in Ptolemaic Egyptian sacerdotal and intellectual surroundings.

    (Edda Bresciani)

  • DEMOTTE ŠĀH-NĀMA

    illustrated manuscript, now dispersed, of Ferdowsī’s epic poem, often identified by the name of a former owner, the Paris dealer Georges Demotte (active ca. 1900-23). It is generally believed to have been produced for a patron associated with the Il-khanid court and is renowned for the quality of its paintings.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • DĒN

    theological and metaphysical term with a variety of meanings: “the sum of man’s spiritual attributes and individuality, vision, inner self, conscience, religion.”

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DĒN-DIBĪRĪH

    See DABĪRE, DABĪRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĒN YAŠT

    a relatively short text, consisting for the most part of repetitive or formulaic sentences.

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DĒNAG

    name of several Sasanian queens; it was not feminine by derivation but was clearly reserved for feminine prosopography.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • DENIKE

    (b. Kazan, 15 January 1885, d. Moscow, 13 October 1941), the first Russian historian of the medieval art of the Near and Far East.

    (Anatol A. Ivanov)

  • DENḴA TEPE

    a Bronze and Iron Age site situated in the Ošnū valley of Azerbaijan, southwest of Lake Urmia, and 15 miles west of the major Iron Age site of Hasanlu (Ḥasanlū) in the Soldūz valley.

    (Oscar White Muscarella)

  • DĒNKARD

    lit., “Acts of the religion”; written in Pahlavi, a summary of 10th-century knowledge of the Mazdean religion; the editor, Ādurbād Ēmēdān, entitled the final version “The Dēnkard of one thousand chapters.”

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • DENMARK

    : relations with Persia. Danish-Persian relations have been concentrated in three main areas: politics and diplomacy; trade and other economic relations; and Iranian studies in Denmark, including collections of Persian art in Danish museums.

    (Fereydun Vahman, Jes P. Asmussen)

  • DENŠAPUH

    short form of Vehdenšapuh; Sasanian hambārakapet (quartermaster) involved in the campaign of Yazdagerd II (438-57) to force Christian Armenians to abjure their faith and return to Zoroastrianism; a gem bearing his name is preserved in the British Museum in London.

    (James R. Russell)

  • DENTISTRY

    (dandān-pezeškī) in Persia.

    (Ṣādeq Sajjādī)

  • DEOBAND

    country town northeast of Delhi in what is now the Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India, where an influential Dār al-ʿolūm was founded by a group of religious scholars in 1867 as an expression of a major religious reform movement partly inspired by British educational models.

    (Barbara D. Metcalf)

  • DEPORTATIONS

    forced transfers of population from one region to another.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi, Erich Kettenhofen, John R. Perry)

  • DERAFŠ

    lit. “banner, standard, flag, emblem,” in ancient Iran. In the Avesta Bactria “with tall banners,” a fluttering “bull banner,” and enemy banners are mentioned. In the Achaemenid period each Persian army division had its own standard (Herodotus, 9.59), and “all officers had banners over their tents" (Xenophon, Cyropaedia 8.5.13).

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • DERAFŠ-E KĀVĪĀN

    the legendary royal standard of the Sasanian kings.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • DERAḴT

    tree, shrub.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DERAḴT-E ANJIR-E MAʿĀBED

    the last and highly acclaimed work of fiction by Ahmad Mahmud.

    (Loqmān Tadayon-Nežād)

  • DERĀZ-DAST

    having long hands.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DERBEND

    See DARBAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DERHAM

    See DIRHAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DERHAM B. NAŻR

    or Naṣr or Ḥosayn; commander of ʿayyārs or moṭawweʿa, orthodox Sunni vigilantes against the Kharijites in Sīstān during the period immediately preceding the rise of the Saffarid brothers to supreme power there.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DERUSIANS

    See TRIBES, PERSIAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEŚANĀ

    Khotanese term with two meanings: “showing," that is, “preaching” the law, and “profession” of faith or “confession” of sins.

    (Hiroshi Kumamoto)

  • DESERT

    bīābān. As throughout most of the arid zone agriculture and settlement depend upon sustained investment, Persians generally expect to find bīābān where ābādī (settled, irrigated agriculture) ends. The term bīābān covers a broad range of different types of desert, from completely barren expanses to plains with significant percentages of vegetation cover.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • DESMAISONS, JEAN-JACQUES-PIERRE

    or Petr Ivanovich Demezon (b. Chambéry, in the kingdom of Sardinia, 1807, d. Paris, 1873) diplomat and compiler of an important Persian-French dictionary.

    (Cathérine Poujol)

  • DEUTSCHES ARCHÄOLOGISCHES INSTITUT

    or D.A.I., research institution administered by the German foreign ministry, with a number of branches, including the Abteilung Teheran in Persia.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • DĒV

    See DAIVA, DĒW, DĪV.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEVECSERI, Gábor

    (1917-1971), Hungarian poet, scholar, and translator.

    (András Bodrogligeti)

  • DEVIL

    See AHRIMAN; DĪV; EBLĪS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĒW

    lit. "demon" in the Pahlavi books.

    (A. V. Williams)

  • DĒWĀŠTĪČ

    ruler of Sogdia (706?-22), referred to as “prince of Panč” (Panjīkant) and as “king of Sogdia, ruler of Samarkand” in the portion of his archives discovered at the castle on Mount Mug (Mōḡ), east of Samarkand, on the upper course of the Zarafšān river.

    (Boris Marshak)

  • DEYHĪM

    See CROWN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEYLAM, BANDAR-E

    a port on the Persian Gulf (30° 3’ N, 50° 9’ E) in the province of Būšehr at an elevation a little above 1 m.

    (Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd)

  • DEYLAM, JOHN OF

    or Yoḥannān Daylomāyā (d. 738), Eastern Syrian saint and founder of monasteries in Fārs.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • DEYLAMĀN (District)

    or Daylamān, district and town in Gīlān.

    (Ezat O. Negahban)

  • DEYLAMĀN (Melody)

    melody (gūša) incorporated into the radīf of Āvāz-e Daštī by Abu’l-Ḥasan Ṣabā (1957), who borrowed it from the regional repertoire of northern Persia.

    (Jean During)

  • DEYLAMĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD

    See ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD DAYLAMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEYLAMĪ, ABU’L-FATḤ NĀṢER

    b. Ḥosayn b. Moḥammad b. ʿĪsā b. Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb, Zaydī imam with the title Nāṣer le-Dīn Allāh (d. 1052-53).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • DEYLAMĪ, ABUʾL-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    b. Moḥammad (fl. 10th century), an obscure yet important author on the early Persian Sufism prevalent in Fārs.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • DEYLAMĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ḤASAN

    b. Abi’l-Ḥasan (b.) Moḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd-Allāh (or Moḥammad), Shiʿite author and traditionist.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • DEYLAMĪ, ŠAMS-AL-DĪN ABŪ ṮĀBET MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿAbd-al-Malek ṬŪSĪ (d. ca. 1197), original though obscure Sufi author of the 12th century.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • DEYLAMITES

    people inhabiting a shifting region in northern Persia and adjacent territories, including the Deylamān uplands.

    (Wolfgang Felix & Wilferd Madelung)

  • DEYM

    See ĀBYĀRĪ; AGRICULTURE In Iran; BĀRĀN; FARMING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEZ

    or DEŽ, (fortress, castle; Mid. Pers. diz; OPers. didā- “wall, fortress”; Av. daēz-; Yidgha lizo“fort”). See BĀRŪ; CASTLES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEŽ

    a weekly of news and politics associated with the Tudeh Party that began publication on 27 May 1943 in Tehran and continued with some interruptions until June 1953.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DEZ River

    See ĀB-E DEZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEŽ-E BAHMAN

    lit. "fortress of Bahman"; according to legend a fortress in Azerbaijan conquered by the Kayānian king Kay Ḵosrow, son of Sīāvaš and grandson of Kāvūs, king of Iran.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DEŽ-E GONBADĀN

    lit. "fortress of Gonbadān"; a fortress where the Iranian hero Esfandīār, son of the Kayānian king Goštāsb, was imprisoned.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DEŽ Ī NEBEŠT

    (Mid. Pers. diz ī nibišt “fortress of archives,” lit. “writing”), supposedly one of two repositories in which copies of the Avesta and its exegesis (zand) were deposited for safekeeping.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DEŽ-E RŪYĪN

    or Rūyīn-dež, lit. "brazen fortress"; castle belonging to the Turanian king Arjāsb and conquered by Esfandīār, son of the Kayanid king Goštāsb.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DEŽ-E SAFĪD

    lit. "white fortress"; Iranian fortress located near the border with Tūrān and conquered by Sohrāb, son of the Iranian hero Rostam by the Turanian princess Tahmīna.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DEZFUL

    a town and sub-province in northern Khuzestan province.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • DEZFŪL i. Geography

    or Dez-pol, lit. "fortress bridge"; šahrestān (subprovincial administrative unit) and city in northern Ḵūzestān province.

    (Massoud Kheirabadi)

  • DEZFUL ii. DEZFŪLĪ AND ŠŪŠTARĪ DIALECTS

    Dezfūlī and Šūštarī are two closely related Persian dialects spoken by the indigenous inhabitants of Dezfūl and Šūštar in Ḵūzestān province.

    (Colin MacKinnon)

  • DEZFUL iii. Population, 1956-2011

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Dezful: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • DEZKŪH

    or Šāhdez; a medieval mountain fortress situated in central Persia on the summit of Mount Ṣoffa, about 8 km south of Isfahan.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • DHABHAR, BAHMANJI NUSSERWANJI

    (b. 1869, Navsari, d. 1952, Bombay), eminent Parsi scholar of Bhagaria stock.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal)

  • DHALLA, DASTUR MANECKJI NUSSERWANJI

    In 1878 Dhalla came to Karachi with his father, married at the age of nine, and was ordained a priest (navar) in 1890. For a while he abandoned his studies and worked to augment the family’s meagre income, but his scholarly interest never waned.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • DHĀR, QĀŻĪ KHAN BADR

    See DHĀRVĀL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DHĀRAṆĪ

    magic spells in the Buddhist Mahāyānist and Tantric (esoteric) traditions.

    (Hiroshi Kumamoto, Yutaka Yoshida)

  • DHARMAŚARĪRA-SŪTRA

    a short Buddhist text belonging to the Mahāyānist tradition.

    (Hiroshi Kumamoto)

  • DHĀRVĀL, QĀŻĪ KHAN BADR MOḤAMMAD DEHLAVĪ

    or DHĀR, 15th-century Persian lexicographer in India, so named because he settled in Dhār (hence his nesba Dhārvāl), capital of the Ghurid principality of Malwa.

    (M. Saleem Akhtar)

  • DHŪTA-SŪTRA

    name of a Buddhist Sogdian text discovered at Tun-huang.

    (Yutaka Yoshida)

  • DHYĀNA TEXT

    designation of a Buddhist Sogdian text of 405 lines discovered at Tun-huang.

    (Yutaka Yoshida)

  • DĪA

    the prescribed blood money or wergild paid in compensation for a wrongful death or certain other physical injuries.

    (Khalid Abu El Fadl)

  • DIAKONOFF, Igor’ Mikhaĭlovich

    Diakonoff established international contacts and participated in organizing important scholarly projects. In particular, he took an active part in the organization of the 25th International Congress of Orientalists held in Moscow in 1960 (he was the Executive Secretary of the Organizing Committee).

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • DĪĀLA

    river. See ARVAND-RŪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIALECTOLOGY

    the terms dialect and language overlap; in general, language refers to the more or less unified system of the phonology, grammar, and lexicon that is shared by the speakers of a country, or geographic region, or a socially defined group, whereas dialect (Pers. lahja, gūyeš) focuses on varieties of a language.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • DĪĀRBAKR

    See AMIDA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIASPORA

    Iranian. i. In Pre-Islamic times. ii. Persians in India. iii. Persians in Southeast Asia. iv. Persians in Ottoman Turkey. v. Persians in the Caucasus and Central Asia in the late 19th and early 20th century. vi. Persians in Iraq. vii. Persians in Southern ports of the Persian Gulf. viii. In the Post-revolutionary period. ix and x. Afghan refugees.

    (Mary Boyce, Fariba Zarrinbaf-Shahr, H. Hakimian, Yitzhak Nakash, Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, Mehdi Bozorgmehr, Grant Farr, Čangīz Pahlavān)

  • DIATESSERON

    Persian translation of the four Gospels, based on a Syriac original. See BIBLE vii. Persian Translations.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪBĀ

    See ABRĪŠAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪBĀ, MAḤMŪD KHAN

    See ʿALĀʾ-al-MOLK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIBĪR

    See DABĪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DICHŌR

    city conquered by Šāpūr I (240-70) during his second campaign against Rome in 253, as recorded in his inscription at Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • DICKSON, MARTIN BERNARD

    (b. Brooklyn, 22 March 1924, d. Princeton, 14 May 1991), Iranist and Central Asianist who specialized in Safavid history.

    (Kathryn Babayan)

  • DICTIONARIES

    The first extant Persian dictionary is Lōḡat-e fors of the poet Asadī Ṭūsī (q.v.). Entries are arranged according to their final letters and illustrated by examples from poetry. Over ten manuscripts are known to have reached us, all of which differ in the number of entries and verses as well as the entry definitions.

    (ʿAlī Ašraf Ṣādeqī, John R. Perry, Ḥosayn Sāmeʿī)

  • DIDYMA

    (Gk. tà Dí;dyma, probably of Carian origin), district ca. 20 km south of the Ionian Miletus and site of a pre-Greek sanctuary of Apollo, to which a famous oracle was attached.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DIEU, LOUIS (LUDOVICUS) DE

    (b. Vlissingen, Flushing, April 7, 1590; d. Leiden, Dec. 23, 1642), Dutch orientalist.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • DIEULAFOY, JANE HENRIETTE MAGRE

    (b. Toulouse, 29 June 1851, d. Château de Langlade, Haute-Garonne, 25 May 1916), French archeologist, explorer, folklorist, novelist, playwright, and journalist.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • DIEULAFOY, MARCEL-AUGUSTE

    (b. Toulouse, 3 August 1844, d. Paris, 25 February 1920), French archeologist.

    (Pierre Amiet)

  • DIEZ, ERNST

    (b. 27 January 1878, d. 8 July 1961), Austrian historian of Iranian and Islamic art.

    (Jens Kröger)

  • DIGOR

    Ossetic tribal name.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • DILL

    Anethum graveolens L. (fam. Umbellifera), an herb widely cultivated in Persia.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DIMDIM

    name of a mountain and a fortress where an important battle between the Kurds and the Safavid army took place in the early 17th century.

    (Amir Hassanpour)

  • DIMLĪ

    or Zāzā; the indigenous name of an Iranian people living mainly in eastern Anatolia, in the Dersim region (present-day Tunceli) between Erzincan in the north and the Muratsu in the south, the far western part of historical Upper Armenia.

    (Garnik S. Asatrian)

  • DĪN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara.

    (EIr)

  • DĪN WA’L-ḤAYĀT, AL-

    a bi-weekly religious magazine published in Tabrīz, 1928-31, replacing another Tabrīz religious magazine, Taḏakkorāt-e dīnī.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DINAR

    a gold coin, in pre-Islamic times struck mainly for purposes of prestige. In Arabic of the classical Islamic period, the word dīnār had the double sense of a gold coin and of a monetary unit which might not be precisely embodied by actual coins.

    (Philippe Gignoux, Michael Bates)

  • DĪNĀR, MALEK

    b. Moḥammad (d. 1195), a leader of the Oghuz Turkmen in Khorasan and, in the latter years of the 12th century, ruler of Kermān.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DĪNĀRĀNĪ

    See BAḴTĪĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪNAVAR

    (occasionally vocalized Daynavar), in the first centuries of Islam an important town in Jebāl, now ruined.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ ḤANĪFA AḤMAD

    b. Dāwūd b. Vanand (d. between 894 and 903), grammarian, lexicographer, astronomer, mathematician, and Islamic traditionist of Persian origin, who lived at Dīnavar and in several cities in Iraq in the 9th century.

    (Charles Pellat)

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Ḥamdān b. Wahb b. Bešr (d. 902), traditionist and ḥāfeẓ (preserver of the Koranic text).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Mobārak (d. first half of the 10th century), author of a tafsīr (koranic exegesis) entitled al-Wāżeḥ fī tafsīr al-Qorʾān, which is preserved in several manuscripts.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • DĪNAVARĪ, AḤMAD b. Moḥammad.

    b. Moḥammad. See EBN ḴĀZEN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪNĀVARĪYA

    in Manichean usage originally “the elect.”

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • DINKHA TEPE

    See DENḴĀ TEPE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DINON

    (fl. approximately 360-30 B.C.E.), author of a historical work on the Ancient Orient.

    (Wolfgang Felix)

  • DĪNŠĀH IRĀNI

    See IRANI, DINSHAH JIJIBHOY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIO CASSIUS

    (more correctly, Cassius Dio; b. Nicea, Bithynia, ca. 160, d. Nicea, after 229), Roman official whose Rhomaikē Historia is important for the study of Parthian history.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • DIO CHRYSOSTOM

    See DIO COCCEIANUS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIO COCCEIANUS

    surnamed Chrysostom ("golden-mouthed"), a traveling scholar who in his 36th Oration (known as the “Borysthenian” or “Olbian” from its dramatic setting), written about 100 C.E., purports to summarize a hymn composed by Zoroaster and sung by the magi in secret rites.

    (Roger Beck)

  • DIODORUS SICULUS

    Greek historian from Agyrium in Sicily, hence called Siculus (the Sicilian) who came to Rome in the middle of the first century B.C.E. and there wrote his Bibliotheca Historica, a universal history in forty books, from the origins to the age of Caesar.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • DIODOTUS

    satrap of Bactria-Sogdiana, who revolted against his Seleucid soverign Antiochus II and proclaimed himself king, thus laying the foundation of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom. The date of his revolt has been placed between 256 and 239 B.C., the majority of scholars arguing for about the year 250.

    (Osmund Bopearachchi)

  • DIOGENES LAERTIUS

    author of a biographically arranged history of Greek philosophy in ten books that also deals with the Persian Magi, especially in the first book on the origins of philosophy.

    (Wolfgang Felix)

  • DIONYSIUS

    (Gk. Dionýsios) of Miletus, Greek historiographer, who may have lived in the 5th century B.C.E. and is said to have written a book about Persian history after the death of Darius I.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DIPLOMACY

    See under individual countries; see also FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪRAKVAND

    Lor tribe belonging to the Bālā Garīva group and inhabiting a mountainous area between Ḵorramābād and Dezfūl in the Pīš-Kūh region of Lorestān.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • DĪRGHANAKHA-SŪTRA

    a Buddhist text in which the Buddha expounds the merits of observing the eight commandments to a parivrājaka named Dīrghanakha.

    (Yutaka Yoshida)

  • DIRHAM

    a unit of silver coinage and of weight. The dirham retained a stable value of about 4 g throughout the entire pre-Islamic period. The tetradrachm, or stater (> Pahl. stēr), was equivalent to 4 drachmas and was already in circulation in the Achaemenid period at the time of Alexander’s departure for Persia.

    (Philippe Gignoux, Michael Bates)

  • DĪV

    demon, monster, fiend; expresses not only the idea of “demon,” but also that of “ogre,” “giant,” and even “Satan.”

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • DĪV SOLṬĀN

    title of ʿALĪ BEG RŪMLŪ, a qezelbāš officer first mentioned at the battle of Šarūr (1501), in which the Safavid Esmāʿīl I defeated the Āq Qoyūnlū prince Alvand.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • DĪVĀL-E ḴODĀYDĀD

    an extensive area of historic remains in the center of an ancient canal system fed by the rivers Helmand and Ḵāšrūd and located between the eastern border of the Hāmūn-e Aškīnʿām and the lower Ḵāšrūd, about 45 km to the northeast of Zaranj in southwest Afghanistan.

    (Klaus Fischer)

  • DĪVĀN

    archive, register, chancery, government office; also, collected works, especially of a poet.

    (François de Blois)

  • DĪVĀN-E KEŠVAR

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. Judicial System in the 20th Century .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪVĀNA NAQQĀŠ

    15th-century painter whose work is known primarily from single-page paintings preserved in the Topkapı Sarayı library, Istanbul.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • DĪVĀNBEGĪ

    originally, the designation for the highest-ranking officer in the Timurid office of finance and justice; in the Safavid administrative system, the dīvānbegī was one of the high-ranking amirs residing at court.

    (Shiro Ando, Roger M. Savory)

  • DĪVĀNĪ, ḴAṬṬ-E

    See CALLIGRAPHY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪVDĀD

    See BANŪ SĀJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIVINATION

    the art or technique of gaining knowledge of future events or distant states by means of observing and interpreting signs.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • DIVORCE

    legal termination of marriage. In the following series of articles only those communities are taken into consideration which are either Iranian or are focused in Persia. For this reason Jewish and Christian practices have not been included.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev, Mansour Shaki, Sachiko Murata, Akbar Aghajanian, Jenny Rose, Mujan Momen)

  • DIZK

    See JIZAK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DJANBAZIAN, Sarkis

    After graduating from high school, Djanbazian went to Leningrad to study dance. He graduated from Vaganova Dance Academy of Leningrad in 1936 and from Lesgaf University with a Masters of Arts degree in 1936. After graduation, he worked as a principal dancer, choreographer, and artistic director in Kirov Theatre.

    (Maria Sabaye Moghaddam)

  • DJEITUN WARE

    See CERAMICS i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DO PAYKAR

    See NOJUM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DO-BARĀDARĀN

    See JĀMI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DO-BAYTĪ

    a quatrain of sung poetry in many Persian dialects.

    (Stephen Blum)

  • DOʿĀ

    the act of offering supplicatory or petitionary prayer, a principal manifestation of Muslim piety.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DOʿĀ-NEVĪSĪ

    the act of writing charms against various evils.

    (Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī)

  • DOĀB-E MĪḴZARĪN

    a group of archeological sites with numerous pre-Islamic mud-brick ruins on either side of the Sorḵāb river, on the road from Bāmīān to Došī, opposite the entrance to the Kahmard valley.

    (Klaus Fischer)

  • DOCUMENTS

    i. In pre-Islamic period. ii. Babylonian and Egyptian documents in the Achaemenid period. iii. In the modern period.

    (Mansour Shaki, Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • DŌDĀ-BĀLĀÇ

    See BALUCHISTAN iii/II.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DODDER

    See AFTĪMŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOERFER, GERHARD

    German scholar of Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungus languages. He divided the Turkic elements in Persian into three layers: (1) an older, “pure” Turkic layer, which consists of southern and eastern Turkic elements; (2) a Middle Mongolian and Turkic layer, which includes Mongolian and southern and eastern Turkic elements; and (3) a later, “pure” Turkic layer, which comprises southern Turkic elements only.

    (Michael Knüppel)

  • DOG

    Canis familiaris; i. In literature and folklore. ii. In Zoroastrianism. iii. Ethnography.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar and Teresa P. Omidsalar, Mary Boyce, Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • DOḠLAT, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD ḤAYDAR

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOGONBADAN

    See GAČSARĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOJAYL

    See KĀRŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOḴĀNĪYĀT

    tobacco projects; referring to the State tobacco-monopoly law (Qānūn-e enḥeṣār-e dawlatī-e doḵānīyāt) of 20 March 1909 and to the state monopoly of tobacco products itself.

    (Willem Floor)

  • DOKKĀN

    See BĀZĀR i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOKKĀN-E DĀWŪD

    lit., “shop of David"; rock-cut tomb of the Achaemenid period in the Zagros range a few kilometers southeast of Sar-e Pol-e Ḏohāb, in the province of Kermānšāhān. The relief of a priest with a barsom bundle probably belongs to the early Hellenistic period.

    (Hubertus von Gall)

  • DOḴTAR-E NŌŠERVĀN

    lit., “daughter of Nōšervān”; rock-cut architectural complex with important wall paintings, in northern Afghanistan. Surrounding the deity’s head is a tripartite nimbus with attached animal protomes. This complex system seems to emphasize the supernatural force of the “king of gods” as ultimate creator of all life.

    (Markus Mode)

  • DOḴTARĀN-E ĪRĀN

    lit., “Daughters of Iran”; a monthly variety magazine for girls published in Shiraz from 23 July 1931 to November 1932.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DOKUZ ḴĀTŪN

    (d. 16 June 1265), chief wife of the Il-khan Hülegü and granddaughter of Wang Khan, leader of the Nestorian Christian Kereyit tribe domiciled near present-day Ulan Bator.

    (Charles Melville)

  • DOLAFIDS

    family of Arab origin that became politically prominent in western Persia during the 9th century.

    (Fred M. Donner)

  • DOLDOL

    or Doldūl, in Ar. lit., “large porcupine”; name of a female mule that Moqawqes, governor of Egypt, sent to the Prophet Moḥammad as a gift.

    (Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī)

  • DOLGORUKOV MEMOIRS

    document published under the title Eʿterāfāt-e sīāsī yā yāddāšthā-ye Kenyāz Dolqorūkī (Political confessions or memoirs of Prince Dolgorukov) in the historical portion of the “Khorasan yearbook,” issued in Mašhad in 1943.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • DOLICHĒ

    city in the Roman province of Syria conquered together with the surrounding area by Šāpūr I during his second campaign against Rome in 252 or 253.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • DOLMA

    or dūlma; Turkish term for stuffed vegetable or fruit dishes common in the Middle East and in Mediterranean countries.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • DOLOMITAE

    See DEYLAMITES i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOMAN

    city in the Roman province of Cappadocia, conquered along with the surrounding area by the Sasanian Šāpūr I (240-70) during his second campaign against Rome.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • DOMES

    circular vaulted roofs or ceilings. The variety of forms and decoration of Persian domes is unrivaled. Domes on squinches first appeared in Persia in the Sasanian period in the palace at Fīrūzābād in Fārs and at nearby Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar, both erected by Ardašir I (r. 224-40).

    (Bernard O’Kane)

  • DOMESTIC ANIMALS

    This article is devoted to the principal characteristics of the predominant systems of domestication in Afghanistan and Persia, what they owe to neighboring or preceding systems, how they have departed from them, and whether or not it is possible to speak of a typically Iranian system of domestication.

    (Daniel Balland and Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • DONALDSON, BESS ALLEN

    (1879-1974) and DWIGHT MARTIN (1884-1976), American Presbyterian missionaries and writers about Persia.

    (Peter Avery)

  • DONBA

    the fatty part of the sheep’s tail, traditionally used as a cooking fat, sometimes in melted form, or as an inexpensive meat substitute.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • DONBAK

    See TONBAK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DONBĀVAND

    See DAMĀVAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DONBOLĪ

    name of a turkicized Kurdish tribe in the Ḵoy and Salmās regions of northwestern Azerbaijan and of the leading family of Ḵoy since the 16th century.

    (ʿAli Āl-e Dāwud and Pierre Oberling)

  • DONBOLĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BEG

    See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BEG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DONBOLI, AMIR BEHRUZ

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DONKEY

    i. In Persian tradition and folk belief. ii. Domestication in Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • DONKEY i. In Persian tradition and folk belief

    domesticated species descended from the wild ass, probably first bred in captivity in Egypt and western Asia, where by 2500 B.C.E. the domesticated donkey was in use as a beast of burden.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar and Teresa P. Omidsalar)

  • DONKEY ii. Domestication in Iran

    The Tol-e Nurābād sherd raises many questions about the locus of donkey domestication in the Old World, particularly since the Zagros highlands, where it was discovered, have been considered well to the east of the original range of Equid africanus.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • DONYĀ

    lit., “The world”; name of several Persian journals and newspapers.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DONYĀ-YE EMRŪZ

    lit. "Today’s world"; name of a weekly magazine published in Tehran and two weekly newspapers founded in Qazvīn and Isfahan, respectively.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DOORS AND DOOR FRAMES

    in Persian architecture major foci of decoration, varying in size and elaboration with the function and importance of the building and the location of the entrance in relation to the total composition.

    (Sheila Blair, Mortażā Momayyez)

  • DŌRĪ

    river in southern Afghanistan, the main tributary of the Arḡandā.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DORN, JOHANNES ALBRECHT BERNHARD

    (1805-1881), pioneer in many areas of Iranian studies in Russia. He never visited Afghanistan, but he nevertheless established the scientific basis for Afghan studies, particularly the first systematic description of Pashto.

    (N. L. Luzhetskaya)

  • DORNĀ

    See CRANE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DORR

    See PEARL i. Pre-Islamic Period and PEARL ii. Islamic Period.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DORRĀNĪ

    probably the most numerous Pashtun tribal confederation, from which all Afghan dynasties since 1747 have come. The Dorrānī confederation is a political grouping of ten Pashtun tribes of various sizes, which are further organized in two leagues of five tribes each.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DORRĀNĪ, AḤMAD SHAH

    See AFGHANISTAN x.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DORRĀNĪ DYNASTY

    See AFGHANISTAN x.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎORRAT

    maize or (Indian) corn, Zea mays L. (fam. Gramineae), with many varieties and hybrids.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DORRAT-AL-MAʿĀLĪ

    (b. Tehran, 1873, d. Tehran, Šahrīvar 1924), pioneer in female education in Persia.

    (Afsaneh Najmabadi)

  • DORRAT AL-NAJAF

    lit. "Pearl of Najaf"; monthly religious journal published in Persian at Najaf in southern Iraq at the end of the first decade of the 20th century.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DORRI EFENDI

    See DÜRRI EFENDI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DORŪD

    a town in Lorestān province, situated at the foot of Oštorānkūh, at an altitude of 1,460 m on the route from Tehran to Ḵorramābād at the confluence of the rivers Tīra and Mārbara.

    (ʿAli Āl-e Dāwud)

  • DŌŠĪ

    small town and district on the northern slope of the central Hindu Kush in Afghanistan.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DOŠMANZĪĀRĪ

    name of two Lor tribes in southern Persia, the Došmanzīārī-e Mamasanī and the Došmanzīārī-e Kūhgīlūya.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • DŌST MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    (b. Qandahār December 1792, d. Herat, 9 June 1863), first ruler of the Bārakzay/Moḥammadzay dynasty of Afghanistan. He was the first to bring the region that today constitutes Afghanistan under the control, occasionally tenuous, of a single central government.

    (Amin H. Tarzi)

  • DOTĀR

    long-necked lute of the tanbūr family, usually with two strings (do tār). The principal feature is the pear-shaped sound box attached to a neck that is longer than the box and faced with a wooden soundboard. Dotārs can be classified in several different types.

    (Jean During)

  • DOZĀLA

    kind of flute consisting of two parallel pipes pierced with holes and fitted with a removable vibrating mouthpiece made by cutting a U-shaped incision into a thin reed.

    (Jean During)

  • DOZDĀB

    See ZĀHEDĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOZY, REINHARD PETRUS ANNE

    (b. Leiden, 21 February 1820, d. Leiden, 29 April 1883), Dutch orientalist renowned especially as a lexicographer of Arabic and a historian of Muslim Andalusia.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • DRAGON

    See AŽDAHĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DRAINAGE

    the carrying away of excess surface water through runoff in permanent or intermittent streams. Persia can be divided into four main drainage regions: the Caspian region, the Lake Urmia region, the Persian Gulf region, and the interior. Most of it is characterized by endorheic basins, that is, by interior drainage.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • DRAMA

    in formal Western terms a relatively new art form in Persia, though various types of dramatic performance, including religious plays and humorous satirical skits, have long been a part of Persian religious and folk tradition.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • DRANGIANA

    or Zarangiana; territory around Lake Hāmūn and the Helmand river in modern Sīstān.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DRÁPSAKA

    Greek name of a Bactrian city in northern Afghanistan, the first town captured by Alexander the Great after crossing the Hindu Kush.

    (Frantz Grenet)

  • DRAWING

    an art form primarily dependent on expressive line. The high quality of Persian drawings maintained from the late 13th to the early 20th century provides a clear indication that this art form was appreciated by the Persian cultural elite.

    (M. L. Swietochowski)

  • DRAXT Ī ĀSŪRĪG

    lit. "The Babylonian tree"; a versified contest over precedence between a goat and a palm tree, composed in the Parthian language, written in Book Pahlavi script, and consisting of about 120 verses.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DREAMS AND DREAM INTERPRETATION

    i. In pre-Islamic Persia. ii. In the Persian tradition.

    (Hossein Ziai)

  • DRESDEN, MARK JAN

    (b. Amsterdam, 26 April 1911; d. Philadelphia, 16 August 1986), professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught Persian, then various Old and Middle Iranian languages from 1949 until his retirement in 1977. He worked especially on Khotanese literary texts.

    (Hiroshi Kumamoto)

  • DREYFUS-BARNEY

    joint surname adopted by two leading Bahai figures of the 20th century.

    (Shapour Rassekh)

  • DRIWAY-

    (or Driβi-), Younger Avestan noun from the Vidēvdād; the word probably referred either to a skin disease or to drooling.

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DRIYŌŠĀN JĀDAG-GŌW UD DĀDWAR

    Middle Persian title of a Sasanian official, “intercessor and judge of the poor.”

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • DṚNABĀJIŠ

    name of the fifth month (July-August) of the Old Persian calendar, equivalent to Akkadian Ābu and Elamite Zillatam.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DRŌN

    Zoroastrian ritual term originally meaning “sacred portion” and designating a ritual offering to divine beings.

    (Jamsheed K. Choksy)

  • DRUGS

    in medieval Muslim literature any vegetable, mineral, or animal substance that acts on the human body, whether as a medicament, a poison, or an antidote.

    (Ṣādeq Sajjādi)

  • DRUJ-

    Avestan feminine noun defining the concept opposed to that of aṧa-.

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DRUMS

    large group of percussion instruments.

    (Jean During)

  • DRUSTBED

    chief physician in the Sasanian period.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DRVĀSPĀ

    or Drwāspā, Druuāspā, lit., “with solid horses”; Avestan goddess.

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DRYPETIS

    (Gk. Drýpĕtis [Arrian] or Drypêtis [Diodorus]), daughter of Darius III Codomannus and younger sister of Stateira; in the collective wedding arranged by Alexander the Great at Susa in 324 B.C.E. she was given in marriage to Hephaestion.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ḎU’L-AKTĀF

    See Šāpur II.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎŪ-BAḤRAYN

    a term in Persian and Arabic prosody designating a poem that can be scanned according to two or more different meters (baḥr).

    (Sīrūs Šamīsā)

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR

    lit., “provided with notches, grooves, vertebrae”; the miraculous sword of Imam ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb, with two blades or points, which became a symbol of his courage on the battlefield.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR KHAN AFŠĀR

    governor (ḥākem) of Ḵamsa province (ca. 1763-80) under the Zand dynasty.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR ŠĪRVĀNĪ

    MALEK-AL-ŠOʿARĀ QEWĀM-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN b. Ṣadr-al-Dīn ʿAlī (d. ca. 691/1291), Persian poet and panegyrist of the Il-khanid period.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ḎU’L-JANĀḤ

    Imam Ḥosayn’s winged horse, known from popular literature and rituals.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ḎU’L-LESĀNAYN

    lit. “possessor of two tongues”; epithet often bestowed upon bilingual poets.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DU MANS, RAPHAEL

    (d. 1696), FATHER, author of important descriptions of Persia.

    (Francis Richard)

  • ḎU’L-NŪN MEṢRĪ, ABU’L-FAYŻ ṮAWBĀN

    b. Ebrāhīm (b. Aḵmīm in Upper Egypt, ca. 791, d. Jīza [Giza], between 859 and 862), early Sufi master.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • ḎU’L-QADR

    (arabicized form of Turk. Dulgadır), a Ḡozz tribe that became established mainly in southeastern Anatolia under the Saljuqs.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ḎŪ QĀR

    watering place near Kūfa in Iraq where a battle was fought between Arab tribesmen and Persian forces in the early 7th century.

    (Ella Landau-Tasseron)

  • DU’L-QARNAYN

    See ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎU’L-RĪĀSATAYN

    See FAŻL B. SAHL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎU’L-RĪĀSATAYN

    (b. Shiraz, 1873, d. Tehran, 15 June 1953), for thirty years qoṭb (leader) of a principal branch of the Neʿmatallāhī Sufi order.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ḎU’L-ŠAHĀDATAYN

    See AŠRAF ḠAZNAVĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DUALISM

    feature peculiar to Iranian religion in ancient and medieval times.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • DUBAI

    (Dobayy), second largest of the seven emirates constituting the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf.

    (Sussan Siavoshi)

  • DUCHESNE-GUILLEMIN, JACQUES

    (1910-2012), distinguished scholar of classical philology and Indo-Iranian studies.

    (Pierre Lecoq)

  • DUCK

    technically any species of the family Anatidae but in Persian popular usage including similar waterfowl from other families, particularly some geese and grebes.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DŪḠ

    beverage made of yogurt and plain or carbonated water and often served chilled as a refreshing summer drink or with meals, especially with kebabs or čelow-kabāb.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • DŪḠ-E WAḤDAT

    lit. “beverage of unity”; concoction made from adding hashish extract (jowhar-e ḥaīš) to diluted yogurt.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • DUGDŌW

    the name of Zoroaster’s mother, which appears in several different spellings in the Pahlavi texts, mostly more or less corrupted from an original attempt at representing the Avestan form.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DULAFIDS

    See DOLAFIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DUMAQU

    or Domoko; administrative center of the eastern region of the Khotan oasis in Chinese Turkestan.

    (Gerd Gropp)

  • DUMÉZIL, Georges

    (1898-1986), French comparatist philologist and religious studies scholar. Among the most significant later modifications in Dumézil's views was his decision to abandon the claim that Indo-European society was originally divided into three functional groupings.

    (Bruce Lincoln)

  • DUNG

    human and animal excrement, widely used in Persia and Afghanistan for fuel and fertilizer.

    (Willem Floor)

  • DUNHUANG

    an oasis town situated in the northwest of the Chinese province of Gansu, famous for the nearby Mogao Caves.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • DUNHUANG i. The cave sites; Manichean texts

    The Mogao Caves are located some 25 km from Dunhuang at the edge of the Dunes of the Singing Sands (Mingshashan) of the Gobi desert. These contain over 45,000 square meters of predominantly Buddhist murals and more than 2,000 Buddhist painted stucco sculptures.

    (Gunner Mikkelsen)

  • DUNHUANG ii. Buddhist and Other Texts in Iranian Languages

    archeological site withaa library cave ithat has yielded a number of texts of the 8th to 10th centuries in two Middle Iranian languages, Khotanese and Sogdian.

    (Yutaka Yoshida)

  • DŪNQEŠLĀQ

    or Dong Qešlaq; group of pre-Islamic and Islamic archeological sites on the Emām Ṣāḥeb plain in the Qondūz province of Afghanistan, about 10 km south of the Oxus.

    (Klaus Fischer)

  • DUPREE, LOUIS

    Following the completion of his Ph.D. degree, Dupree taught at the Air University at Maxwell Air Force Base and Pennsylvania State University. Between 1959 and 1983 he was affiliated with the American Universities Field Staff (A.U.F.S.) as its expert on Afghanistan and Pakistan.

    (David B. Edwards)

  • DURA EUROPOS

    ruined city on the right bank of the Euphrates between Antioch and Seleucia on the Tigris, founded in 303 BCE by Nicanor, a general of Seleucus I. Its military function of the Greek period was abandoned under the Parthians, but at that time it was an administrative and economic center.

    (Pierre Leriche, D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DURAND, HENRY MORTIMER

    (b. Sehore, Bhopal State, India, 14 February 1850, d. Polden, Somerset, England, 8 June 1924), British diplomat and envoy to Tehran at the end of the 19th century.

    (Rose L. Greaves)

  • DŪRAOŠA

    Avestan word, attested once in the Older Avesta, in the Younger Avesta the preferred and exclusive epithet of haoma, the ritual liquid.

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DŪRĀSRAW

    according to the Pahlavi tradition the name of two legendary personages in the history of Zoroastrianism.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DURIS OF SAMOS

    (Gk. Doûris), (ca. 340-281/270 B.C.E.), Greek historiographer of the early Hellenistic period.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DŪRMEŠ, KHAN

    or Dormeš; b. ʿAbdī Beg TAVĀČĪ ŠĀMLŪ, powerful Qezelbāš amir, brother-in-law and confidant of Shah Esmāʿīl I.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • DŪRNEMĀ-YE ĪRĀN

    weekly of politics and culture edited and published by the Persian writer, scholar, and filmmaker ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Sepantā in Bombay from 30 November 1928 to March 1929.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DÜRRI EFENDI, AḤMAD

    (or Dorrī Afandī; (b. Van, date unknown, d. Istanbul, 1722), Ottoman poet, civil servant, and diplomat who served as ambassador to Tehran and wrote Sefārat-nāma, the first Turkish account of Safavid Persia.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • DUSHANBE

    capital and most populous city of Tajikistan.

    (Muriel Atkin)

  • DŪST-ʿALĪ MOʿAYYER

    See MOʿAYYER-AL-MAMĀLEK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DŪST-MOḤAMMAD HERAVĪ

    (d. probably Qazvīn, shortly after 1564), master calligrapher, the only artist whom Shah Ṭahmāsb I kept with him after having gradually dismissed all the others from his direct service.

    (Chahryar Adle)

  • DŪST MOḤAMMAD KHAN BĀRAKZĪ

    See DŌST MOḤAMMAD KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DŪST-MOḤAMMAD MOṢAWWER

    (d. ca. 1560), master painter, known in the Indo-Persian world and even among the Ottomans as a painter (moṣawwer), paper cutter (qāṭeʿ), calligraphic tracer/outliner (moḥarrer), and perhaps binder (saḥḥāf) and gilder (moḏahheb).

    (Chahryar Adle)

  • DUTCH-PERSIAN RELATIONS

    Until the 16th century the Dutch knew little of Persia; Franciscus Raphelengius, at Leiden University, drew up a short list of Persian words based on the first Persian text ever printed, a translation of the Pentateuch in Hebrew characters.

    (Willem Floor)

  • DŪZAḴ

    hell.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DUŽYĀIRYA

    bad year or bad harvest.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • DVIN

    city in Armenia located north of Artaxata on the left bank of the Azat, about 35 km south of the present Armenian capital at Yerevan. It remained a significant center from the Sasanian period to the 13th century, and its pleasant climate was mentioned by many authors.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • DYAKONOV, MIKHAIL MIKHAĬLOVICH

    (b. St. Petersburg, 26 June 1907, d. Moscow, 8 June 1954), Russian scholar of Iranian studies.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • DYES

    See CARPETS ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • Dād

    (music sample)

  • Darviš Khān – Pishdarāmad

    (music sample)

  • Dastgāh-e Čahārgāh

    (music sample)

  • Dastgāh-e Māhur

    (music sample)

  • Dašti

    (music sample)

  • Delkaš (1)

    (music sample)

  • Delkaš (2)

    (music sample)

  • Denaseri

    (music sample)

  • Deylamān

    (music sample)

  • Divāna šo

    (music sample)

  • D~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter D entries.

    (DATA)

  • EAGLES

    (Ar. and Pers. ʿoqāb; also obsolete Pers. dāl < Mid. Pers. dālman; also obsolete Pers. and Mid. Pers. āloh), large, diurnal, raptorial birds of the family Accipitridae in several genera (45-90 cm long, wingspan 110-250 cm).

    (Steven C. Anderson, William L. Hanaway, Jr.)

  • EARTH IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    See ELEMENTS i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EARTHQUAKES

    in Persia and Afghanistan. Both countries lie on the great alpine belt that extends from the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean through the Indonesian archipelago and forms the world’s longest collision boundary, between the Eurasian plate in the north and several former Gondwanan blocks in the south, including the so-called “Iranian plates” and “Afghan plates.”

    (Daniel Balland, Habib Borjian, Xavier de Planhol, Manuel Berberian)

  • EAST AFRICA

    Persian relations with the lands of the East African coast, particularly Somalia, Kenya, and Tanzania. From early times monsoon winds have permitted rapid maritime travel between East Africa and Western Asia. Although large-scale Persian settlement in East Africa is unlikely Persian cultural and religious influences nonetheless were felt.

    (Mark Horton, Derek Nurse, Farouk Topan, Will. C. van den Hoonard)

  • EAST AND WEST

    an English language quarterly published since 1950 by IsMEO (Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente [Italian Institute for Middle and Far East]) and now by the IsIAO (Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente [Italian Institute for Africa and the Orient]).

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • EAST INDIA COMPANY (BRITISH)

    a trading company incorporated on 31 December 1600 for fifteen years with the primary purpose of exporting the staple production of English woolen cloths and importing the products of the East Indies.

    (R. W. Ferrier, John R. Perry)

  • EAST INDIA COMPANY (DUTCH)

    See DUTCH-PERSIAN RELATIONS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EAST INDIA COMPANY (FRENCH)

    a company established in 1664 to conduct all French commercial operations with the Orient.

    (Anne Kroell)

  • EAST SYRIAN MONASTERIES IN SASANIAN IRAN

    Traces of monastic foundations in Sasanian Iran can be found in the sources as early as the 4th century CE. In the present review of the main East Syrian monasteries, emphasis is on the reformed monastic settlements of the 6th-7th centuries.

    (Florence Jullien)

  • EASTERN IRANIAN LANGUAGES

    term used to refer to a group of Iranian languages most of which are or were spoken in lands to the east of the present state of Persia.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • EASTWICK, EDWARD BACKHOUSE

    (1814–1883), orientalist and diplomat, best known for his translations from Persian and Indian languages.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • ʿEBĀDĪ, AḤMAD

    (1906-1993), one of the outstanding modern masters of Persian music. He played a leading role in popularizing the setār; the appeal of his performance resulted partly from the development of a new style involving slight technical and acoustical modifications to the instrument.

    (Jean During)

  • EBĀḤĪYA

    or EBĀḤATĪYA; a polemical term denoting either antinomianism or groups and individuals accused thereof.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • EBER-NĀRI

    the Akkadian name used in Assyrian and Babylonian records of the 8th-5th centuries B.C.E. for the lands to the west of the Euphrates—i.e., Phoenicia, Syria, and Palestine.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • EBERMAN, VASILIĬ ALEKSANDROVICH

    (b. St. Petersburg, 1899, d. Orel, 1937), scholar of early Persian poets writing in Arabic.

    (Anas B. Khalidov)

  • EBIR NĀRĪ

    See EBER-NĀRI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBLĀḠ

    lit. “communication”; title of five Persian language newspapers.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EBLĪS

    a Koranic designation for the devil in Persian Sufi Tradition, derived ultimately from the Greek diabolos.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • EBN ʿABBĀD

    See ṢĀḤEB B. ʿABBĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ABHAR, MOḤAMMAD-TAQĪ

    (1854-1919), Bahai teacher and one of the “hands of the cause."

    (Stephen Lambden)

  • EBN ABI’L ḤADĪD

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. ABU’L ḤADĪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ABĪ JOMHŪR AḤSĀʾĪ, Moḥammad

    b. Zayn-al-Dīn Abi’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ḥosām-al-Dīn Ebrāhīm (b. ca. 1433-34; d. after 4 July 1499), Shiʿite thinker.

    (Todd Lawson)

  • EBN ABĪ ṢĀDEQ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABD-al-RAḤMĀN

    b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad NAYŠĀBŪRĪ (Nīšāpūr, 11th century), medical author known in the century after his death, at least in Khorasan, as “the second Hippocrates," and reportedly a student of Avicenna.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • EBN ABĪ ṬĀHER ṬAYFŪR, ABU’L-FAŻL AḤMAD

    (819-93), littérateur (adīb) and historian of Baghdad, of a Khorasani family.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN AMĀJŪR

    See BANŪ AMĀJŪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ʿĀMER

    See ʿABD-ALLĀH B. ʿĀMER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN AL-ʿAMĪD

    cognomen of two famous viziers of the 4th/10th century: Abu’l-Fażl and his son Abu’l-Fatḥ.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • EBN AL-ʿARABĪ, MOḤYĪ-al-DĪN Abū ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Ṭāʾī Ḥātemī

    (b. 28 July 1165; d. 10 November 1240), the most influential Sufi author of later Islamic history, known to his supporters as al-Šayḵ al-akbar, “the Greatest Master.”

    (William C. Chittick)

  • EBN ʿARABŠĀH, ŠEHĀB-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ʿABBĀS AḤMAD

    (1389-Cairo, 1450), b. Moḥammad … Ḥanafī ʿAjamī, literary scholar and biographer of Tamerlane (Tīmūr).

    (John E. Woods)

  • EBN AṢDAQ, MĪRZĀ ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD

    (b. Mašhad 1850; d. Tehran, 1928), prominent Bahai missionary.

    (Stephen Lambden)

  • EBN AŠTAR

    the name usually given to Abu Noʿmān Ebrāhim b. Mālek al-Aštar b. al-Hāreṯ al-Naḵaʿi (i.e., of al-Naḵaʿ, a branch of the South Arabian Maḏḥej tribal group), Arab chief and Shiʿite military leader (d. at Maskin on the Tigris, in Jomādā I 72/September-October 691).

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • EBN AL-AṮĪR, ʿEZZ-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    b. Moḥammad Jazarī (b. Jazīrat Ebn ʿOmar [modern Cizre, in eastern Turkey] 13 May 1160; d. Mosul, June 1233), major Islamic historian and important source for the history of Persia and adjacent areas from the Samanids to the first Mongol invasion.

    (D. S. Richards)

  • EBN ʿAṬṬĀŠ

    See ʿAṬṬĀŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ʿAYYĀŠ, ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    b. Moḥammad Baṣrī, Muʿtazilite theologian (d. late 10th century), member of the so-called “school of Baṣra” and a partisan of the ideas of Abū Hāšem Jobbāʾī.

    (Daniel Gimaret)

  • EBN BĀBĀ KĀŠĀNĪ (Qāšānī), ABU’L-ʿABBĀS

    (d. Marv, 1116-17), Persian writer and boon-companion (nadīm), whose manual for courtiers preserves otherwise lost information on the later Ghaznavids.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN BĀBAWAYH (1)

    (Bābūya), family of Persian builders, luster potters, and tile makers, descended from the Shiʿite scholar Ebn Bābūya al-Ṣadūq (d. 991) and active in the 12th-14th centuries.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • EBN BĀBAWAYH (2)

    (Bābūya), SHAIKH ṢADŪQ ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD b. Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī... Mūsā Qomī (b. Qom after 305, probably about 311/923; d. Ray, 381/991), author of one of the authoritative four books of Imami Shiʿite Hadith, Man lā yaḥżoroho’l-faqīh.

    (Martin McDermott)

  • EBN BĀKŪYA

    See BĀBĀ KŪHĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN AL-BALḴĪ

    conventional name for an otherwise unknown author of Fārs-nāma, a local history and geography of the province of Fārs written in Persian during the Saljuq period.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN BAQIYA

    called Naṣir-al-Dawla and Nāṣeḥ "Counselor,” vizier of the Buyids in Iraq, b. 314/926, d. 367/978.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN BAṬṬŪṬA

    (1304-1368/9), the most famous Muslim traveler.

    (Charles F. Beckingham)

  • EBN AL-BAYṬĀR, ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Aḥmad (?-1248), Andalusian botanist and pharmacologist.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • EBN AL-BAYYEʿ

    See ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH B. AL-BAYYEʿ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN BAZZĀZ

    author of the Ṣafwat al-ṣafāʾ, a biography of Shaikh Ṣafī-al-Dīn Esḥāq Ardabīlī (d. 935/1334), founder of the Safavid order of Sufis and the eponym of the Safavid dynasty.

    (Roger Savory)

  • EBN BĪBĪ, NĀṢER-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN

    b. Moḥammad b. ʿAlī Jaʿfarī Roḡadī, Persian historian and man of letters.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • EBN BOḴTĪŠŪʿ

    prominent family of physicians of Gondēšāpūr at court during the early ʿAbbasid period.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • EBN DĀʿĪ RĀZĪ, ABŪ TORĀB ṢAFĪ-AL-DĪN MORTAŻĀ

    b. Dāʿī b. Qāsem Rāzī Ḥosaynī (or Ḥasanī), known as ʿAlam-al-Hodā (d. after 1132), Imami traditionist and author of a heresiography in Persian.

    (Marco Salami)

  • EBN DĀROST, MAJD-AL-WOZARĀʾ MOḤAMMAD

    b. Manṣūr (d. Ahvā, 1074), vizier to the ʿAbbasid caliph al-Qāʾem from 9 May 1061 to 9 December 1062.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN DĀROST, TĀJ-AL-MOLK ABU’L-ḠANĀʾEM MARZBĀN

    b. Ḵosrow-Fīrūz Šīrāzī (1046-93), last vizier of the Great Saljuq Sultan Malekšāh.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN DAYṢĀN

    See BARDESANES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN DOROSTAWAYH, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALL

    b. Jaʿfar b. Dorostawayh b. Marzbān (b. Fasā, 871; d. Baghdad, May 958), grammarian and lexicographer of Persian origin.

    (Seeger A. Bonebakker)

  • EBN AL-ʿEBRĪ, ABU’L-FARAJ

    (1225-1286), Syriac historian and polymath. Most of his works were in Syriac, but he also wrote in Arabic. In his Syriac Chronicle, much attention is given to the vicissitudes of the Jacobite and East Syrian, or Nestorian, churches in the “Persian territories.”

    (Herman G. B. Teule)

  • EBN AL-EḴŠĪD, ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD

    b. ʿAlī b. Beḡčor (884-938), Muʿtazilite theologian.

    (Daniel Gimaret)

  • EBN ELYĀS, MANṢŪR

    (fl. late 14th-early 15th cent.), author of two extant Persian works: a medical compilation titled Kefāya-ye mojāhedīya and an illustrated anatomy text known as the Tašrīḥ-e manṣūrī. The five full-page drawings, corresponding to the five treatises in the Tašrīḥ, are unique in the history of Islamic medicine.

    (Gül A. Russell)

  • EBN ESFANDĪĀR, BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    b. Ḥasan, historian, probably from Āmol, who flourished around the turn of the 13th century.

    (Charles Melville)

  • EBN FAHD ḤELLĪ, ABU’L-ʿABBĀS JAMĀL-AL-DĪN AḤMAD

    b. Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad (1355-1437), Imami scholar and jurist.

    (Marco Salami)

  • EBN AL-FAQĪH, ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD

    b. Moḥammad b. Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm HAMADĀNĪ Aḵbārī (fl. second half of the 9th century), man of letters, who wrote in Arabic Ketāb aḵbār al- boldān, a geographic work, in which primarily the Islamic world with its centers in Arabia, Persia, and Iraq are described.

    (Anas B. Khalidov)

  • EBN FARĪḠŪN

    See ĀL-E FARĪḠŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN FAŻLĀN

    See AḤMAD B. FAŻLĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN FONDOQ

    See BAYHAQĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN AL-FOWAṬĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    (1244-1323), b. Aḥmad, librarian and historian.

    (Charles Melville)

  • EBN FŪLĀD

    (or Ebn Pūlād), military adventurer, probably of Daylamī origin, active in northern Persia during the Buyid period (early 11th century) and typical of the soldiers of fortune characterizing the “Daylamī intermezzo” of medieval Persian history.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN FŪRAK

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḤAWQAL, ABU’L-QĀSEM MOḤAMMAD

    b. Alī ʿNaṣībī, traveler and geographer of the 10th century.

    (Anas B. Khalidov)

  • EBN ḤAWŠAB, ABU’L-QĀSEM ḤASAN

    b. Faraj (or Faraḥ) b. Ḥawšab b. Zāḏān Najjār Kūfī, known also as Manṣūr al-Yaman (d. 914), Ismaʿili dāʿī and founder of the Ismaʿili community in northern Yemen.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • EBN HENDŪ, ABU’L-FARAJ ʿALĪ

    b. Ḥosayn, also known as Ostāḏ (b. in Ṭabarestān, no later than the early 960s; d. in or after 1031), author of, inter alia, propaedeutic epistles on philosophy and medicine and of a gnomology of Greek wisdom, and generally renowned as a litterateur.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • EBN ḤOSĀM ḴᵛĀFĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    or Ḵūsfī, a poet of the 15th century.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā )

  • EBN AL-JEʿĀBĪ, ABŪ BAKR MOḤAMMAD

    (897-966), b. ʿOmar Tamīmī Ḥāfeẓ, traditionist with Shiʿite leanings.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • EBN AL-JONAYD, ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD

    or al-Jonaydī; b. Aḥmad Kāteb Eskāfī, 10th century Imami jurist.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • EBN ḴAFĪF

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḴĀLAWAYH, ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH ḤOSAYN

    b. Aḥmad b. Ḥamdān Hamaḏānī, philologist and Koran scholar.

    (Michael G. Carter)

  • EBN ḴALDŪN, ABŪ ZAYD ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    b. Moḥammad (b. 27 May 1332; d. 17 March 1406), the historian famous for the general theory of history and civilization brilliantly expounded in his Moqaddema.

    (Franz Rosenthal)

  • EBN ḴALLĀD, ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD BAṢRĪ

    (d. 2nd half of 10th century), Muʿtazilite theologian of the so-called “school of Baṣra,” partisan of the ideas of Abū Hāšem Jobbāʾī.

    (Daniel Gimaret)

  • EBN ḴAMMĀR, ABU’L-ḴAYR ḤASAN

    b. Savār (or Sovār), b. Bābā b. Bahrām (or Behnām) Ḵᵛārazmī, philosopher.

    (W. Montgomery Watt)

  • EBN ḴĀQĀN

    See Supplement. 4/4/2017 - Unpublished as per E.D.'s email

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḴĀQĀN, FATḤ

    See FATḤ B. ḴĀQĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḴARMĪL

    early 13th century military commander of the Ghurids, and connected, according to Jūzjānī, with the district of Gorzevān on the headwaters of the Morḡāb in the province of Gūzgān in northern Afghanistan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN ḴĀZEM

    See ʿABDALLĀH B. ḴĀZEM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḴĀZEN DĪNAVARĪ

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḴORDĀḎBEH, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh (fl. 9th century), author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN MAFANA

    vizier to the Buyid ruler of Fars and Khuzestan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN MĀHĀN

    See ʿALĪ B. ʿĪSĀ B. MĀHĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MĀJŪR

    See BANŪ AMĀJŪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MĀKŪLA

    See ĀL-E MĀKŪLĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MARDAWAYH, AHMAD

    b. Mūsā b. Mardawayh b. Fūrak Eṣfahānī (935-1019), scholar of Isfahan in the Buyid period, who wrote in the fields of tradition, tafsīr (Koranic exegsis), history, and geography.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN MARZOBĀN, ABŪ AḤMAD ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    b. ʿAlī b. Marzbān Ṭabīb Marzbānī (d. Tostar, February-March 1006), administrative official under the Buyids.

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • EBN MATTAWAYH, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ḤASAN

    b. Aḥmad b. Mattawayh, Muʿtazilite theologian of the Basran school, a student of Qāżī ʿAbd-al-Jabbār (d. 1025).

    (Martin McDermott)

  • EBN MESKAWAYH

    Persian chancery official and treasury clerk of the Buyid period, boon companion, litterateur and accomplished writer in Arabic on a variety of topics, including history, theology, philosophy and medicine (d. 421/1030). See MESKAWAYH, ABU ʿALI AḤMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MOʿĀVĪA

    See ʿABDALLAH B. MOʿĀVĪA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MOBĀRAK

    See ʿABDALLAH B. MOBĀRAK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MOHALHEL

    See ABŪ DOLAF AL-YANBŪʿĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MOLJAM

    Ebn Moljam will be discussed in a future online entry.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN AL-MOQAFFAʿ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH RŌZBEH

    (721-757), b. Dādūya/Dādōē, chancery secretary (kāteb) and major Arabic prose writer.

    (J. Derek Latham)

  • EBN MORSAL, LAYṮ

    b. Fażl, a client (mawlā) and governor of Sīstān 815-19.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN MOSTAWFĪ, ABU’L-BARAKĀT ŠARAF-AL-DĪN MOBĀRAK

    b. Aḥmad b. Mobārak Erbelī (1168-1239), historian of Erbel.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • EBN AL-MOṬAHHAR

    See ḤELLĪ, ʿALLĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MOṬARREF

    See ABU’L-WAZĪR MARVAZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN AL-NADĪM

    Shi'ite scholar and bibliographer of the 10th century, famous as the author of Ketāb al-fehrest. See under FEHREST.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN NAWBAḴT, ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    See NAWBAḴTĪ FAMILY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN NAWBAḴT, ABŪ SAHL

    See ABŪ SAHL NAWBAḴTĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN NAWBAḴT, ḤASAN B. MŪSĀ

    See NAWBAḴTĪ, ḤASAN B. MŪSĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN NOṢRAT, AMIR BAHĀʾ-AL- DĪN BARANDAQ ḴOJANDĪ

    (b. 1356; d. ca. 1433), Timurid poet.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • EBN AL-QAṢṢĀB, ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR MOʾAYYAD-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    (b. ca. 1128), b. ʿAlī, Shiʿite vizier of the caliph al-Nāṣer from 1194 to 1195.

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • EBN QEBA, ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Rāzī (d. Ray, before 931), one of the most prominent and active Imami theologians.

    (Martin McDermott)

  • EBN QOTAYBA, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Moslem DĪNAVARĪ, (828-889), important early philologist in the widest sense of the term and author of numerous works on what is known as the “Arab sciences,” including the religious sciences dealing with the Koran and Hadith.

    (Franz Rosenthal)

  • EBN QŪLAWAYH, ABU’L- QĀSEM JAʿFAR

    b. Moḥammad b. Jaʿfar b. Mūsāb. Qūlawayh Qomī Baḡdādī (d. Baghdad, 978 or 979), Imami traditionist and jurist, a disciple of Abū Jaʿfar Kolaynī and teacher of Shaikh Mofīd.

    (Martin McDermott)

  • EBN RABBAN ṬABARI

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN RABĪṬ

    See ʿABDĀN B. AL-RABĪṬ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN RĀVANDĪ, ABU’l-ḤOSAYN AḤMAD

    b. Yaḥyā (d. 910?), Muʿtazilite theologian and “heretic” of Ḵorāsānī origin.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • EBN RĒVANDĪ

    See EBN RĀVANDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ROSTA, ABŪ ʿALĪ AḤMAD

    b. ʿOmar (d. after 903), Persian author of a geographical compendium.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN RŪḤ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ḤOSAYN

    See ḤOSAYN B. RŪḤ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN SAʿD, ʿOMAR

    (k. Kūfa 686), commander of the Omayyad troops at Karbalāʾ.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • EBN ŠĀḎĀN

    family name of two Imami traditionists: Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan (or Ḥosayn) Fāmī Qomī (10th century) and his son.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • EBN ŠĀḎĀN, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ AḤMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ŠĀHAWAYH

    a leader and envoy of the Carmatians.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • EBN SAHLĀN SĀVAJĪ, Qāżī ZAYN-AL-DĪN ʿOMAR

    (b. Sāva, fl. early 12th century), Persian philosopher and logician.

    (Hossein Ziai)

  • EBN ŠAHRĀŠŪB, ABŪ JAʿFAR ZAYN-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿALī b. Šahrāšūb b. Abī Naṣr b. Abi’l-Jayš (b. Sārī, Māzandarān; d. Aleppo, 2 September 1192), the most illustrious Imami scholar of the 12th century.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • EBN SĪNA

    See AVICENNA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN SORAYJ

    See AḤMAD B. ʿOMAR B. SORAYJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ṬABĀṬABĀ, ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

    b. Aḥmad b. Moḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Ebrāhīm Eṣfahānī (d. 933), poet and critic.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • EBN ṬĀWŪS, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN ABU’L- FAŻĀʾEL AḤMAD

    b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar b. Moḥammad Ḥasanī, 12th century Imami scholar.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • EBN ṬĀWŪS, RAŻĪ-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ

    b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar (b. Ḥella, 21 January 1193; d. Baghdad, 8 August 1266), Imami author, scholar, and bibliophile, called Ḏu’l-ḥasabayn “possessing two distinctions” because he was descended from both Ḥasan and Ḥosayn.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • EBN AL-ṬEQṬAQĀ, ṢAFĪ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    (1262 ?-after 1309 ?), b. ʿAlī b. Ṭabāṭabā, historian and naqīb of the ʿAlids in Ḥella.

    (Charles Melville)

  • EBN TORK

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. VĀSEʿ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN TORKA

    See ṢĀʾN-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ EṢFAHĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN YAMĪN, AMĪR FAḴR-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    b. Amir Yamīn-al-Dīn Ṭoḡrāʾī, a poet of the 14th century.

    (Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak)

  • EBN ZĪĀD, ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH

    (b. ca. 648), Omayyad governor responsible for the death of the Imam Ḥosayn b. ʿAlī.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • EBRĀHĪM

    Abraham, the name of the first patriarch of the Hebrew people.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ALPTIGIN, ABŪ ESḤĀQ

    See ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ADHAM

    b. Manṣūr b. Yazīd b. Jāber ʿEjlī (d. 777-78), prominent Sufi and ascetic of 8th century.

    (EIr)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ESMĀʿĪL

    Safavid architect mentioned on two tiles: one in the dome of the tomb of Shaikh ʿAbd-al-Ṣamad at Naṭanz and another, dated 1661-62, in the south wall of the south ayvān of the congregational mosque at Isfahan.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ḤOSAYN

    See TAHERIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. JARĪR

    author of a general history called Tārīḵ-e ebrāhīmī or Tārīḵ-e homāyūnī.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. MASʿŪD

    b. Maḥmūd b. Sebüktegīn, Abu’l-Moẓaffar, Ẓahīr-al-Dawla, Rażī-al-Dīn, etc., Ghaznavid sultan (r. 1059-99).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. NAṢR

    See BÖRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM ʿAKKĀS-BĀŠĪ

    See ʿAKKĀS-BĀŠĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN

    See AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN, ĀQĀ EBRĀHĪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM BEG

    See ZAYN-AL-ʿĀBEDĪN MARĀḠAʾĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM DEDE ŠĀHEDĪ

    Turkish poet and lexicographer.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • EBRĀHĪM FĀRŪQĪ

    15th century poet and author of Farhang-e Ebrāhīmi. See under FARHANG-E EBRĀHIMI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ʿOṮMĀN

    Persian metalworker named in the inscription in Kufic script on the copper door knockers removed from a city gate in medieval Ganja (Soviet Kirovabad, Republic of Azerbaijan) and taken to the convent of Gelatʿi in Imeretiya, just east of Kutaisi in Georgia.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • EBRĀHĪM ĪNĀL

    or Yenāl (d. 1059), early Saljuq leader.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR ŠĪRĀZĪ

    (b. 1745, d. 1800/1801), lord mayor (kalāntar) of Shiraz during the late Zand era, the first grand vizier (ṣadr-e aʿẓam), and a major political figure of the Qajar period.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • EBRĀHĪM ḴALĪL KHAN JAVĀNŠĪR

    Khan of Qarābāḡ in late 18th century.

    (George A. Bournoutian)

  • EBRĀHĪM KHAN AFŠĀR

    See AFSHARIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ

    See ḠAFFĀRĪ, MOḤAMMAD-EBRĀHĪM Khan .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM KHAN QĀJĀR

    See ẒAHIR-AL-DAWLA, EBRĀHIM KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM LODĪ

    See LODĪ DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM MAWṢELĪ, ABŪ ESḤĀQ

    the most celebrated musician at the court of Hārūn al-Rašīd and a central figure in the development of the Iraqi school of music under the early ʿAbbasids.

    (Everett Rowson)

  • EBRĀHĪM MĪRZĀ

    (b. April 1540; d. 23 February 1577), Safavid prince, patron, artist, and poet generally referred to as Solṭān Ebrāhīm Mīrzā.

    (Marianna Shreve Simpson)

  • EBRĀHĪM NAẒẒĀM

    See ABŪ ESḤĀQ NAẒẒĀM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM ṢAḤḤĀF-BĀŠĪ

    See ṢAḤḤĀF-BĀŠĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM ŠARQĪ

    See ŠARQĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM SHAH AFŠĀR

    nephew of Nāder Shah, claiming the Afsharid throne briefly (1748-49)

    (John R. Perry)

  • EBRĀHĪM ŠĪRĀZĪ

    historian of the ʿĀdelšāhī dynasty of Bījāpūr (b. 1540-41).

    (Carl W. Ernst)

  • EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN

    (1394-35), b. Šāhroḵ, Timurid prince, ruler of Shiraz, military commander, and renowned calligrapher.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    See ABU’L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM ṬEHRĀNĪ

    also known as Mīrzā ʿAmū, a 19th century calligrapher specializing in the nastaʿlīq script.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • EBRĀHĪMĀBĀDĪ DIALECT

    See RĀMANDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪMĪ, ʿABD-AL-REŻĀ

    See ʿABD-AL-REŻĀ KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪMĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM KHAN

    See ABU’L-QĀSEM KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEBRAT

    a monthly magazine first published on 4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār.

    (EIr)

  • ʿEBRAT, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD-QĀSEM

    author of ʿEbrat-nāma, a history of the reigns of Awrangzēb’s successors to 1723.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • ʿEBRĪ

    "Hebrew." See under JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBTEHAJ, ABOLHASSAN

    (1899-1999), prominent banker, economic planner, and one of the most important and powerful figures in the economic history of Iran during the middle decades of the 20th century.

    (Geoffrey Jones)

  • ECBATANA

    present-day Hamadān, capital of the Median empire, summer capital of the Achaemenids, and satrapal seat of the province of Media from Achaemenid to Sasanian times.

    (Stuart C. Brown)

  • ECKMANN, János

    (1905-1971), a Hungarian Professor of Chaghatay.

    (Andràs Bodrogligeti)

  • ECOLOGY

    the study of organisms, both flora and fauna, in relation to their environments. Five primary ecological regions in Persia each have a characteristic combination of features: Caspian lowlands, Alborz system and mountains in Khorasan, Persian plateau, Zagros system. Makrān mountains, and the Persian Gulf lowlands.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ECONOMY

    i. Economic geography, ii. In the Pre-Achaemenid period, iii. In the Achaemenid period, iv. In the Sasanian period, v. From the Arab conquest to the end of the Il-khanids, vi. In the Timurid period, vii. From the Safavids through the Zands, viii. In the Qajar period, ix. In the Pahlavi period, x. Under the Islamic Republic, xi. In modern Afghanistan, xii. In Tajikistan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ECONOMY i. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

    The high plateau and its external relations. The heartland of the Iranian world, encompassing both Persia and Afghanistan, is an arid high plateau, from which communication with the outside world is extraordinarily difficult.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • ECONOMY ii. IN THE PRE-ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Pre-Median Persia was a crucial economic component of ancient southwest Asia from the earliest times.

    (Robert C. Henrickson)

  • ECONOMY iii. IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    The Achaemenid empire, extending from the Indus river to the Aegean sea, comprised such economically developed countries as Egypt, Syria, Phoenicia, Babylonia, Elam, and Asia Minor, lands which had their long traditions of social institutions, as well as Sakai, Massagetai, Lycians, Libyans, Nubians and other tribes undergoing the disintegration of the primitive-communal phase.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ECONOMY iv. IN THE SASANIAN PERIOD

    The Sasanians, who inherited the economic conditions left by the Parthians, were quick to forge an economic state so powerful and distinctive that its fame spread well beyond their political frontiers and their period.

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ECONOMY v. FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE END OF THE IL-KHANIDS (part 1)

    The economic order in Islamic Persia was in theory, if not always in practice, derived from Islamic norms.

    (Ann K. S. Lambton)

  • ECONOMY v. FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE END OF THE IL-KHANIDS (part 2)

    The political breakdown of the caliphate in the 3rd/9th and 4th/10th centuries, although disastrous for the finances of the state and for agriculture in ʿErāq-e ʿArab and, perhaps, also in Ḵūzestān and parts of western Persia, did not have ill effects immediately on the economic life of Persia as a whole.

    (Ann K. S. Lambton)

  • ECONOMY v. FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE END OF THE IL-KHANIDS (part 3)

    As the needs of the state grew, there was a constant shortage of specie to meet its expenses. As a result of the devastation and demographic decline brought about by the invasions, there was less land under cultivation and fewer people engaged in agriculture.

    (Ann K. S. Lambton)

  • ECONOMY vi. IN THE TIMURID PERIOD

    The Timurid invasions against the Kartid rulers of Khorasan, which began in 783/1381, caused socioeconomic dislocation and unprecedented wholesale destruction and pillaging of towns, as well as brutal massacres of their populations.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • ECONOMY vii. FROM THE SAFAVIDS THROUGH THE ZANDS

    The first Safavid king, Esmāʿīl I (907-30/1501-24), initiated a process of political and religious change in Persia that profoundly affected the economic structure.

    (Bert G. Fragner)

  • ECONOMY viii. IN THE QAJAR PERIOD

    At the outset of the Qajar dynasty, the Persian economy displayed the characteristics of a traditional economy disintegrating under the stress of political anarchy.

    (Hassan Hakimian)

  • ECONOMY ix. IN THE PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Overall, under the Pahlavis the Persian economy made significant advances which compared favorably with the experience of countries such as Turkey and Egypt, which were in a better state of development after the First World War.

    (M. Hashem Pesaran)

  • ECONOMY x. UNDER THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Since 1979 there have been marked changes in the economic policies, institutions, and structure of the country, and major economic dislocation and disruption of production. Not all the changes have resulted directly from the revolution.

    (Vahid F. Nowshirvani)

  • ECONOMY xi. IN MODERN AFGHANISTAN

    From 1970 until the coup d’état in April 1978, followed by the Soviet invasion in December 1979, the Afghan economy experienced sustained high economic growth. Gross domestic product rose at a rate of 4.5 percent annually.

    (M. Siddieq Noorzoy)

  • ECONOMY xii. IN TAJIKISTAN

    During the seventy years of centralized Soviet administration, the economy of Tajikistan was modernized and integrated into the Soviet economy. The Tajik Soviet Republic exhibited comparatively remarkable growth in the agricultural and industrial sectors.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ʿEDĀLAT, ḤEZB-E

    (Ar. ʿAdālat “justice”), Persian political party founded by ʿAlī Daštī in December 1941.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi )

  • ʿEDĀLAT-ḴĀNA

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EDEB

    b. Armanī Bolāḡī (1860-1918), pen name of the Kurdish poet ʿAbd-Allāh Beg b. Aḥmad Beg Bābāmīrī Miṣbāḥ-al-Dīwān.

    (Amir Hassanpour)

  • EDESSA

    now Urfa in southeastern Turkey, former capital of ancient Osrhoene. Edessa was held successively by the Seleucids, Parthians, and Romans. The fact that coins were minted at Edessa under Antiochus IV suggests a degree of autonomy and importance in the Seleucid period. Greeks were never predominant in the population, however.

    (Samuel Lieu)

  • EDITING

    the techniques of preparing a text for publication, now widely practiced at the major publishing houses in Persia.

    (Karim Emami)

  • EDMONDS, C. J

    The son of a British missionary, Edmonds was born in Japan, where he stayed up to the age of eight. He was educated in England at Bedford and Christ’s Hospital public schools and finally studied oriental languages at Cambridge under the supervision of E. G. Browne for two years.

    (Yann Richard)

  • EDUCATION

    (Pers. āmūzeš o parvareš; earlier Ar. Per. taʿlīm o tarbīat) in Iranian-speaking areas.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EDUCATION i. IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    In two Elamite documents from Persepolis drafted in the 23rd regnal year of Darius I (499 B.C.E.) “Persian boys (who) are copying texts” are mentioned; the texts in question are records of the issue of grain to twenty-nine individuals and wine to sixteen.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • EDUCATION ii. IN THE PARTHIAN AND SASANIAN PERIODS

    No concrete evidence on education in Parthian times has survived. It may be postulated, however, that it was similar to education in the Sasanian period.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • EDUCATION iii. THE TRADITIONAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Before the establishment of a modern educational system in Persia, children received their early and intermediate education in the maktab (or maktab-ḵāna, lit., “place of writing”) under the tutelage of an āḵūnd, mulla (clerical teacher), or moʿallem (teacher).

    (Jalīl Dūstḵᵛāh and Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾī)

  • EDUCATION iv. THE MEDIEVAL MADRASA

    lit., “place to study” Ar. darasa “to study”. It was a college for the professional study of the Islamic sciences, particularly jurisprudence (feqh) but also the Koran, Hadith, and such ancillary fields as Arabic grammar and philology, knowledge of which helped in understanding sacred and legal texts.

    (Christopher Melchert)

  • EDUCATION v. THE MADRASA IN SHIʿITE PERSIA

    After the introduction of the institutionalized madrasa by Neẓām-al-Molk in the late 11th century, above) Shiʿite madrasas were also founded in Persia and Iraq. These schools were local efforts, however, and did not constitute a unitary system of education.

    (ʿAbbās Zaryāb)

  • EDUCATION vi. THE MADRASA IN SUNNI KURDISTAN

    Every mosque also contained a chamber called a ḥojra, where the mulla offered lessons in religion and theology free of charge to Muslim boys. Boys, though very seldom girls, began their studies at the age of seven years.

    (ʿAbd-Allāh Mardūḵ)

  • EDUCATION vii. GENERAL SURVEY OF MODERN EDUCATION

    A modern system of national education emerged in Persia in the 1920s and 1930s, after the Pahlavi state had been founded; during this period the influence of the religious establishment was minimized, and the government gained control over schools, expanding enrollment at all levels.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • EDUCATION viii. NURSERY SCHOOLS AND KINDERGARTENS

    Formalized preschool education in Persia can be traced back to ca. 1891, when Armenians in Jolfā, near Isfahan, founded a kindergarten, which continues today. By 1919 there were a few kindergartens in Tehran and other cities, primarily founded by missionaries and minority groups.

    (Tūrān Mīrhādī)

  • EDUCATION ix. PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    At first primary and secondary schools were not distinct, and the primary levels sometimes consisted of only four grades. There were no general instructional materials and no uniform curriculum, each school being under the direction of its founder or principal.

    (Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd)

  • EDUCATION x. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Modern secondary education in Persia was originally based on the 19th-century European humanistic system, focused on general knowledge and building character rather than on professional or vocational training. This philosophy dominated the Persian system until the 1960s, when reforms were introduced by American advisers.

    (Aḥmad Bīrašk)

  • EDUCATION xi. PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND EDUCATIONAL GROUPS

    After the Constitutional Revolution some of these schools were closed, and the others were brought under state management. During the next fifteen years several more private schools were founded.

    (Aḥmad Bīrašk)

  • EDUCATION xii. VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL SCHOOLS

    In 1958 the General Department of Vocational Training was established in the Ministry of Education. It was responsible for establishing a number of agricultural, industrial, commercial, and secretarial schools.

    (Šahlā Kāẓemīpūr)

  • EDUCATION xiii. RURAL AND TRIBAL SCHOOLS

    Compulsory-education laws enacted in 1911 and 1943 provided the legal framework for the extension of modern education into rural and tribal areas. Until the 1950s, however, the Persian government did not possess the resources to implement these laws; in addition, landowners and tribal khans resisted such efforts.

    (Moḥammad Bahmanbeygī, Nāṣer Mīr, Moḥammad Pūrsartīp, and EIr)

  • EDUCATION xiv. SPECIAL SCHOOLS

    Until 1968 responsibility for children with special educational needs had fallen on the individual schools. In that year the National Organization for Special Education was established as a general directorate under a deputy minister of education.

    (Samineh Baghchehban-Pirnazar)

  • EDUCATION xv. FOREIGN AND MINORITY SCHOOLS IN PERSIA

    Modern education was introduced to Persia in the 19th century by European and American religious institutions and military advisers.

    (EIr)

  • EDUCATION xvi. SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS

    No standardized schoolbooks existed in Persia before the advent of the modern educational system. The first were written by European teachers at the Dār al-fonūn in the mid-19th century.

    (Aḥmad Bīrašk and EIr)

  • EDUCATION xvii. HIGHER EDUCATION

    Initially Reżā Shah’s government, like the Qajar government before it, encouraged aspiring professionals to study abroad, but, while urging them to absorb practical elements of Western culture, he also warned them to reject “harmful” influences and preserve their own national identity.

    (David Menashri)

  • EDUCATION xviii. TEACHERS’-TRAINING SCHOOLS

    In March 1934 an act establishing lower and advanced schools for teachers’ training under the Ministry of Education (Wezārat-e maʿāref) was adopted by the Majles, and an operating charter for such schools was ratified in July of the same year.

    (Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾ ī)

  • EDUCATION xix. TEACHERS’-TRAINING COLLEGES

    Dānešgāh-e tarbīat-e moʿallem, the oldest institution for educating teachers in Persia, was founded in Tehran in 1336/1918. It has gone through various phases and changes of name since.

    (Majdoddin Keyvani)

  • EDUCATION xx. ADULT EDUCATION

    The Ministry of Education (Wezārat-e maʿāref) established adult-literacy classes in state schools considered suitable. They were to last two years and to consist of ninety-six two-hour classes each year, free of charge. Reading and writing Persian, arithmetic, and elementary history, geography, and civics were to be taught.

    (Šahlā Kāẓemīpūr)

  • EDUCATION xxi. EDUCATION ABROAD

    A survey of 350 students abroad between 1811 and 1920 indicates that more than 50 percent of the total studied in France, about 15 percent in Russia, and 5-10 percent in Germany, England, Switzerland, Istanbul, and Beirut. A small number studied in Egypt, India, and the United States.

    (Afshin Matin-Asgari)

  • EDUCATION xxii. PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    See PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EDUCATION xxiii. MILITARY EDUCATION

    See MILITARY EDUCATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EDUCATION xxiv. EDUCATION IN POSTREVOLUTIONARY PERSIA, 1979-95

    The history of education in the Islamic Republic falls into two phases: from the revolution to the cease-fire between Persia and Iraq in 1367 Š./1988 (the revolutionary period), when Islamic ideology predominated, and the subsequent period of reconstruction and privatization.

    (Golnar Mehran)

  • EDUCATION xxv. WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN THE QAJAR PERIOD

    The premodern conception of women’s education was varied. In some medieval books of ethical instruction and counsel teaching women to read was recommended, whereas other authors warned against it.

    (Afsaneh Najmabadi)

  • EDUCATION xxvi. WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN THE PAHLAVI PERIOD AND AFTER

    In the 1920s and 1930s women’s public education in Persia was established and grew rapidly. In 1926-27 the enrollment of females in primary schools was about 17,000, 21 percent of total enrollment at that level.

    (EIr)

  • EDUCATION xxvii. IN AFGHANISTAN

    By the end of the 19th century, mosque schools (maktabs) and madrasas had lost their vitality, rigor, and scope. Internecine struggles among the ruling Abdālī and subsequently among the Moḥammadzai clan ensured that no trace of regular and systematic education remained in the country.

    (M. Mobin Shorish)

  • EDUCATION xxviii. IN TAJIKISTAN

    Modern education in Tajikistan developed as the country emerged as a Soviet socialist republic, under the Soviet policy of standardization, with language as virtually the only variable. In Tajikistan, as in other Central Asian republics, this policy brought about nearly universal literacy.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • EFTEḴĀR DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-WAHHĀB BOḴĀRĪ

    (b. Ahmadnagar; d. Dawlatābād, 1776), Deccani biographer and poet in Urdu and Persian.

    (S. Moinul Haq)

  • EFTEḴĀRĪĀN

    a family of officials and poets from Qazvīn, reputed descendants of the caliph Abū Bakr, who flourished under the early Il-khans in the 13th century.

    (François de Blois)

  • EGGPLANT

    See BĀDENJĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EḠLAMEŠ

    See SAYF-AL-DĪN ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN EḠLAMEŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EGLANTINE

    See NASTARAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EGYPT

    relations with Persia and Afghanistan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EGYPT i. Persians in Egypt in the Achaemenid period

    The last pharaoh of the Twenty-Sixth dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II in the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in 525 B.C.E.; Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid empire.

    (Edda Bresciani)

  • EGYPT ii. Egyptian influence on Persia in the Pre-Islamic period

    In the fields of artistic work, architecture and sculpture, the Persians do not seem to have had any lasting impact on Egyptian tradition, during either both Achaemenid occupations of Egypt, or the short-lived presence of the later Sasanians.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • EGYPT iii. Relations in the Seleucid and Parthian periods

    It remains difficult to ascertain the proportion of ethnic Persians who survived the transition from Achaemenid to Hellenistic rule in Egypt or who came to that country after the conquest by Alexander.

    (Heinz Heinen)

  • EGYPT iv. Relations in the Sasanian period

    The occupation of Egypt, beginning in 619 or 618, was one of the triumphs in the last Sasanian war against Byzantium. Ḵosrow II Parvēz had begun this war in retaliation for the assassination of the Byzantine emperor Mauricius.

    (Ruth Altheim-Stiehl)

  • EGYPT v. Political And Commercial Relations In The Islamic Period

    See under FATIMIDS; AYYUBIDS; IL-KHANIDS DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EGYPT vi. Artistic relations with Persia in the Islamic period

    Although direct evidence of artistic links between Persia and Egypt before the Mongol invasion of the Near East in the 13th century is limited, surviving works of art suggest that transfer of artistic ideas resulted from the movement of artisans and their works.

    (Jonathan M. Bloom)

  • EGYPT vii. Political and religious relations with Persia in the modern period

    The beginnings of modern diplomatic relations between Egypt and Persia may be dated from 1847, when Mīrzā Taqī Khan Amīr(-e) Kabīr signed the second treaty of Erzurum with the Ottomans.

    (Shahrough Akhavi)

  • EGYPT viii. Egyptian cultural influence in Persia, modern times

    Egypt, together with Turkey and the Caucasus, was one of the major sources of cultural and political influences in Persia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    (EIr)

  • EGYPT ix. Iran’s cultural influence in the Islamic period

    During the 16th-18th centuries, when Egypt was a province of the Ottoman empire, Persian literature was widely studied IN THE EMPIRE, and the Persian language was one of the administrative languages.

    (Moḥammad el Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Moʾmen)

  • EGYPT x. Relations with Afghanistan

    Both Egypt and Afghanistan came under British hegemony in the latter part of the 19th century; therefore no official relations existed between them.

    (Ludwig W. Adamec)

  • EGYPT xi. Persian Journalism in Egypt

    A number of Persian journals were published in Egypt, after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ĒHRPAT

    See HERBED.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EHRBEDESTĀN

    See HERBEDESTĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EḤSĀN ALLĀH KHAN DŪSTDĀR

    (ʿAlī-ābādī; b. Sārī, Māzandarān, 1883, d. Baku, ca. 1938), second most prominent figure in the the Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran (Ḥokūmat-e jomhūrī-e šūrawī-e Īrān), the radicalized second phase of the Jangalī movement in the years 1920-21.

    (Cosroe Chaqueri)

  • EḤSĀ-AL-ʿOLŪM

    See FARĀBĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-DAWLA

    (1839-92), first son of Farhād Mīrzā Moʿtamed-al-Dawla Qājār and maternal grandson of Moḥammad-ʿAlī Mīrzā Dawlatšāh.

    (Īraj Afšār)

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-DAWLA, ḴĀNLAR KHAN

    (d. Tehran, April 1862), seventeenth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and governor of several regions in Persia during the reigns of Moḥammad Shah and Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah Qajar.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-DAWLA, SOLṬĀN OWAYS MIRZĀ

    (1818-88), also known as Eḥtešām-al-Molk and Moʿtamed-al-Dawla, second son of Farhād Mīrzā Moʿtamed-al-Dawla Qājār.

    (Iraj Afšār)

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-SALṬANA

    (1863-1936), Mīrzā Maḥmūd Khan ʿAlāmīr Qajar, governor, diplomat, and speaker of the Persian Parliament.

    (Mehrdad Amanat)

  • EḤTĪĀJ

    weekly newspaper published in Tabrīz by ʿAlīqolī Khan Tabrīzī, known as Ṣafarov, who had distributed political šab-nāmas (lit. "night letters") in 1892.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EḤYĀ ʿOLŪM-AL-DĪN

    See ḠAZĀLĪ ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EILERS, WILHELM

    In 1958 Eilers was appointed to the professorship in Oriental philology at the University of Würzburg. Although he was offered in 1962 the professorship in ancient Near Eastern studies at the University of Vienna, he stayed in Würzburg and taught there until his retirement in 1974.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • EJĀZA

    "lit. permission, license, authorization"; a term describing a variety of academic certificates ranging in length from a few lines to many fascicles.

    (Devin J. Stewart)

  • EJMĀʿ

    lit. "consensus"; a technical term in Islamic jurisprudence (oṣūl al-feqh).

    (Devin J. Stewart)

  • EJMIATSIN

    currently designation of three separate but interrelated entities: the cathedral and monastic complex which forms the residence of the supreme patriarch and catholicos of all the Armenians, the city in which this complex is located, and the district of which the latter is the administrative center.

    (S. Peter Cowe)

  • EJTEHĀD

    in Shiʿism, an Arabic verbal noun having the literal sense of "exerting effort."

    (Aron Zysow)

  • EJTEMĀʿĪŪN, FERQA-YE

    (FEAM; lit., "Social-Democratic party"), an organization founded in 1905 by Persian emigrants in Transcaucasia with the help of local revolutionaries.

    (Janet Afary)

  • EKBĀTĀN

    See ECBATANA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EKEŁEACʿ

    Gk. Akilisēnē, region along the Euphrates in northwest Armenia.

    (James R. Russell)

  • EKRĀM, MOḤAMMAD

    or Ekrom, b. ʿAbd-al-Salām (1847-1925), known as Dāmollā Ekrāmče, a Bukharan scholar and madrasa teacher.

    (J. Bečka)

  • EKRĀMĪ, JALĀL

    or Jalol Ikromī (1909-93), considered to be Tajikistan’s most important fiction writer and playwright of the Soviet period.

    (J. Bečka)

  • EḴŠĪD

    Arabo-Persian form of a Sogdian royal title attested in Sogdian script as (ʾ)xšyδ and in Manichean script as (ʾ)xšy(y)δ.

    (Frantz Grenet and N. Sims-Williams)

  • EKSĪR

    See KĪMĪĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EḴTESĀN, TĀJ-AL-MOLK MOḤAMMAD

    b. Aḥmad b. Ḥasan ʿAbdūsī Dehlavī (1300-51), author in Persian and secretary (dabīr) at the courts of the Tughluqid sultans Ḡīāṯ-al-Dīn Tōḡloq and his son Ḡīāṯ-al-Dīn Mo-ḥammad.

    (Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi)

  • EḴTĪĀR-AL-DĪN

    the citadel of Herat located on an elevation adjacent to the north wall of the old city and actually consisting of two parts, the stronghold proper—a rectangle of fired brick and a larger area to the west of unfired brick—that were originally buttressed by 25 towers which reflect various periods of construction.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • EḴTĪĀR MONŠĪ, ḴᵛĀJA

    (fl. mid 10th/16th cent.), a master calligrapher of the chancery taʿlīq style from Herat.

    (Wheeler M. Thackston)

  • EḴTĪĀRĀT

    lit. "choices, elections"; a term used in Islamic divination and astrology in at least four principle meanings.

    (David Pingree)

  • EḴWĀN AL-MOSLEMĪN, JAMʿĪYAT AL-

    lit. "Society of Muslim brethren"; the first modern religio-political movement in the Islamic world, founded in 1928 by Ḥasan Bannāʾ in Esmāʿīlīya Egypt.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • EḴWĀN AL-ṢAFĀʾ

    a self-professed brotherhood of piously ascetic scholars.

    (Paul E. Walker)

  • ELĀHĪ

    or ʿAlīšāh (1895-1974), innovative and charismatic leader of one branch of the Ahl-e Ḥaqq and author of several texts on its teachings. The most complete presentation is to be found not in his Persian books, destined for circulation among Twelver Shiʿites, but in his unpublished writings in Gūrānī, intended to be read only by Ahl-e Ḥaqq initiates.

    (Hamid Algar, J. W. Morris, Jean During)

  • ELĀHĪ HAMADĀNĪ, SAYYED MĪR ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    b. Ḥojjat-Allāh Asadābādī, a poet of the 17th century from Asadābād, a village near Hamadān.

    (M. Asif Naim Siddiqui)

  • ELĀHĪ-NĀMA

    See ʿAṬṬĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELĀHĪ QOMŠA’Ī, MAHDĪ

    b. Abu’l-Ḥasan (b. in Qomša, 1902; d. in Tehran, 1975), poet and professor of Islamic law and philosophy.

    (S. Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī)

  • ELAHI, BIJAN

    (1945-2010), modernist Persian poet and translator.

    (Mahdi Ganjavi)

  • ELĀHĪYĀT

    See PHILOSOPHY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELAM

    ancient country encompassing a large part of the Persian plateau at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. but reduced to the territory of Susiana in the Achaemenid period.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ELAM i. The history of Elam

    During the several millennia of its history the limits of Elam varied, not only from period to period, but also with the point of view of the person describing it. It seems that Mesopotamians in the late 3rd millennium B.C.E. considered Elam to encompass the entire Persian plateau.

    (F. Vallat)

  • ELAM ii. The archeology of Elam

    The archeological use of the term “Elam” is based on a loose unity recognizable in the material cultures of the period 3400-525 BCE at Susa in Ḵūzestān, at Anshan in Fārs, and at sites in adjacent areas of the Zagros mountains. Text-based definitions often lead to interpretations that are at odds with those derived from the study of material culture.

    (Elizabeth Carter)

  • ELAM iii. Proto-Elamite

    "Proto-Elamite” is the term for a writing system in use in the Susiana plain and the Iranian highlands east of Mesopotamia between ca. 3050 and 2900 B.C.E., a period generally considered to correspond to the Jamdat Nasr/Uruk III through Early Dynastic I periods in Mesopotamia.

    (R. K. Englund)

  • ELAM iv. Linear Elamite

    a system of writing used at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. by Puzur-Inšušinak, the last of the twelve “kings of Awan,” according to a king list found at Susa. He ruled ca. 2150 B.C.E. and was a contemporary of Ur-Nammu, the first ruler of the Ur III dynasty in Mesopotamia.

    (Mirjo Salvini)

  • ELAM v. Elamite language

    is known from texts in cuneiform script, most of them found at Susa but some from other sites in western and southwestern Iran and, in the east, in Fārs and ranging in date from the 24th to the 4th century B.C.E.

    (Françoise Grillot-Susini)

  • ELAM vi. Elamite religion

    The information furnished by archeological excavations in Persia and by cuneiform documents permit a summary description of some aspects of Elamite religion from the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. until the Achaemenid period.

    (F. Vallat)

  • ELAM vii. Non-Elamite texts in Elam

    Most non-Elamite texts inscribed on Elamite territories have been found in Susiana, that is, the region nearest to Mesopotamia and most exposed to Mesopotamian political and cultural influences.

    (Sylvie Lackenbacher)

  • ELBURZ

    See ALBORZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELBURZ COLLEGE

    See ALBORZ COLLEGE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELČĪ

    (īlčī) envoy, messenger, or official traveling on government business during the Mongol period and thereafter.

    (David O. Morgan)

  • ELECTIONS

    i. Under the Qajar and Pahlavi monarchies. ii. Under the Islamic republic, 1979-92. iii. In Afghanistan.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi, Shaul Bakhash, M. Hassan Kakar)

  • ELEGY

    (Ar. marṯīa, Pers. mūya), poetry of mourning in Persian literature.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn )

  • ELEMENTS

    i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Manicheism. iii. In Persian.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • ELEPHANT i. IN THE NEAR EAST

    (Pers. pīl, fīl.

    (François De Blois)

  • ELEPHANT ii. In the Sasanian Army

    ii. IN THE SASANIAN ARMY

    (Michael B. Charles)

  • ELEPHANTINE

    the largest island in the Nile, opposite Syene.

    (Edda Bresciani)

  • ELGOOD, CYRIL LLOYD

    (1893-1970), British historian of medicine in Persia.

    (F. R. C. Bagley)

  • ELIAS OF NISIBIS

    See ELĪJĀ BAR ŠĪNĀJĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELĪF EFENDI, Ḥaṣīrīzāda

    (b. in Sütlüce, May 1850; d. 4 December 1926), Turkish poet and scholar.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ELĪJĀ BAR ŠĪNĀJĀ

    (975-1049) prominent Nestorian polyhistor. 975-1049). His work is an important source for Sasanian history. In 1002 he was made bishop of Bēṯ Nuhādrē in Adiabene, and in 1008 metropolitan of Nisibis (Naṣībīn). He wrote in Syriac and Arabic on theological issues.

    (Wolfgang Felix)

  • ELIKEAN, GRIGOR E.

    (1880-1951), an active figure in Persian and Armenian politics, the press, and literature.

    (Aram Arkun)

  • ELIŠĒ

    or Elisaeus, fifth century author of the History of Vardan and the Armenian War, a detailed account of the Armenian rebellion against Yazdegerd II in 450, which was prompted by his persecution of their Christian faith.

    (Robert W. Thomson)

  • ELJIGIDEI

    or Īlčīktāy, Īljīkdāy; the name of two Mongol generals.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • ELLIPI

    See ASSYRIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELM

    any of several species of hardy deciduous ornamental or forest trees of the genus Ulmus L. (fam. Ulmaceae), typically called nārvan in Persian.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ʿELM AL-KETĀB

    See DARD, ḴᵛĀJA MĪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿELM AL-REJĀL

    See REJĀL, ʿELM AL-.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿELM O HONAR

    title of two Persian magazines.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ʿELMĪYA

    a high school in Tehran with 500 students studying experimental sciences, mathematics, and economy.

    (Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾī)

  • ELOQUENCE

    (Faṣāḥāt). See BAYĀN (1).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELPHINSTONE, MOUNTSTUART

    (1779-1859), author of an important description of Afghanistan; a British Indian official who rose to become governor of Bombay.

    (Malcolm E. Yapp)

  • ELQĀNIĀN, ḤABIB

    Jewish merchant, industrialist, and philanthropist, who rose from modest beginnings to become one of Iran’s leading entrepreneurs.

    (Shaul Bakhash)

  • ELTON, JOHN

    (?-1751), English merchant, seaman and shipbuilder for Nāder Shah Afšār.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ĒLTOTMEŠ, ŠAMS-AL-DĪN

    (d. 1236), first Sultan of Delhi.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • ELWELL-SUTTON, LAURENCE PAUL

    Elwell-Sutton’s interests and publications in Persian studies fall into five categories: Persian language; Persian literature; modern Persian history and politics; Persian folklore; and Islamic science. His Colloquial Persian and Elementary Persian Grammar have remained in print as standard works.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ELYĀSIDS

    See ĀL-E ELYĀS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELYMAIS

    semi-independent state frequently subject to Parthian domination, which existed between the second century B.C.E. and the early third century C. E. in the territories of Ḵūzestān, in southwestern Persia.

    (John F. Hansman)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DAWLA

    b. Būya b. Fanā-Ḵosrow, the eldest of three brothers who came to power in western Persia during the tenth century as military adventurers and founded the Buyid dynasty.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿEMĀD-al-DAWLA, Mīrzā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER

    WAḤĪD QAZVĪNĪ (ca. 1615-1701), poet and Safavid court historiographer for nearly three decades (1645-74).

    (Kathryn Babayan)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ FAQĪH KERMĀNĪ

    mystic and poet of the 14th century who used ʿEmād or, more rarely, ʿEmād-e Faqīh, as a pen name.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN KĀTEB, ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    b. Moḥammad b. Ḥāmed EṢFAHĀNĪ, an eminent 12th-century government servant and man of letters, born in Isfahan in 1125.

    (Donald S. Richards)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    b. Serāj-al-Dīn Masʿūd ŠĪRĀZĪ, the most prominent member of a 16th-century family of physicians in Shiraz.

    (Emilie Savage-Smith)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MARZBĀN, ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR

    b. Solṭān-al-Dawla Abū Šojāʿ (1009-48), amir of the Buyid dynasty in the period of that family’s decadence and incipient disintegration, being the last effective ruler of the line.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-ESLĀM

    b. Moḥammad ʿAtīq-Allāh (1470-1506), a vizier of the Timurid Sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā, executed in Herat in 1498.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • ʿEMĀD ḤASANĪ, MĪR, ʿEMĀD-AL-MOLK

    b. Ebrāhīm (ca. 1554-1615), calligrapher. His rendition of nastaʿlīq, with smooth lines, many curves, very occasional diacritical marks, symmetry of letters and words, and usually excellent choice of decorations surrounding the words, had widespread appeal.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-KOTTĀB, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN SAYFĪ QAZVĪNĪ

    (b. Qazvīn, 16 April 1866; d. Tehran, 17 July 1936), calligrapher.

    (ʿAbd-Allāh Forādi)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-MOLK

    See NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEMĀDĪ RĀZĪ

    poet of the first half of the 12th century.

    (Taqi Pūr-Nāmdārīān)

  • EMĀM

    (Imam), see SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; ČAHĀRDAH MAʿSŪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀM-E ḠĀʾEB

    "The Hidden Imam." See ḠAYBA and ISLAM IN IRAN vii. THE CONCEPT OF MAHDI IN TWELVER SHIʿISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀM-AL-ḤARAMAYN

    See JOVAYNĪ, Emām-al-Ḥaramayn.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀM-E JOMʿA

    leader of the congregational prayer performed at midday on Fridays.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • EMĀM ṢĀḤEB

    two archeological sites in Afghanistan: (1) a village near the south bank of the Amū Daryā, about 50 km north of Qondūz, (2) a village in the Jōzjān region, south of the river Balḵāb, halfway between Balḵ and Āqča.

    (Mehrdad Shokouhi)

  • EMĀM-E ZAMĀN

    Mahdi or "The Hidden Imam." See ḠAYBA and ISLAM IN IRAN vii. THE CONCEPT OF MAHDI IN TWELVER SHIʿISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEMĀMA

    the turban. See ʿAMĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀMA

    (Imamate), see SHIʿITE DOCTRINE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀMĪ, Sayyed ḤASAN

    (1903-1981), Friday prayer leader of Tehran from 1947 to 1978. He studied traditional Islamic sciences in Tehran and continental law in Lausanne, Switzerland. Upon completing his doctorate, he returned to Iran and worked as a judge in the Ministry of Justice. He was regarded as a member of the shah’s inner circle.

    (Cyrus Mir)

  • EMĀMĪ, JAMĀL

    (b. 1901, Koy; d. 1966, Paris), politician.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi)

  • EMAMI, KARIM

    Emami took an early interest in contemporary Persian art and literature. In 1959, before starting his career as a journalist and translator, he worked as a photographer and filmmaker at the film studio of Ebrāhim Golestān (b. 1922), modernist writer and director.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āzarang and EIr)

  • EMĀMĪ HERĀVĪ, RAŻĪ-AL-DĪN ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    b. Abī Bakr b. ʿOṯmān (b. in Herat; d. in Isfahan, 1287), Persian poet of the Mongol period also noted for his learning.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • EMĀMĪYA

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀMQOLĪ KHAN

    son of the celebrated Georgian ḡolām Allāhverdī Khan; governor-general (beglarbeg) of Fārs in the early 17th century.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • EMĀMVERDĪ MĪRZĀ ĪL-ḴĀNĪ

    (b. 9 March 1796), the twelfth son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qajar; his mother was Begom Jān Qazvīnī.

    (Ḥosayn Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • EMĀMZĀDA

    a shrine believed to be the tomb of a descendent of a Shiʿite Imam. such structures are also known as āstāna (lit., threshold), marqad (resting place, mausoleum), boqʿa (revered site), rawża (garden/tomb), gonbad (dome), mašhad (place of martyrdom), maqām (site/abode), qadamgāh (stepping place), and torbat (dust, grave).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EMĀMZĀDA i. Function and devotional practice

    "Sites where divine favor and blessing occur, where mercy and grace descend; they are a refuge for the distressed, a shelter for the despondent, a haven for the oppressed, and a place of consolation for weary hearts, and will ever remain so until resurrection.”

    (Hamid Algar)

  • EMĀMZĀDA ii. Forms, decorations, and other characteristics

    The identity of the people interred in emāmzādas and the exact location where they are entombed are often moot questions, as in most cases there are no historical documents authenticating the claims for these shrines.

    (Parviz Varjāvand)

  • EMĀMZĀDA iii. Number, distribution, and important examples

    Information and statistics regarding the number and distribution of emāmzādas in Persia vary from one source to another.

    (Parviz Varjāvand)

  • EMBROIDERY

    See CLOTHING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMDĀD-ALLĀH ḤĀJĪ

    (b. Thana Bhawan, India, 1817, d. Mecca, 1899), spiritual guide and scholar.

    (Barbara D. Metcalf)

  • ĒMĒD Ī AŠAWAHIŠTĀN

    (Exposition [of Zoroastrian doctrines] by Ēmēd, son of Ašawahišt), a major 10th-century Pahlavi work comprising forty-four questions (pursišn).

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • EMERALD

    See GEMS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMERSON, RALPH WALDO

    (b. 25 May 1803, Boston; d. 27 April 1882, Concord), distinguished American transcendentalist, philosopher, and poet.

    (John D. Yohannan)

  • EMIGRATION

    See HUMAN MIGRATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĪN YOMNĪ, MEḤMED

    Moḥammad Amīn (b. Solaymānīya in Persia, 1845, d. Istanbul, 5 April 1924), Turkish poet and man of letters who also wrote in Persian.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • EMIR

    See AMIR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMIRATES OF THE PERSIAN GULF

    See UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMLĀ BOḴĀRĀʾĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn (b. 1688, Sangārak, Afghanistan; d. 1749, Bukhara), Sufi poet of Arab descent.

    (Jirí Bečka)

  • EMMERICK, RONALD ERIC

    (1937-2001), distinguished Australian scholar of the ancient civilizations and languages of Iran, India, and Tibet.

    (Mauro Maggi)

  • EMPLOYMENT

    economic activity in which one engages and employs his or her time and energy. One of the major factors contributing to the growth of services is the considerable number of people working for the government.

    (M. Amani)

  • EMRĀNĪ

    the name or most likely the penname (taḵalloṣ) of the fifteenth century Jewish-Persian poet of Isfahan and Kāšān.

    (David Yeroushalmi)

  • EMTĪĀZĀT

    See CONCESSIONS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EN ISLAM IRANIEN, ASPECTS SPIRITUELS ET PHILOSOPHIQUES

    (4 vols., Paris, 1971-73), the magnum opus of Henry Corbin, consisting of essays summarizing most of the major themes that defined his scholarly career and revealing his intellectual grasp of Persian philosophical thought.

    (Daryush Shayegan)

  • ENAMEL

    a heat-fused glass paste colored by metal oxides and used to decorate metal surfaces. Enamel was associated with lapidary, glassworking, and goldmithing crafts and was probably used primarily in place of precious stones before the 17th century.

    (EIr, Layla S. Diba)

  • ʿENĀYAT, ḤAMĪD

    (1932-82), political scientist and translator.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • ʿENĀYAT-ALLĀH

    Timurid builder or tile maker of the 15th century.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • ʿENĀYAT-ALLĀH KANBO

    (b. Burhanpur, 31 August 1608; d. Delhi, 23 September 1671), Sufi and scholar, descendant of an old respected Lahore family that had converted to Islam in Punjab.

    (Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi)

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA IRANICA

    an alphabetically arranged reference work which seeks to provide scholarly articles relating to “all aspects of Iranian life and culture.”

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM

    a reference work of fundamental importance on topics dealing, according to its self-description, with “the geography, ethnography and biography of the Muhammadan peoples.”

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF TAJIKISTAN

    See ĖNTSIKLOPEDIYAI SOVETII TOJIK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIAS, PERSIAN

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Premodern, ii. Modern.

    (Živa Vesel and Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ENDOWMENTS

    On charitable endowments (waqf), at present see AMLĀK , ḴĀṢṢA. Regarding institutions, see CHARITABLE FOUNDATIONS. See under individual entries, such as BONYĀD-E FARHANG-E ĪRĀN;BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD; BONYĀD-E ŠĀH-NĀMA-YE FERDOWSĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENGINEEERING

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENGLAND

    See GREAT BRITAIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENGLISH i. Persian Elements in English

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Persian elements in English. ii. Persian influences in English and American literature. iii. Translations of classical Persian literature. iv. Translations of modern Persian literature. v. i. Translations of English literature into Persian.

    (D. N. Mackenzie)

  • ENGLISH ii. Persian Influences in English and American Literature

    Although academic Persian studies may be said to have begun in England in the early 17th century, it was not until the late 18th century that the Persian poets began to be read in English translations.

    (John D. Yohannan)

  • ENGLISH iii. Translations Of Classical Persian Literature

    fall initially into two categories. There is a group of texts whose purpose is to convey the information of the original in discrete units, most useful with prose or narrative poetry and not necessarily “literary.” There are other translations designed to carry over the formal elements of a literary text.

    (Michael Beard)

  • ENGLISH iv. Translations Of Modern Persian Literature

    Modernist literature in Persia can be said to develop gradually throughout the 19th century, but for English readers it begins abruptly, shortly after the Constitutional revolution, with the translations of Edward Browne.

    (Michael Beard)

  • ENGLISH v. Translation Of English Literature into Persian

    The first texts translated from English into Persian were diplomatic exchanges and bilateral treaties.

    (Karīm Emāmi)

  • ENJAVĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ, SAYYED ABU’L-QĀSEM

    (b. Shiraz, 1921; d. Tehran, 16 September 1993), eminent Persian folklorist.

    (Ulrich Marzolph)

  • ENJĪL

    See BIBLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENJŪ

    See INJU DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENOCH

    See AḴNŪḴ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENOCH, BOOKS OF

    attributed to the seventh antediluvian biblical patriarch Enoch (Genesis 5.21-24), which show Iranian influence.

    (J. C. Reeves)

  • ENQELĀB-E ESLĀMĪ

    See REVOLUTION OF 1978-79.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENQELĀB-E ESLĀMĪ NEWSPAPER

    a newspaper published by Abu’l-Ḥasan Banī-Ṣadr and supporting his political views.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ENQELĀB-E MAŠṞUṬĪYĀ

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENQELĀB-E SAFĪD

    See WHITE REVOLUTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENŠĀʾ

    lit. "composition"; the process of creating or composing something as well as the result of this process and the rules of the art; it denotes a genre of prose literature, copies, drafts, or specimens of official and private correspondence.

    (Jürgen Paul)

  • ENŠĀʾ-ALLĀH KHĀN, SAYYED

    (b. Moršedābād, 1756; d. Lucknow, 1818), Urdu-Persian poet and writer.

    (M. Asif Naim Siddiqui)

  • ENSĀN-E KĀMEL

    lit. "the Perfect Human Being"; a key idea in the philosophy and ethics of Islamic mysticism.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • ENTEBĀH

    lit. “Awakening”; a Persian newspaper published in Karbalā, Iraq, in 1914 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Āqā Šīrāzī Labīb-al-Molk, editor of Moẓaffarī published in Būšehr and Mecca.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ENTEẒĀM, ʿABD-ALLĀH and NAṢR-ALLĀH

    two brothers active in 20th-century Persian politics. ʿAbd-Allāh (1895-1983), as a career diplomat, served in various posts, including minister of foreign affairs. Naṣr-Allāh (1899-1980) held a series of ministerial posts under Moḥammad Reżā Shah, including the ambassadorship to the United States.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi)

  • ĖNTSIKLOPEDIYAI SOVETII TOJIK

    (Tajik Soviet Encyclopedia), the first general encyclopedia of Tajikistan, published in the Tajik Persian language and Cyrillic alphabet (8 vols., Dushanbe, 1978-88).

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    efforts to protect natural resources, wildlife, and ecosystems and to control pollution. In Persia conservation consciousness began, as it so often does, with concern for wildlife.

    (Eskandar Firouz, Daniel Balland)

  • ENZELI

    See ANZALĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPHESUS, SEVEN SLEEPERS OF

    Christian legend attested by texts in many languages.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • EPHRAIM KHAN

    See EPʿREM KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPICS

    narrative poems of legendary and heroic content.

    (François de Blois)

  • EPIDEMICS

    See PLAGUES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPIGRAM

    originally a Greek word meaning “inscription” and denoting in Western literatures a genre of short poems characterized by their contents and style rather than by a specific prosodic form.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • EPIGRAPHY

    the study of inscriptions, particularly their collection, decipherment, interpretation, dating, and classification.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EPIGRAPHY i. Old Persian and Middle Iranian epigraphy

    Iranian epigraphy of the pre-Islamic period covers mainly inscriptions in the Old and Middle Iranian languages. Old and Middle Persian inscriptions span by far the longest period of time, from the Bīsotūn inscription until the early Islamic period.

    (Helmut Humbach)

  • EPIGRAPHY ii. Greek inscriptions from ancient Iran

    In April 1815 the Prussian Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin enthusiastically accepted the proposal by August Boeckh to produce a comprehensive thesaurus of inscriptions that would include all Greek inscriptional material published to date.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • EPIGRAPHY iii. Arabic inscriptions in Persia

    In Persia, as in other Islamic lands, Arabic was the basic language for religious texts on buildings and objects. In the early Islamic period these texts were usually written in some variant of the angular script known as Kufic. From the 12th century inscriptions in Persian became more common.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • EPIGRAPHY iv. Safavid and later inscriptions

    The principal characteristic of epigraphy in Persia after the advent of the Safavids (1501) is the emphasis on Persian poetry and pious Shiʿite texts with an iconographic potency and deliberate frequency hitherto unknown. Arabic remained the language of koranic and Hadith quotations while Persian became increasingly prominent.

    (Sussan Babaie)

  • EPIGRAPHY v. Inscriptions from the Indian subcontinent

    The systematic survey and study of Perso-Arabic epigraphy of the Indian subcontinent is not even half a century old.

    (Ziyaud-Din A. Desai)

  • EPIGRAPHY vi. OSSETIC

    See OSSETIC.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPIGRAPHY vii. EARLY PERSIAN

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPIPHANIUS

    (b. Eleutheropolis, Judaea, ca. 315; d. Constantia, Cyprus), bishop of Constantia on Cyprus, founded on the remains of Salamis.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • EPISCOPAL CHURCH IN PERSIA

    a diocese of the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East, one of thirty-seven independent churches of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

    (Hassan B. Dehqani-Tafti)

  • EPISTLES OF MANI

    See MANICHEISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPISTOLARY STYLE

    See CORRESPONDENCE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPʿREM KHAN

    Pers. Yeprem/Efrem (1868-1912), Armenian revolutionary and important military leader of the Constitutional Revolution. He uneasily reconciled his beliefs with his position as police chief of Tehran, resigning and returning to office several times. On 24 December 1911, he shut down the parliament to comply with a Russian ultimatum, and this marked the close of Persia’s Constitutional Revolution.

    (Aram Arkun)

  • EQBĀL

    a newspaper. See EḤTĪĀJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQBĀL, MANŪČEHR

    (1909-1977), prime minister 1957-60, minister of the Royal Court, head of National Iranian Oil Company, and professor of medicine. He was regarded as an honest and ascetic man. His authoritarian character, obedience and unswerving loyalty to the shah, and political ambition, made him a trusted aide, but not a popular political figure.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • EQBĀL ĀḎAR, ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN QAZVĪNĪ

    or EQBĀL-AL-SOLṬĀN (b. Alvand, near Qazvīn, ca. 1869; d. Tabrīz, probably 1973), singer of Persian traditional music.

    (Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿudiya)

  • EQBĀL ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, ʿABBĀS

    During his years at Dār al-fonūn, Eqbāl came to know such litterati as Moḥammad-ʿAlī Forūḡī, Abu’l-Ḥasan Forūḡī, Mortażā Najmābādī, ʿAbd-al-ʿAẓīm Qarīb, Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Rahnemā, and ʿAbd-al-Razzāq Bōḡāyerī, under whose influence he embarked on a career of scholarship that continued until his death.

    (Īraj Afšār)

  • EQBĀL LĀHŪRĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    See IQBAL, MUHAMMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQBĀL PUBLISHERS

    See PUBLISHERS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQBĀL-AL-SOLṬĀN

    See EQBĀL ĀḎAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQBĀL-NĀMA

    See ESKANDAR-NĀMA-ye NEẒĀMI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEQD-AL-ʿOLĀ

    See AFŻAL-AL-DIN KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQDĀM

    name of two separate series of a Persian newspaper published and edited in the first half of the twentieth century in Tehran by the journalist, poet, novelist, and translator, ʿAbbās Ḵalīlī.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EQLĪD

    a small town of medieval Fārs, now in the modern rural subdistrict of the same name.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EQLĪM

    See CLIME.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQṬĀʿ

    in its various forms one of the most persistent and important tenurial, economic and social institutions of medieval Persia.

    (Ann K. S. Lambton)

  • EQTEṢĀD

    See ECONOMY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĒR, ĒR MAZDĒSN

    an ethnonym, like Old Persian ariya- and Avestan airya-, meaning “Aryan” or “Iranian.”

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • ERĀDA-YE MELLĪ

    lit. "national will"; a pro-British political party founded on 19 January 1944 by Sayyed Żīāʾ al-Dīn Ṭabāṭabāʾī (1891-1969), a devout anglophile politician and journalist.

    (Pīrāya Yaḡmāʾī)

  • ĒRĀN, ĒRĀNŠAHR

    ērānšahr properly denotes the empire, while ērān signifies “of the Iranians.”

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • ĒRĀN-ĀMĀRGAR

    See ĀMĀRGAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĒRĀN-ĀSĀN-KERD-KAWĀD

    lit. "Kawād [has] made Ērān peaceful"; name of a Sasanian province (šahr) created by Kawād I (r. 488-531).

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ĒRĀN-ŠĀD-KAWĀD

    name of a Sasanian town occurring in post-Sasanian sources only.

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ĒRĀN-ŠAHR

    See ĒRĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĒRĀN-WĒZ

    the Middle Persian designation of the territory of the Aryans.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • ĒRĀN-WIN(N)ĀRD-KAWĀ

    lit. "Kawād[has] arranged Ērān"; name of a Sasanian province (šahrestān) created by Kawād I (r. 488-531) in his reorganization of the empire.

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ĒRĀN-XWARRAH-ŠĀBUHR

    lit. "Ērān, glory of Šāpūr"; Sasanian province (šahrestān) containing Susa and probably created by Šāpūr II (r. 309-379).

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ĒRĀN-XWARRAH-YAZDGERD

    lit. "Ērān, glory of Yazdegerd"; Sasanian province probably created by Yazdegerd II (438-457).

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ʿERĀQ

    musical mode mentioned for the first time in the 11th century by Kaykāvūs among some ten modes.

    (Jean During)

  • ‘Erāq, Nahib, Moḥāyyer, Ašur-āvand, Esfahānak, Ḥazin, Kerešma, Zangule

    (music sample)

  • ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM

    constitutionalist newspaper published in Tehran, 1907-08.

    (Pardis Minuchehr)

  • ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM(Ī)

    lit. “Persian Iraq”; the name given in medieval times to the largely mountainous, western portion of modern Persia.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿERĀQĪ,FAḴR-al-DĪN EBRĀHĪM

    b. Bozorgmehr Javāleqī Hamadānī (b. Komjān, ca. 1213-14, d. Damascus, 1289), Sufi poet and author.

    (William C. Chittick)

  • ERBEL

    See ARBELA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ERDMANN, KURT

    (b. Hamburg, 9 September 1901; d. Berlin, 30 September 1964), leading historian of Sasanian and Islamic art.

    (Jens Kröger)

  • EREKLE II

    (1720-1798), king of Kakheti (r. 1744-62) and king of Kartli-Kakheti in Caucasus (r. 1762-98).

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • ƎRƎTI

    the name of a minor goddess, one of a number of abstract deities who appear in the Avesta only in formulaic invocations of divinities.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • EREVAN

    ancient city and modern capital of the Republic of Armenia. After the Qara Qoyunlu made Erevan the administrative center of the Ararat region in the 15th century, travelers and historians frequently mentioned it as a major city of the region.

    (Erich Kettenhofen, George A. Bournoutian and Robert H. Hewsen)

  • ERĒZ

    See ARZENJĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿERFĀN (1)

    lit. "knowledge"; Islamic theosophy.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • ʿERFĀN (2)

    title of two Persian magazines and a newspaper.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ʿERFĀN, ḤASAN

    Hasan Aliḵonovič Mamadḵonov (b. Samarkand, 3 March 1900; d. 22 June 1973), Tajik translator and writer.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ERGATIVE CONSTRUCTION

    The most generally accepted definition of an ergative construction begins with the notion that languages utilize three primitive syntactic relations, referred to as S, A, and O. S is the subject of an intransitive clause, A is the subject of a transitive clause, and O is the object of a transitive clause.

    (John R. Payne)

  • ĒRĪČ MOUNTAIN

    mentioned in a chapter of the Bundahišn devoted to mountains.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • EROTIC LITERATURE

    expressed in Persian by the neologism "adabīyāt-e erotīk"; not a clearly defined genre, since the concept of what is “erotic” varies considerably from time to time and place to place.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ERŠĀD

    title of two Persian newspapers and a magazine.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ERŠĀD AL-NESWĀN

    the first women’s periodical in Afghanistan, published weekly in Kabul from 16 March-9 June 1921.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ERŠĀD al-ZERĀʿA

    a Persian agricultural manual completed in Herat in 1515 by Qāsem b. Yūsof Abūnaṣrī, who was previously identified in the scholarly literature simply as Fāżel Heravī.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • ERṮ

    See INHERITANCE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ERUANDAŠAT

    a city in Armenia located on a rocky hill at the juncture of the Akhurean and Araxes rivers.

    (Robert H. Hewsen)

  • ERZENJĀN

    a town in northeastern Anatolia. See ARZENJĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ERZİ, ADNAN SADIK

    After graduating in 1947, ERZİ began work for the Society of Turkish History as a library and publications specialist. In April 1947 he was appointed the Library Manager of the Faculty of Language and History/Geography at the University of Ankara.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenlı and Mustafa Uyar)

  • ERZURUM

    a town in eastern Anatolia (39° 50´ N, 41° 20´ E).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESʿAD DEDE, MEHMED

    Moḥammad Asʿad Dada (b. Salonika, 1841; d. Istanbul, 9 August 1911), Turkish author and Sufi poet of the Mawlawī order.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ESʿAD EFENDİ, MEHMED

    Moḥammad Asʿad Efendi (b. Istanbul, 14 June 1570; d. Istanbul, 21 June 1625), Ottoman religious figure and author of both Persian and Turkish poetry.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ʿEṢĀMĪ, ʿABD-AL-MALEK

    (fl. 1350), Indo-Muslim poet writing in Persian.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • EŠĀRĀT WA’L-TANBĪHĀT, AL-

    a late work of Avicenna (Ebn Sīnā, d. 1037), written sometime between 1030 and 1034, which sums up his thought in a language that is often deeply personal and expressive.

    (M. E. Marmura)

  • ESCHATOLOGY

    the branch of theology concerned with final things, i.e., the advent of the savior to defeat evil and the end of the world.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ESCHATOLOGY i. In Zoroastrianism and Zoroastrian Influence

    Faith in the events beyond life on this earth is attested in the Zoroastrian scriptures from the very first, from the Gāθās. This faith developed and became central to later Zoroastrianism so that it colors almost all aspects of the religious life.

    (Shaul Shaked)

  • ESCHATOLOGY ii. Manichean Eschatology

    Manichean eschatology, teachings about final things, provided information on what happened during and after the death of a single human being and also on what would happen before and at the end of this world.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • ESCHATOLOGY iii. Imami Shiʿism

    It is known that among Islamic doctrinal trends and schools of thought that Shiʿism, Imami Shiʿism in particular, has developed eschatological doctrine most fully.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • ESCHATOLOGY iv. In Babism and Bahaism

    Individual Babis and Bahais have compiled testimonia and written “demonstrative treatises” (estedlālīya) to show the fulfillment, in their religion, of apocalyptic and eschatological prophecies.

    (Stephen Lambden)

  • EṢFAHĀN

    See ISFAHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EṢFAHĀN and EṢFAHĀNĀT

    See BAYĀT-E EṢFAHĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EṢFAHĀNĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤASAN

    b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan, author of the Ketāb al-bolhān on astrology, magic, divination, and demonology, which he composed around 1400 for Ḥosayn b. Aḥmad b. Moḥammad Erbelī.

    (David Pingree)

  • EṢFAHĀNĪ, ABU’L-ŠAYḴ ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Moḥammad b. Jaʿfar b. Ḥayyān ḤĀFEẒ ANṢĀRĪ (887-979), traditionist and Koran commentator, important principally for his Ṭabaqāt al-moḥaddeṯīn.

    (Martin McDermott)

  • ESFAHANI, Jaleh

    (Žāla Eṣfahāni, b. Esfahan, 1921; d. London, 29 November 2007), poet and political activist. Esfahani’s poetry is ensconced in the tradition of Persian prosody. With few exceptions, she adheres to the metrical traditions of classical Persian poetry. She frequently borrows imageries from poets of the classical period and adapts them to the requirements of her politically laden poems.

    (Shadab Vajdi)

  • EṢFAHĀNI, MOḤAMMAD MAʿṢUM

    (ca. 1597-ca. 1647), Safavid bureaucrat and historian, whose history entitled the Ḵolāṣat al-siar chronicles the reign of Shah Ṣafi.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ESFAHSĀLĀR

    See SEPAHSĀLĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESFAND

    a common weed found in Persia, Central Asia, and the adjacent areas.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • ESFANDĪĀR (1)

    son of Goštāsp, Kayanian prince of Iranian legendary history and hero of Zoroastrian holy wars, best known for his tragic combat with with Rostam, the mightiest warrior of Iranian national epic.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ESFANDĪĀR (2)

    one of the seven great clans of Parthian and Sasanian times.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ESFANDĪĀR KHAN BAḴTĪĀRĪ, ṢAMṢĀM-AL-SALṬANA, SARDĀR(-E) ASʿAD

    (1844-1902), important leader of the Baḵtīārī tribe in southwestern Persia and grandfather of Queen Ṯorayyā.

    (G. R. Garthwaite)

  • ESFANDĪĀRĪ, ḤĀJJ MOḤTAŠAM-AL-SALṬANA ḤASAN

    (b. 23 April 1867; d. 24 February 1945), politician, governor, and speaker of the Majles.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • ESFARA

    a district in the Fergana valley south of the Jaxartes which extends to the foothills of the Turkestan range.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ESFARĀYEN

    or ESFARĀʾĪN; a district, and in pre-modern Islamic times, a town, of northwestern Khorasan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ESFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM

    5th/12th-century astronomer. See ASFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESFEZĀRĪ, MOʿĪN-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD ZAMČĪ

    (ca. 1446-1510), calligrapher specializing in the taʿlīq script, minor poet (pen name Nāmī), and master of the epistolary art who flourished in Herat during the reign of the Timurid Solṭān-Ḥosayn Bāyqarā.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • ESFĪJĀB

    See ASFĪJĀB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESḤĀQ AḤMAR NAḴAʿI

    a prominent Shiʿi extremist active in Iraq, founder of the Esḥāqiya ḡolāt sect, and the supposed author of a number of texts.

    (Mushegh Asatryan)

  • ESḤĀQ MAWṢELĪ

    (767?-850), prominent musician at the ʿAbbasid court in Baghdad and the successor of his equally famous father Ebrāhīm Mawṣelī as leader of the conservative school of musicians of the time.

    (Everett K. Rowson)

  • ESḤĀQ KHAN QARĀʾĪ TORBATĪ

    (ca. 1743-1816), one of the wealthiest and most powerful chieftains in Khorasan during the reigns of Āḡā Moḥammad Khan and Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qājār.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ESḤĀQ B. ṬOLAYQ

    b. ṬOLAYQ (or Ṭalīq), the secretary responsible for translating the financial dīvāns of Khorasan into Arabic in 741-42.

    (Mohsen Zakeri)

  • ESḤĀQ TORK

    propagandist sent by Abū Moslem Ḵorāsānī (governor of Khorasan and leading figure in the ʿAbbasid revolution) to the Turkish people of Transoxania.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb)

  • ESḤAQĪYA

    See ḠOLĀT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESḤĀQZĪ

    The geographical distribution of the tribe shows the dualism typical to those Pashtun tribes who have massively taken part in the colonization of North Afghanistan, a process in which the Esḥāqzī played a leading role.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • EŠĪK-ĀQĀSĪ-BĀŠĪ

    or Īšīk-āqāsī-bāšī, the title of two officials in the Safavid central administration, namely ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī-e dīvān, and ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī-e ḥaram.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ESKĀFI, ABŪ ḤANĪFA

    11th century Persian poet, mentioned among the court poets of Ḡazna.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ESKĀFĪ, ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh, Muʿtazilite theologian of the 9th century (d. 854).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ESKANDAR

    See ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESKANDAR B. JĀNĪ BEG

    See ʿABD-ALLĀH KHAN b. ESKANDAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESKANDAR B. QĀBUS

    See QĀBŪS b. VOŠMGĪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESKANDAR BEG TORKAMĀN MONŠĪ

    sixteenth century author of Tārīḵ-e ʿālamārā-ye ʿabbāsī, a history of the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ESKANDAR MĪRZĀ

    pro-Persian member of the royal family of Georgia (b. 1770, d. after 1830).See ALEXANDER, PRINCE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESKANDAR SOLṬĀN

    b. ʿOmar Šayḵ b. Tīmūr (1384-1415), Timurid prince who ruled a succession of cities in western Persia between 1403 and 1415 but is remembered mostly for his cultural patronage.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ESKANDARĪ, ĪRAJ

    (1907-1985), prominent leader of the Tudeh Party. From 1948 he worked for the Tudeh party in Paris, Vienna, Budapest, Moscow, and finally Leipzig. His lukewarm attitude toward the Islamic Revolution and refusal of a Soviet offer to help turn Persia into another Afghanistan cost him his leadership position in 1979.

    (Cosroe Chaqueri)

  • ESKANDARĪ, MOḤTARAM

    a pioneer advocate of women’s rights in Persia (1895-1925) and the founder and leader of the first women’s association in Persia, namely Jamʿīyat-e taraqqī-e neswān, later Jamʿīyat-e neswān-e waṭanḵᵛāh (Society of Patriotic Women).

    (Mehrangīz Dawlatšāhī)

  • ESKANDARĪ, SOLAYMĀN (MOḤSEN) MĪRZĀ

    (1875-1944), constitutionalist, civil servant, statesman, founder of the Ejtemāʿīyūn (Socialists) political party in the 1920s. His interest in social justice and egalitarianism was more rooted in Islam than in the European Enlightenment or European socialism.

    (Cosroe Chaqueri)

  • ESKANDARĪYA

    See ALEXANDRIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESKANDAR-NĀMA

    Alexander the Great and the adventure tale about him known generically as the Alexander romance.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • ESKANDAR-NĀMA OF NEẒĀMĪ

    the poetical version of the life of Alexander by the great 12th century narrative poet Neẓāmī Ganjavī (1141-1209).

    (François de Blois)

  • EŠKĀŠ(E)M

    a settlement in medieval Badaḵšān in northeastern Afghanistan, now in the modern Afghan province of Eškāšem.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EŠKĀŠ(E)MĪ

    or Ishkashmi; one of the so-called “Pamir group” of the Eastern Iranian languages spoken in a few villages of the region of Eškāšem straddling the upper reaches of the Panj river.

    (I. M. Steblin-Kamensky)

  • ESKENĀS

    bank note, paper currency. In 1888 an English-owned New Oriental Bank established branches in Tehran and other cities, and for the first time Persians became acquainted with a bank in the modern sense. in 1889, Baron Julius de Reuter obtained from Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah the concession of establishing the Imperial Bank of Persia and the monopoly of issuing bank notes in Persia.

    (Ali Shargi)

  • EṢLĀḤ

    title of several Persian-language newspapers, especially the major 20th-century Kabul daily.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EṢLĀḤĀT-E ARŻĪ

    See LAND REFORM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESLĀM

    See ISLAM in IRAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESLĀMĪYA

    title of two Persian newspapers first appearing in Tabrīz in 1906.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ESM

    See PERSONAL NAMES; ALQĀB WA ʿANĀWĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EŠM b. ŠEḠĀY

    See CENTRAL ASIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL

    (ISHMAEL). See EBRĀHĪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. ʿABBĀD, ṢĀḤEB

    See ṢĀḤEB b. ʿABBĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL b. JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ

    the sixth Imam and the eponym of the Ismaʿilis.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Rokn-al-Dīn Yaḥyā

    See MAJD-AL-DĪN ESMĀʿĪL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Seboktegīn

    Ghaznavid prince and briefly amir in Ḡazna in 997-98.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ESMĀʿĪL ḤAQQĪ BORSAVĪ

    or Oskodārī, b. MOṢṬAFĀ, Shaikh Abu’l-Fedāʾ (b. Aydos 1652; d. Bursa, 1725), Turkish scholar, theologian, and mystic.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ESMĀʿĪL ḴANDĀN

    See ALTUNTĀŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Nūḥ, ABŪ EBRĀHĪM MONTAṢER

    (d. 1004), last Samanid amir.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Yasār NESĀʾĪ

    an eighth century poet of Persian origin from Medina.

    (Kevin Lacey)

  • ESMĀʿĪL KHAN QAŠQĀʾĪ

    ṢAWLAT-AL-DAWLA, SARDĀR-E ʿAŠĀYER. See ṢAWLAT-AL-DAWLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL I ṢAFAWĪ

    (1487-1524), SHAH ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR, founder of the Safavid dynasty whose decision, the promulgation of the Eṯnā-ʿašarī rite of Shiʿism to be the official religion of the state, had profound consequences for the subsequent history of Persia.

    (Roger M. Savory, Ahmet T. Karamustafa)

  • ESMĀʿIL II

    (1537-1577), the third Safavid monarch, fought the Ottomans as the governor of Šervan and later was made the crown prince by Ṭahmāsp I and sent to Qazvin. His liaisons with male companions led to his demotion and imprisonment, until he took the throne with the backing of his supporters.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ESMĀʿĪL III ṢAFAWĪ

    (r. 1750-73), ABŪ TORĀB, Safavid shadow-king, the third Safavid dynast of that name.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Aḥmad b. Asad SĀMĀNĪ, ABŪ EBRĀHĪM

    (849-907), the first member of the Samanid dynasty to rule over all Transoxania and Farḡāna.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ESMĀʿIL KHAN BURBUR

    (1800-1888), high ranking military official under the Qajars.

    (Dariush Borbor)

  • ESMĀʿĪL KHAN ṢĪMQO

    or SEMĪTQŪ. See ṢĪMQO.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL ZĀDA, ḤOSAYN KHAN

    (d. 1941), teacher and master player of the kamānča.

    (Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿūdīya)

  • ʿEṢMAT

    See ČAHĀRDAH MAʿṢŪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEṢMAT BOḴĀRĪ, Ḵᵛāja ʿEṢMAT-ALLĀH

    b. Masʿūd Boḵārī (d. 1436), poet and scholar of the early Timurid period, known also for his expertise in mathematics, history, prosody, riddles, and mastery of enšāʾ.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ESOTERIC SECTS

    See BĀṬENĪYA; ḠOLĀT; ISMAʿILISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESPAHBOD, ALI-REZA

    (1951-2007), painter and graphic designer who aimed to represent ideals of equality and justice; he was banned from exhibiting his paintings from 1991 to 2001.

    (Hengameh Fouladvand)

  • EŠPOḴTOR

    See TSITSIANOV.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEŠQ

    See LOVE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEŠQ MOBTALĀ

    8th-19th century author writing in Persian and Urdu.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • EŠQ O RŪḤ

    See ḤOSN O RŪḤ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EŠQĀBĀD

    See ASHKABAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEŠQĪ, MOḤAMMAD-REŻĀ MĪRZĀDA

    (1894-1923), poet and journalist of the post-constitution era and an important contributor to the modernization of poetry in Persia. After he was assassinated by two gunmen, the Majles members of the minority party and other opponents of Prime Minister Reżā Khan quickly turned his funeral into an occasion for public protest against the rising tide of Reżā Khan's power.

    (Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak)

  • EŠQĪ, MOLLĀ BĀBOR

    b. Hedāyat-Allāh (1792-1863), Central Asian poet writing in Persian.

    (Jirí Bečka)

  • ʿEŠQĪʿAẒĪMĀBĀDĪ, SHAIKH MOḤAMMAD WAJĪH-AL-DĪN

    18th-19th century poet and writer in Persian and Urdu.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • ʿEŠQĪ BELGRĀMĪ, SHAH BARKAT-ALLĀH

    (1659?-1729), Indo-Persian poet and author.

    (Asifa Zamani)

  • EŠRĀQ ḴĀVARĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD

    (b. Mašhad, 1902; d. Tehran, 1972), Bahai scholar, teacher, and author.

    (Vahid Rafati)

  • EŠRĀQĪ SCHOOL

    See ILLUMINATIONISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEŠRĪNĪYA

    See BĪSTGĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESTAHBĀN

    town and district in Fārs, bordered in the north by the Baḵtagān lake, in the northeast and the east by Neyrīz/Nīrīz, in the south by Dārāb, in the southwest by Fasā, and in the west by Shiraz.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • ESTAḴR NEWSPAPER

    a newspaper published in Shiraz from 1918-1932 and 1942-1962.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EṢṬAḴR

    (ESTAḴR, STAḴR), city and district in ancient Persia (Fārs). It was presumably a suburb of the urban settlement once surrounding the Achaemenid royal residences, of which few traces survive. After the death of Seleucus I (280 B.C.), when the province began to re-assert its independence, its center seems to have developed at Eṣṭaḵr.

    (A. D. H. Bivar, Mary Boyce)

  • EṢṬAḴRĪ, ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    b. Moḥammad Fāresī Karḵī, 10th-century Muslim traveler and geographer and founder of the genre of masālek (lit. “itineraries”) literature.

    (O. G. Bolshakov)

  • EṢṬAḴRĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ḤASAN

    b. Aḥmad b. Yazīd (858-939), Shafiʿite jurisconsult and author.

    (Jeanette Wakin)

  • ESTĀLEF

    large Persian-speaking village of the Kōhdāman, 55 km north of Kabul, built on a foothill of the Paḡmān range of the Hindu Kush between 1,875 and 1,950 m above sea-level.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • ESTEʿĀRA

    lit. "to borrow"; the general term for metaphor.

    (Julie Scott Meisami)

  • ESTEBDĀD-E ṢAGĪR

    "the lesser tyranny." See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESTEBṢĀR

    See ṬŪSĪ, ABŪ JAʿFAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EŠTEHĀRD

    a town and district (baḵš) in the province of Tehran.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • EŠTEHĀRDĪ

    the easternmost of the nine Southern Tati (Tātī) dialects and sharing with the others most phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical features. These are part of a band of dialects extending from the Aras River to central Persia and farther east.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • ESTEḴĀRA

    See DIVINATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESTEQLĀL

    newspaper published by the constitutionalists who had taken refuge in the Ottoman consulate in Tabrīz during the Russian occupation of the city in 1909.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ESTEQLĀL-E ĪRĀN

    an evening daily published in Tehran from 31 May 1910-17 August 1911; it was the organ of the small Unity and Progress party (Ḥezb-e ettefāq o taraqqī) and was published by the party’s leader, the well-known constitutionalist Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn Mostaʿān-al-Molk

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ESTHER, BOOK OF

    a short book of the Old Testament, written in Hebrew.

    (Shaul Shaked)

  • ESTHER AND MORDECHAI

    a Jewish shrine in the city of Hamadān, where, according to Judeo-Persian tradition, Esther and Mordechai are buried.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ESTRĀBĀD

    See ASTARĀBĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEDĀLĪ, ḤEZB-E

    See EJTEMĀʿĪYŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA

    lit. “Confidant of the State”; an important title given to people in the administration favored by the court.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR

    See EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD BEG TEHRĀNĪ

    Gīāṯ-al-Dīn Moḥammad Tehrānī (d. 1622), prime minister of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and father of the emperor’s wife, Nūr Jahān. See GĪĀṮ BEG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, ĀQĀ KHAN NŪRĪ

    (1807-1865), MĪRZĀ, prime minister (ṣadr-e aʿẓam) of Persia under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah Qajar; though relatively young when he took office, he represented the old school of Qajar statecraft.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-SALṬANA, MOḤAMMAD-ḤASAN KHAN MOQADDAM MARĀḠAʾĪ

    or ṢANĪʿ-AL-DAWLA (1843-1896), Qajar statesman, scholar, and author.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • EʿTEṢĀMĪ, MĪRZĀ YŪSOF KHAN ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, EʿTEṢĀM-AL-MOLK

    (b. Tabrīz, 1874; d. Tehran, 1938), Persian writer and journalist.

    (Heshmat Moayyad)

  • EʿTEṢĀMĪ, PARVĪN

    Parvīn was only seven or eight years old when her poetic talent revealed itself. Encouraged by her father, she rendered into verse some literary pieces that her father had translated from Western sources. Her earliest known poems, eleven compositions printed in 1921-22 issues of her father’s monthly magazine, Bahār, display maturity of thought and craft.

    (Heshmat Moayyad)

  • EʿTEŻĀD-AL-DAWLA

    See SOLAYMĀN KHAN QĀJĀR QOVĀNLŪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEŻĀD-AL-SALṬANA, ʿALĪQOLĪ MĪRZĀ

    (1822-1880), first minister of sciences (ʿolūm, meaning education) of the Qajar period and a scholar.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • ETHÉ, CARL HERMANN

    Initially Ethé worked as an assistant librarian at the Bodleian, on leave of absence from the University of Munich. In 1874 he abandoned his lectureship in Germany and settled down in Great Britain. The motivation for this move may have been political, at least in part, because Ethé is described as “a German radical, . . . a persona ingrata with absolutist governments”

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ETHICS

    a body of practical moral doctrine was elaborated as part of the earliest development of Persian literature, at which time considerable reflection was devoted to topics ranging from morals to ethics, from the exhortation not to harm one’s fellow creature to the search for the meaning of life.

    (C.-H. de Fouchecour)

  • ETHIOPIA

    Ethiopia (OPers. Kuša-) was located on the western fringe of the Achaemenid empire. The Ethiopians (OPers. Kušiyā; Gr. Aithí;-opes “with [sun]burnt faces”) are named among the peoples of the Persian Empire and are included at the end of Herodotus’s satrapy list.

    (E. van Donzel)

  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Text)

    the basic field research method in anthropology. Apart from ancient and medieval travelers such as Herodotus, Marco Polo and Clavijo, the record of close observation by foreigners in the Iranian region begins with the reports of travelers to the Safavid Court in the sixteenth century.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Bibliography)

    For cited works not given in detail, see “Short References.” Priority has been given to coverage of ethnographic data based on long-term participant observation, but other ethnographically significant sources are also listed, including some based on shorter works, some by travelers from before the emergence of professional ethnography, and some from scholars trained in related fields such as folklore, linguistics and cultural geography.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • ETIQUETTE

    (Pers. nazākat, ādāb-e moʿāšarat), defined as the observance of conventional decorum particularly among the elite, is itself part of the wider topic of adab.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh, ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrinkub, Nancy H. Dupree)

  • EṮNĀ-ʿAŠARĪYA

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEṬR

    See ʿAṬR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ETTEFĀQ

    title of five Persian newspapers.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ETTEFĀQ-E ESLĀM

    lit. “Islamic Solidarity"; a weekly government newspaper which began publication in Herat as of 24 August 1920; renamed Faryād in November 1922.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ETTEFĀQ-E KĀRGARĀN

    a daily newspaper published by the striking print-workers union in Tehran in 1910, one of the first labor or socialist newspaper published in Persia.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ETTEḤĀD

    title of eleven Persian language newspapers.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ETTEHĀD-E ESLĀM

    See KUČEK KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ETTEHĀDĪYA, ŠERKAT-E

    an exchange company (ṣarrāfī) founded in Tabrīz in 1887 by the brothers Ḥājī ʿAlī and Ḥājī Mahdī Kūzakanānī in partnership with two local money changers, Sayed Mortażā and Ḥājī Loṭf-ʿAlī, and other Tabrīzī merchants.

    (Mansoureh Ettehadiyeh Nezam-Mafi)

  • EṬṬELĀʿ

    title of a Persian newspaper and a magazine.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EṬṬELĀʿĀT

    lit. “information, knowledge”; the oldest running Tehran afternoon daily newspaper and the oldest running Persian daily in the world. It was first published on 10 July 1926 as the organ of Markaz-e Eṭṭelāʿāt-e Īrān, the first Persian news agency.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ETTINGHAUSEN, RICHARD

    Although Ettinghausen’s official role at the Berlin Museum ended in early 1933 because of decrees issued by the National Socialist Party, he retained an admiration for the work of his former colleagues, epecially that of F. Sarre.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • EUCRATIDES

    name of two Greco-Bactrian kings: (1) Eucratides I (r. 170-145 B.C.E.), one of the last and most powerful of the Greco-Bactrian kings and (2) Eucratides II, another Greco-Bactrian king, (r. 145-140 B.C.E.) known only through his coinage.

    (Paul Bernard)

  • EUGENIUS

    or MĀRAWGEN; legendary Christian saint traditionally credited with the introduction of Egyptian monasticism into Mesopotamia and Persia.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • EULAEUS RIVER

    See KARḴEH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EUNUCHS

    castrated males who were in charge of the concubines of royal harems, served in the daily life of the court, and sometimes carried out administrative functions.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EUPHRATES

    together with the Tigris, historically and geographically constituting one of the most important river-systems in the Near East.

    (Samuel N. C. Lieu)

  • EUROPE, PERSIAN IMAGE OF

    To Persians, as to other Muslim peoples, Europe was long synonymous with Christendom and was thus closely associated with Rūm, the realm of Byzantium or eastern Christianity.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA

    (260-339), Greek ecclesiastical historian and theologian.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • EUSTATHIUS, ACTS of

    Christian martyrological text, of which versions survive in many languages, including Greek, Latin, Syriac, and Armenian.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • EUTHYDEMUS

    name of two Greek kings of Bactria: (1) Euthydemus I (ca. 230-200 B.C.E.), considered the real founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom and (2) Euthydemus II (ca. 190-185 B.C.E.), presumably the second son of Euthydemus I, or less probably eldest son of Demetrius I.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • EUTROPIUS

    Roman administrator and historian, probably from Bordeaux, who accompanied the emperor Julian the Apostate on his ill-fated Persian expedition in 363.

    (Samuel N. C. Lieu)

  • EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria

    (877-940), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arabic and called Ketāb al-tārīḵ al-majmūʿ ʿalā’l-taḥqīq wa’l-taṣdīq or Naẓm al-jawhar) is a rich repository of much otherwise unobtainable information about the history of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, especially in the periods of Persian occupation in the seventh century and in Islamic times up to the early tenth century.

    (Sidney H. Griffith and EIr)

  • EVAGRIUS PONTICUS

    (346-399 C.E.), prolific author of Christian literature in Greek. After passing the first part of his career as a preacher in Constantinople, Evagrius took up abode in the Egyptian desert and became one of the most renowned of its many ascetics.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF IRAN

    See CHRISTIANITY viii. Christian Missions in Persia.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EVANGELION

    “gospel” (Gk. euangélion). For the Manichean scripture of that name, see ANGALYŪN; MĀNĪ; MANICHEISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EVIL

    wickedness, harm, ill fortune.

    (Gherardo Gnoli, Etan Kohlberg)

  • EVIL EYE

    See ČAŠM-ZAḴM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EVIL MIND

    See AKŌMAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EVIL SPIRIT

    See AHRIMAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EVĪN PRISON

    See Supplement.

    (Forthcoming)

  • EV-OḠLĪ family

    (or Īv-ōḡlī), name of a family that served three Safavid kings (ʿAbbās I, Ṣafī, and ʿAbbās II) as ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī of the harem, for a period of twenty-seven years (1617-43).

    (Kathryn Babayan)

  • EV-OḠLĪ, ḤAYDAR BEG

    or Īv-ōḡlī, b. Abu’l-Qāsem, a court official of the later Safavid period.

    (K. A. Luther)

  • EVOLUTION

    (takāmol, taḥawwol), a family of ideas embodying the belief that the physical universe and living organisms have developed in a process of continuous change from a lower, simpler to a higher, more complex state.

    (based on a longer article by ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn ZarrĪnkūb)

  • EWEN NĀMAG

    See ĀʾĪN-NĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĒWĒNBED

    lit. "master of manners"; Pahlavi title attested from the 3rd century C.E.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • EXCAVATIONS

    i. In Persia, ii. In Afghanistan, iii. In Central Asia, iv. In Chinese Turkestan

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EXCAVATIONS i. In Persia

    a diachronic survey of the main patterns of archaeological field research in Persia from the time of the first excavations in the middle of the 19th century to the late l990s.

    (David Stronach)

  • EXCAVATIONS ii. In Afghanistan

    Archeological investigation, both excavation and recording of sites and monuments, began in Afghanistan in the early 19th century. Many of the reports were made by travelers and British Indian Army officers; often passing observations.

    (Warwick Ball)

  • EXCAVATIONS iii. In Central Asia

    Archeological and architectural monuments of Central Asia are mentioned in reports from the 18th and early 19th centuries. Major archaeological work began only after the Russian conquest of the region; it was first done by amateurs, in particular military officers.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • EXCAVATIONS iv. In Chinese Turkestan

    In spite of the large number of published archaeological reports, our knowledge about the archaeology of Chinese Turkestan is still incomplete and full of serious lacunae.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • EXEGESIS

    (Ar. tafsīr), commentary on or interpretation of sacred texts.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EXEGESIS i. In Zoroastrianism

    Zoroastrian exegesis consists basically of the interpretation of the Avesta (q.v.). However, the closest equivalent Iranian concept, zand, generally includes Pahlavi texts which were believed to derive from commentaries upon Avestan scripture, but whose extant form contains no Avestan passages.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • EXEGESIS ii. In Shiʿism

    Shiʿite exegetes, perhaps even more than their Sunni counterparts, support their distinctive views by reference to Koranic proof-texts.

    (Meir M. Bar-Asher)

  • EXEGESIS iii. In Persian

    The writing of commentaries on the Koran in Persian seems to have begun during the second half of the 4th/10th century. The principal objective of such tafsīrs was ostensibly to give Persian speakers who were not proficient in Arabic direct access to the exegesis of the Koran.

    (Annabel Keeler)

  • EXEGESIS iv. IN SUFISM

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EXEGESIS v. IN ISMAʿILI SHIʿISM

    See TAʾWIL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EXEGESIS vi. In Aḵbārī and Post-Safavid Esoteric Shiʿism

    Aḵbārī exegesis of the Koran, the style and content of which are much older than the Safavid period, became during that time a common method of interpreting Islamic scripture.

    (Todd Lawson)

  • EXEGESIS vii. In Bahaism

    importance of Koranic exegesis (tafsīr) and interpretation (taʾwīl)—a somewhat arbitrary distinction—for the Bābī and Bahai religions may be gathered from the fact that the inception of the former is dated to the commencement of a work of scriptural interpretation, namely the Bāb’s Tafsīr sūrat Yūsof, and that, in many ways, the most important work in the Bahai canon is the Ketāb-e īqān by Bahāʾ-Allāh.

    (Todd Lawson)

  • EXEGESIS viii. Nishapuri School of Quranic Exegesis

    A school of Quranic exegesis was established by three scholars from Nishapur in the 11th century which transformed the genre of tafsir and Quranic sciences and came to be known as the Nishapuri School.

    (Walid A. Saleh)

  • EXILARCH

    (Hebrew resh galuta), the leading authority in the Jewish community in Babylonia.

    (Isaiah M. Gafni)

  • EXILE

    See DEPORTATIONS; DIASPORA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EXTRATERRITORIALITY

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EXTREMIST SHIʿITES

    See ḠOLĀT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EY IRĀN

    (O Iran, O bejeweled land), the title of an ardently patriotic hymn of praise to the land of Iran.

    (Morteza Hoseyni Dehkordi and Parvin Loloi)

  • EYES and EARS of KING

    See COURTS AND COURTIERS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EYVĀN

    See AYVĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EŻĀFA

    (annexation, suppletion), a grammatical term embracing several types of Persian noun phrase in which the constituents are connected by the enclitic -e/-ye (kasra-ye eżāfa “the eżāfa particle”).

    (John R. Perry and Ali Ashraf Sadeghi)

  • EZGĪL

    or AZGĪL. See MEDLAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EZĪRĀN

    a village 32 km southeast of Isfahan on the south bank of the river Zāyandarūd.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • EZNIK OF KOŁB

    or KOŁBACʿI (b. ca. 374-80), Armenian Christian theologian and cleric; his work contains a refutation of the Zoroastrian religion.

    (James R. Russell)

  • ʿEZRĀ

    See BIBLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEZRĀ, BOOK OF

    canonical biblical book emanating from the early portion of the Second Temple period (515 B.C.E.-70 C.E.) of Jewish history.

    (J. C. Reeves)

  • ʿEZRĀʾĪL

    lit. "Angel of Death." See Supplement (ANGELS).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEZRĀ-NĀMA

    paraphrased versification of the Book of ʿEzrā containing midrashic and Iranian legends.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-al-RAŠĪD

    See ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD, ABŪ MANṢŪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD MĪRZĀ

    In 1872, ʿEzz-al-Dawla became the chieftain of the Qajar tribe, a prestigious albeit ceremonial position that he held for a year. It was in this capacity that he was selected to join Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s entourage on his first tour of Europe in 1873.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ʿEZZ-AL-DĪN KĀŠĀNĪ, MAḤMŪD

    b. ʿAlī Naṭanzī (d. 1334-35), an author and Sufi of the early 14th century.

    (Māšā-Allāh Ajūdānī)

  • ʿEZZAT-AL-DAWLA, MALEKAZĀDA ḴĀNOM

    (1834/35-1905), the only full sister of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah. The first (1849-52) of her five marriages was as second wife of Mīrzā Taqī Khan Amīr Kabīr. One of her two daughters by him married the crown prince Moẓaffar-al-Din Mirza and bore a son, the future Moḥammad-ʿAlī Shah (r. 1907-09).

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ʿEZZAT PĀŠĀ, MOḤAMMAD

    (1843-1914), author of a Persian-Turkish dictionary and translator of Persian literary works.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • Ebādī Aḥmad

    (music sample)

  • Ebrāhīm b. Adham

    (music sample)

  • Eqbāl Āḏar, Abu’l Ḥasan Khan Qazvīnī

    (music sample)

  • Eydetun mobārak

    (music sample)

  • Guše-ye Zābol

    (music sample)

  • E~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter E entries.

    (DATA)

  • FABLE

    a kind of story often defined as “an animal tale with a moral"; there is no exact Persian equivalent of the term, but the words afsāna, dāstān, hekāyat, qeṣṣa, and samar are used to refer to such stories.

    (Mahmoud and Teresa P. Omidsalar)

  • FABRITIUS, LUDVIG

    or LODEWYCK (b. Brazil, 1648; died Stockholm, 1729), Swedish envoy to the Safavid court.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN

    This article will deal with the faculties of Agriculture, Fine Arts, Law and Political Science, Letters and Humanities, and Medicine, which are among the oldest and most important secular institutions of higher education in Persia. Other faculties of the University of Tehran and main faculties of other major universities will be treated under individual UNIVERSITIES.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN i. Faculty of Agriculture

    The program was full time for three years, and the students’ expenses were paid by the government. All graduates received the equivalent of bachelors’s degrees in agricultural engineering.

    (Moḥammad-Ḥasan Mahdawī Ardabīlī)

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN ii. Faculty of Fine Arts

    Like most other faculties of the University of Tehran, the Faculty of Fine Arts was created by integrating already existing institutions.

    (Mortażā Momayyez)

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN iii. Faculty of Law and Political Science

    one of the oldest institutions of modern higher education in Persia, founded in 1927 with the merger of the School of Political Science (established in 1899) and the School of Law (established in 1918).

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN iv. Faculty of Letters and Humanities

    The Faculty of Letters and Humanities (Dāneškada-ye adabīyāt wa ʿolūm-e ensānī), originally named the Faculty of Letters, Philosophy, and Educational Sciences (Dāneškada-ye adabīyāt wa falsafa wa ʿolūm-e tarbīatī), was one of the six faculties of the University of Tehran when it was founded in February 1935.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN v. Faculty of Medicine

    (Dāneškada-ye pezeškī), the pioneering academic institution of modern medicine in Persia, one of the six main faculties of the new University of Tehran in 1934. It was the successor to the Dār al-fonūn Department of Medicine, established in 1851, which had become the School of Medicine (Madrasa-ye ṭebb) in 1919.

    (Yūnos Karāmatī and EIr)

  • FACULTY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

    See MADRASA-YE ʿOLŪM-E SĪĀSĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FADĀʾIĀN-E ḴALQ

    a Marxist-Leninist urban guerrilla group arising from the student movement and the urban middle-class intellectuals and influenced by the Latin American revolutionary discourse, its objective was to instigate, and eventually lead, a popular movement against the Iranian monarchy.

    (Peyman Vahabzadeh)

  • FĀDŪSBĀN

    See BĀDŪSPĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĀʾEQ ḴĀṢṢA, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    (d. Khorasan 999), Turkish eunuch and slave commander of the Samanid army in Transoxania and Khorasan during the closing decades of that dynasty’s power.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FAḠĀNĪ, BĀBĀ

    See BĀBĀ FAḠĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAGERGREN, CONRAD GUSTAF

    (b. Stockholm, 1818; d. Shiraz, 1879), Swedish physician in Shiraz, 1848-79.

    (Bo Utas)

  • FAHHĀD, FARĪD-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    the most prolific producer of astronomical tables in the Islamic world. He is credited with a total of six tables, all of which are lost. There are three lists of these tables, given by Moḥammad b. Abū Bakr Fāresī, Šams Monajjem Wābeknavī, and Ḥājī Ḵalīfa.

    (David Pingree)

  • FAHLABAḎ

    See BĀRBAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAHLAVĪYĀT

    an appellation given especially to the quatrains and by extension to the poetry in general composed in the old dialects of the Pahla/Fahla regions.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • FAHLĪĀN

    a rural district (dehestān) situated 12 km northwest of Nūrābād in the Mamassanī šahrestān.

    (Jamšīd Ṣadāqat-Ḵīš)

  • FAHRAJ

    subdistrict (dehestān) and town in the Persian province of Yazd. The town (31ò 46’ N, 54ò 35’ E), 1270 m above sea level, is located 30 km southeast of Yazd on the main road to Bāfq and on the foothill of Čalta mountain.

    (Reżā Reżāzāda Langarūdī)

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN ĀḎARĪ

    See under BAHMANID DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN ASʿAD

    See GORGĀNĪ, FAḴR-AL-DĪN ASʿADĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN ʿERĀQĪ

    See ʿERĀQI, FAḴR-AL-DIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN HAMADĀNĪ

    See ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD HAMADĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAḴR-AL-DIN RĀZI

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAḴR-AL-DIN ŠIRĀZI

    See EBN ZARKUB ŠIRĀZI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAḴR-al-DĪN ZARRĀDĪ, MAWLĀNĀ

    a 14th century spiritual leader of the Češtī Sufi order in India.

    (Sharif Husain Qasemi)

  • FAḴR EṢFAHĀNI, ŠAMS-AL-DIN

    See ŠAMS FAḴRI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAḴR-E MODABBER

    pen-name of Moḥammad b. Manṣūr b. Saʿīd, entitled Mobārakšāh, author of two prose works in Persian written in India in the late 12th and early 13th century, a book on genealogy with no formal title and the famous Ādāb al-ḥarb wa’l-šajāʿa.

    (EIr)

  • FAḴR-AL-MOLK ARDALĀN

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ARDALĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAḴR-AL-MOLK, ABU’L-FATḤ MOẒAFFAR

    b. Neẓām al-Molk (1043-1106/7), eldest son of the great Saljuq vizier and himself vizier to the Saljuq sultans Barkīāroq (1092-1105) and Moḥammad b. Malekšāh (1105-18).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FAḴR-AL-ZAMĀNĪ QAZVĪNĪ, ʿABD-AL-NABĪ

    See ʿABD-AL-NABĪ QAZVĪNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAḴRĀʾĪ, EBRĀHĪM REŻĀZĀDA

    (b. Rašt, 1899; d. Tehran, 1988), educator, journalist, lawyer, and scholar.

    (Moḥammad-Taqī Pūr Aḥmad Jaktājī)

  • FAḴRĪ BANĀKATĪ

    See BANĀKATĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAḴRĪ HERAVĪ, SOLṬĀN-MOḤAMMAD

    b. Moḥammad Amīr Khan (or Solṭān) Amīrī Heravī (b. Herat, ca. 1497, d. probably in Agra, after 1566), poet, scholar, and Sufi who wrote on various aspects of the poetic art.

    (Sharif Husain Qasemi)

  • FĀḴTA

    an obsolete Persian name for a columbine bird, most probably the so-called “collared turtle dove."

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • FĀḴTAʾĪ, ḤOSAYN QAWĀMĪ

    a master vocalist of Persia in the second half of the 20th century. See QAWĀMI, ḤOSAYN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĀL

    See DIVINATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FALAK

    Arabic word for "sphere" (pl. aflāk). In Persian works of literature it is often referred to as being responsible for determining people's destiny. See ASTROLOGY AND ASTRONOMY IN IRAN; COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FALAKA

    also falak, čūb o falak; one of the most common instruments of corporal punishment in Persia.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • FALĀḴAN

    a sling.

    (Parviz Mohebbi)

  • FALAKĪ ŠARVĀNĪ, Abu’l-Neẓām Moḥammad

    or ŠERVĀNĪ, a Persian poet of the first half of the 12th century.

    (François de Blois)

  • FĀL-ASĪRĪ, Ḥājj Sayyed ʿALĪ-AKBAR

    prominent mojtahed of Shiraz (1840-1901). He led the prayer at Wakīl Mosque, where he regularly preached, and for years he wielded great influence in the religious, political, and social affairs of the city. He was an active opponent of the tobacco concession and instigated a riot against it.

    (Manṣūr Rastgār Fasāʾī)

  • FALĀṬŪRĪ, ʿABD-AL-JAWĀD

    (b. Isfahan, 1926; d. Berlin, 30 December 1996), professor of Islamic studies at Cologne University (1974-96).

    (Judith Pfeiffer)

  • FALCONS AND FALCONRY

    See BĀZ; BĀZDĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FALLĀḤ, REŻĀ

    (b. Kāšān, 1910; d. London, 1981), deputy manager of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC; Šerkat-e mellī-e naft-e Īrān), in charge of international relations and marketing.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī and EIr)

  • FĀL-NĀMA

    a book of presages and omens. The narrower and more common use of the term, equivalent to “bibliomancy,” is confined to texts used as material for divination by the reader directly or through a fortune-teller.

    (Īraj Afšār)

  • FALSAFA

    philosophy in the pre-Islamic period. For philosophy in the Islamic period, see also articles under individual authors and schools, e.g., AVICENNA, FĀRĀBĪ, ILLUMINATIONISM, ISFAHAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY, and MOLLĀ ṢADRĀ.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • FALSAFA ii. ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FALSAFĪ, NAṢR–ALLĀH

    (b. Tehran, 1901; d. 1981), Persian historian, educator, journalist, translator, and poet.

    (Mohammad Zarnegar, Manouchehr Parsadoust)

  • FALUDY, György

    (1910-2006), Hungarian poet, translator, and publicist.

    (András Bodrogliget)

  • FĀMĪ

    See ABU NAṢR FĀMI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAMILY LAW

    legal prescriptions dealing with marriage, divorce, the status of children, inheritance, and related matters.

    (Ziba Mir-Hosseini, Mansour Shaki, Jeanette Wakin)

  • FAMILY OF THE PROPHET

    See ĀL-E ʿABĀ, lit. “Family of the cloak.”

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAMILY PLANNING

    a term for programs to regulate family size that came into use in the West in the 1930s. Although it originally encompassed efforts both to promote and to curtail fertility, explosive population growth in the developing countries since mid-century has narrowed its meaning to control of fertility.

    (Mehdi Amani, Nancy Hatch Dupree)

  • FAMINES

    in Persia.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • FANĀ ḴOSROW

    See ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, FANĀ ḴOSROW.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FANĀʾĪĀN, Mīrzā FARAJ-ALLĀH JONŪN

    b. Loṭf-ʿAlī b. Moḥammad-Reżā (b. Sangsar, 1873), poet.

    (Vahid Rafati)

  • FANĀRŪZĪ, ḴᵛĀJA ʿAMĪD ABU’L-FAWĀRES

    See SENDBĀD-NĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FANĪ KAŠMĪRĪ

    pen name of Shaikh MOḤAMMAD-MOḤSEN b. Ḥasan KAŠMĪRĪ (d. 1670/71), Indo-Persian scholar and poet.

    (Sharif Husain Qasemi)

  • FĀNŪS

    lanterns. See ČERĀḠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAQĪR -ALLĀH JALĀLĀBĀDĪ

    See AFGHANISTAN xii. LITERATURE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAQĪR DEHLAVĪ, MĪR ŠAMS-AL-DĪN

    or Maftūn (fl. 18th century), Persian poet from the Indian sub-continent.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • FĀRĀB

    a small district on the middle Syr Darya in Transoxania, at the confluence of that river with its right-bank tributary, the Arys, which flows down from Esfījāb, and also the name of a small town within it.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FĀRĀBĪ

    Muslim philosopher of the 10th century.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FĀRĀBĪ i. Biography

    No one among Fārābī’s successors and their followers, or even unrelated scholars, undertook to write his full biography.

    (Dimitri Gutas)

  • FĀRĀBĪ ii. Logic

    Many of his writings take the form of commentaries on, or summaries of, the Aristotelian Organon , which, following the tradition of the Alexandrian commentators of late antiquity, included Porphyry’s Isagoge as well as Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Poetics .

    (Deborah L. Black)

  • FĀRĀBĪ iii. Metaphysics

    His metaphysics scillates between two main projects: (1) a study of what is common to all beings, i.e., being as such and other universal notions such as oneness, and (2) a study of the ultimate causes, i.e., God and other immaterial beings.

    (Thérèse-Anne Druart)

  • FĀRĀBĪ iv. Fārābī and Greek Philosophy

    Fārābī’s philosophical moorings and direct affiliation lie in the Greek neo-Aristotelian school of Ammonius in Alexandria, in the form in which it survived and was revived after the Islamic conquest among Syriac Christian clerics and intellectuals in the centers of Eastern Christianity in the Fertile Crescent.

    (Dimitri Gutas)

  • FĀRĀBĪ v. Music

    In the history of Middle Eastern music Fārābī remains unequalled as a theorist, but this aspect of his manifold achievements has been obscured by his more widely known writings on philosophy.

    (George Sawa)

  • FĀRĀBĪ vi. Political Philosophy

    The central theme of Fārābī’s political writings is the virtuous regime, the political order whose guiding principle is the realization of human excellence by virtue.

    (Muhsin Mahdi)

  • FARĀH

    Farāh has retained practically the same name since the first millennium B.C.E. At the end of the first century B.C.E, the “very great city” of Phra in Aria was reckoned as a major stage on the overland route between the Levant and India.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • FARAḤĀBĀD

    common place name throughout Persia, without any cultural or historical significance. The three best-known locales with this name are a city quarter of Tehran, the remains of a palace complext near Isfahan, and an Abbasid pleasure palace on the Caspian sea.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • FARĀHĀN

    a district (baḵš) in Tafreš subprovince (šahrestān) of the Central (Markazī) province.

    (Reżā Reżāzāda Langarūdī)

  • FARĀHĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    (1847-1913) Persian diplomat and author of a travelogue (safar-nāma) intended to show how a Shiʿite pilgrim could successfully undertake the journey to Mecca. In it one learns much about Arabia, the Ottoman empire, and the Sunnis in general.

    (Hafez Farmayan)

  • FARĀHĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ṢĀDEQ

    See ADĪB-AL-MAMĀLEK FARĀHĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARĀHĪ, ABŪ NAṢR BADR-al-DĪN MASʿŪD

    or Moḥammad, Maḥmūd; b. Abī Bakr b. Ḥosayn b. Jaʿfar Farāhī (fl. 13th century), poet and litterateur.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • FARĀHRŪD

    river in southwestern Afghanistan, rising at about 3,300 meters above sea level in the Band-e Bayān, and, after a course of 712 km in a south-western direction, ending in the Hāmūn-e Ṣāberī (Sīstān) at an altitude of 475 m.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • FARAHVAŠI, Bahrām

    Bahrām Farahvaši was born into a family with a long tradition of literary and scholarly pursuits. His father, ʿAli Moḥammad Farahvaši (1875-1968), was one of the pioneers of education reform in the early 20th century and established modern schools in Tehran, Zanjan, and Azerbaijan.

    (Mahnaz Moazami)

  • FARAJ-E BAʿD AZ ŠEDDAT

    See DEHESTĀNI, ḤOSAYN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARĀLĀVĪ

    the conventional reading of the name of an early Persian poet.

    (François de Blois)

  • FARĀMARZ

    son of Iran’s national hero Rostam, and himself a renowned hero of the Iranian national epic whose adventures were very popular, especially during the 10th and 11th centuries.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • FARĀMARZ, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    See ABŪ MANṢŪR FARĀMARZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARĀMARZĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    (b. Gačūya, 1897; d. Tehran, 1972), an outspoken journalist, writer, educator, Majles deputy, and poet.

    (Mohammad Zarnegar)

  • FARĀMARZ-NĀMA

    a Persian epic recounting the adventures of the hero Farāmarz.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • FARĀMŪŠ-ḴĀNA

    See FREEMASONRY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARĀNAK

    according to the Šāh-nāma, the mother of Ferēdūn; also the name of a wife of Bahrām V Gōr.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARANG, FARANGĪ

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARANGĪ MAḤALL

    or FERANGĪ MAḤAL; family of Indian Muslim teachers, Hanafite scholars, and mystics active over the last 300 years.

    (Muhammad Wali-ul-Haq Ansari)

  • FARANGĪS

    eldest daughter of Afrāsīāb and wife of Sīāvaḵš.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • FARAS-NĀMA

    a category of books and manuals dealing with horses and horsemanship. Topics treated in this literary genre include horse-breeding, grazing, dressage, veterinary advice, horseracing and betting, and the art of divination based on the mien and movements of horses.

    (Īraj Afšār)

  • FARĀVA

    or Parau, a small medieval town in eastern Persia, lying east of the Caspian Sea and just beyond the northern edge of the Kopet-Dag range facing the Kara Kum desert.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FARDIN, Moḥammad ʿAli

    Fardin’s 23-year film career blossomed late, after a short stint in the theater, and it suffered an early demise in 1981 when the Islamic Republic of Iran banned him from filmmaking in a wholesale purge of the major entertainers of the pre-revolution era.

    (Jamsheed Akrami)

  • FĀRES

    the Arabic term for “rider on a horse, cavalryman,” connected with the verb farasa/farosa “to be knowledgeable about horses, be a skillful horseman” and the noun faras “horse."

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FĀRESĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ FĀRESĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĀRESĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

    (d. 1320), the most significant figure in optics after Ebn al-Hayṯam (Alhazen; 965-1040). The two names have been linked due to his critical revision of Ebn al-Hayṯam’s Ketāb al-manāẓer, which represents a watershed in the scientific understanding of light and vision.

    (Gül A. Russell)

  • FĀRESĪYĀT

    a literary term used in Arabic literature to refer to poems in Arabic which contain some Persian words or even phrases in their original form, the most notable example being the Fāresīyāt of Abū Nowās.

    (Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī)

  • FARḠĀNA

    valley of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) river extending ca. 300 km between the Farḡāna mountains in the east and the first sharp bend of the river’s course to the north.

    (Boris Marshak, C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FARḠĀNĪ, AḤMAD

    b. Moḥammad b. Kaṯīr (fl. ca. 950 C.E.), Muslim astronomer.

    (David Pingree)

  • FARḠĀNĪ, SAʿĪD-AL-DĪN MOHAMMAD

    b. Ahmad (d. 1300), Sufi author from the town of Kāsān in Farḡān.

    (William C. Chittick)

  • FARḠĀNĪ, SAYF-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    thirteenth century Persian poet and Sufi of Farḡāna.

    (Sayyāra Mahīnfar)

  • FARḠĀNĪ, EMĀM-AL-ḤARAMAYN SERĀJ-Al-DĪN ABU’L-MOḤAMMAD ʿALĪ

    b. ʿOṯmān Ūšī or Ūsī (d. 1173), oṣūlī jurist (faqīh), traditionist, and author.

    (Sayyāra Mahīnfar)

  • FARHĀD (1)

    romantic figure in Persian legend and literature, best known from the poetry of Neẓāmī Ganjavī as a rival with the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628) for the love of the beautiful Armenian princess Šīrīn.

    (Heshmat Moayyad)

  • FARHĀD (2)

    name of a number of Parthian kings. See PHRAATES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARHĀD KHAN QARAMĀNLŪ, ROKN-AL-SALṬANA

    military commander of Shah ʿAbbās I, executed at the Shah’s orders in 1598.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • FARHĀD MĪRZĀ MOʿTAMAD-AL-DAWLA

    (1818-1888), Qajar prince-governor and bibliophile. Holding highly conservative religious views, he viewed Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah's reformist vizier as an obliterator of the “foundation of the Muslim šarīʿa,” who was guilty of spreading the word “liberty” among the people.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • FARHANG

    the title of five newspapers and magazines printed in Persia and Europe.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • FARHANG, MĪRZĀ ABU’L-QĀSEM ŠĪRĀZĪ

    (b. Shiraz, 1827; d. Shiraz, 1891), poet, scholar, and calligrapher.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • FARHANG-E ĀNANDRĀJ

    a dictionary of the Persian language named in honor of the maharaja Ānand Gajapatī Rāj, the nineteenth century ruler of Vijayanagar in South India.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • FARHANG-E ASADĪ

    an alternative title for the dictionary Loḡat-e fors. See undeer the author, ASĀDĪ TŪSĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARHANG-E EBRĀHĪMĪ

    Persian-language dictionary compiled by the well-known fifteenth century poet Ebrāhīm Qewām-al-Dīn Fārūqī.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • FARHANG-E HAYĪM

    See HAYĪM, SOLAYMĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARHANG Ī OĪM

    See FRAHANG Ī OĪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARHANG Ī PAHLAVIG

    See FRAHANG Ī PAHLAWĪG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARHANG-E ĪRĀN-ZAMĪN

    a research quarterly first published in Tehran in March 1953.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • FARHANG-E JAHĀNGĪRĪ

    It took Ḥosayn Enjū twelve years to complete his dictionary (1005-17/1595-1608), which he named in honor of Jahāngīr. He produced a second edition in 1032/1622. The dictionary lists 9,830 words: 8,960 Persian; 630 Arabic; 140 Indian; and about a hundred entries of Turkic and Greek origin as well as words from various dialects.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • FARHANG-E MOʿĪN

    an important Persian encyclopaedic dictionary published in six volumes in Tehran between 1963 and 1973.

    (Kamran Talattof and EIr)

  • FARHANG-E NĀFĪSĪ

    See NĀẒEM-AL-AṬEBBĀʾ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARHANG-E NEẒĀM

    See DĀʿĪ-AL-ESLĀM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARHANG-E QAWWĀS

    a Persian dictionary compiled probably no later than 1315 by the founder of Persian lexicography in India, the poet and writer Faḵr-al-Dīn Mobārakšāh Qawwās Ḡaznavī, or Faḵr-e Qawwās, known also as Kamāngar.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • FARHANG-E RAŠĪDĪ

    Persian dictionary compiled in India in 1654 by the poet and scholar ʿAbd-al- Rašīd b. ʿAbd-al-Ḡafūr Ḥosaynī Tattavī.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • FARHANG-E SORŪRĪ

    a dictionary of the Persian language, also known as Majmaʿ al-fors and Loḡat-e Sorūrī, compiled by the Persian poet Moḥammad-Qāsem Sorūrī.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • FARHANG-E TĀRĪḴĪ-E ZABĀN-E FĀRSĪ

    a comprehensive historical dictionary of the Persian language, of which only one volume has been published so far.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • FARHANG-E WAFĀʾI

    or Resāla-ye Wafāʾi; a Persian lexicon of some 2,425 mainly literary terms, compiled by Ḥosayn Wafāʾi in 1527 and dedicated to the Safavid Shah Ṭahmāsb I.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • FARHANG-E ZABĀN-E TĀJĪKĪ

    (Farhangi zaboni tojikī, Tajik Language Dictionary), a descriptive dictionary of classical Persian in two volumes (1,900 pages).

    (Habib Borjian)

  • FARHANG-E ZAFĀNGŪYĀ WA JAHĀNPŪYĀ

    See BADR-AL-DĪN EBRĀHĪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARHANG O ZENDAGĪ

    a periodical published in 28 issues from winter 1969 to spring 1978 by the Secretariat of the High Council of Culture and Art (Dabīr-ḵāna-ye Šūrā-ye ʿalī-e farhang o honar).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • FARHANGESTĀN

    a term for “academy” which gained currency in the 20th century to denote an association of scholars.

    (M. A. Jazayeri)

  • FARHANGI ZABONI TOJIKĪ

    See FARHANG-E ZABĀN-E TĀJĪKĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARĪBORZ

    son of Key Kāvūs.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • FARĪBORZ

    b. Salār. See ŠARVĀNŠĀH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARĪD BHAKKARI

    b. Shaikh Maʿrūf BHAKKARĪ, 16-17th century author of an important biographical dictionary in Persian of Mughal notables, the Ḏaḵīrat al-ḵawanīn.

    (EIr)

  • FARĪD-AL-DĪN, ABŪ’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ ŠARVĀNĪ

    See FAHHĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARĪD-AL-DĪN GANJ-E ŠAKAR

    See GANJ-E ŠAKAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARĪD ESFARĀYENĪ, Malek-al-Šoʿarāʾ Ḵᵛāja FARĪD-AL-DĪN AḤWAL

    or Eṣfahānī (d. after 1264), 13th-century Persian poet.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • FARĪD KĀTEB

    scribe active in Shiraz in the 16th century.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • FARĪDAN

    a county (šahrestān) located at the foot of the Zagros mountains in the western part of Isfahan province, bordered on the north by Ḵᵛānsār, on the northwest by Alīgūdarz (in Lorestān province), on the west by the county of Farīdūn-æahr, on the east by Najafābād, and on the south by Šahr-e Kord and Fārsān.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • FARĪDŪN

    See FERĒDŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARIGHUNIDS

    See ĀL-E FARĪḠŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARĪḠŪNIDS

    See ĀL-E FARĪḠŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARĪZANDĪ

    See CENTRAL DIALECTS; see also NAṬANZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARḴĀR

    river, valley, and administrative district (woloswālī), in Taḵār province, northeastern Afghanistan.

    (Erwin F. Grötzbach)

  • FARMĀN

    “decree, command, order, judgement.” The term often denotes a royal or governmental decree, that is a public and legislative document promulgated in the name of the ruler or another person holding elements of sovereignty.

    (Bert G. Fragner)

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ

    lit. “giver of an order,” i.e., ruler, commander; an epithet with three usages in the Safavid and Qajar periods.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ

    (1858-1939), Qajar prince-governor, military commander, skillful politician, head of various ministries, and prime minister. He managed to sail successfully the stormy sea of Persian politics for several decades while the entire social and political landscape was undergoing dramatic change.

    (Cyrus Mir and EIr)

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, FEREYDŪN MĪRZĀ

    (d. Mašhad, 1854), fifth son of the Qajar prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā and elder brother of Solṭān Morād Mīrzā Ḥosām-al-Salṭana.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Navāʾi)

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, FĪRŪZ MĪRZĀ NOṢRAT-AL-DAWLA

    (1817-1886), sixteenth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and grandson of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah. His political and military career flourished in the reigns of his brother Moḥammad Shah (834-48) and his nephew Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96).

    (Shireen Mahdavi)

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, ḤOSAYN-ʿALĪ MĪRZĀ

    (1789-1835), the fifth son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah, long-time governor of Fārs, and briefly the self-styled king of Persia.

    (Gavin R. G. Hambly)

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, MAḤMŪD KHAN NĀṢER-AL-MOLK

    (b. ca. 1828-29; d. Tehran, 1887), high-ranking official in the reign of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96).

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Navāʾi)

  • FARMING

    in Persia. In the mid-1990s Persian agriculture accounted for over 25 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 25 percent of employment, and 33 percent of non-oil exports. It also met 75 percent of domestic food requirements and 90 percent of the needs of agricultural industries in the country.

    (Mohammad-Said Nouri Naini)

  • FARNAH

    See FARR(AH).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARNŪDSĀR

    See NAẒEM-AL-AṬEBBĀʾ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARŌḴŠI

    the name of a Zoroastrian ceremony for departed souls, also called Farošīn, in Irani Zoroastrian dialect Parošīn.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal)

  • FARR(AH)

    Avestan Xᵛarənah, lit. “glory,” according to the most likely etymology and the semantic function reconstructed from its occurrence in various contexts and phases of the Iranian languages.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • FARR(AH) ii. ICONOGRAPHY OF FARR(AH)/XᵛARƎNAH

    The core myth that reveals the characteristics of farr is the myth of Jamšid in the Avesta. Empowered by his farr, Jamšid rules the world, but loses it when he strays from the righteous path.

    (Abolala Soudavar)

  • FARRANT, FRANCIS

    (1803?-1868), Colonel, British soldier and diplomat.

    (Denis Wright)

  • FARRĀŠ

    See CITIES iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARROḴ, Sayyed MAḤMŪD

    (b. Mašhad, 1896; d. Mašhad, 1981), litterateur, poet, Majles deputy, and executive.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • FARROḴ KHAN KĀŠĪ, AMĪN-AL-MOLK

    See AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ṬĀLEB FARROḴ KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARROḴĀN-E BOZORG

    See DĀBŪYĪDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARROḴĀN-E KŪČAK

    See DĀBŪYĪDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARROḴI

    a township on the southern edge of the Great Desert, in Ḵur-Biābānak Sub-province, Isfahan Province.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • FARROḴĪ SĪSTĀNĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    b. Jūlūḡ, eleventh century Persian court poet.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • FARROḴĪ YAZDĪ

    (1889-1939), journalist and poet and an early advocate of socialist revolution in Persia.

    (Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak)

  • FARROḴZĀD

    son of Ḵosrow II, ruled briefly in 630/631. See SASANIAN DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARROḴZĀD, ABŪ ŠOJĀʿ

    b. Masʿūd b. Maḥmūd, Ghaznavid sultan of Afghanistan and northern India (r. 1052-59).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FARROḴZĀD, FORŪḠ-ZAMĀN

    (b. Tehran, 1935; d. Tehran, 1967), usually known as Forūḡ, Persian poet.

    (Farzaneh Milani)

  • FARROXMARD

    See MĀDAYĀN-Ī HAZĀR DĀDISTĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĀRS NEWSPAPER

    name of two newspapers published in Shiraz.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • FĀRS PROVINCE

    province in southern Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FĀRS i. Geography

    comprised of the highland basins. East of the meridian of Bušehr and Isfahan, the Zagros mountain chains, which gradually decrease in altitude toward the southeast but still mostly remain above 2,000 and sometimes 3,000 m.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • FĀRS ii. History in the Pre-Islamic Period

    The history of early pre-Islamic Fārs is most closely interwoven with that of its eastern and western neighbors. Agrarian settlements had been established (by immigrants?) in the Muški phase in the Kor basin, a widely and well researched area, before 5,500 B.C.E.

    (Josef Wiesehöfer)

  • FĀRS iii. History in the Islamic Period

    Although the Arabs did not take over the Sasanian system of quadrants, they kept the division of Fārs into five kūras, a division which continued until the 6th/12th century. Shiraz, a continuously inhabited site which may go back to Sasanian or even earlier times, became and has remained the provincial capital.

    (Ann K. S. Lambton)

  • FĀRS iv. History in the Qajar and Pahlavi Periods

    The Qajar period (1794-1921) was marked in Fārs by rule of dozens of prince-governors; Britain’s influence; division of the Qašqāʾī and Ḵamsa tribal confederacies; continued local autonomy of tribal khans and influential landowners; and the increasing political role of the ʿolamāʾ.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • FĀRS v. Monuments

    The founder of the Sasanian empire, Ardašīr I (224-40), shifted the seat of power to the newly founded Ardašīr Ḵorra (Fīrūzābād), a circular city with palaces that are still preserved. His successor, Šāpūr I, built Bīšāpūr as his capital. Nevertheless, Eṣṭaḵr remained the most important city of Fārs until Shiraz surpassed it after the Islamic conquest in the 7th century.

    (Dietrich Huff)

  • FĀRS vi. Demography

    The province of Fārs is the largest and the most populous province in the south of Persia. In the national census of 1996, it was composed of 16 counties (šahrestāns), comprising a total of 60 districts (baḵš), 48 towns (šahr), and 185 village clusters (dehestān).

    (Habib Zanjani)

  • FĀRS vii. Ethnography

    The largest part of the population of Fārs is of Iranian stock, but since the rise of Islam in the 7th century there has been substantial immigration of peoples of other ethnic origins into the province.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • FĀRS viii. Dialects

    Local variants of Persian are found in most cities and towns and their vicinities, and, rurally, mainly in the northeastern parts of the region, all of which tend to reflect a good deal of the vocabulary and idiomatic features of the earlier non-Persian dialects.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • FĀRS ix. PREHISTORIC SEQUENCE

    Six archeological sites—Tall-e Muški, Tall-e Jari A and B, Tall-e Gap, and Tall-e Bākun A and B—in the Persepolis plain of the Marvdašt area are the primary sources for the study of the prehistoric cultural development in Fārs.

    (Abbas Alizadeh)

  • FARSANG

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARŠĒDVARD

    a Kayanian prince in the Iranian legendary history, son of Goštāsp and brother of Esfandīār.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • FĀRSĪ, ABŪ NAṢR ḤEBBAT-ALLĀH

    Official, soldier and poet of the Ghaznavid empire, flourished in the second half of the 5th/11th century during the reigns of the sultans Ebrāhīm b. Masʿūd I and Masʿūd III b. Ebrāhīm. See ABŪ NAṢR FĀRSĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĀRSI, KAMĀL-AL-DIN

    (d. 1320), the most significant figure in optics after Ebn al-Hayṯam. See FĀRESĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĀRSĪMADĀN

    one of the most important tribes of the Qašqāʾī tribal confederacy.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • FĀRS-NĀMA-YE EBN-E BALḴĪ

    See EBN AL-BALḴĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĀRS-NĀMA-YE NĀṢERĪ

    a history and geography of the province of Fārs, with maps and illustrations, by Mīrzā Ḥasan Fasāʾī (1821-1898). Part two includes topics such as the climate of Fārs, its flora and fauna, agricultural products, the position of Fārs according to longitude and latitude, the problem of cartographic projection.

    (Heribert Busse; Ahmad Ashraf and Ali Banuazizi)

  • FĀRŪQĪ DYNASTY

    of Khandesh, lit. "land of the khans" in present-day Madhya Pradesh (1370-1601). The prosperity of Khandesh depended upon trade and the production of fine textiles. Patronage of Češtī Sufism also was an important element of Fārūqī state policy.

    (Carl W. Ernst)

  • FĀRŪQĪ EBRĀHĪM

    See FARHANG-E EBRĀHĪMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĀRŪQĪ, MOLLĀ MAḤMŪD

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARVI DIALECT

    Farvi or Farvigi is the native dialect of Farroḵi, a township in the sub-province of Ḵur o Biābānak on the edge of the Great Persian Desert.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • FĀRYĀB

    by the 10th century, one of the towns of the Farighunid princes of Gūzgān, vassals of the Samanids. The medieval name was revived when the high governorate (ḥokūmat-e ʿalā) of Maymana was elevated to the rank of province (welāyat). Its cities, besides Maymana, are Andḵūy and Dawlatābād.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth and Daniel Balland)

  • FĀRYĀBĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN ABU’L-FAŻL ṬĀHER

    b. Moḥammad, twelfth century Persian poet who used Ẓahīr as his pen name.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • FARYĀD

    the title of seven publications in Persian.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • FARYŪMAD

    (modern FARŪMAD), MONUMENTS OF.

    (Chahryar Adle)

  • FARYŪMADĪ, YAMĪN-AL-DĪN

    See EBN YAMĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FARZĀD, MASʿŪD

    Throughout this period, Farzād wrote poetry, mostly within the classical tradition. In 1942 he published a selection of his poems in a volume entitled Waqtī ke šāʿer būdam (When I was a poet). He had also begun work on a new edition of Ḥāfeẓ’s Dīvān, a task which became a life-long labor.

    (Ahmad Karimi Hakkak)

  • FARZĀN, Sayyed Moḥammad

    (b. near Birjand, 1894; d. Bābolsar, 1970), an eminent scholar of classical literature.

    (EIr)

  • FASĀ

    a sub-province and a city in Fārs.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FASĀ i. Geography and History

    The sub-province ( šahrestān ) of Fasā, with an area of ca. 3,820 km2, is bounded to the north by the šahrestān s of Eṣṭahbān/Estahbān and Shiraz, to the east by Eṣṭahbān and Dārāb, to the south by Dārāb and Jahrom, and to the west by Jahrom and Shiraz.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād and Judith Lerner)

  • FASĀ ii. Tall-e Żaḥḥāk

    a tell or artificial mound, lying within a still broader archeological zone, built up by successive layers of human occupation from prehistoric to medieval times; it is located 130 km south of Shiraz and 3 km southeast of Fasā.

    (John F. Hansman)

  • FASĀʾĪ, ḤĀJJ MĪRZĀ ḤASAN ḤOSAYNĪ

    See FĀRS-NĀMA-YE NĀṢERĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAṢD

    See BLOODLETTING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FASIH, Esma’il

    Fasih left Iran in 1956, and eventually ended up in Montana State College in Bozeman, Montana. Beginning with his junior year at the college, he transferred to the University of Montana in Missoula where he earned a BS in Chemistry and a BA in English.

    (Ali Ferdowsi)

  • FAṢĪḤĪ HERAVĪ, MĪRZĀ FAṢĪḤ-AL-DĪN

    b. Abu’l-Makārem b. Mawlānā Mīrjān Anṣārī (1579-1639), poet of the 11th/17th century.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • FASMER, RICHARD RICHARDOVICH

    or VASMER (1858-1938), eminent Russian numismatist.

    (Anatol A. Ivanov)

  • FASTING

    in Persia. Both individually and communally, fasting is typically a religious exercise—employed by devotees as means of supplication to the will of God, preparation for rites of devotion, worship of divinity, purification of the body so that spiritual issues can be better comprehended, penitence for transgressions against religious codes, and mourning for deceased persons. OVERVIEW of entry: i. Among Zoroastrians, Manicheans, and Bahais. ii. In Sunni and Shiʿite Islam.

    (Jamsheed K. Choksy and Denise Soufi)

  • FATALISM

    in the Islamic period. The concept of fatalism as commonly used in Islamic philosophy and Persian literature denotes the belief in the pre-ordained Decree of God (qażā wa qadar), according to which whatever happens to human beings or in the whole universe has been pre-determined by the will and knowledge of the Almighty, and that no changes or transformations in it can be made through the agency of the human will.

    (Based on a longer article by ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb)

  • FATĀWĪ-E ʿĀLAMGĪRĪ

    abridged Persian translation by Qāżī Najm-al-Dīn Khan Kākorī of a six-volume Arabic work on Hanafite law (ed. Būlāq, 1859) considered the authoritative compendium of religious law, policy, and practice in India.

    (S. H. Qasemi)

  • FATE

    See BAḴT; FATALISM; FREE WILL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĀTEḤ, MOṢṬAFĀ

    (b. Isfahan, 1896; d. London, 1978), a deputy director-general of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and banker.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • FĀṬEMA

    daughter of the Prophet Moḥammad.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi and Jean Calmard)

  • FĀṬEMA-SOLṬĀN

    See ANĪS-AL-DAWLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĀṬEMĪ, ḤOSAYN

    Fāṭemī protested against the government rigging of the elections for the Sixteenth Majles with Moṣaddeq, helped to mobilize support, and in October 1949 was one of a delegation selected to accompany Moṣaddeq in a sit-in (bast) at the royal palace protesting the conduct of the elections.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi)

  • FATḤ-ʿALĪ ĀḴŪNDZĀDA

    See AḴŪNDZĀDA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FATḤ-ʿALĪ KHAN AFŠAR ARAŠLŪ

    See AFŠĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FATḤ-ʿALĪ KHAN QĀJĀR

    chief of the Ašāqa-bāš division of the Qajar tribes at Astarābād at the time of the demise of the Safavid dynasty.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Navāʾi)

  • FATḤ-ʿALĪ SHAH QĀJĀR

    (1769-1834), second ruler of the Qajar dynasty. He transformed a largely Turkic tribal khanship into a centralized and stable monarchy on the old imperial model which brought to the Guarded Domains of Persia (mamālek-e maḥrūsa-ye Īrān) a period of relative calm and prosperity, secured a state-religious symbiosis, and fostered a period of cultural and artistic revival.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • FATḤ-ALLĀH ŠĪRĀZĪ, SAYYED MĪR

    a famous sixteenth century Sufi, an official in Mughal India, and one of the most learned men of his time.

    (Sharif Husain Qasemi)

  • FATḤ JANG

    or Mīrzā Ebrāhīm (d. 1623-24), a Mughal official.

    (Mehrdad Shokoohy)

  • FATḤ B. ḴĀQĀN

    b. ḴĀQĀN (d. 861), famous bibliophile, author, courtier, and official in ʿAbbasid times.

    (EIr)

  • FATḤ-NĀMA

    Arabic-Persian term used to denote proclamations and letters announcing victories in battle or the successful conclusion of military campaigns.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FATIMIDS

    relations with Persia. A major Ismaʿili Shiʿite dynasty, the Fatimids founded their own caliphate, in rivalry with the ʿAbbasids, and ruled over different parts of the Islamic world, from North Africa and Sicily to Palestine and Syria.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • FATTĀḤĪ NĪŠĀBŪRĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    b. Yaḥyā Sībak (d. 1448), Persian poet of the Timurid era, born in Nīšāpūr (hence his nesba Nīšābūrī) at an unknown date.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • FATWĀ

    the authoritative ruling of a religious scholar on questions of Islamic jurisprudence that are either dubious or obscure in nature or which have newly arisen without known precedent.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • FAUNA i. FAUNA OF PERSIA

    the assemblage of animal species, generally excluding domestic animals, living within a defined geographical area or ecological zone.

    (Steven C. Anderson)

  • FAUNA ii, iii. FAUNA OF CENTRAL ASIA

    the assemblage of animal species, generally excluding domestic animals, living within a defined geographical area or ecological zone. OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Fauna of Persia. ii. Fauna of Afghanistan. iii. Fauna of Central Asia.

    (O. L. Kryzhanovskiĭ)

  • FAUSTUS

    fifth-century author of the Patmutʿiwn Hayocʿ (History of the Armenians) or Buzandaran.

    (James R. Russell)

  • FAVA BEANS

    See BĀQELĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAWZĪ MOḤAMMAD

    See FEVZI EFENDI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAWZĪ MOSTĀRĪ

    See FEVZİ MOSTĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAYYĀŻ, ʿALĪ-AKBAR MAJĪDĪ

    Fayyāż remained an indefatigable scholar all his life, combining his profound knowledge of traditional Islamic sciences and Persian literature with modern methodology in scholarship and literary criticism.

    (Jalāl Matīnī)

  • FAYYĀŻ LĀHĪJĪ

    See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ LĀHĪJĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAYŻ-E KĀŠĀNĪ, MOLLĀ MOḤSEN-MOḤAMMAD

    b. Šāh Mortażā b. Šāh Maḥmūd (b. 1598-9, d. 1679), prolific and versatile scholar of the Safavid period, celebrated chiefly for his Sufi inclinations.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • FAYŻ MOḤAMMAD KĀTEB

    Afghan court chronicler and secretary to the amir Ḥabīb–Allāh Khan (r. 1901-19).

    (R. D. McChesney and A. H. Tarzi)

  • FAYŻĀBĀD

    a toponym of auspicious meaning (“blessed abode”) which enjoys great popularity throughout the Iranian world.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • FAYŻĪ, ABU’L-FAYŻ

    (b. Agra, 1547; d. Lahore, 1595), Mughal court poet, also known as Fayżī Fayyāżī, who wrote mainly in Persian.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • FAYŻĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    (1906-1980), Bahai teacher, missionary, and author.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • FAŻĀʾEL-E BALḴ

    13th-century local history from Balḵ in eastern Khorasan, with a collection of biographies of Balḵ’s early Islamic scholars and mystics. It differs from many other local histories of medieval Islamic cities in that it comprises a mix of historical, topographical, and prosopographical information.

    (Arezou Azad)

  • FAŻĀʾEL ḴᵛĀNI

    See MANĀQEB ḴᵛĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAZEL, JAVAD

    (1914-1961), noted serial writer, and a pioneering figure in simplifying and popularizing religious texts.

    (Ḥasan Mirʿābedini)

  • FĀŻEL, MOḤAMMAD-JAWĀD

    (b. Āmol, 1916; d. Tehran, 1961), popular fiction writer and translator.

    (Parviz Ahur)

  • FĀŻEL KHAN GARRŪSĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    (1784-1843), poet, litterateur, and secretary during the reigns of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (1797-1834) and Moḥammad Shah Qājār (1834-48).

    (Īraj Afšār)

  • FĀŻEL MĀZANDARĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ ASAD-ALLĀH

    (b. Bābol, 1881; d. Ḵorramšahr, 1957), Bahai scholar and missionary.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • FĀŻEL TŪNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    From the beginning of 1934, Mohammad-Hosayn taught Arabic language and literature and Islamic philosophy at the University of Tehran; he retired in 1958. He was known for his memory, his sense of humor, and his ability to form friendships with colleagues from different disciplines.

    (Hūšang Etteḥād)

  • FAŻL b. AḤMAD ESFARĀʾENĪ

    See ESFARĀʾENĪ, FAŻL B. AḤMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAŻL NAYRĪZĪ

    (fl. 900 C.E.), ABU’L ʿABBĀS b. Ḥātem, mathematician and astronomer. His family originated from Nayrīz/Nīrīz, a small town near Shiraz. Almost nothing is known of his personal life.

    (David Pingree)

  • FAŻL, b. Šāḏān NĪŠĀPŪRĪ AZDĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD

    (d. 873), Imami traditionalist, theologian, and jurisprudent.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • FAŻL, b. SAHL b. Zādānfarrūḵ

    (d. 818), high official of the early ʿAbbasids and vizier to the caliph al-Maʾmūn (r. 813-33).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FAŻL-ALLĀH ḤORŪFĪ

    See ASTARĀBĀDĪ, FAŻLALLĀH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAŻL-ALLĀH NŪRĪ, SHAIKH

    See NŪRĪ, FAŻL-ALLĀH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAŻLĪ, MEḤMED

    (b. Istanbul; d. Kütahya, 1563), Moḥammad or ʿAlī ÇAĞDAŞLAN; Turkish poet, known also as Qara Fażlī.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • FAŻLĪ NAMANGĀNĪ, ʿABD-AL-KARĪM

    (d. after 1822), Central Asian bilingual poet (Persian and Chaghatay), taḏkera compiler, and historian.

    (Michael Zand)

  • FAŻLŪYA DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E FAŻLŪYA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FAŻLŪYA, Amir ABU’L-ʿABBĀS FAŻL

    known also as Neẓām-al-Dīn Fażl-Allāh, chief of the Šabānkāra Kurds in Fārs during the 11th century.

    (ʿAbd-Allāh Mardūḵ)

  • FEDĀʾĪ

    or fedāwī; devotee, a person who offers his life for others or in the service of a particular cause.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • FEDĀʾĪ ḴORĀSĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    b. Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn b. Karbalāʾī Dāwūd (b. ca. 1850; d. 1923), foremost Persian Nezārī Ismaʿili author and poet of modern times, who is referred to as Ḥājī Āḵūnd in the Persian Nezārī community.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • FEDĀʾĪĀN-E ESLĀM

    a Shiʿite fundamentalist group with a strong activist political orientation founded in 1945 by a charismatic figure, Sayyed Mojtabā Mīrlawḥī (1923-55).

    (Farhad Kazemi)

  • FEDĀʾIĀN-E ḴALQ

    See COMMUNISM iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FEHİM SÜLEYMAN EFENDİ

    or FAHĪM SOLAYMĀN (b. Istanbul, 1789; d. 1846), a Persian teacher and poet of Turkish origin.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • FEHREST

    or Ketāb al-fehrest; a celebrated catalogue of books in Arabic, drafted in 987 by Ebn al-Nadīm. Some scholars regard him as a Persian, but this is not certain. However, his choice of a rather rare Persian word for the title of a handbook on Arabic literature is noteworthy.

    (Rudolf Sellheim and Mohsen Zakeri, François de Blois, Werner Sundermann)

  • FEKETE, Lajos

    (1891-1969), Hungarian historian and specialist of Turkish-Persian paleography.

    (András Bodrogligeti)

  • FELĀḤAT-E MOẒAFFARĪ

    the first monthly magazine in Persia dealing with agricultural issues published from August 1900 to Noveber 1907; the official publication of the General Agricultural Office of Persia.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • FELFEL

    modern Persian term designating the fruits and/or berries of two botanically different groups of plants: the pepper proper and the capsicum peppers.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • FELT

    (namad), material produced by process of felting, the entanglement of animal fiber in all directions, done to form a soft and homogeneous mass. The technique was originally devised in nomadic communities of Central Asia (Pazyryk, 5th to 3rd centuries BCE).

    (Daniel Balland and Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • FEMINIST MOVEMENTS i. INTRODUCTION, ii. IN THE LATE QAJAR PERIOD

    Persia of the 20th century saw a number of popular, often small and short-lived, women’s rights activities which had been mobilized in the 1900s-1920s and again in the 1940s-50s.

    (EIr, Janet Afary)

  • FEMINIST MOVEMENTS iii. IN THE PAHLAVI PERIOD

    in the Pahlavi Period. The fundamental political, socio-cultural, and economic changes which Persia underwent in the Pahlavi era (1921-78) had drastic repercussions on the women’s rights movement and the condition of women.

    (Hamideh Sedghi)

  • FEMINIST MOVEMENTS iv. IN THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    After the Revolution of 1978-79, “feminism,” because of its associations with the West and its appropriation by the previous regime, soon became viewed by the ruling clerics as synonymous with decadence.

    (Ziba Mir-Hosseini)

  • FENDERESK

    a rural district (dehestān) of the county (šahrestān) of Gonbad-e Qābūs and situated north of the Alborz range in the eastern part of Māzandarān.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • FENDERESKĪ

    See MĪR FENDERESKI, ABU’L-QĀSEM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FENNEL

    the aromatic sweetish potherb and medicinal plant Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (= Anethum foeniculum L., etc.; fam. Umbelliferae).

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • FEQH

    lit. "jurisprudence"; term used to designate the processes of exposition, analysis, and argument which constitute human effort to express God’s law (šarīʿa).

    (Norman Calder)

  • FERDAWS AL-MORŠEDĪYA FĪ ASRĀR AL-ṢAMADĪYA

    a major hagiography of Abū Esḥāq Kāzarūnī (963-1033), a famous Sufi and founder of a selsela variously referred to as Kāzarūnīya, Esḥāqīya, or Moršedīya.

    (Īraj Afšār)

  • FERDOWS

    šahrestān in Khorasan consisting of three administrative districts: the city of Ferdows and its immediate suburbs, Bošrūya and Sarāyān.

    (Baqer Parham)

  • FERDOWSĪ MAGAZINE

    the name of two periodicals, a bi-monthly and a weekly magazine published in Tehran.

    (Esmail Nooriala)

  • FERDOWSI, ABU'L-QĀSEM

    (940-1019 or 1025), one of the greatest epic poets and author of the Šāh-nāma, the national epic of Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FERDOWSI, ABU'L-QĀSEM i. Life

    Apart from his patronymic (konya), Abu’l-Qāsem, and his pen name (taḵallosá;), Ferdowsī, nothing is known with any certainty about his names or the identity of his family.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM ii. Hajw-nāma

    Hajw-nāma is the title of a verse lampoon of Sultan Maḥmūd of Ḡazna attributed to Ferdowsī. According to Neẓāmī ʿArūżī , after Ferdowsī presented his Šāh-nāma , the sultan used the pretext of the poet’s alleged Muʿtazilite and Shiʿite orientation to give him only twenty thousand dirhams as the reward for the epic.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM iii. MAUSOLEUM

    The rise of nationalism in Persia early this century motivated scholars and dignitaries to urge the government to build a suitable mausoleum for the poet who had done so much to preserve Iranian identity and history.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM iv. MILLENARY CELEBRATION

    Already in 1922 Moḥammad-Taqī Bahār, the most influential poet of the time and a politician-journalist, urged Reżā Khan (later Reżā Shah), who had recently seized power, to prove his asserted nationalism by celebrating Ferdowsī.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM v. HOMAGES TO FERDOWSI

    Ever since the appearance of the Šāh-nāma, Ferdowsī has been held in high esteem, and many poets have referred to him and his work, the best known being Saʿdī’s tribute in the Būstān to “Ferdowsī-ye pāk-zād.”

    (EIr)

  • FERĒDŪN

    Iranian mythic hero.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • FEREŠTA

    angels in Islam and Persian folklore. See Supplement, ANGELS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FEREŠTA, MOḤAMMAD-QĀSEM

    See FEREŠTA, TĀRĪḴ-E.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FEREŠTA, TĀRĪḴ-E

    popular title of Golšan-e ebrāhīmī, a general history of Muslim India by Moḥammad-Qāsem Hendušāh Astarābādī (b. Astarābād ca. 1570), the celebrated historian of the Deccan known by the pen name (taḵalloṣ) of Ferešta.

    (Gavin R. G. Hambly)

  • FEREYDŪN

    (Faridun, Fereydoun, Fereydoon) Iranian mythic hero. See FERĒDŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FERİDUN AḤMED BEG, ʿABD-AL-QĀDER

    or FEREYDŪN AḤMAD BAYG (d. 1583), Ottoman secretary, administrator, head of the chancery, and author.

    (Rudolf Veselý)

  • FERŌD

    See FORŪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FERQA-YE DEMOKRĀT-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN

    Democratic Party of Azerbaijan; the dominant political party in Azarbayjan during the Pīšavarī period. See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FERRIER, JOSEPH PHILIPPE

    (1811-1886), French soldier in the Persian service (1839-42, 1846-50).

    (Jacqueline Calmard-Compas)

  • FERRIER, JOSEPHE-PIERRE

    19th-century French traveler and intrepid explorer in Afghanistan.

    (Gavin R. G. Hambly)

  • FERTILITY AND MORTALITY

    in Persia. Up to 1986 the Persian birthrate was high (as high as 48-49 per 1,000), compared to the world rate but had dropped from 1966, as a result of official policies on family planning. In 1994 the Persian birthrate equaled the average for Asia and Central America.

    (Mehdi Amani)

  • FESANJĀN

    (fesenjūn, fasūjan), a well known Persian dish (ḵoreš, a kind of stew) made of walnut or almond, poultry (usually duck) or small meat balls (kalla gonješkī) and pomegranate sauce or juice.

    (Najmieh Batmanglij)

  • FESTIVALS

    This article discusses religious or communal festivals and commemorations, ancient and modern, of diverse communities in Persia and Afghanistan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FESTIVALS i. ZOROASTRIAN

    fall into two broad categories. There are the seven feasts of obligation, that is, No Rōz (Nowrūz) and the six gāhānbārs, which formed the framework of the religious year, and which it was a sin not to keep; and others, which it was a merit, not a duty, to observe.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • FESTIVALS ii. MANICHEAN

    The Manichean calendar of holidays proves independence from that of the Zoroastrians. Even if the heptavalent number of the Manichean Yimkis was correlated to the Zoroastrian gāhānbār and Nowrūz

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • FESTIVALS iii, iv, v

    iii. SHI'ITE, iv. YAZIDI AND AHL-E HAQQ, v. KURDISH (SUNNI).

    (Anne H. Betteridge and EIr, Philip G. Kreyenbroek, Keith Hitchins)

  • FESTIVALS vi, vii, viii

    vi. BAHAI, vii. JEWISH, viii. ARMENIAN.

    (Moojan Momen, Amnon Netzer, A. Arkun)

  • FESTIVALS ix. Assyrian

    The adoption of Christianity by the Assyrians in the latter part of the 1st century led to the harmonization of older community celebrations and commemorations with Christian doctrine as well as the introduction of specifically Christian religious holidays.

    (William Piroyan and Eden Naby)

  • FESTIVALS x. IN AFGHANISTAN

    Festive ceremonies in Afghanistan mark special religious days and major events in individual life cycles. Few are formally organized, being celebrated primarily to keep family bonds strong and community ties congenial.

    (Nancy Hatch Dupree)

  • FEṬR

    See FESTIVALS iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FEṬRAT, ʿABD-AL-RAʾŪF BOḴĀRĪ

    (b. Bukhara, ca. 1886; d. Tashkent, 1938), teacher, man of letters, and the most important thinker of the Jadid movement of modern Central Asia.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • FEṬRAT ZARDŪZ SAMARQANDĪ, SAYYED KAMĀL

    (1660-1699), Tajik poet.

    (Michael Zand)

  • FETYĀN

    See ʿAYYĀR; JAVĀNMARDI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FEUDALISM

    European term sometimes applied to medieval Persia; see EQṬĀʿ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FEUVRIER, JEAN-BAPTISTE

    (1842-1926), Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s personal physician (1889-1892), author of Trois ans à la cour de Perse, with engravings from photographs in the collections of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah and his retinue, Feuvrier’s own drawings, and Persian contemporary paintings.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • FEVZİ EFENDİ, MEḤMED

    or FAWZĪ (b. Denizli, 1826; d. Istanbul, 1900), Ottoman author who wrote some books in Persian.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • FEVZİ MOSTĀRĪ

    or FAWZĪ (d. 1747), author of the Bolbolestān, an imitation of Saʿdī’s Golestān, the only prose work written in Persian known to be by a Bosnian author.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • FEYLĪ DIALECT

    See LORĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FEYLĪ

    group of Lor tribes located mainly in Luristan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • FICTION

    i. Traditional Forms. ii. Modern Fiction. ii(a). Historical Background. ii(b). The Novel. ii(c). The Short Story. ii(d). The Post-Revolutionary Short Story. ii(e). Post-Revolutionary Fiction Abroad. ii(f). By Persians in Non-Persian Languages. ii(g). In Afghanistan. ii(h). In Tajikistan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FICTION, i

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. TRADITIONAL FORMS. This article deals with all kinds of stories written for specifically literary purposes up to the time when narrative prose in the modern style, derived from the West, was introduced in Persia.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • FICTION, ii(a)

    ii(a). HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MODERN FICTION. The long reign of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96) and the Constitutional Revolution a decade after his death witnessed the gradual emergence of modern fiction in Persia.

    (Simin Behbahāni and EIr)

  • FICTION, ii(b)

    ii(b). THE NOVEL.

    (Houra Yavari)

  • FICTION, ii(c)

    ii(c). THE SHORT STORY. Historically, the modern Persian short story has undergone three stages of development: a formative period, a period of consolidation and growth, and a period of diversity.

    (Jamāl Mīrṣādeqī)

  • FICTION, ii(d)

    ii(d). THE POST-REVOLUTIONARY SHORT STORY. The post-revolutionary short story is marked by its formal sophistication and has carved out a distinct and experimental space of its own in fiction.

    (Houra Yavari)

  • FICTION, ii(e)

    ii(e). POST-REVOLUTIONARY FICTION ABROAD. Not only were the novel and short story imported genres, the very first works of Persian fiction were either written or first published outside Persia.

    (Houra Yavari)

  • FICTION, ii(f)

    ii(f). BY PERSIANS IN NON-PERSIAN LANGUAGES. Persian fiction is not limited to works written in the Persian language, or to works written within the geographical boundaries of Persia herself.

    (Houra Yavari)

  • FICTION, ii(g)

    ii(g). IN AFGHANISTAN. The introduction of modern fiction in Afghanistan was concomitant with the institution of new educational and literary organizations, namely the Ḥabībīya School and Anjoman-e adabī, and the publication of the bi-weekly Serāj al-aḵbār-e afḡānīya, edited by Maḥmūd Ṭarzī, in the early twentieth century.

    (Shahwali Ahmadi)

  • FICTION, ii(h)

    ii(h). IN TAJIKISTAN. Tajik fiction in the 20th century has drawn from a variety of sources.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • FIDIUĀG

    (The Herald), an Ossetic periodical.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • FIEF

    See EQṬĀʿ; LAND TENURE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FIG

    the “fruit” of several species and subspecies of Ficus L. (fam. Moraceae) in the geobotanical area covered by K. H. Rechinger’s Flora Iranica.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • FIGUEROA, GARCÍA DE SILVA Y

    (b. Zafra, 1550; d. at sea returning from Persia, 1624), Spanish diplomat and traveler.

    (Michele Bernardini)

  • FIGURES OF SPEECH

    See BADIʿ (1).

    (Cross-reference)

  • FĪL

    See ELEPHANT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FILBERT

    See HAZELNUT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FILIPPI, FILIPPO DE

    (1814-1867), a professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at Turin University.

    (Anna Vanzan)

  • FILM PRODUCTION

    See Supplement; see also CINEMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĪN

    District and spring near Kāšān. See BĀḠ-E FĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FINKENSTEIN, TREATY OF

    See FRANCE iii; GARDANE MISSION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FIRE

    See ĀDUR, ĀTAŠ, ĀTAŠKADA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FIRE ALTARS

    a structure used to to hold fire for urposes of veneration, probably contained within a metal or clay bowl. The term should probably be restricted to those structures which have a clear Zoroastrian religious context.

    (Mark Garrison)

  • FIRE TEMPLES

    See ĀTAŠKADA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FIRE WORSHIP

    See ĀTAŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FIREARMS i. HISTORY

    in Persia. This article surveys the history and production of various firearms and artillery in Persia from their introduction to the 19th century.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • FIREARMS ii. PRODUCTION OF CANNON AND MUSKETS

    By the last quarter of the 16th century, cannon-making was so common that cannons were constructed even on the spot during siege operations.

    (Parviz Mohebbi)

  • FIRMAN

    See FARMĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FIRST DASTUR MEHERJIRANA LIBRARY, THE

    the second Parsi library founded in India, established in 1872 CE in Navsari (India) by the Meherjirana family and celebrated since the 12th century CE for its religious relevance for in Gujarat .

    (Miguel Ángel Andrés-Toledo)

  • FĪRŪZ

    (PĒRŌZ) Sasanian king (r. 459-84), son of Yazdegerd II (r. 439-57).

    (Klaus Schippmann)

  • FIRUZ, MARYAM

    Firuz was born into the royal Qajar family. Her father was ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mirzā Farmānfarmā, the second son of Firuz Mirzā Noṣrat-al-Dawla Farmānfarmā, the sixteenth son of ʿAbbās Mirzā, son and the crown prince of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah, the second Qajar king.

    (Maziar Behrooz)

  • FĪRŪZ BAHRĀM

    one of Tehran’s oldest high schools, founded by Parsi philanthropist Bahramji Bikaji as a memorial to his son Fīrūz, who was lost at sea in the Mediterranean in 1915. Bikaji’s initial plan was to build an elementary school in

    (Fariborz Majīdī and Hūšang Etteḥād)

  • FĪRŪZ MAŠREQĪ

    (or Pīrūz; not Mošrefī as in Majmaʿ al-foṣaḥāʾ, p. 946), poet at the court of the Saffarids Yaʿqūb b. Layṯ (r. 867-78) and his brother ʿAmr b. Layṯ.

    (Aḥmad Edāračī Gīlānī)

  • FĪRŪZ MĪRZA

    (1817-1886), sixteenth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and grandson of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah. See FARMĀNFARMĀ, FĪRŪZ MĪRZĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĪRŪZ ŠĀPŪR

    name of a town on the left bank of the Euphrates five km north-west of Fallūǰa and sixty-two km west of Baghdad. See ANBĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĪRŪZA

    See TURQUOISE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĪRŪZĀBĀD

    The plain of Fīrūzābād has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with a major Chalcolithic site, Tall-e Rīgī, in the south. Surrounded bys mountains with few access roads, it was chosen by Ardašīr-e Bābakān as the key stronghold in his revolt against the last Parthian king.

    (Dietrich Huff)

  • FĪRŪZĀBĀDĪ, ABŪ ṬĀHER MOḤAMMAD

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FĪRŪZKŪH

    name of two towns: (1) a fortified city in the medieval Islamic province of Ḡūr in Central Afghanistan, which was the capital of the senior branch of the Ghurid sultans (see GHURIDS) for some sixty years in the later 6th/12th and 7th/13th centuries; (2) fortress and surrounding settlement in the Damāvand region of the Alborz mountains in northern Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FĪRŪZKŪH i. THE GHURID CAPITAL

    the Ghurid capital.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FĪRŪZKŪH ii. IN THE ALBORZ

    fortress and surrounding settlement in the Damāvand region of the Alborz mountains in northern Persia.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FĪRŪZKŪH iii. THE MODERN TOWN

    the modern town.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • FĪRŪZŠĀH-NĀMA

    pre-Safavid prose romance, the hero of which is Fīrūzšāh, son of Dārāb of the Kayanid house.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • FISCAL SYSTEM

    i. Achaemenid Period. ii. Sasanian Period. iii. Islamic Period. iv. Safavid and Qajar Periods. v. Pahlavi Period. vi. Islamic Republic..

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FISCAL SYSTEM i. ACHAEMENID, ii. SASANIAN

    There probably was no clear distinction between state and royal incomes in the Achaemenid empire. All state receipts were considered royal property, as was the income from the king’s estates.

    (Mohammad A. Dandamayev, Rika Gyselen)

  • FISCAL SYSTEM iii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    iii. ISLAMIC PERIOD Such a system can be studied in at least three aspects: First, its relationship to the ruler or the government; second, its relationship to those groups in the population who serve as sources of revenue (“taxpayers”);

    (Jürgen Paul)

  • FISCAL SYSTEM iv. SAFAVID AND QAJAR PERIODS

    iv. SAFAVID AND QAJAR PERIODS The Safavid shah’s fiscal prerogatives were expressed by terms like bājgoḏār, bājsetān, and jezyagoḏār (tax assessor or tax taker).

    (Willem Floor)

  • FISCAL SYSTEM v. PAHLAVI PERIOD

    The first attempts at setting up a modern fiscal system in Persian began after the Constitutional Revolution.

    (Massoud Karshenas)

  • FISCAL SYSTEM vi. ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    vi. ISLAMIC REPUBLIC 1. continuity and change in persia’s public finances Increasing role of the State. Public finances in Persia are intimately related to the significant role that the state has traditionally played in the Persian economy.

    (Adnan Mazarei)

  • FISCHEL, WALTER JOSEPH

    (b. 12 November 1902; d. 14 July 1973), a scholar of Oriental Jewry and Islamic civilization.

    (David Yeroushalmi)

  • FISH

    in Persia. With about 1,800 km of coastline along the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman, and about 990 km on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, plus some inland fresh waters, Persia has a great variety of aquatic fauna: mollusks, crustaceans, chelonians, mammals (dolphins, whales, seals), and particularly, fishes. Thus the country has rich aquatic resources and considerable potential for fishing and aquaculture.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FISH i. FRESHWATER FISHES

    With about 1,800 km of coastline along the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman, and about 990 km on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, plus some inland fresh waters, Persia has a great variety of aquatic fauna: mollusks, crustaceans, chelonians, mammals, and especially fishes.

    (Brian W. Coad)

  • FISH ii. SALT WATER FISHES

    Except for occasional short reports by foreign researchers on some individual fish species from the Sea of Oman and the Persian Gulf, there was no comprehensive scientific study of the ichthyofauna of the region until the Danish H. Blegvad and B. Løppenthin’s systematic survey.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • FISH iii. IN PRE-ISLAMIC PERSIAN LORE

    The Bundahišn contains interesting pseudo-scientific, mythical, and sometimes inconsistent information about fishes.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • FISH iv. FISH AS FOOD

    Although fish is the main source of animal protein along the northern and southern coasts of Persia, it is not much eaten in the rest of the country but in a smoked form as a delicacy traditionally served with rice and fresh herbs on the first day of the new year at the end of the zodiacal month of Pisces.

    (Najmieh Batmanglij)

  • FISHERIES

    There was no real fishing organization in Persia until the second half of the 19th century when Russian subjects, encouraged and backed by the Tsarist Russia’s expansionist policy, becameinncreasingly involved in coastal and fluvial fishing activities in the Caspian provinces of Persia.

    (Houshang Alam)

  • FITZGERALD, EDWARD

    (1809-1883), British translator of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (by far the most famous translation ever made from Persian verse into English), as well as Jāmī’s Salāmān o Absāl and ʿAṭṭār’s Manṭeq al-ṭayr.

    (Dick Davis)

  • FLAGS

    This article is meant to supplement earlier entries on Iranian vexillology (see ʿALAM VA ʿALĀMAT, BANNERS, and DERAFŠ).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FLAGS i. Of Persia

    The earliest-known representation of lion and sun as a banner device is a miniature painting illustrating a copy, dated 1423, of the Šāh-nāma of Šams-al-Dīn Kāšānī—an epic composition on the Mongol conquest. A similar early depiction is on a large, double-paged miniature dated ca. 1460.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

    Nāder Shah’s (1929-33) policy of moderate reforms was reflected in the flag he reportedly used when he seized power—the tricolor flag introduced by Amān-Allāh; it was soon modified as a bound sheaf of wheat circling a stylized mosque, which recalls the mausoleum of Aḥmad Shah Dorrānī.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

    On 28 April 1929, the constitution of the Tajik ASSR adopted a state arms and flag. The arms consisted of a hammer (bālḡa) and local sickle (dās) symbol against a star, which depicts a blue sky brightened by golden rays of sun rising above snowy mountains. The star is encircled on each side by wreaths of wheat and cotton.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • FLANDIN AND COSTE

    Eugène Flandin was the son of Jean-Baptiste Flandin, an intendant in Napoléon’s armies. Little is known about his mother Marie-Agnès Durand. Eugène’s early years were linked with his father’s tumultuous career. He was only two years old when his family returned from Naples, where his father had been assigned since 1807, serving with Murat.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • FLANDIN, Eugène Napoléon Jean-Baptiste

    (1809-1889), French orientalist, painter, archeologist, and politician, famous for the illustrated account of his travels in Persia. See FLANDIN AND COSTE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FLOODS

    (sayl, sayl-āb) in Persia. i. Geographical survey. ii. Historical survey. Surplus or deficit of water, mainly caused by Persia’s topography, undergoes seasonal variations with decisively stronger precipitation during the winter months, which explains why floods occur predominantly during these periods.

    (Eckart Ehlers, Charles Melville)

  • FLORA

    i. Historical Background. ii. In Persia. iii. In Afghanistan

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FLORA i. Historical Background

    The indigenous knowledge of plants in Persia had a long standing tradition before the country’s flora was explored by Europeans, who were eventually joined in modern scientific botany by Persian botanists.

    (Karl Hummel)

  • FLORA ii. IN PERSIA

    With approximately six thousand recorded species of ferns and flowering plants, Persia harbors one of the richest floras of the Near Eastern countries, ranging from subtropical forests to dry-adapted woodlands, dwarf shrubs and thorn cushion formations, and semidesert shrublands.

    (Wolfgang Frey, Harald Kürschner, Wilfried Probst)

  • FLORA iii. In Afghanistan

    See AFGHANISTAN ii. Flora.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FLORA IRANICA

    a monumental work on the plants of Persia. Edited by Karl Heinz Rechinger of Vienna since 1963, Flora Iranica now consists of some 172 fascicles and is nearly complete. Only two spermatophyte families, the Cyperaceae and the Rubiaceae, are as yet lacking

    (Wolfgang Frey)

  • FLORENCE Š̄ĀH-NĀMA

    See ŠAH-NĀMA MANUSCRIPTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FLOWERS

    See GOL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FLOYER, ERNEST AYSCOGHE

    Floyer became the first station chief at Jāsk in 1870, although he was only seventeen, and served until 1877. Goldsmid encouraged his station and substation staff to explore their surroundings, and Floyer was one of those who responded, taking a long leave of absence in 1876-77.

    (Josef Elfenbein)

  • FLÜGEL, GUSTAV LEBERECHT

    (b. 18 February 1802, Bautzen; d. 5 July 1870, Dresden), German orientalist.

    (Gerd Gropp)

  • FLURY, SAMUEL

    (1874-1935) pioneer of Islamic paleographical studies. Although Flury was primarily interested in problems of the development of Kufic script, much of his specific research was focused on monuments in Persia.

    (Jens Kröger)

  • FOʾĀDI BOŠRUʾI, ḤASAN

    (1899-1936), historian, philologist, educator, and head of Bahai schools in Iran and Turkmenistan.

    (Fereydun Vahman)

  • FOḠĀN

    See AŠRAF-ʿALĪ KHAN FOḠĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FŌLĀDĪ

    Buddhist cave site in Afghanistan. See AFGHANISTAN viii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FOLK POETRY

    in Iranian languages. The term ‘folk poetry’ can be properly used for texts which have some characteristics marking them as poetry and belong to the tradition of the common people, as against the dominant ‘polite’ literary cult

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES

    aims to provide a summary of folklore studies made in or about the Iranian world. It encompasses a wide field of varying notions, ranging from popular beliefs and customs to myths, legends and other genres of oral literature.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES i. OF PERSIA

    The term folklore denotes, in a very broad sense, the traditional cultural expression of any notable group of people, not necessarily belonging to a specific social stratum.

    (Ulrich Marzolph)

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES ii. OF AFGHANISTAN

    Folklore may be defined as roughly comprising the oral-traditional component of culture, complementary or competitive with an official, canonical “written” culture, but this definition presents certain problems.

    (Margaret A. Mills and Abdul Ali Ahrary)

  • FOLŪS

    See CASSIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FONDOQESTĀN

    (FONDUKISTAN), early medieval settlement and Buddhist monastery in Afghanistan, in the province of Parvān (Parwan). The site is usually dated to the 7th century CE on the evidence of artistic style and numismatic finds, the oldest of which is from 689 C.E. However, the shape and the decorations of the stupa suggest that the complex can be even earlier.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • FOOD

    See COOKING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FOOTBALL

    (soccer). The game of football was introduced to Persia in the first two decades of the 20th century by British residents and American missionaries.

    (Houchang E. Chehabi)

  • FOQAHA

    plural of faqih “Islamic jurist.” See FEQH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FOQQĀʿ

    Early dictionaries describe foqqāʿ as a kind of barley wine or beer, but the semantic range later expanded to include juices from dried raisins, fruits, honey, and other ingredients.Both Persian and Arabic literature abound with references to foqqāʿ.

    (Sayyed Mohammad Dabirsiaghi)

  • FORĀT

    See EUPHRATES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FORĀT B. EBRĀHĪM KUFI

    Shiʿite(most probably Imami) Koran commentator and Hadith scholar. The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but the time he flourished can be estimated by the dates of the scholars whom he quoted or who transmitted Hadith on his authority.

    (Meir M. Bar-Asher)

  • FORĀT MAYSĀN

    See BAHMAN ARDAŠĪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FOREIGN AFFAIRS

    administration and ministry of foreign affairs.

    (Willem Floor)

  • FOREIGN EXCHANGE

    See ECONOMY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FOREIGN POLICY

    See FOREIGN AFFAIRS; ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS; ANGLO-PERSIAN AGREEMENT of 1919; ANGLO-PERSIAN WAR; ANGLO-RUSSIAN CONVENTION of 1907; and under individual countries and treaties.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY

    i. Forests and Forestry in Persia. ii. Forests and Forestry in Afghanistan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY i. In Persia

    Less than 2 percent of Persia is covered by forests, while another 8 to 9 percent may be regarded as depleted former forest areas. Altogether, 150-160,000 km² are, or have been, densely forested areas.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY ii. In Afghanistan

    See AFGHANISTAN xiii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FORGERIES

    of art objects and manuscripts. i. Introduction. ii. Of Pre-Islamic Art Objects. iii. Of Islamic Art. iv. Of Manuscripts.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FORGERIES i. INTRODUCTION

    Early in the Islamic era, Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī described in his al-Aṯār al-bāqīa how emergent Islamic rulers of Persia had forged their lineage and invented connections with previous dynasties in order to affirm their own legitimacy.

    (Abolala Soudavar)

  • FORGERIES ii. OF PRE-ISLAMIC ART OBJECTS

    Two kinds of forgeries affect the study of ancient Iranian artifacts: the modern creation of an object falsely presented as an ancient artifact, and the assertion that an unexcavated object comes from a specifically named site, thereby effectively forging its provenience.

    (Oscar White Muscarella)

  • FORGERIES iii. OF ISLAMIC ART

    Medieval Arabic and Persian literature contain numerous anecdotes about the forging of manuscripts, but it was only in the late 19th century that forging Persian works of Islamic art became a widespread phenomenon.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • FORGERIES iv. OF ISLAMIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Manuscripts in Arabic script have been forged or tampered with to enhance the value of a manuscript and to prove its antiquity.

    (Francis Richard)

  • FORṢAT-AL-DAWLA

    (1854-1920), pen name of the poet, scholar, and artist Mīrzā Moḥammad-Naṣīr Ḥosaynī Šīrāzī. In 1908 he was appointed the first director of the Shiraz branch of the Department of Education. In Fārs he arranged for the establishment of modern schools and for the education of tribal children.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • FORSTER, GEORGE

    (1752-91), an East India Company civil servant, traveller, writer, and diplomatist.

    (Michael J. Franklin)

  • FORTIFICATIONS

    The present article deals with the fortified passages and defenses that are implied under the term bārū. Certain passes in Persia still feature barriers going back to the Achaemenid period.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • FORTRESSES

    See CASTLES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FORŪD (1)

    (lit. descent; Forūvard in Bukharian tradition, Ayaq in Azeri moqām), general designation of the concluding motif of a melodic sequence in Persian music.

    (Jean During)

  • FORŪD (2)

    or Ferōd; son of Sīāvaḵš and half brother of Kay Ḵosrow.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • FORŪḠĪ, ABU'L-ḤASAN

    (b. Isfahan, 1884; d. Tehran, 1960), educator and author.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • FORŪḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ ḎOKĀʾ-AL-MOLK

    (1877-1942), statesman, scholar, and man of letters. Forūḡī’s personal integrity and honesty have rarely been disputed, even by his critics. Others have blamed him for helping to bring about Reżā Shah’s regime and continuing to serve it despite its blatant misdeeds.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi, Iraj Afshar)

  • FORŪḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN Khan Ḏokāʾ-al-Molk

    (b. Isfahan, 1839; d. Tehran, 1907), poet, journalist, literateur, translator, and author.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • FORŪḠĪ, MOḤSEN

    (1907-1983), pioneer of modern architecture in Persia, an influential professor of architecture at the University of Tehran, and a noted collector of Persian art. He was imprisoned in 1979 after the revolution, and his art collection was placed in the Archaeological Museum, Tehran.

    (Mina Marefat and EIr, Richard N. Frye)

  • FORŪḠĪ BESṬĀMĪ, ʿABBĀS

    or BASṬĀMĪ (b. Karbalā, 1798; d. Tehran, 1857), 19th-century poet.

    (Heshmat Moayyad)

  • FORUTAN, ʿALI-AKBAR

    In Ashkhabad, Forutan had the opportunity to study under the Bahai scholar, Mirzā Mahdi Golpāygāni, and at his bidding gave lectures at Bahai meetings and wrote articles for the Bahai magazines Fekr-e-javān and Ḵoršid-e ḵāvar. When he was in secondary school, Forutan served as a member of the Bahai Youth Committee in Ashkhabad.

    (Iraj Ayman)

  • FORUTAN, YŪSOF

    a twentieth century master of Persian music.

    (Jean During)

  • FORUZĀNFAR, Badiʿ-al-Zamān

    (1903-1970) Persian literary scholar and critic, professor at the University of Tehran, one of the pioneers of literary studies in modern Persia. A significant part of Forūzānfar’s scholarship was devoted to Rūmī and his associates; other works cover Islamic mysticism and philosophy.

    (Abd-al-Hosayn Zarrinkub)

  • FOTOWWA

    See JAVĀNMARDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FOTŪḤ AL-SALĀṮĪN

    Work by Indo-Muslim poet ʿAbd-al-Malek ʿEṣāmi. See ʿEṢAMI, ʿABD-AL-MALEK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FOUCHER, ALFRED

    (1865-1952), the first head of the French Archaeological Mission in Afghanistan (see DÉLÉGATIONS ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES, ii.) and a noted scholar on Grœco-Buddhist art.

    (François de Blois)

  • FOUNDATIONS

    See under individual entries, such as BONYĀD-E FARHANG-E ĪRĀN; BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD; BONYĀD-E ŠĀH-NĀMA-YE FERDOWSĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FOWAṬĪ, HEŠĀM

    b. ʿAMR (d. Baghdad, ca. 845), Muʿtazilite theologian of Basran affiliation and student of Abu’l-Hoḏayl.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • FOX i. NATURAL HISTORY

    small member of the dog family (Canidae). They occur throughout most of the world, with four species in Iran and Afghanistan, i. NATURAL HISTORY.

    (Steven C. Anderson)

  • FOX ii. IN PERSIA

    In pre-Islamic Iran, the fox was considered as one of the ten varieties of dog, created against a demon called xabag dēw. In Islam, although consuming fox flesh is forbidden by most schools of law, medicinal use of various parts of the fox’s body is allowed for treatment of a variety of conditions.

    (Mahmoud and Teresa Omidsalar)

  • FOŻŪLĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    b. Solaymān (ca. 1480-1556), widely regarded as the greatest lyric poet in Azerbayjani Turkish, who also wrote extensively in Arabic and Persian.

    (Eir)

  • FRĀDA

    a sixth century Margian leader.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • FRAHANG Ī OĪM

    an Avestan-Pahlavi glossary so named after its first entry, Av. oīm glossed by Pahl. ēwag, though the work is introduced with the lengthy title: “On the understanding of the speech and words of the Avesta, namely, what and how its zand is.”

    (William W. Malandra)

  • FRAHANG Ī PAHLAWĪG

    lit. “a Pahlavi dictionary,” is rather a description than the title of an anonymous glossary of some five hundred mostly Aramaic heterograms (ideograms), in the form used by Zoroastrians in writing Middle Persian (Book Pahlavi), each explained by a “phonetic” writing of the corresponding Persian word.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • FRAMADĀR

    or FRAMĀTĀR; a Sasanian administrative title.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • FRANCE

    Relations with Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FRANCE i. Introduction

    Compared to the long-standing history of Persian civilization, France emerged as a powerful entity endowed with its own distinctive culture only in the 13th century C.E., i.e. the great century of Christianity.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • FRANCE ii. RELATIONS WITH PERSIA TO 1789

    In the early Middle Ages, Persia was perceived by the French mostly through biblical, Greek, and Latin sources.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • FRANCE iii. RELATIONS WITH PERSIA 1789-1918

    After more than sixty years of half-hearted diplomatic maneuverings, permanent relations were finally established between the France and Persia in 1855.

    (Florence Hellot-Bellier)

  • FRANCE iv. RELATIONS WITH PERSIA SINCE 1918

    During the First World War, France, unlike England, Russia, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire, had no direct strategic interests in Persia.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • FRANCE v. ADMINISTRATIVE AND MILITARY CONTACTS WITH PERSIA

    The motives for Franco-Persian administrative and military contacts between the French Revolution of 1789 and the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, their implementation and their impact on Persia will be examined here.

    (Massoud Farnoud)

  • FRANCE vi. PERSIA AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

    Persians saw the French Revolution as sedition (fetna), corruption (fesād), a general disturbance by the populace (balwā-ye ʿāmm), insurrection (šūreš), the great revolution (enqelāb-e ʿaẓīm), and the great revolution (enqelāb-e kabīr).

    (Mohammad Tavakoli-Targhi)

  • FRANCE vii. FRENCH TRAVELERS IN PERSIA, 1600-1730

    vii. FRENCH TRAVELERS IN PERSIA, 1600-1730 The Diplomatic context and the French presence.

    (Anne-Marie Touzard)

  • FRANCE viii. TRAVELOGUES OF THE 18TH-20TH CENTURIES

    On the reign of Nāder Shah (1736-1747), accounts by missionaries, notably those by the Jesuit Père Louis Bazin, chief physician to Nāder Shah from 1746 until the latter’s assassination, form useful complements to the Persian sources.

    (Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam)

  • FRANCE ix. IMAGE OF PERSIA AND PERSIAN LITERATURE AMONG FRENCH AUTHORS

    France used Persia as a means of social, political, and religious self-criticism, and they were interested in Zoroastrianism as “the most ancient religion."

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • FRANCE x. FRENCH LITERATURE IN PERSIA

    The new trends in Persian literature in the beginning of the 20th century are closely related to social and political changes which began in Persia under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96), and brought about the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11.

    (Christophe Balay)

  • FRANCE xi. PERSIAN ART AND ART COLLECTIONS IN FRANCE

    French collections, both public and private, contain hundreds of Persian works of art. Some of these reached France during the Middle Ages, notably after the Crusades, but most of the great collections containing Persian art were created during the second half of the 19th century.

    (Yves Porter)

  • FRANCE xii(a). IRANIAN STUDIES IN FRANCE: OVERVIEW

    The genuine beginning of Persian studies in France began with the foundation in Istanbul and Smyrna (Izmir) of a “School of languages for the young” in 1669 to train translators of Ottoman Turkish for French consulates.

    (Vincent Hachard and Bernard Hourcade)

  • FRANCE xii(b). IRANIAN STUDIES IN FRANCE: PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    The French contribution to pre-Islamic Iranian studies, both in philological studies and archeology, has been considerable.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • FRANCE xii(c). IRANIAN STUDIES IN FRANCE: SOCIAL SCIENCES AND MODERN PERSIA

    The history of French scholarship on modern Persia particularly in the field of social sciences was shaped by major external factors including the overall political relationship between the two countries and the radical changes which took place in the French university system and the organization of its scholarly missions to Persia in the latter half of this century.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • FRANCE xiii. INSTITUT FRANÇAIS DE RECHERCHE EN IRAN

    The Institut français de recherche en Iran (IFRI) was established in its present form and under the above name in l983, although in Persia it is usually referred to as Anjoman-e īrān-šenāsī-e farānsa dar Īrān.

    (R. Boucharlat)

  • FRANCE xiv. FRENCH ARCHAEOLOGICAL MISSION

    See DÉLÉGATIONS ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRANCE xv. FRENCH SCHOOLS IN PERSIA

    French schools in Persia had more varied roots than other foreign schools, originating from three distinct sources: Catholic, Jewish, and secular. Catholic schools were established by Lazarist missionaries, Jewish schools by the Alliance Israélite Universelle, and lay schools by Alliance Française.

    (Djavad Hadidi)

  • FRANCE xvi. LOANWORDS IN PERSIAN

    The gradual entry of a large number of loan words into Persian from European languages and most notably from French began in the 19th century and continued through the 20th century as part of the process of modernization of culture and society in Persia.

    (Guitty Deyhime)

  • FRANCE xvii. Persian Community in France

    The emergence of a Persian community in France can perhaps be traced back to 1272/1855-6, when Farrok Khan Ḡaffārī, Amīn-al-Molk, later Amīn-al-Dawla was sent to Paris as the shah’s envoy (īlcī-e kabīr).

    (Vida Nassehi-Behnam)

  • FRANKLIN BOOK PROGRAM

    (Moʾassasa-ye entešārāt-e Ferānklīn), an American non-profit corporation seeking to aid development of indigenous book publishing in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The program in Persia (1954-1979, the first after Egypt) was the largest of the seventeen around the world.

    (Datus C. Smith, Jr.)

  • FRANRASYAN

    See AFRĀSĪĀB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRĀRĀST

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRAŠEGERD

    See FRAŠŌ.KƎRƎTI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRASER JAMES BAILLIE

    (1783-1856), 15th laird of Reelig, traveler, writer, and artist.

    (Denis Wright)

  • FRAŠŌ.KƎRƎTI

    an eschatological term referring to the final renovation and transfiguration of Ahura Mazdā’s creation after evil has been utterly defeated and driven away.

    (Almut Hintze)

  • FRAŠOŠTAR

    See JĀMĀSP.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRATARAKA

    lit. “leader, governor, forerunner”; ancient Persian title.

    (Josef Wiesehöfer)

  • FRAVARTISH

    Median rebel against Darius I. See PHRAORTES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRAVAŠI

    the Avestan word for a powerful supernatural being whose concept at an early stage in Zoroastrianism became blended with that of the urvan (the human soul).

    (Mary Boyce)

  • FRAWĀG

    See SĪĀMAG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRAWAHR

    See FRAVAŠI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRAWARDĪGĀN

    name of the ten-day Zoroastrian festival (gāhānbār) at year’s end in honor of the spirits of the dead.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • FRAWARDĪN

    name of the nineteenth day of a month and also the name of the first month of the year in the Zoroastrian calendar. See CALENDARS i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRAWARDĪN YAŠT

    the thirteenth of the Zoroastrian yašt hymns, devoted to the fravašis.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • FRĀXKARD

    name of the cosmic ocean in Iranian mythology.

    (Ahmad Tafazzoli)

  • FREE VERSE

    in Persian poetry. The term šeʿr-e āzād, Persian for the French vers libre and English free verse, entered Persia in the 1940s and immediately began to be used in a variety of senses and applied to diverse subspecies of the emerging canon of šeʿr-e now (new poetry), especially to highlight those features in which this body of poetry was felt to differ from classical Persian poetry and the contemporary practice modeled after it.

    (Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak)

  • FREE WILL

    i. IN TWELVER SHI'ISM, ii. IN ISMA'ILI SHI'ISM.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FREEMASONRY

    This famous fraternal order, bound by rituals and secret oaths, was introduced to Persia and adopted by Persian notables in the 19th century. It developed in the early 20th century and burgeoned in the period from 1950-78. Its practice still continues among some middle- and upper-class Persians in exile at the turn of the 21st century. The topic will be treated in five entries.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • FREEMASONRY i. INTRODUCTION

    The principal officers of the Lodge are the Worshipful Master and the Senior and Junior Wardens. The Worshipful Master is the head and chief of the Lodge, the source of light, of knowledge, and instruction. Dressed formally on a high pedestal, he presides over the formal Masonic sessions.

    (Hasan Azinfar, M.-T. Eskandari, and Edward Joseph)

  • FREEMASONRY ii. In the Qajar Period

    Persians made their first acquaintance with Freemasonry outside Persia, in India, and more importantly in Europe, and it was not until the first decade of the 20th century that a lodge regularly affiliated to one of the recognized European obediences appeared in the country.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • FREEMASONRY iii. In the Pahlavi Period

    There were three distinct phases: (1) dormancy, from 1925-1950 under Reżā Shah and for the decade following his abdication in 1941; (2) revival, and the creation of the Lodge Pahlavi; (3) burgeoning, in the period of 1955-78, when dozens of regular lodges were chartered.

    (EIr)

  • FREEMASONRY iv. The 1979 Revolution

    From the onset of the 1978-79 revolutionary upheavals the Persian Freemasons became vulnerable to the anti-Masonic sentiments and threats of the main participants in the revolutionary coalition, including Islamic Fundamentalists, Leftist organizations, and Liberal-Nationalist forces.

    (EIr)

  • FREEMASONRY v. In Exile

    Many master Masons managed to leave the country legally or illegally and emigrated to Europe, Canada, and the United States.

    (Hasan Azinfar, M.-T. Eskandari, and Edward Joseph)

  • FREĬMAN, Aleksandr Arnol’dovich

    (1879-1968), founder and the head of the Soviet school of the comparative-historical method in Iranian linguistics. For sixty years, Freĭman worked in various areas of Iranian languages. His work on Sogdian, Chorasmian, and Ossetic is especially important.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • FRENCH REVOLUTION

    and Persia. See FRANCE ii and FRANCE iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRIDAY PRAYERS

    leader of the congregational prayer performed at midday on Fridays. See EMĀM-E JOMʿA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRIT WARES

    See CERAMICS xiv.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FROGS

    See AMPHIBIANS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRONTIERS

    See BOUNDARIES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FRUIT

    (mīva). Jean Chardin (1643-1713) reported (p. 24) that “in Persia there were all the same kinds of fruit as in Europe and many others, all incomparatively delicious.” He noted the great variety of melons, cucumbers, grapes, dates, apricots, pomegranates, apples, pears, oranges, quinces, prunes, figs, pistachios, almonds, walnuts, filberts, and olives.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • FRYER, JOHN

    (b. ca. 1650; d. 1733), British travel-writer and doctor. His writings display a lively curiosity, which, sharpened by his scientific training, produces accurate observations in geology, meteorology, and all aspects of natural history.

    (Michael J. Franklin)

  • FŪLĀD-ZEREH

    lit. “[possessing] steel armor,” the name of a hideous demon in the story of Amīr Arsalān.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • FŪMAN

    town and district in western Gīlān, 21 km west-southwest of Rašt, on the left bank of Gāzrūdbār river. An important town in medieval times, Fūman is again a commercial and administrative center, with a very active Tuesday market and a large tea-processing factory.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • FŪMANĪ, ʿABD-AL-FATTĀḤ

    author of the Tārīḵ-e Gīlān, a local history of Gīlān covering the years 1517-1628.

    (Sholeh Quinn)

  • FUMITORY

    or šāhtara; term used for two species of plants of the genus Fumaria in Persia, Fumaria officinalis and Fumaria parviflora.

    (M. H. Bokhari and W. Frey)

  • FUNERAL CUSTOMS

    See BURIAL; CORPSE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • FŪŠANJ

    a town of medieval eastern Khorasan, situated just to the south of the Harīrūd River, and variously described in the sources as being between six and ten farsaḵs to the west-southwest of Herat.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • FŪŠANJĪ HERAVĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ,

    (correctly BŪŠANJĪ) b. Aḥmad b. Sahl (d. 958/959), an important exponent of the fetyān (javān-mardān) of Khorasan.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • Fadāye Roḳsār - Dekr Qāderieh

    (music sample)

  • Falak-e Matam

    (music sample)

  • F~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter F entries.

    (DATA)

  • GABAE

    the name of two places in Persia and Sogdiana.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GABAIN, ANNEMARIE VON

    Von Gabain was particularly interested in the question of the extent to which the religious ideas of the Central Asian peoples had been influenced by Zoroastrianism or other Iranian beliefs, and this perspective is reflected in several of her publications.

    (Peter Zieme)

  • GABBA

    a hand-woven pile rug of coarse quality and medium size (90 × 150 cm or larger) characterized by an abstract design that relies upon open fields of color and a playfulness with geometry. This kind of rug is common among the tribes of the Zagros (Kurdish, Lori-speaking ethnic groups, Qašqāʾīs).

    (Jean-Pierre Digard and Carol Bier)

  • GABR

    a New Persian term used from the earliest period as a technical term synonymous with mōḡ (magus). With the dwindling of the Zoroastrian community, the term came to have a pejorative implication.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • GABRA

    See GŌR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GABRI WARE

    See CERAMICS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GABRIEL, ALFONS

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GABRIELI, FRANCESCO

    The significance of Gabrieli’s contribution was widely recognized. He was a national member of Accademia dei Lincei since 1957 and served as its president in the years 1985-88; from 1968 to 1977 he was president of Istituto per l’Oriente.

    (Giuliano Lancioni)

  • GAČ

    See GYPSUM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAČ-BORĪ

    plasterwork or stucco. Gypsum plaster has been used as a building material in Persia for more than 2,500 years. Originally it may have been applied as a rendering to mud brick walls to protect them from the weather, but it was soon exploited for its decorative effects.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • GAČSAR

    a village in the Karaj district, situated at an altitude of 2,210 m at 110 km northwest of Tehran and 7 km south of the Kandavān Tunnel on the main road to the Caspian coast.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • GAČSĀRĀN

    town and oilfield in the province of Ḵūzestān, southwestern Persia.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • GADĀʾĪ

    See BEGGING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GÄDIATỊ (SEḰAYỊ FỊRT) COMAQ

    (1883-1931), Ossetic writer.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • ḠADĪR ḴOMM

    lit. “pool of Ḵomm”; the name of a pool near a small oasis along the caravan route between the cities of Mecca and Medina, near an area currently known as Joḥfa.

    (Maria Dakake and Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi)

  • GADŌTU

    a demon. See UDA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    See ABU ’L- ḤASAN KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, FARROḴ KHAN

    See AMĪN -AL- DAWLA , ABŪ ṬĀLEB FARROḴ KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    Following in the footsteps of his father, he began his career as one of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s personal pages. He had already received the title amīn(-e) ḵalwat when he accompanied the shah on his second journey to Khorasan in 1883. His promotion to the position of chief musketeer