List of Articles

  • DA AFḠĀNESTĀN TĀRĪḴ ṬŌLANA

    See Anjoman-e Tāriḵ-e Afḡānestān.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀ O DOḴTAR

    (lit. “Mother and daughter”), an important rock-cut tomb, probably of the early Hellenistic period, at the northwestern corner of the Mamasanī region of Fārs. Among all the rock-cut tombs of the former territory of Media and of Fārs, it most closely resembles the royal Achaemenid tombs.

    (Hubertus Von Gall)

  • DABBĀḠĪ

    tanning, the process by which animal skins are made into leather.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • DABESTĀN

    (elementary school). See EDUCATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DABESTĀN JOURNAL

    (“school”), Persian monthly cultural journal published in Mašhad, 1922-27.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DABESTĀN-E MAḎĀHEB

    (school of religious doctrines), an important text of the Āḏar Kayvānī pseudo-Zoroastrian sect, written between 1645 and 1658.

    (Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabāʾī)

  • DABĪR

    "secretary, scribe." i. In the pre-Islamic period. ii. In the Islamic period.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī, Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • DABĪR-E AʿẒAM

    See BAHRAMĪ, FARAJ-ALLĀH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DABĪR-AL-MOLK FARĀHĀNĪ

    or Mīrzā Moḥammad-Ḥosayn (1810-80), director of the private royal secretariat under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah.

    (Guity Nashat)

  • DABĪRE, DABĪRĪ

    a term designating the “seven scripts” supposedly used in the Sasanian period.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DABĪRESTĀN

    secondary school. See EDUCA­TION x. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DABĪRESTĀN-E NEẒĀM

    military secondary school. See pending entry MILITARY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀBŪYA DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E DĀBŪYA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DABUYIDS

    the dynasty of espahbads ruling Ṭabarestān until its conquest by the Muslims in 144/761.

    (Wilfred Madelung)

  • DĀD (1)

    (Av. dāta- “law, right, rule, regulation, statute, command, institution, decision”), in the Zoroastrian tradition the most general term for law.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DĀD (2)

    a vocal and instrumental gūša (motif), in reality more of a melodic type than a modal structure.

    (Jean During)

  • DĀD (3)

    (lit., “justice”), a Tehran afternoon newspaper, 1942-61.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DĀD NASK

    (law book), one of the three divisions of the Avesta, comprising seven nasks, subdi­vided into the five strictly legal (dādīg) nasks (Nikātum, Duzd-sar-nizad, Huspāram, Sakātum, and Vidēvdād) and the two disparate nasks, Čihrdād and Bagān Yašt.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DADA ʿOMAR ROŠENĪ

    cofounder of the Ḵalwatī Sufi order. See DEDE ÖMER RUŞENĪ

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DADARSIS

    Old Persian name derived from darš “to dare”; three men with this name are known.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • DADESTAN

    (dād “law,” with the formative suffix -stān), a Middle Persian term used with denota­tions and connotations that vary with the legal, reli­gious, philosophical, and social context.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DĀDESTĀN Ī DĒNĪG

    (Religious judgements), Pahlavi work by Manūščihr, high priest of the Persian Zoroastrian community in the 9th century.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DADESTAN Ī MENOG Ī XRAD

    (Judgments of the Spirit of Wisdom), a Zoroastrian Pahlavi book in sixty-three chapters (a preamble and sixty-two ques­tions and answers).

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DĀDGĀH "COURT"

    court of law. See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTURY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀDGĀH "TEMPLE FIRE"

    See ĀTAŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀDGAR, ḤOSAYN

    ʿAdl-al-Molk (b. Tehran ca. 1299/1881, d. 1349 Š./1970), at various times president of the Persian Majles, cabi­net minister, and senator under the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • DĀDGOSTARĪ, WEZĀRAT-E

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀDĪŠOʿ

    (Syr. “beloved of Jesus”; Payne Smith, col. 824, s.v.; Pers. “given by Jesus”), catholicus of the Sasanian “Nestorian” church in 420/21-455/56.

    (Erica C. D. Hunter)

  • DĀDIŠOʿ

    (d. ca. 604), head of the Great monastery on Mount Izla in Ṭur ʿAbdin, north of Nisibis. He completed the monastic reform (6th-7th century) with his own rules, reinforcing the cenobitic way of life.

    (Florence Jullien)

  • DADISOʿ QATRAYA

    (late 7th century), Nestorian author of ascetic literature in Syriac. Pre­sumably a native of Qaṭar, as his surname suggests, he lived for a time at the monastery of Rabban Šābūr, near Šostar in Ḵūzestān. His writings included commentaries on the Paradise of the Fathers and on the 26 “discourses” of Abbā Isaiah; fragments of the latter are found in Sogdian translation.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • DĀḎMEHR b. FARROḴĀN

    espahbad of Ṭabarestān. See Dabuyids.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DADWAR, DADWARIH

    respectively judge, administrator of justice, lawgiver, lit., “bearer of law.”

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DADYSETH, Dadibhai Noshirwanji

    (1734-99), a distinguished Parsi philanthropist.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal)

  • DADYSETH AGIARY

    in 1771 C.E. Dadibhai Noshirwanji Dadyseth established an agiary with an Ādarān fire for the sake of the soul of his first wife, Kunverbai, in the Fort district of Bombay.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal)

  • DADYSETH ATAS BAHRAM

    the oldest Ātaš Bahrām of Bombay, consecrated and installed according to Kadmi rites in the district of Fanaswadi on the day of Sarōš, month of Farvardīn 1153 A.Y./29 September 1783.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal)

  • DAĒNA

    See DĒN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAF(F) AND DAYERA

    terms applied to types of frame drum common in both the art music and popular traditions of Persia. Such drums have long been known throughout Asia in various forms and under different names. The term dāyera originally referred to the flat, circular drums of pre-­Islamic Arabia.

    (Jean During, Veronica Doubleday)

  • DAFTAR

    an administrative office, as well as a notebook or booklet, more especially an account book or correspondence regis­ter, used in such an office.

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • DAFTAR-E ASNĀD-E RASMĪ

    (Registry of official documents), a government department where documents and records of transactions, contracts, marriages, divorces, and the like are kept and signa­tures verified.

    (Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī)

  • DAFTAR-ḴĀNA-YE HOMĀYŪN

    royal sec­retariat; a Safavid administrative unit headed by the daftardār, or chief secretary.

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • DĀḠ

    “brand.” According to Rašīd-al-Dīn Fażl-Allāh, “The tamḡā was a special emblem or mark that the Turkish and Mongol peoples stamped on decrees and also branded on their flocks.” Each of the twenty-four tribes of the Oḡuz Turkmen had its own tamḡā, with which it branded its flocks.

    (Ṣādeq Sajjādī)

  • DĀḠESTĀN

    (Daghestan). The many-faceted relationship between Dāḡestān (ancient Albania), a region in the eastern Caucasus, and Persia since antiquity has yet to be studied as a whole, though there is considerable historical, linguis­tic, folkloric, literary, and art-historical evidence bear­ing on it.

    (Gadzhi Gamzatovich Gamzatov, Fridrik Thordarson)

  • DĀḠESTĀNĪ, FATḤ ʿALĪ KHAN

    b. Alqāṣ Mīrzā b. Ildirim Khan Šamḵāl, grand vizier (wazīr-e aʿẓam, eʿtemād-al-dawla) under Shah Solṭān-Ḥosayn I Ṣafawī (1105-35/1694-1722).

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • DAGH BARY

    part of the defensive system in the eastern Caucasus constructed during the reign of Ḵosrow I (r. 531-79).

    (Murtazali Gadjiev)

  • DAGUERREOTYPE

    the first practical photo­graphic process, introduced into Persia in the early 1840s, shortly after its official presentation to the French Académie de Science in Paris in 1839. Acceptance of the medium of photography in Persia reflected the cultural value attached to painting in general and portraiture in particular.

    (Chahryar Adle)

  • ḎAHABĪYA

    a Sufi order of Shiʿite allegiance, ultimately derived from the Kobrawīya order.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DAHAE

    i. The name. ii. The people.

    (François de Blois, Willem Vogelsang)

  • DAHAN-E ḠOLĀMĀN

    “Gateway of the slaves,” site ca. 30 km southeast of Zābol in Sīstān. It is the sole large provincial capital surviving from the Achaemenid empire; excavations there have brought to light a combination of “imperial” elements, identified in the public buildings, and local elements.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • DAHBĪDĪYA

    a hereditary line of Naqšbandī Sufis centered on the shrine at Dahbīd, a village about 11 km. from Samarqand.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DAHM YAZAD

    the Middle Persian name of the Zoroastrian divinity (also known as Dahmān Āfrīn and Dahmān) who is the spirit or force inherent in the Avestan benediction called Dahma Vaŋuhi Āfriti, or Dahma Āfriti.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • DAHRĪ

    (< Ar.-Pers. dahr “time, eternity”), a theological term referring either to an atheist or to an adherent of the doctrine that the universe had no beginning in time.

    (Mansour Shaki, Daniel Gimaret)

  • DAHYU

    country (often with reference to the people inhabiting it).

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • DAʿĪ

    he who summons; a term used by several Muslim groups, especially the Ismaʿilis, to designate their propagandists or missionaries.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • DĀʿĪ

    the pen name of Aḥmad b. Ebrāhīm b. Moḥammad, Turkish scholar and poet who wrote in both Persian and Turkish.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • DĀʿĪ BOḴĀRĪ

    (d. 1885), poet from Bukhara, probably born during the reign of Amir Naṣr-Allāh (1827-60).

    (Cathérine Poujol)

  • DĀʿĪ-AL-ESLĀM, SAYYED MOḤAMMAD ʿALĪ

    Per­sian scholar, preacher, and lexicographer, born 1295/1878 at Lārījān.

    (M. Saleem Akhtar)

  • DĀʿĪ ELAʾL-ḤAQQ, ABŪ ʿABD ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    b. Zayd b. Moḥammad b. Esmāʿīl b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb (d. 287/900), brother and successor of Ḥasan b. Zayd, founder of Zaydī rule in Rūyān and Ṭabarestān.

    (Wilfred Madelung)

  • DĀʿĪ JĀN NĀPELʾON

    lit., “Uncle Napoleon”, a satirical novel written in 1348-49 Š./1969-70 by Īraj Pezeškzād, who was already known in Persia for writing such satirical novels.

    (Nasrin Rahimiyeh)

  • DĀʿĪ-E KABĪR

    See ḤASAN b. ZAYD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀʿĪ-E ṢAḠĪR

    See ḤASAN b. QĀSEM ʿALAWĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀʿĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    (1407-65), poet, preacher, and leader of the Neʿmat-Allāhī Sufi order in Fārs.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • DĀITYĀ, VAŊHVĪ

    the name of a river connected with the religious law, frequently identified in scholarly literature with the Oxus or with rivers of the northeastern region.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • DAIUKKU

    See DEIOCES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • *DAIVA

    Old Iranian noun (Av. daēuua-, OPers. daiva-) corresponding to the title devá;- of the Indian gods and thus reflecting the Indo-European heritage (*deiu̯ó;-).

    (Clarisse Herrenschmidt and Jean Kelllens)

  • DAIVADANA

    lit., "temple of the daivas," Old Persian term that appears in the “daiva inscrip­tion” of Xerxes at Persepolis.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • DAJJĀL

    lit. "the great deceiver"; in Islamic tradition the maleficent figure gifted with supernatural powers whose advent and brief, though quasi-universal, rule will be among the signs heralding the approach of the resurrection.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ḎAKAʾ-AL-MOLK

    See FORŪḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ; FORŪḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAKANĪ, SAYYED MĪR ʿABD AL ḤAMĪD MAʿṢŪM ʿALISĀH

    (ca. 1738-97), the “renewer” (mojadded) of the Neʿmat-Allāhī Sufi order in Persia and thus the initiatory ancestor of all present­-day Neʿmat-Allāhīs.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DAKANĪ, REŻĀ ʿALĪŠĀH

    also known as Shah ʿAlī-Reżā (1683-1799), leader (qoṭb, lit., “pole”) in the years 1741-99 of the Neʿmat-­Allāhī Sufi order in Hyderabad (Deccan), India.

    (Javad Nurbakhsh)

  • DAḴĪL

    lit. “interceder”; a piece of rag or cord or a lock fastened (daḵīl bastan) on a sacred place or object, for example, the railing around a saint’s tomb or grave or a public fountain (saqqā-ḵāna), the branch of a tree considered sacred, or another plant, in order to obtain a desired benefit.

    (Ḥosayn-ʿAlī Beyhaqī)

  • ḎAḴĪRA-YE ḴᵛĀRAZMŠĀHĪ

    early 13th-century Persian ency­clopedia of medical knowledge compiled by Sayyed Esmāʿīl b. Ḥosayn Jorjānī.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • DAḴMA

    in Zoroastrian practice, enclosure or structure for the exposure of the dead. See CORPSE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DALMĀ TEPE

    The excavations revealed a mass of handmade, chaff-­tempered pottery with fine grit inclusions, fired to orange or pink, frequently with a gray core. A few sherds have smoothed, undecorated surfaces and have been labeled “Dalma plain ware.”

    (Robert H. Dyson, Jr.)

  • DALQAK

    buffoon, court jester, also sometimes known as masḵara.

    (Farrokh Gaffary)

  • DAL’VERZIN TEPE

    a large site in southern Uzbekistan located not far from the bank of the Surkhan­darya river near Denau, a small city approximately 60 km northeast of Termez; it has yielded valuable data on the civilization and arts of northern Bactria and Tokharistan.

    (G. A. Pugachenkova)

  • DAM (1)

    See BAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAM (2)

    archeological site in Afghanistan, 30°55’ N, 62°01’ E, located approximately 20 km east of the Helmand delta.

    (Klaus Fischer)

  • DĀM-DĀRĪ

    animal husbandry. In gen­eral, livestock raising in the Persian-speaking world is dominated by small animals, with a large proportion of goats, which in certain provinces of Persia itself are even more numerous than sheep. Cattle and equines, especially donkeys, are far less important.

    (Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • DĀM PEZEŠKĪ

    veterinary medicine.

    (Mansour Shaki, Ḥasan Tājbaḵš, and Ṣādeq Sajjādī)

  • DĀMĀD, MĪR(-E), SAYYED MOḤAMMAD BĀQER

    b. Mīr Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad Ḥosaynī Astarābādī (d. 1041/1631), leading Twelver Shiʿite theologian, philosopher, jurist, and poet of 17th-century Persia.

    (Andrew J. Newman)

  • DAMASCUS, Zoroastrians at

    The earliest evi­dence for the presence of Zoroastrians at Damascus is provided by Berossus, who stated that this was one of the cities of the Achaemenid empire at which Artaxerxes II (404-358 b.c.e.) had a statue set up for “Anaitis”

    (Mary Boyce)

  • DAMASPIA

    name of a Persian queen, wife of Artaxerxes I and mother of his legal heir, Xerxes II (424/3 B.C.E.).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DAMĀVAND

    mountain, town, and administrative district (šahrestān) in the central Alborz region.

    (Bernard Hourcade, Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DĀMDĀD NASK

    the Middle Persian (Pahlavi) name of one of the lost nasks of the Avesta.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DAMELĪ

    See DARDESTĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀMḠĀN

    (Damghan) Persian town located on a plain south of the Alborz range, 342 km east of Tehran. Situated on the main highway from Tehran to Nīšāpūr, Mašhad, and Herat, it also dominates less important roads north to Sārī and Gorgān, as well as tracks leading south to Yazd and Isfahan via Jandaq.

    (Chahryar Adle)

  • DĀMḠĀNĪ (1)

    nesba of a leading family of jurists of Persian origin, descendants of Abū ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Kabīr (b. Dāmḡān 1007, d. Baghdad 1085), a well-known exponent of Hanafite law, who served as the chief magistrate (qāżī al-qożāt) of Baghdad.

    (EIr)

  • DĀMḠĀNĪ (2)

    nesba of a father and two sons from Dāmḡān who worked as engineers, builders, and stucco carvers in the early 14th century.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • DĀMḠĀNĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ DĀMḠĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀMI-

    Avestan word, probably the noun of agency connected with Old Avestan dāman- “stake," thus “the one who drives the stake.”

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DAMIRI, MOḤAMMAD

    MOḤAMMAD b. Musā b. ʿIsā Kamāl al-Din Ebn Elyās b. ʿAbd-Allāh al-Damiri (b. Cairo, A.H. 745/A.D. 1342, d. Cairo, A.H. 808/ A.D. 1405), a tailor turned Shāfiʿi theologian, is best known for his Ḥayātal-ḥayawān (Animal Life). It is a comprehensive work on all that pertains to animals, which became widely disseminated in the Islamic world in three recensions--long (kobrā), intermediate (wosṭā), and short (şoḡrā).

    (Gül A. Russell)

  • DAMPOḴT(AK)

    or DAMĪ, terms referring to rice cooked in a single pot.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • DANCE

    (raqṣ). Single dancers or groups of dancers represented on pottery from prehistoric Iranian sites (e.g., Tepe Siyalk, Tepe Mūsīān) attest the antiquity of this art in Iran. According to Duris of Samos (apud Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae), the Achaemenid Persians learned to dance, just as they learned to ride horseback.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi, Robyn C. Friend)

  • DANDĀN ÖILÏQ (“ivory houses”)

    lit. “ivory houses”; ruined city located about 50 km north of the Domoko oasis in the eastern portion of the oasis complex of Khotan, in Chinese Turkestan.

    (Gerd Gropp)

  • DANDĀNQĀN

    a small town of medieval Khorasan, in the Qara Qum, or sandy desert, between Marv and Saraḵs, 10 farsaḵs from the former, on which it was administratively dependent.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DĀNEŠ

    lit., “knowledge”; title of seven newspa­pers and journals published in Persia and the Indian subcontinent, presented here in chronological order.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DĀNEŠ, AḤMAD MAḴDŪM

    b. Mīr b. Yūsof ḤANAFĪ ṢEDDĪQĪ BOḴĀRĪ (1242-1314/1827-97), known as Aḥmad Kallā and Mohandes (lit., “engineer”), a historian and progressive Tajik writer of Bukhara.

    (Vincent Fourniau)

  • DĀNEŠ, ḤOSAYN

    (b. Istanbul 1870, d. Ankara 1943), a leading Turco-Persian poet, journalist, and scholar who wrote on literary, political, and social issues for many Persian newspapers.

    (Peter J. Chelkowski)

  • DĀNEŠ, REŻĀ KHAN ARFAʿ

    pen name of MOʿĪN-AL-WEZĀRA MĪRZĀ REŻĀ KHAN ARFAʿ (Arfaʿ-al-Dawla; ca. 1846-1937), also known as Prince Reżā Arfaʿ, diplomat and poet of the late Qajar period.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • DĀNEŠ, TAQĪ

    (b. Tabrīz, 1861, d. Tehran 24 February 1948), poet and govern­ment official.

    (Īraj Afšār)

  • DĀNEŠ-NĀMA YE ʿALĀʾĪ

    Persian philosophical treatise written by Avicenna (980-1037).

    (Hamid Dabashi)

  • DĀNEŠ-NĀMA-YE ĪRĀN WA ESLĀM

    Encyclopedia of Iran and Islam.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • DĀNEŠ-NĀMA-YE QADAR KHAN

    (Book of knowledge [dedicated to] Qadar Khan), a Persian dictionary compiled by Ašrāf b. Šaraf Moḏakker Fārūḡī primarily in Malwa, India, and completed in 1405.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE ʿĀLĪ

    See EDUCATION; TEACHERS' TRAINING. See also JĀMEʿA-YE LISĀNSIAHĀ-YE DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE ʿĀLI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE MOQADDAMĀTĪ

    See EDUCATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNESF(AH)ĀN

    locally Donesbon, a village located at 49°45′ E, 35°47′ N in the southern part of the Rāmand district of Qazvīn province, 30 km west and slightly north of Būyīn; it has a population of a little over 3,000.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • DĀNEŠGĀH

    See EDUCATION; entries on indi­vidual universities.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNEŠGĀH-E JANG

    See MILITARY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DANESHVAR, REZA

    (1948-2015), fiction writer, and playwright, who received substantial recognition both in Iran and abroad.

    (Forogh Hashabeiky and Behrooz Sheyda)

  • DĀNEŠKADA

    a monthly literary journal published from Ṯawr 1297/April 1918 to Ṯawr 1298/April 1919 in Tehran by the distinguished poet, literary critic, and scholar Moḥammad-Taqi Malek-al-Šoʿarāʾ Bahār, considered the leading Persian literary figure of his time. It was named for a literary society founded by Bahār a year earlier.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DĀNEŠKĀDA

    See EDUCATION; FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNEŠKĀDA-YE AFSARĪ

    See MILITARY.

    (Cross-reference)

  • DĀNEŠKADA-YE EṢFAHĀN

    a monthly literary journal and the organ of a society of the same name, published in two series in Isfahan by the poet and calligrapher Mirzā ʿAbbās Khan Dehkordi Šeydā (1299/1882-1328 Š./1949), who, in 1908, also published Baladiya-ye Eṣfahān (see Baladīya).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DĀNEŠMAND

    (d. 1104), Amir Ḡāzī Taylu Gümüš tigin Aḥmad (or Moḥammad), founder of a Turkman dynasty in northern Cappadocia toward the end of the 11th century.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • DĀNEŠMAND

    See ʿABD-AL-BĀQI TABRIZI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNEŠMAND BAHĀDOR

    Mongol com­mander (d. 1306).

    (Peter Jackson)

  • DĀNEŠMAND-E ḤĀJEB

    Muslim officer in Mongol service in the first half of the 13th century.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • DANESTAMA

    a mud-brick structure on diaper masonry foundations located on the left bank of the Sorḵāb river, 34 km north of Doāb-e Mīḵzarīn on the road to Došī.

    (Klaus Fischer)

  • DĀNG

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀNĪĀL B. MOŠEH QŪMESĪ

    Persian Jewish scholar and exegete of the Karaite sect, the members of which rejected rabbinical writings later than the Bible itself.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • DĀNĪĀL-E NABĪ

    Dānīāl is not mentioned in the Koran but is venerated as a prophet in Muslim tradition. Eschatological statements and the prophecy recounted in Daniel 12:12 (supposedly concerning the year 1335) have been interpreted by Jews as referring to the coming of the Messiah.

    (Amnon Netzer, Nicholas Sims-Williams, Parvīz Varjāvand, Amnon Netzer)

  • DANISH-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    See DENMARK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAQĀYEQĪ MARVAZĪ, ŠAMS-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿAlī, the supposed author of a version of the Baḵtīār­nāma, who lived from the late 12th to the 13th century.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • DAQĪQĪ, ABŪ MANṢŪR AḤMAD

    b. Aḥmad, one of the famous poets of the last years of the Samanid (819-1005) dynasty.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • DAQQĀQ, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ DAQQĀQ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎARʿ

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀR AL-FONŪN

    lit., “polytechnic college”; a college founded in Tehran in 1268/1851 by Mīrzā Ṭāqī Khan Amīr-e Kabīr, which marked the begin­ning of modern education in Persia.

    (John Gurney and Negin Nabavi)

  • DĀR AL- ḤARB

    “the realm of war”; lands not under Islamic rule, a juridical term for certain non-­Muslim territory, though often construed, especially by Western writers, as a geopolitical concept implying the necessity for perpetual, even if generally latent, warfare between the Muslim state and its non-Muslim neighbors.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DAR-E MEHR

    a Zoroastrian term first recorded in the Persian Rivāyats and Parsi Gujarati writings.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • DĀR AL-ŠŪRĀ-YE KOBRĀ

    See WEZĀRAT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀR(- E) TANHĀ

    lit., “the lonely tree”; an ar­cheological site in the district of Badr, near the village of Jabar, ca. 70 km east-southeast of Īlām, in the province of Pošt-e Kūh.

    (Ernie Haerinck)

  • DĀR AL-ŻARB

    See ŻARRĀB-ḴĀNA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀ

    the name of a Parthian city and of a Byzan­tine garrison town of the Sasanian period.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • DĀRĀ(B) (1)

    or DĀRĀB, the name of two kings of the legendary Kayanid dynasty.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DĀRĀ

    See ĀL-E BĀVAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRA, MIRZĀ

    See ʿABDALLĀH MĪRZĀ DĀRĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀ ROSTAM

    See ĀL-E BĀVAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀ ŠOKŌH

    (b. near Ajmer, 20 March 1615, d. Delhi, 12 August 1659), first son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān and his wife Momtāz Maḥall, religious thinker, mystic, poet, and author of a number of works in Persian.

    (Annemarie Schimmel)

  • DĀRĀB

    the name Dārāb refers both to a šahrestān (subprovince) of Fārs province and to its chief city.

    (Massoud Kheirabadi, Dietrich Huff, Georgina Herrmann)

  • DARAB PAHLAN, DASTUR

    Zoroastrian priest and author (b. Navsari, Gujarat, 1668, d. Navsari, 1 September 1734), eldest son of Pahlan Fredoon, who was accorded the title “dastur” (high priest) and the privilege of occupying the second chair in the Zoroastrian assembly of the small port of Navsari in 1670 or perhaps earlier.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • DĀRĀB-NĀMA

    prose romance of the 12th century, by Abū Ṭāher Moḥammad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Mūsā Ṭārsūsī (or Ṭarṭūsī), in which the adventures of the legendary Kayanid king Dārāb, son of Bahman (also called Ardašīr) and Homāy, variously identified as the daughter of king Sām Čāraš of Egypt or of Ardašīr (=Bahman), are recounted.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • DĀRĀBGERD

    See Dārā(b) II.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀBĪ

    See CITRUS FRUITS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀBĪ SAYYED JAʿFAR

    b. Abī Esḥāq Mūsawī Borūjerdī Kašfī (b. Eṣṭahbānāt in Fārs, 1775, d. Borūjerd 1851), religious scholar, nephew of the Aḵbārī Yūsuf b. Aḥmad Baḥrānī and father of Sayyed Yaḥyā Waḥīd Dārābī.

    (Andrew J. Newman)

  • DĀRĀBĪ SAYYED YAḤYĀ

    (b. Yazd, ca. 1811, d. Neyrīz, 1850), Babi leader usually known as Waḥīd (unique), a title given him by the Bāb; the eldest son of Sayyed Jaʿfar Kašfī Eṣṭah-bānātī, he received a Muslim religious education and, like his father, was associated with the Qajar court.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • DARAFŠ -E KĀVĪĀN

    See DERĀFŠ-E KĀVĪĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRĀʾĪ, WEZĀRAT

    See FINANCE MINISTRY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARĀMAD

    lit., “introduction”; an episode in the course of a musical performance, the nature and length of which vary with the material introduced.

    (Jean During)

  • DARARIĀN, Vigen

    (1929-2003) renowned pop singer and performer on the guitar.

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi)

  • DARĀZ-DAST

    See DERĀZ-DAST; ARDAŠĪR; BAHMAN (2).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARB -E EMĀM

    large shrine complex in the old Sonbolestān quarter of Isfahan. The main structure, consisting of entrance portal (sar-dar), vestibule, and tomb, was built in 1453 and expanded and modified several times during the Safavid period.

    (Parvīz Varjāvand)

  • DARBAND

    (Ar. Bāb al-Abwāb), ancient city in Dāḡestān on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, located at the entrance to the narrow pass between the Caucasus foothills and the sea.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • DARBAND EPIGRAPHY

    epigraphic remains on the walls of Darband, from Sasanian through Medieval Islamic times.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • DARBAND EPIGRAPHY i. MIDDLE PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS

    Thirty-two Pahlavi inscriptions of the mid-6th century CE are engraved on the defensive walls of the city of Darband.

    (Murtazali Gadjiev)

  • DARBAND EPIGRAPHY ii. DAR-E QIĀMAT SHRINE

    a medieval Muslim cultic site, now forgotten and non-functioning, in Darband.

    (Murtazali Gadjiev)

  • DARBAND QUARTER

    a former village in the summer resort (yeylāq) of Šamīrān, situated at an elevation of 1,700 m on the extreme northern edge of the capital, where the Alborz foothills begin.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • DARBANDĪ, MULLA ĀQĀ

    b. ʿĀbed b. Ramażān, commonly known as Fāżel Darbandī (d. Tehran, 1869-70), Shiʿite scholar and preacher of the Qajar period, renowned for his disputatious and irascible character.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DARBĀR

    See BĀR; COURTS AND COURTIERS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARBĀR -E AʿẒAM

    lit., “the great court”; a council of ministers established in October 1872 as one of several experiments undertaken in the reign of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96) to reorganize and rationalize the Persian administration on the model of Western cabinet government.

    (Guity Nashat)

  • DĀRČĪNĪ

    lit., “Chinese tree/wood."

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • D'ARCY, JOSEPH

    (Pers. “Mester Bārūt,” “Qūlūnel Khan,” “Qonsūl Khan”; b. Portsmouth, England, 14 March 1780, d. Lymington, England, 17 February 1848), major (later lieutenant colonel) in the British Royal Artillery who arrived in Persia in 1226/1811 with the ambassador Sir Gore Ouseley; he was one of a group of British officers and enlisted men who were to reform and equip the Persian army.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • D'ARCY, WILLIAM KNOX

    (b. Newton Abbot, Devonshire, England, 11 October 1849, d. Stanmore, Middlesex, England, 1 May 1917), petroleum entrepreneur and founder of the oil industry in Persia and the Middle East.

    (Fuad Rouhani)

  • DARD, ḴᵛĀJA MĪR

    (b. Delhi, 13 September 1721; d. 11 January 1785), poet and author of prose works on mystical theology.

    (Annemarie Schimmel)

  • DARDESTĀN

    The toponym Dardestān is a social and political construct. Its currency toward the end of the 19th century in many ways reflected an attempt by supporters of imperial India to link the Indian northwestern frontier tracts to Kashmir, with which the British had treaties.

    (Nigel J. R. Allan, D. I. Edel’man)

  • DĀREMĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿOṮMĀN

    b. Saʿīd b. Ḵāled SEJESTĀNĪ, Persian traditionist and jurist (b. ca. 816, d. February 894).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • DARGĀHĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    (b. Zanjān, 1899, d. Tehran, 1952), first chief of the state police under Reżā Shah.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • DARGĀHQOLĪ KHAN ḎU’L-QADR

    also known as Moʿtaman-al-Dawla Moʿtaman-al-Molk Sālār-Jang Ḵān-e Dawrān Nawwāb (b. Sangamnēr, Deccan, 1710, d. Awrangābād, 22 October 1766), Persian official at Hyderabad and Awrangābād, best known for his description of Delhi.

    (M. Saleem Akhtar)

  • DARGAZĪNĪ

    nesba (attributive name) for Dargazīn (or Darjazīn), borne by several viziers of the Great Saljuqs in the 12th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DARĪ

    name given to the New Persian literary language at a very early date and widely attested in Arabic and Persian texts since the 10th century.

    (Gilbert Lazard)

  • DARĪ IN AFGHANISTAN

    See AFGHANISTAN v. LANGUAGES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎARĪʿA elā TAṢĀNĪF al-ŠĪʿA

    a comprehensive bibliography of Imami Shiʿite works in twenty-five volumes compiled by Shaikh Moḥammad-Moḥsen Āqā Bozorg Ṭehrānī (1876-1970); it contains about 55,000 entries for works written up to 1950-51.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • DARIC

    Achaemenid gold coin which was introduced by Darius I toward the end of the 6th century.

    (Michael Alram)

  • DARĪGBED

    title of a low-ranking official at the Sasanian court.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • DARIUS

    (NPers. Darīūš, Dārā), name of several Achaemenid and Parthian rulers and princes.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • DARIUS i. The Name

    the common Latin form of Greek Dareîos, itself a shortened rendering of Old Persian five-syllable Dārayavauš, the throne name of Darius the Great and two other kings of the Achaemenid dynasty, which thus enjoyed considerable popularity among noblemen in later periods

    (Rudiger Schmitt)

  • DARIUS ii. Darius the Mede

    In the Old Testament Book of Daniel Darius the Mede is mentioned (5:30-31) as ruler after the slaying of the “Chaldean king” Belshazzar.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • DARIUS iii. Darius I the Great

    third Achaemenid king of kings (r. 29 September 522-October 486 BCE). Once he gained power, Darius placed the empire on foundations that lasted for nearly two centuries and influenced the organization of subsequent states, including the Seleucid and Roman empires.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • DARIUS iv. Darius II

    the sixth Achaemenid king of kings (r. February 423- March 403 B.C.E.). He had been satrap of Hyrcania. Darius was his throne name; his given name is reported in classical sources as Ochus.

    (Heleen Sanchisi-Weerdenburg)

  • DARIUS v. Darius III

    (b. ca. 380 BCE, d. mid-330), the last Achaemenid king. The lack of sources is especially severe for his life and reign. There are no Persian royal texts or monuments, and what is known comes almost solely from the Greek historians, who depicted his career mainly as a contrast to the brilliant first few years of Alexander the Great.

    (EIr.)

  • DARIUS vi. Achaemenid Princes

    the name of two Achaemenid princes in addition to the emperors who bore it.

    (Rudiger Schmitt)

  • DARIUS vii. Parthian Princes

    In 64 B.C.E. while his father, Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus (ca. 121/20-63 B.C.E.), was fighting his last, losing campaign against the troops of the Roman general Pompey (106-48 B.C.E.), the child Darius was taken prisoner, along with several brothers and his sister Eupatra, in Phanagoria

    (Rudiger Schmitt)

  • DARIUS viii. Darius Son of Artabanus

    A son of the Parthian king Artabanus II named Darius was sent as a hostage to Rome shortly after an interview between Artabanus and the Roman legate for Syria, Vitellius, in 37 C.E.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • DARJAZĪN

    (or Dargazīn), name of two rural subdistricts (dehestāns) and a village in the Razan district (baḵš) of Hamadān province.

    (Parviz Aḏkāʾī)

  • DARKE, Hubert Seymour Garland

    In 1961 Darke was appointed University Lecturer in Persian at Cambridge, where he taught language and literature for the next twenty years. His particular interests were Early New Persian and Persian prosody. His major research achievement was the definitive edition and translation of the Siar al-moluk, a manual of government by the celebrated Saljuq vizier Neẓām-al-Molk.

    (John R. Perry)

  • DARMESTETER, JAMES

    (b. Château-Salins, Alsace, 12 March 1849, d. Paris, 19 October 1894), the great Iranist, was the son of a Jewish bookbinder, who in 1852 moved to Paris to improve his children’s educational opportunities.

    (Mary Boyce and D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DARRA-YE BARRA

    lit. "Valley of the lamb", a locality in Fārs province, 2.5 km east-northeast of the Achaemenid royal tombs at Naqš-e Rostam. Several rock-cut monuments are scattered on steep scree and in the cliff on the north side of the valley. The most outstanding feature is the tallest fire altar so far found in Fārs.

    (Rémy Boucharlat)

  • DARRA-YE NŪR

    name of a small tributary valley on the right bank of the Konar river in eastern Afghanistan and the corresponding subdistrict of Nangrahār province.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DARRA-YE ṢŪF

    name of a valley in northern Afghanistan, drained by a tributary of the right bank of the Balḵāb, and of the adjoining mountain district and its administrative center in Samangān province.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DARRAGAZ

    or DARGAZ (Valley of the tamarisks), a fertile valley about 50-55 km east-west and 30-35 km north-south in the Kopet Dagh range in northern Khorasan, at about 450 m above sea level, in which are located a šahrestān (subprovince) and a town of the same name.

    (Massoud Kheirabadi, Philip Kohl)

  • DARRAŠŪRĪ

    one of the five major tribes of the Qašqāʾī tribal confederation.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • DARRŪS

    district in northern Tehran east of Qol-hak and south of Qayṭarīya, all former suburbs of the city; it is located about 8 km from the center of the modern city.

    (Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd, John Curtis)

  • DĀRŪ

    See DRUGS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRŪḠA

    See CITIES iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARVĀZ

    a largely autonomous principality with territory on both sides of the upper course of the Āmū Daryā, known as the Panj, until the partition between czarist Russia and the Afghan kingdom in the last quarter of the 19th century.

    (Jan-Heeren Grevemeyer)

  • DARVĀZA

    (gateway), generally an entrance opening wide enough to permit passage of vehicles, in contrast to doorways, which are smaller openings to permit passage through a wall or fence.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • DARVĀZA TEPE

    (or Tall-e Darvāza), a village site in the southeastern Kor river basin, in Fārs province, occupied in three stages from 1800 B.C.E. to 800 B.C.E., according to radiocarbon dates of the finds, and characterized by an essential continuity in both architecture and other aspects of material culture.

    (Linda K. Jacobs)

  • DARVĪŠ

    a poor, indigent, ascetic, and abstemious person or recluse.

    (Mansour Shaki, Hamid Algar)

  • DARVĪŠ, ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD ṬĀLAQĀNĪ

    See ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD ṬĀLAQĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARVĪŠ AḤMAD QĀBEŻ

    (d. 1507), Timurid vizier.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • DARVĪŠ ʿALĪ BŪZJĀNĪ

    See BŪZJĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARVĪŠ ʿALĪ, AMĪR NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN KüKäLTĀŠ KETĀBDĀR

    Timurid amir under Solṭān-Ḥosayn Bāyqarā (1469-1506) and younger brother of ʿAlī-Šīr Navāʾ.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • DARVĪŠ KHAN, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN

    (b. Tehran, 1872, d. Tehran, 23 November 1926), master musician, renowned teacher, and innovative composer of Persian classical music.

    (Margaret Caton)

  • DARVĪŠ REŻĀ

    (d. 1040/1631), a qezelbāš functionary who claimed to be the awaited Mahdī.

    (Kathryn Babayan)

  • DARYĀ

    sea or river.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • DĀRYĀ

    a Tehran morning daily of news and politics, published with a number of interruptions from May 1944 to March 1951.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DARYĀ-YE ḴAZAR

    See CASPIAN SEA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARYĀ-YE MĀZANDARĀN

    See CASPIAN SEA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARYĀ-YE NŪR

    lit., “sea of light”; one of the largest diamonds in the world, kept and exhibited in the Jewel museum of the Central bank of Persia (Bānk-e markazī-e Īrān).

    (Yaḥyā Ḏokāʾ)

  • DARYĀ-YE ʿOMĀN

    See ʿOMĀN, SEA OF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARYĀ-YE SĪĀH

    See BLACK SEA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DARYĀBEYGĪ

    lit. "sea lord"; originally an Ottoman naval title dating from the 15th century.

    (Guity Nashat)

  • DARYĀČA

    For individual lakes, see entries under the respective names.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀRZĪN

    village on the road between Kermān and Bam on the site of a large, early medieval town. Ruins of buildings of different periods still stand. The earliest are probably three small forts of similar form, built of straw-tempered rectangular mud bricks, which may date from the 8th or 9th century.

    (Mehrdad Shokoohy)

  • DĀŠ ĀKOL

    a story in the first collection of short stories by Sadeq Hedayat.

    (Soheila Saremi)

  • DASĀTĪN

    the term for modes in early musical theory, translated into Arabic as aṣābeʿ (fingers) and sometimes also as mawājeb “obligations, laws.”

    (Jean During)

  • DASĀTĪR

    the most important tract of the Āḏar Kayvānī sect, almost certainly the work of its founder, Āḏar Kayvān.

    (Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabaʾī)

  • DASCYLIUM

    Achaemenid satrapy in northwestern Anatolia, part of the Persian empire until the 330s BCE. The borders varied, extending as far south as the Mysian plain and the southern Troad and east into the land of the Bithynian peoples; some satraps controlled both sides of the Hellespont.

    (Michael Weiskopf)

  • DASKARA(T AL- MALEK)

    or DASKARAT AL-MALEK. See DASTGERD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAŠLĪ

    or Dashly; oasis situated south of the Āmū Daryā, on the desert plain of northern Afghanistan, ancient Bactria, now in the province of Jūzjān ca 35 km northeast of Āqča.

    (Pierre Amiet)

  • DAŠNAK

    short name for Hay Yełapʿoxakan Dašnakcʿutʿiwn (Armenian revolutionary federation [A.R.F.]) or its members.

    (Aram Arkun)

  • DAŠT

    lit. "plain, open ground"; Persian term for a very specific type of landscape, the extended gravel piedmonts and plains that are almost ubiquitous in arid central Persia.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • DAŠT-E ARŽAN

    (also Arjan, Arzan, lit., “plain of the mountain or bitter almond”), a mountain basin ca. 14 x 5-6 km situated 1,500 m above sea level on the road from Shiraz to Kāzerūn.

    (Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd)

  • DAŠT-E MOḠĀN

    See MOḠĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAŠT-E NĀWOR

    lit. “plain of the lake”; a depression (average elev. 3,100 m) 60 x 15 km with a brackish lake in the center, located at 33° 41’ N and 67° 46’ E, about 60 km west of Ḡaznī.

    (Gérard Fussman)

  • DAŠT-E QALʿA

    lit., “plain of the fortress”; small bāzār village on an irrigation canal near the junction of the Kōkča and Āmū Darya rivers in the province of Badaḵšān, northeastern Afghanistan, the site of several earlier settlements.

    (Henri-Paul Francfort)

  • DASTA

    the most common term for a ritual procession held in the Islamic lunar month of Moḥarram and the following month of Ṣafar, both periods of mourning for Imami Shiʿites. The procession commemorates the tragic death of Ḥosayn, grandson of the prophet Moḥammad and the third imam of the Shiʿites.

    (Peter J. Chelkowski)

  • DAŠTAKĪ, ʿAṬĀ-ALLĀH

    (d. 1506, 1511, or 1520), a scholar of Hadith in Khorasan in the late Timurid and early Safavid periods.

    (Andrew J. Newman)

  • DAŠTAKĪ, GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN

    b. Ṣadr-al-Dīn Moḥammad Šīrāzī Ḥosaynī (1462-1541), scholar, philosopher, and motakallem (theologian) of the late Timurid and early Safavid period, and, for a brief interval under Shah Ṭahmāsb, one of two ṣadrs (chief clerical overseers).

    (Andrew J. Newman)

  • DASTĀN

    a term used in two different contexts in Persian music- melody and fingering system.

    (Jean During)

  • DASTĀN (1)

    See ZĀL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀSTĀN (2)

    story, tale, parable. See FICTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DASTĀN [1994]

    (ARCHIVED VERSION)

    by Jean During. As printed in EIr. Vol. VII, Fasc. 1, p. 102.

    (Jean During)

  • DĀSTĀN-SARĀʾĪ

    (storytelling), term used for written and oral genres of fictional narrative.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • DAŠTESTĀN

    or šahrestān, lit. "subprovince" on the Persian Gulf coast in Būšehr province, bounded on the north and east by Fārs province, on the south by the šahrestān of Daštī, and on the west by the šahrestāns of Būšehr, Tangestān, and Ganāva.

    (Jamšīd Ṣadāqat-Kīš)

  • DASTGĀH

    modal system in Persian music, representing a level of organization at which a certain number of melodic types (gūšas) are regrouped and ordered in relation to a dominant mode (māya).

    (Jean During)

  • DASTGERD

    lit. “made by hand, handiwork”; a term originally designating a royal or seigneurial estate.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • DAŠTĪ (subprovince)

    šahrestān (subprovince) on the Persian Gulf in Būšehr province, corresponding approximately to the area referred to as Māndestān and Sīf Āl Moẓaffar in early sources.

    (Jamšīd Ṣadāqat-Kīš)

  • DAŠTĪ (musical mode)

    one of the twelve modal systems in the repertoire of traditional music (radīf); it is an āvāz, or auxiliary modal system, derived from or attached to the dastgāh Šūr.

    (Jean During)

  • DAŠTĪ, ʿALĪ

    (ca. 1894–1982), man of letters, journalist, and politician. Perhaps his innovative and “personal” studies of the principal Persian classical poets will prove the most enduring of his writings; they broke sharply with traditional Persian literary criticism focused on anecdotes, prosody, and explication de textes.

    (J. E. Knörzer)

  • DASTJERDĀNĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    Il-khanid bureaucrat.

    (David O. Morgan)

  • DASTŪR

    in the Sasanian period dastwar had a wide range of meanings, primarily denoting “one in authority, having power”; from that time, the semantic range was increasingly widened to convey different meanings at different times.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DASTŪR AL-AFĀŻEL FĪ LOḠĀT AL-FAŻĀʾEL

    lit. "manual of the learned for learned words"; an early Persian-to-Persian dictionary (farhang-nāma), compiled in India in 1342, during the reign of Moḥammad b. Tōḡloq Shah by Ḥājeb Ḵayrāt Rafīʿ, a poet from Delhi, for his patron Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Jajnīrī.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • DASTŪR-E DABĪRĪ

    comprehensive manual of letter writing by Moḥammad Meyhanī, consisting of an introduction (dībāča) and two chapters (qeṣm; comp. December 1189-January 1190).

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • DASTŪR AL-KĀTEB FĪ TAʿYĪN AL-MARĀTEB

    administrative manual written by Moḥammad Naḵjavānī (ca. 1280-after 1366), son of Faḵr-al-Dīn Hendūšāh b. Sanjar Naḵjavānī, author of Tajāreb al-salaf.

    (David O. Morgan)

  • DASTUR AL-MOLUK

    a manual of administration in Persian from the end of the Safavid period.

    (M. Ismail Marcinkowski)

  • ḎĀT-AL-SALĀSEL

    lit., “provided with chains”; place near Obolla in southern Iraq where in 633 C.E., one of Ṭabarī’s informants, Ḵāled b. Walīd and an Arab force of about 18,000 men defeated a small Sasanian garrison led by a frontier commander named Hormoz.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • DĀTA

    Old Iranian term for “law” attested both in Avestan texts (Old and Younger Av. dāta-) and in Achaemenid royal inscriptions.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DĀTABARA

    title of a high official in the Achaemenid legal and juridical system.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DATAMES

    Iranian personal name, reflecting Old Iranian *Dātama- or *Dātāma-, either a two-stem shortened form *Dāta-m-a- from a compound name like *Dātamiθra- or an unabridged compound *Dātāma-from *Dāta-ama-“to whom force is given.”

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DĀTAMIΘRA

    Iranian personal name resulting from an inversion of Miθra-dāta- “given by Mithra” and continued in the New Persian Dādmehr.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DATAPHERNES

    name of an Iranian (perhaps Bactrian) officer in the entourage of Bessos, murderer of Darius III (336-30 B.C.E.).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DATE PALM

    indigenous to the geobotanical “Sahara-Sind region,” a desert or semidesert belt extending from the Indus valley to North Africa. It is believed by some authorities to be native to the Persian Gulf area and by others to have been derived from the the wild or date-sugar palm of western India.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DATES AND DATING

    in Old and Middle Iranian. The only dating formulas preserved in an Old Iranian language are those found in Old Persian in the Bīsotūn inscriptions of Darius I; by the time of the earliest dated Middle Iranian documents, the Parthian ostraca from Nisa of the 1st century B.C.E., the Zoroastrian (so-called Avestan) calendar was in use.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DATIS

    Iranian personal name.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DAULIER DESLANDES

    (b. Montoire-sur-le-Loir, 1621, d. Paris, 23 October 1715), author of Les Beautez de la Perse ..., a brief but valuable description of Safavid Persia in the years 1075-76/1664-65.

    (Anne Kroell)

  • DAURISES

    name of a Persian general during the Ionian revolt, a son-in-law of Darius I (522-486 B.C.E.).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DAVĀL-PĀ(Y)

    or dovāl-pā, an imaginary evil anthropoid creature characterized by flexible legs (pā) resembling leather straps, which he uses as tentacles to grip and enslave human beings, who then have to carry him on their shoulders or backs and labor for him until they die of fatigue.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DAVALLU

    See QAJAR TRIBES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAVĀN

    village located 12 km northeast of Kāzerūn in Fārs; a distinctive dialect is spoken there. Arable land is very limited and located mostly in the foothills; dry farming is the prevailing form of agriculture. Products include barley, wheat, and fruits—grapes, figs, pomegranates, and pears.

    (Hamid Mahamedi)

  • DAVĀNĪ, JALĀL-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    b. Asʿad Kāzerūnī Ṣeddīqī (b. Davān, q.v., near Kāzerūn in Fārs, 1426-27, d. 1502), often referred to as ʿAllāma Davānī, leading theologian, philosopher, jurist, and poet of late 15th-century Persia.

    (Andrew J. Newman)

  • DĀVAR

    See DĀTABARA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀVAR, ʿALĪ-AKBAR

    (b. Tehran, 1885, d. Tehran, 10 February 1937), journalist, politician, statesman, and founder of the modern Persian judicial system, as well as of several state enterprises in the time of Reżā Shah.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • DĀVARĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ, Mīrzā Moḥammad

    (b. Shiraz 1822-23, d. Shiraz, 1866), poet, calligrapher, and painter of some renown in Qajar Persia and a contemporary of Moḥammad Shah and Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah.

    (ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb Nūrānī Weṣāl)

  • DAVĀZDAH EMĀMĪ

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; IRAN ix. Relgions in Iran (2) Islam in Iran.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAVĀZDAH HŌMĀST

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAVĀZDAH ROḴ

    lit. "twelve combats"; designation of a relatively long episode in the Šāh-nāma (2,500 verses), in which a battle takes place on the borders of Tūrān between Iranians under the command of Gūdarz and Turanians under the command of Pīrān.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • DAVID OF ASHBY

    (fl. 1260-75), Dominican friar and visitor to Il-khanid Persia.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • DAVID, JACOB

    (1873-1967) Assyrian pastor and relief worker. In Urmia, from 1904 to 1918, he assisted Dr. William Shedd (1865-1918) in teaching and administering Maʿrefat, an American school for boys from all ethnic groups. In 1918-21, he served as superintendent of the refugee schools and the Near East Relief Orphanage in Tabriz.

    (Eden Naby)

  • DAWĀ

    See DRUGS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAʿWA

    “mission,” a term used already by the ʿAbbasids but especially associated with the Ismaʿilis. See DAʿĪ .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAWĀ(T)DĀR

    lit. “keeper, bearer of [the royal] inkwell or inkstand”; title of various officials in medieval Islamic states.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DAWĀMĪ, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    (b. Ṭā near Tafreš, 1891; d. Tehran, 10 January 1981), a master of classical Persian vocal music with a perfect command of the radīf (repertoire), as well as a gifted player of the Persian drum (tonbak) and a virtuoso of rhythmic (żarbī) pieces and songs (taṣnīf).

    (Dariush Safvat)

  • DAWĀNUS

    the name of a man seen in the other world by Ardā Wirāz, as described in both the Middle Persian and the Zoroastrian Persian versions of the Ardā Wirāz-nāmag.

    (Dariush Kargar)

  • DAWĀT

    lit. "inkwell"; a utilitarian receptacle that also served as a symbol or metaphor for the instrument of state, with a long history in Islamic Persia. Inkwells were characterized in Persian poetry and historical works from the 10th century on as symbols of royal and by extension ministerial office.

    (Linda Komaroff)

  • DAʿWAT AL-ESLĀM

    A biweekly Persian journal published in Bombay by Ḥājj Sayyed Moḥammad Dāʿī-al-Eslām from 19 October 1906 until the end of 1909.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DAʿWAT-E ESLĀMĪ

    lit. "the Islamic call"; a monthly religious journal published in Kermānšāh from November-December 1927 to June 1936.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DAWLATĀBĀD

    name of several localities in Afghanistan that have grown up around civil or military government buildings.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, SAYYED ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD

    (b. Dawlatābād, 1868, d. Tehran, Šawwāl May-June 1923), prominent politician and deputy of the Persian parliament.

    (Cyrus Amir-Mokri)

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, ṢEDDĪQA

    (b. Isfahan, 1883, d. Tehran, 28 July 1961), journalist, educator, and pioneer in the movement to emancipate women in Persia.

    (Mehranguiz Manoutchehrian)

  • DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, SAYYED YAḤYĀ

    (b. Dawlatābād. near Isfahan, 8 January 1863, d. Tehran, 26 October 1939), educator, political activist, and memoirist of the constitutional and postconstitutional periods.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • DAWLATḴĒL

    tribal name common among the eastern Pashtun at various levels of tribal segmentation.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DAWLATŠĀH, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ MĪRZĀ

    (1789-1821), eldest son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and powerful prince-governor of western provinces of Persia.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • DAWLATŠĀH SAMARQANDĪ

    (b. ca. 1438, d. 1494 or 1507), one of the few authors before the 16th century to have devoted a work entirely to poets, arranged more or less chronologically.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • DAWLATSHAH, MOHAMMAD-ALI MIRZA

    (1789-1821), eldest son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and powerful prince-governor of western provinces of Persia. See DAWLATŠĀH, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ MĪRZĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAWLATZĪ

    (singular Dawlatzay), ethnic name common among the eastern Pashtun on both sides of the Durand Line.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DAWR (1)

    (Ar. and Pers.), period, era, or cycle of history, a term used by Ismaʿilis in connection with their conceptions of time and the religious history of mankind.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • DAWR (2)

    (Ar. and Pers. “circle”), term applied to scales and also to rhythmic cycles, both commonly diagramed as circles in classical musicology of Persian, Arab, and Turkish groups. Such diagrams are appropriate for representing both the cyclical nature of the scales and the periodic nature of rhythmic formulas.

    (Jean During)

  • DAWRA

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAWRAQ

    or Dawraq al-Fors; name of a district (kūra), also known as Sorraq, and of a town that was sometimes its chef-lieu in medieval Islamic times.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DAWTĀNĪ

    Most Dawtānī nomads wintered in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, in either southern Waziristan or Dērajāt. A minority wintered in southern Afghanistan, mainly in the Qandahār oasis, where some owned houses, or in the middle Helmand valley.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DĀWŪD

    or DĀʾŪD; the biblical David, mentioned in a number of passages in the Koran as the hero who fought with and killed Jālūt, the prophet who received the Book of Psalms (Zabūr) from God, and the king who was given the power to rule, enforce justice, and distinguish between truth and falsehood.

    (Fatḥ-Allāh Mojtabāʾī)

  • DĀWŪD B. MOʾMEN

    See JEWISH PERSIAN LITERATURE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĀWŪD KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    (b. Kabul, 1909; d. Kabul, 27 April 1978), prime minister (1953-63) and first president of Afghanistan (1973-78). During his tenure as minister (known as “Dāwūd’s decade”), he transformed the Afghan state.Throughout his career he combined a strong desire to modernize the country with a close identification with the military.

    (Barnett Rubin)

  • DAY

    (Av. daδuuah-, Pahl. day “creator”), an epithet of Ahura Mazdā that became the name of the tenth month, as well as of the eighth, fifteenth, and twenty-third days in each month of the Zoroastrian calendar.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • DĀYA

    wet nurse.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar and Theresa Omidsalar)

  • DĀYA, NAJM-AL-DĪN ABŪ BAKR ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Moḥammad b. Šāhāvar b. Anūšervān Rāzī (1177–1256), mystic and author.

    (Moḥammad-Amīn Rīāḥī)

  • DAYEAKUTʿIWN

    a form of child rearing practiced in Armenia and other parts of the Caucasus.

    (Robert G. Bedrosian)

  • DĀYERAT AL-MAʿĀREF-E FĀRSĪ

    the first general encyclopedia in Persian compiled along modern lines.

    (Dāryūš Āšūrī)

  • DAYLAMITES

    people inhabiting a shifting region in northern Persia and adjacent territories, including the Deylamān uplands. See DEYLAMITES; BUYIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DAYR

    monastery; in early Islamic Arabic and Persian literature usually a building in which Christian monks (rāheb) lived and worshiped.

    (Qamar Āryān)

  • DAYR AL-ʿĀQŪL

    lit., “the monastery at the bend in the river”; a medieval town in Iraq situated on the Tigris 15 farsangs (= 80 km) southeast of Baghdad.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DAYR-E GAČĪN

    lit., “gypsum hospice”; Sasanian caravansary situated in the desert halfway between Ray and Qom, on the ancient route from Ray to Isfahan. It is recorded in most early Muslim geographies. Over time, it underwent major reconstruction at least twice.

    (Mehrdad Shokoohy)

  • DAYSAM

    b. Ebrāhīm KORDĪ, ABŪ SĀLEM, Kurdish commander who ruled sporadically in Azerbaijan between 938 and 955 after the period of Sajid domination there.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DA’TID BAHRANA

    (with the Persian title Āyanda-ye rowšan “Bright future”), Assyrian bilingual periodical published in Tehran in 1951.

    (Eden Naby)

  • DE BODE

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DE BRUIN, CORNELIS

    or de Bruyn, also known as Corneille Le Brun or Le Bruyn (b. The Hague 1652, d. Utrecht 1726 or 1727), Dutch painter and author of two accounts of his travels in Persia and other eastern lands.

    (Willem Floor)

  • DE GOEJE, MICHAËL JAN

    (b. Dronrijp, Friesland, 18 August 1836, d. Leiden, 17 May 1909), Dutch orientalist and chief editor of Ṭabari’s world history, Taʾriḵ al-rosol wa’l-moluk.

    (A. J. M. Vrolijk)

  • DE MECQUENEM

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DE MORGAN, Jacques

    (1857-1924), French archeologist and prehistorian. He came from an exceptionally gifted family, in which cultivation of humane learning was combined with scientific rigor. It seems clear that he was less interested in Elamite history than in the overall prehistory of the East.

    (Pierre Amiet)

  • DEAD SEA SCROLLS

    parchment and papyrus scrolls written in Hebrew, mainly of the 1st centuries B.C.E. and C.E., found in caves around Qomrān on the northwest coast of the Dead Sea and considered to represent a sect of Judaism.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • DEATH (1)

    AMONG ZOROASTRIANS

    (Mary Boyce)

  • DEATH (2)

    IN RELIGIONS OTHER THAN ZOROASTRIANISM. See CORPSE and BURIAL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEBEVOISE, NEILSON CAREL

    (1903-1992), American archeologist and scholar of the history and culture of ancient Mesopotamia and Iran.

    (M. J. Olbrycht and V. P. Nikonorov)

  • DECCAN

    or Dakhan, Pers. Dakan; the south-central plateau of India, bounded on the north by the Narbada river, on the west by the Sea of Oman, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, and on the south by the Tungabhadra river.

    (Carl W. Ernst, Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • DECORATION

    the use of consciously designed patterns to embellish building surfaces and objects for aesthetic effect. Despite progress in identifying or classifying the features of Persian decorative patterns, few scholars have attempted to explain why particular designs were used in specific periods, regions, or circumstances.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • DECORATIONS

    In Persia there were no orders in the Western sense, but only decorations and medals. The practice of awarding such honors was initiated by Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah, who introduced the Lion and Sun (nešān-e šīr o ḵoršīd) in 1808, apparently inspired by the Red Crescent adopted by the Ottoman sultan Salīm III.

    (Yaḥyā Šahīdī)

  • DEDE BEG ḎU’L-QADAR

    See ABDĀL BEG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEDE ʿOMAR RŪŠANĪ

    (b. Güzel Ḥeṣār, Aydın province, in western Anatolia, at an indeterminate date; d. Tabrīz, 1487), Turkish Sufi who wrote poetry in both Persian and Turkish.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • DEDE YŪSOF SĪNAČĀK

    (b. Yenice on the Vardar in Ottoman Māqadūnīā [modern Macedonia] at an indeterminate date, d. Istanbul, 1546), Mawlawī Sufi shaikh, poet, and author.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • DĒDMARĪ, ḴᵛĀJA MOḤAMMAD-AʿẒAM

    (1691-1765), historian, poet, and Sufi of Kashmir.

    (Shamsuddin Ahmad)

  • DEER

    See ĀHŪ, RED DEER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEFRÉMERY, Charles-François

    (b. Cambray, France, 18 December 1822, d. St.-Valéry-en Caux, France, 18 August 1883), French orientalist and scholar.

    (Francis Richard)

  • DEH

    village, in Persia and Afghanistan.

    (Daniel Balland and Marcel Bazin)

  • DEH-BOKRĪ

    Kurdish tribe of Kurdistan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • DEH MORĀSĪ ḠONDAY

    a Bronze Age archeological site located at 34° 90’ N, 65° 30’ E, adjacent to the village of Deh Morāsī, approximately 27 km southwest of Qandahār and 6.5 km east-southeast of Pahjwāʾī in southeastern Afghanistan.

    (Jim G. Shaffer)

  • DEH-E NOW

    site of a group of four rock-cut tombs of the 4th-3rd centuries BCE, located about 25 km south of Bīsotūn in Kermānšāhān. It is possible that at least the two smaller tombs were astōdāns.

    (Hubertus von Gall)

  • DEHBĪD

    town in the šahrestān of Ābāda, Fārs (30° 37’ N, 53° 12’ E), situated on the Shiraz-Isfahan road in a plain 191 km northeast of Shiraz.

    (Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd)

  • DEHDĀR ŠIRĀZI, ʿEMĀD-al-DIN

    with pen name taḵalloṣ ʿEyāni, the most prolific Persian author on lettrism in the 10th/16th century; has long been overshadowed by both his father , an astronomer-philosopher and his son, a mystical-philosopher.

    (Matthew Melvin-Koushki)

  • DEHESTĀN

    (in modern Persian administrative usage a rural district consisting of a number of villages), the name of a region in medieval Gorgān and a town in Bādḡīs and another in Kermān.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DEHESTĀNĪ , AʿAZZ-AL-MOLKNEẒĀM-AL-DĪN ABU’L-MAḤĀSEN ʿABD-AL-JALĪL

    b. ʿAlī, twice vizier to the Saljuq sultan Barkīāroq (1094-1105).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DEHESTĀNĪ, ḤOSAYN

    b. Asʿad b. Ḥosayn Moʾayyadī, Persian translator of the Arabic work al-Faraj baʿd al-šedda by Abū ʿAlī Moḥassen (939-94), a collection of poems, anecdotes, sayings, and didactic remarks arranged in thirteen chapters on the general theme of joy following hardship.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • DEHḴᵛĀRAQĀN

    See ĀẔARŠAHR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEHḴODĀ, MĪRZĀ ʿALĪ-AKBAR QAZVĪNĪ

    (ca. 1879–1956), scholar, poet, and social critic. In all his writing Dehḵodā was a perfectionist and a meticulous craftsman. He was a nationalist, outspoken in his convictions, indifferent to the wrath of powerful men, and a firm believer in Persian culture.

    (ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī)

  • DEHLAVĪ, ŠĀH WALĪ-ALLĀH QOṬB-AL-DĪN AḤMAD ABU’L-FAYYĀŻ

    (1703-62), leading Muslim intellectual of India and writer on a wide range of Islamic topics in Arabic and Persian; more than thirty-five of his works are extant.

    (Marcia K. Hermansen)

  • DEHLĪ

    See DELHI SULTANATE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEHLORĀN

    (Deh Lorān), the name of a šahrestān (subprovince) in Īlām province in southwestern Persia, and of the main town.

    (Frank Hole)

  • DEHQĀN

    arabicized form of Syriac dhgnʾ, borrowed from Pahlavi dehgān (older form dahīgān).

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DEIOCES

    (Gk. Dēïó;kēs), name of a Median king.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DEIPNOSOPHISTAÍ

    lit. "Banquet of the Sophists"; a miscellany in the form of dialogues ostensibly conducted at table, including approximately one hundred passages pertaining to Persia.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • DEITY

    See under ACHAEMENID RELIGION; AHRIMAN; AHURA MAZDĀ; MANICHEISM ii. The Manichean Pantheon; ZOROASTRIANISM; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEJLA

    See ARVAND-RŪD; TIGRIS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎEKR

    lit., “remembrance”; the act of reminding oneself of God.

    (Gerhard Böwering, Moojan Momen)

  • ḎEKRĪS

    See BALUCHISTAN i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DELĀRESTĀQ

    also Delārostāq, Dīlārostāq; dehestān (administrative district) in the šahrestān of Āmol (Lārījān baḵš), on the northeastern slope of Mount Damāvand in Māzandarān.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • DELBARJĪN

    urban site 40 km northwest of Balḵ, on the northern limit of an oasis irrigated by the Balḵāb, near a defensive wall built during the Greek period (ca 329-130 BCE) to protect the oasis. The earliest stage of the citadel may date from the Achaemenid period.

    (Paul Bernard)

  • DELDĀR-ʿALĪ

    b. Moḥammad-Moʿīn NAṢĪRĀBĀDĪ, Sayyed Ḡofrān-maʾāb (b. Naṣīrābād near Lucknow, 1753, d. Lucknow ca. 1820), Shiʿite cleric of northern India who helped to establish the Shiʿite form of Friday prayers and propagated the rationalist Oṣūlī school of jurisprudence in the Avadh region.

    (Juan R. I. Cole)

  • DELDĀR,YŪNES MELA RAʾŪF

    (b. in the sanjaq of Ḵoy in the Ottoman empire, 20 February 1918; d. Erbīl, Iraq, 12 October 1948), Kurdish poet and humanist.

    (Joyce Blau)

  • DÉLÉGATIONS ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES

    bodies established by the French government to conduct archeological investigations in Persia and Afghanistan respectively.

    (Francine Tissot)

  • DELHI SULTANATE

    Muslim kingdom established in northern India by Central Asian Turkish warlords at the turn of the 13th century and continuing in an increasingly persianized milieu until its conquest by Bābor in 1526. The political style of the rulers of Delhi reflected traditional concepts of Persian kingship.

    (Gavin R. G. Hambly, Catherine B. Asher)

  • DELĪKĀNLŪ

    tribe of the Ḵalḵāl region in eastern Persian Azerbaijan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • DELKAŠ

    stage name of ʿEṣmat Bāqerpur Panbaforuš (b. Bābol, Māzandarān, 1924; d. Tehran, 2004) popular Persian singer and actress of the mid-20th century.

    (Erik Nakjavani)

  • DELKAŠ (1)

    (b. Bukhara at an indeterminate date, d. Bukhara, 1902), Tajik poet and musician known and revered for melodies performed on the tanbūr.

    (Cathérine Poujol)

  • DELKAŠ (2)

    an important modal unit (šāh gūša) linked to the dastgāh Māhūr, constituting one of its four main modulations, perhaps the most important in expressive function, which contrasts strongly with that of Māhūr itself.

    (Jean During)

  • DELLA VALLE, PIETRO

    (b. Rome, 11 April 1586, d. Rome, 21 April 1652), one of the most remarkable travelers of the Renaissance, whose Viaggi is the best contemporary account of the lands between Istanbul and Goa in the early 17th century.

    (John Gurney)

  • DELOUGAZ

    (b. Ukraine, 16 July 1901, d. Čoḡā Mīš, Persia, 29 March 1975), archeologist and excavator of the ancient site of Čoḡā Mīš in Persia.

    (Ezat O. Negahban)

  • DELŠĀD BARNĀ

    (1800-1905), Tajik educator, historian, and poetess bilingual in Persian and Chaghatay Turkish.

    (Evelin Grassi)

  • DELŠĀD ḴĀTŪN

    eldest daughter of the Chobanid Demašq Ḵᵛāja and Tūrsīn Ḵātūn, granddaughter of the Il-khanid sultan Aḥmad Takūdār.

    (Charles Melville)

  • DEMARATUS

    king of Sparta (from at least as early as 510 B.C.E.) who took refuge with Darius I.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DEMAŠQ ḴᵛĀJA

    third son of the amir Čobān, possibly born in 1300, when his father was on campaign in Damascus.

    (Charles Melville)

  • DEMETRIUS

    name of two Greco-Bactrian kings.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • ḎEMMĪ

    See PEOPLE OF THE BOOK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEMOCEDES

    (Gk. Dēmokḗdēs), Greek physician attached to the court of Darius I and praised as “the most skillful physician of his time” by Herodotus.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DEMOCRACY

    See ANJOMAN; CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION i-v; ELECTIONS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEMOCRAT PARTY

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION v.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEMOGRAPHY

    the statistical study of characteristics of human populations. Since World War II Persia, formerly a rural and tribal country dominated by elderly notables and with low population growth, has come to have a majority of young urban dwellers, mostly literate and multiplying rapidly.

    (Bernard Hourcade, Daniel Balland)

  • DEMOTIC CHRONICLE

    Egyptian papyrus document of the early 2nd century B.C.E. in which anti-Persian themes, especially focused on Cambyses, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes III, were elaborated in Ptolemaic Egyptian sacerdotal and intellectual surroundings.

    (Edda Bresciani)

  • DEMOTTE ŠĀH-NĀMA

    illustrated manuscript, now dispersed, of Ferdowsī’s epic poem, often identified by the name of a former owner, the Paris dealer Georges Demotte (active ca. 1900-23). It is generally believed to have been produced for a patron associated with the Il-khanid court and is renowned for the quality of its paintings.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • DĒN

    theological and metaphysical term with a variety of meanings: “the sum of man’s spiritual attributes and individuality, vision, inner self, conscience, religion.”

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DĒN-DIBĪRĪH

    See DABĪRE, DABĪRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĒN YAŠT

    a relatively short text, consisting for the most part of repetitive or formulaic sentences.

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DĒNAG

    name of several Sasanian queens; it was not feminine by derivation but was clearly reserved for feminine prosopography.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • DENIKE

    (b. Kazan, 15 January 1885, d. Moscow, 13 October 1941), the first Russian historian of the medieval art of the Near and Far East.

    (Anatol A. Ivanov)

  • DENḴA TEPE

    a Bronze and Iron Age site situated in the Ošnū valley of Azerbaijan, southwest of Lake Urmia, and 15 miles west of the major Iron Age site of Hasanlu (Ḥasanlū) in the Soldūz valley.

    (Oscar White Muscarella)

  • DĒNKARD

    lit., “Acts of the religion”; written in Pahlavi, a summary of 10th-century knowledge of the Mazdean religion; the editor, Ādurbād Ēmēdān, entitled the final version “The Dēnkard of one thousand chapters.”

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • DENMARK

    : relations with Persia. Danish-Persian relations have been concentrated in three main areas: politics and diplomacy; trade and other economic relations; and Iranian studies in Denmark, including collections of Persian art in Danish museums.

    (Fereydun Vahman, Jes P. Asmussen)

  • DENŠAPUH

    short form of Vehdenšapuh; Sasanian hambārakapet (quartermaster) involved in the campaign of Yazdagerd II (438-57) to force Christian Armenians to abjure their faith and return to Zoroastrianism; a gem bearing his name is preserved in the British Museum in London.

    (James R. Russell)

  • DENTISTRY

    (dandān-pezeškī) in Persia.

    (Ṣādeq Sajjādī)

  • DEOBAND

    country town northeast of Delhi in what is now the Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India, where an influential Dār al-ʿolūm was founded by a group of religious scholars in 1867 as an expression of a major religious reform movement partly inspired by British educational models.

    (Barbara D. Metcalf)

  • DEPORTATIONS

    forced transfers of population from one region to another.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi, Erich Kettenhofen, John R. Perry)

  • DERAFŠ

    lit. “banner, standard, flag, emblem,” in ancient Iran. In the Avesta Bactria “with tall banners,” a fluttering “bull banner,” and enemy banners are mentioned. In the Achaemenid period each Persian army division had its own standard (Herodotus, 9.59), and “all officers had banners over their tents" (Xenophon, Cyropaedia 8.5.13).

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • DERAFŠ-E KĀVĪĀN

    the legendary royal standard of the Sasanian kings.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • DERAḴT

    tree, shrub.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DERAḴT-E ANJIR-E MAʿĀBED

    the last and highly acclaimed work of fiction by Ahmad Mahmud.

    (Loqmān Tadayon-Nežād)

  • DERĀZ-DAST

    having long hands.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DERBEND

    See DARBAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DERHAM

    See DIRHAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DERHAM B. NAŻR

    or Naṣr or Ḥosayn; commander of ʿayyārs or moṭawweʿa, orthodox Sunni vigilantes against the Kharijites in Sīstān during the period immediately preceding the rise of the Saffarid brothers to supreme power there.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DERUSIANS

    See TRIBES, PERSIAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEŚANĀ

    Khotanese term with two meanings: “showing," that is, “preaching” the law, and “profession” of faith or “confession” of sins.

    (Hiroshi Kumamoto)

  • DESERT

    bīābān. As throughout most of the arid zone agriculture and settlement depend upon sustained investment, Persians generally expect to find bīābān where ābādī (settled, irrigated agriculture) ends. The term bīābān covers a broad range of different types of desert, from completely barren expanses to plains with significant percentages of vegetation cover.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • DESMAISONS, JEAN-JACQUES-PIERRE

    or Petr Ivanovich Demezon (b. Chambéry, in the kingdom of Sardinia, 1807, d. Paris, 1873) diplomat and compiler of an important Persian-French dictionary.

    (Cathérine Poujol)

  • DEUTSCHES ARCHÄOLOGISCHES INSTITUT

    or D.A.I., research institution administered by the German foreign ministry, with a number of branches, including the Abteilung Teheran in Persia.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • DĒV

    See DAIVA, DĒW, DĪV.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEVECSERI, Gábor

    (1917-1971), Hungarian poet, scholar, and translator.

    (András Bodrogligeti)

  • DEVIL

    See AHRIMAN; DĪV; EBLĪS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĒW

    lit. "demon" in the Pahlavi books.

    (A. V. Williams)

  • DĒWĀŠTĪČ

    ruler of Sogdia (706?-22), referred to as “prince of Panč” (Panjīkant) and as “king of Sogdia, ruler of Samarkand” in the portion of his archives discovered at the castle on Mount Mug (Mōḡ), east of Samarkand, on the upper course of the Zarafšān river.

    (Boris Marshak)

  • DEYHĪM

    See CROWN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEYLAM, BANDAR-E

    a port on the Persian Gulf (30° 3’ N, 50° 9’ E) in the province of Būšehr at an elevation a little above 1 m.

    (Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd)

  • DEYLAM, JOHN OF

    or Yoḥannān Daylomāyā (d. 738), Eastern Syrian saint and founder of monasteries in Fārs.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • DEYLAMĀN (District)

    or Daylamān, district and town in Gīlān.

    (Ezat O. Negahban)

  • DEYLAMĀN (Melody)

    melody (gūša) incorporated into the radīf of Āvāz-e Daštī by Abu’l-Ḥasan Ṣabā (1957), who borrowed it from the regional repertoire of northern Persia.

    (Jean During)

  • DEYLAMĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD

    See ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD DAYLAMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEYLAMĪ, ABU’L-FATḤ NĀṢER

    b. Ḥosayn b. Moḥammad b. ʿĪsā b. Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb, Zaydī imam with the title Nāṣer le-Dīn Allāh (d. 1052-53).

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • DEYLAMĪ, ABUʾL-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    b. Moḥammad (fl. 10th century), an obscure yet important author on the early Persian Sufism prevalent in Fārs.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • DEYLAMĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ḤASAN

    b. Abi’l-Ḥasan (b.) Moḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd-Allāh (or Moḥammad), Shiʿite author and traditionist.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • DEYLAMĪ, ŠAMS-AL-DĪN ABŪ ṮĀBET MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿAbd-al-Malek ṬŪSĪ (d. ca. 1197), original though obscure Sufi author of the 12th century.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • DEYLAMITES

    people inhabiting a shifting region in northern Persia and adjacent territories, including the Deylamān uplands.

    (Wolfgang Felix & Wilferd Madelung)

  • DEYM

    See ĀBYĀRĪ; AGRICULTURE In Iran; BĀRĀN; FARMING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEZ

    or DEŽ, (fortress, castle; Mid. Pers. diz; OPers. didā- “wall, fortress”; Av. daēz-; Yidgha lizo“fort”). See BĀRŪ; CASTLES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEŽ

    a weekly of news and politics associated with the Tudeh Party that began publication on 27 May 1943 in Tehran and continued with some interruptions until June 1953.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DEZ River

    See ĀB-E DEZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DEŽ-E BAHMAN

    lit. "fortress of Bahman"; according to legend a fortress in Azerbaijan conquered by the Kayānian king Kay Ḵosrow, son of Sīāvaš and grandson of Kāvūs, king of Iran.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DEŽ-E GONBADĀN

    lit. "fortress of Gonbadān"; a fortress where the Iranian hero Esfandīār, son of the Kayānian king Goštāsb, was imprisoned.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DEŽ Ī NEBEŠT

    (Mid. Pers. diz ī nibišt “fortress of archives,” lit. “writing”), supposedly one of two repositories in which copies of the Avesta and its exegesis (zand) were deposited for safekeeping.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DEŽ-E RŪYĪN

    or Rūyīn-dež, lit. "brazen fortress"; castle belonging to the Turanian king Arjāsb and conquered by Esfandīār, son of the Kayanid king Goštāsb.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DEŽ-E SAFĪD

    lit. "white fortress"; Iranian fortress located near the border with Tūrān and conquered by Sohrāb, son of the Iranian hero Rostam by the Turanian princess Tahmīna.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DEZFUL

    a town and sub-province in northern Khuzestan province.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • DEZFŪL i. Geography

    or Dez-pol, lit. "fortress bridge"; šahrestān (subprovincial administrative unit) and city in northern Ḵūzestān province.

    (Massoud Kheirabadi)

  • DEZFUL ii. DEZFŪLĪ AND ŠŪŠTARĪ DIALECTS

    Dezfūlī and Šūštarī are two closely related Persian dialects spoken by the indigenous inhabitants of Dezfūl and Šūštar in Ḵūzestān province.

    (Colin MacKinnon)

  • DEZFUL iii. Population, 1956-2011

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Dezful: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • DEZKŪH

    or Šāhdez; a medieval mountain fortress situated in central Persia on the summit of Mount Ṣoffa, about 8 km south of Isfahan.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • DHABHAR, BAHMANJI NUSSERWANJI

    (b. 1869, Navsari, d. 1952, Bombay), eminent Parsi scholar of Bhagaria stock.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal)

  • DHALLA, DASTUR MANECKJI NUSSERWANJI

    In 1878 Dhalla came to Karachi with his father, married at the age of nine, and was ordained a priest (navar) in 1890. For a while he abandoned his studies and worked to augment the family’s meagre income, but his scholarly interest never waned.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • DHĀR, QĀŻĪ KHAN BADR

    See DHĀRVĀL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DHĀRAṆĪ

    magic spells in the Buddhist Mahāyānist and Tantric (esoteric) traditions.

    (Hiroshi Kumamoto, Yutaka Yoshida)

  • DHARMAŚARĪRA-SŪTRA

    a short Buddhist text belonging to the Mahāyānist tradition.

    (Hiroshi Kumamoto)

  • DHĀRVĀL, QĀŻĪ KHAN BADR MOḤAMMAD DEHLAVĪ

    or DHĀR, 15th-century Persian lexicographer in India, so named because he settled in Dhār (hence his nesba Dhārvāl), capital of the Ghurid principality of Malwa.

    (M. Saleem Akhtar)

  • DHŪTA-SŪTRA

    name of a Buddhist Sogdian text discovered at Tun-huang.

    (Yutaka Yoshida)

  • DHYĀNA TEXT

    designation of a Buddhist Sogdian text of 405 lines discovered at Tun-huang.

    (Yutaka Yoshida)

  • DĪA

    the prescribed blood money or wergild paid in compensation for a wrongful death or certain other physical injuries.

    (Khalid Abu El Fadl)

  • DIAKONOFF, Igor’ Mikhaĭlovich

    Diakonoff established international contacts and participated in organizing important scholarly projects. In particular, he took an active part in the organization of the 25th International Congress of Orientalists held in Moscow in 1960 (he was the Executive Secretary of the Organizing Committee).

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • DĪĀLA

    river. See ARVAND-RŪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIALECTOLOGY

    the terms dialect and language overlap; in general, language refers to the more or less unified system of the phonology, grammar, and lexicon that is shared by the speakers of a country, or geographic region, or a socially defined group, whereas dialect (Pers. lahja, gūyeš) focuses on varieties of a language.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • DĪĀRBAKR

    See AMIDA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIASPORA

    Iranian. i. In Pre-Islamic times. ii. Persians in India. iii. Persians in Southeast Asia. iv. Persians in Ottoman Turkey. v. Persians in the Caucasus and Central Asia in the late 19th and early 20th century. vi. Persians in Iraq. vii. Persians in Southern ports of the Persian Gulf. viii. In the Post-revolutionary period. ix and x. Afghan refugees.

    (Mary Boyce, Fariba Zarrinbaf-Shahr, H. Hakimian, Yitzhak Nakash, Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, Mehdi Bozorgmehr, Grant Farr, Čangīz Pahlavān)

  • DIATESSERON

    Persian translation of the four Gospels, based on a Syriac original. See BIBLE vii. Persian Translations.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪBĀ

    See ABRĪŠAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪBĀ, MAḤMŪD KHAN

    See ʿALĀʾ-al-MOLK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIBĪR

    See DABĪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DICHŌR

    city conquered by Šāpūr I (240-70) during his second campaign against Rome in 253, as recorded in his inscription at Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • DICKSON, MARTIN BERNARD

    (b. Brooklyn, 22 March 1924, d. Princeton, 14 May 1991), Iranist and Central Asianist who specialized in Safavid history.

    (Kathryn Babayan)

  • DICTIONARIES

    The first extant Persian dictionary is Lōḡat-e fors of the poet Asadī Ṭūsī (q.v.). Entries are arranged according to their final letters and illustrated by examples from poetry. Over ten manuscripts are known to have reached us, all of which differ in the number of entries and verses as well as the entry definitions.

    (ʿAlī Ašraf Ṣādeqī, John R. Perry, Ḥosayn Sāmeʿī)

  • DIDYMA

    (Gk. tà Dí;dyma, probably of Carian origin), district ca. 20 km south of the Ionian Miletus and site of a pre-Greek sanctuary of Apollo, to which a famous oracle was attached.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DIEU, LOUIS (LUDOVICUS) DE

    (b. Vlissingen, Flushing, April 7, 1590; d. Leiden, Dec. 23, 1642), Dutch orientalist.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • DIEULAFOY, JANE HENRIETTE MAGRE

    (b. Toulouse, 29 June 1851, d. Château de Langlade, Haute-Garonne, 25 May 1916), French archeologist, explorer, folklorist, novelist, playwright, and journalist.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • DIEULAFOY, MARCEL-AUGUSTE

    (b. Toulouse, 3 August 1844, d. Paris, 25 February 1920), French archeologist.

    (Pierre Amiet)

  • DIEZ, ERNST

    (b. 27 January 1878, d. 8 July 1961), Austrian historian of Iranian and Islamic art.

    (Jens Kröger)

  • DIGOR

    Ossetic tribal name.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • DILL

    Anethum graveolens L. (fam. Umbellifera), an herb widely cultivated in Persia.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DIMDIM

    name of a mountain and a fortress where an important battle between the Kurds and the Safavid army took place in the early 17th century.

    (Amir Hassanpour)

  • DIMLĪ

    or Zāzā; the indigenous name of an Iranian people living mainly in eastern Anatolia, in the Dersim region (present-day Tunceli) between Erzincan in the north and the Muratsu in the south, the far western part of historical Upper Armenia.

    (Garnik S. Asatrian)

  • DĪN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara.

    (EIr)

  • DĪN WA’L-ḤAYĀT, AL-

    a bi-weekly religious magazine published in Tabrīz, 1928-31, replacing another Tabrīz religious magazine, Taḏakkorāt-e dīnī.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DINAR

    a gold coin, in pre-Islamic times struck mainly for purposes of prestige. In Arabic of the classical Islamic period, the word dīnār had the double sense of a gold coin and of a monetary unit which might not be precisely embodied by actual coins.

    (Philippe Gignoux, Michael Bates)

  • DĪNĀR, MALEK

    b. Moḥammad (d. 1195), a leader of the Oghuz Turkmen in Khorasan and, in the latter years of the 12th century, ruler of Kermān.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DĪNĀRĀNĪ

    See BAḴTĪĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪNAVAR

    (occasionally vocalized Daynavar), in the first centuries of Islam an important town in Jebāl, now ruined.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ ḤANĪFA AḤMAD

    b. Dāwūd b. Vanand (d. between 894 and 903), grammarian, lexicographer, astronomer, mathematician, and Islamic traditionist of Persian origin, who lived at Dīnavar and in several cities in Iraq in the 9th century.

    (Charles Pellat)

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Ḥamdān b. Wahb b. Bešr (d. 902), traditionist and ḥāfeẓ (preserver of the Koranic text).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Mobārak (d. first half of the 10th century), author of a tafsīr (koranic exegesis) entitled al-Wāżeḥ fī tafsīr al-Qorʾān, which is preserved in several manuscripts.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • DĪNAVARĪ, AḤMAD b. Moḥammad.

    b. Moḥammad. See EBN ḴĀZEN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪNĀVARĪYA

    in Manichean usage originally “the elect.”

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • DINKHA TEPE

    See DENḴĀ TEPE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DINON

    (fl. approximately 360-30 B.C.E.), author of a historical work on the Ancient Orient.

    (Wolfgang Felix)

  • DĪNŠĀH IRĀNI

    See IRANI, DINSHAH JIJIBHOY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIO CASSIUS

    (more correctly, Cassius Dio; b. Nicea, Bithynia, ca. 160, d. Nicea, after 229), Roman official whose Rhomaikē Historia is important for the study of Parthian history.

    (Marie-Louise Chaumont)

  • DIO CHRYSOSTOM

    See DIO COCCEIANUS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIO COCCEIANUS

    surnamed Chrysostom ("golden-mouthed"), a traveling scholar who in his 36th Oration (known as the “Borysthenian” or “Olbian” from its dramatic setting), written about 100 C.E., purports to summarize a hymn composed by Zoroaster and sung by the magi in secret rites.

    (Roger Beck)

  • DIODORUS SICULUS

    Greek historian from Agyrium in Sicily, hence called Siculus (the Sicilian) who came to Rome in the middle of the first century B.C.E. and there wrote his Bibliotheca Historica, a universal history in forty books, from the origins to the age of Caesar.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • DIODOTUS

    satrap of Bactria-Sogdiana, who revolted against his Seleucid soverign Antiochus II and proclaimed himself king, thus laying the foundation of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom. The date of his revolt has been placed between 256 and 239 B.C., the majority of scholars arguing for about the year 250.

    (Osmund Bopearachchi)

  • DIOGENES LAERTIUS

    author of a biographically arranged history of Greek philosophy in ten books that also deals with the Persian Magi, especially in the first book on the origins of philosophy.

    (Wolfgang Felix)

  • DIONYSIUS

    (Gk. Dionýsios) of Miletus, Greek historiographer, who may have lived in the 5th century B.C.E. and is said to have written a book about Persian history after the death of Darius I.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DIPLOMACY

    See under individual countries; see also FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪRAKVAND

    Lor tribe belonging to the Bālā Garīva group and inhabiting a mountainous area between Ḵorramābād and Dezfūl in the Pīš-Kūh region of Lorestān.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • DĪRGHANAKHA-SŪTRA

    a Buddhist text in which the Buddha expounds the merits of observing the eight commandments to a parivrājaka named Dīrghanakha.

    (Yutaka Yoshida)

  • DIRHAM

    a unit of silver coinage and of weight. The dirham retained a stable value of about 4 g throughout the entire pre-Islamic period. The tetradrachm, or stater (> Pahl. stēr), was equivalent to 4 drachmas and was already in circulation in the Achaemenid period at the time of Alexander’s departure for Persia.

    (Philippe Gignoux, Michael Bates)

  • DĪV

    demon, monster, fiend; expresses not only the idea of “demon,” but also that of “ogre,” “giant,” and even “Satan.”

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • DĪV SOLṬĀN

    title of ʿALĪ BEG RŪMLŪ, a qezelbāš officer first mentioned at the battle of Šarūr (1501), in which the Safavid Esmāʿīl I defeated the Āq Qoyūnlū prince Alvand.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • DĪVĀL-E ḴODĀYDĀD

    an extensive area of historic remains in the center of an ancient canal system fed by the rivers Helmand and Ḵāšrūd and located between the eastern border of the Hāmūn-e Aškīnʿām and the lower Ḵāšrūd, about 45 km to the northeast of Zaranj in southwest Afghanistan.

    (Klaus Fischer)

  • DĪVĀN

    archive, register, chancery, government office; also, collected works, especially of a poet.

    (François de Blois)

  • DĪVĀN-E KEŠVAR

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. Judicial System in the 20th Century .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪVĀNA NAQQĀŠ

    15th-century painter whose work is known primarily from single-page paintings preserved in the Topkapı Sarayı library, Istanbul.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • DĪVĀNBEGĪ

    originally, the designation for the highest-ranking officer in the Timurid office of finance and justice; in the Safavid administrative system, the dīvānbegī was one of the high-ranking amirs residing at court.

    (Shiro Ando, Roger M. Savory)

  • DĪVĀNĪ, ḴAṬṬ-E

    See CALLIGRAPHY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DĪVDĀD

    See BANŪ SĀJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DIVINATION

    the art or technique of gaining knowledge of future events or distant states by means of observing and interpreting signs.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • DIVORCE

    legal termination of marriage. In the following series of articles only those communities are taken into consideration which are either Iranian or are focused in Persia. For this reason Jewish and Christian practices have not been included.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev, Mansour Shaki, Sachiko Murata, Akbar Aghajanian, Jenny Rose, Mujan Momen)

  • DIZK

    See JIZAK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DJANBAZIAN, Sarkis

    After graduating from high school, Djanbazian went to Leningrad to study dance. He graduated from Vaganova Dance Academy of Leningrad in 1936 and from Lesgaf University with a Masters of Arts degree in 1936. After graduation, he worked as a principal dancer, choreographer, and artistic director in Kirov Theatre.

    (Maria Sabaye Moghaddam)

  • DJEITUN WARE

    See CERAMICS i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DO PAYKAR

    See NOJUM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DO-BARĀDARĀN

    See JĀMI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DO-BAYTĪ

    a quatrain of sung poetry in many Persian dialects.

    (Stephen Blum)

  • DOʿĀ

    the act of offering supplicatory or petitionary prayer, a principal manifestation of Muslim piety.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DOʿĀ-NEVĪSĪ

    the act of writing charms against various evils.

    (Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī)

  • DOĀB-E MĪḴZARĪN

    a group of archeological sites with numerous pre-Islamic mud-brick ruins on either side of the Sorḵāb river, on the road from Bāmīān to Došī, opposite the entrance to the Kahmard valley.

    (Klaus Fischer)

  • DOCUMENTS

    i. In pre-Islamic period. ii. Babylonian and Egyptian documents in the Achaemenid period. iii. In the modern period.

    (Mansour Shaki, Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • DŌDĀ-BĀLĀÇ

    See BALUCHISTAN iii/II.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DODDER

    See AFTĪMŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOERFER, GERHARD

    German scholar of Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungus languages. He divided the Turkic elements in Persian into three layers: (1) an older, “pure” Turkic layer, which consists of southern and eastern Turkic elements; (2) a Middle Mongolian and Turkic layer, which includes Mongolian and southern and eastern Turkic elements; and (3) a later, “pure” Turkic layer, which comprises southern Turkic elements only.

    (Michael Knüppel)

  • DOG

    Canis familiaris; i. In literature and folklore. ii. In Zoroastrianism. iii. Ethnography.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar and Teresa P. Omidsalar, Mary Boyce, Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • DOḠLAT, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD ḤAYDAR

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOGONBADAN

    See GAČSARĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOJAYL

    See KĀRŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOḴĀNĪYĀT

    tobacco projects; referring to the State tobacco-monopoly law (Qānūn-e enḥeṣār-e dawlatī-e doḵānīyāt) of 20 March 1909 and to the state monopoly of tobacco products itself.

    (Willem Floor)

  • DOKKĀN

    See BĀZĀR i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOKKĀN-E DĀWŪD

    lit., “shop of David"; rock-cut tomb of the Achaemenid period in the Zagros range a few kilometers southeast of Sar-e Pol-e Ḏohāb, in the province of Kermānšāhān. The relief of a priest with a barsom bundle probably belongs to the early Hellenistic period.

    (Hubertus von Gall)

  • DOḴTAR-E NŌŠERVĀN

    lit., “daughter of Nōšervān”; rock-cut architectural complex with important wall paintings, in northern Afghanistan. Surrounding the deity’s head is a tripartite nimbus with attached animal protomes. This complex system seems to emphasize the supernatural force of the “king of gods” as ultimate creator of all life.

    (Markus Mode)

  • DOḴTARĀN-E ĪRĀN

    lit., “Daughters of Iran”; a monthly variety magazine for girls published in Shiraz from 23 July 1931 to November 1932.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DOKUZ ḴĀTŪN

    (d. 16 June 1265), chief wife of the Il-khan Hülegü and granddaughter of Wang Khan, leader of the Nestorian Christian Kereyit tribe domiciled near present-day Ulan Bator.

    (Charles Melville)

  • DOLAFIDS

    family of Arab origin that became politically prominent in western Persia during the 9th century.

    (Fred M. Donner)

  • DOLDOL

    or Doldūl, in Ar. lit., “large porcupine”; name of a female mule that Moqawqes, governor of Egypt, sent to the Prophet Moḥammad as a gift.

    (Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī)

  • DOLGORUKOV MEMOIRS

    document published under the title Eʿterāfāt-e sīāsī yā yāddāšthā-ye Kenyāz Dolqorūkī (Political confessions or memoirs of Prince Dolgorukov) in the historical portion of the “Khorasan yearbook,” issued in Mašhad in 1943.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • DOLICHĒ

    city in the Roman province of Syria conquered together with the surrounding area by Šāpūr I during his second campaign against Rome in 252 or 253.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • DOLMA

    or dūlma; Turkish term for stuffed vegetable or fruit dishes common in the Middle East and in Mediterranean countries.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • DOLOMITAE

    See DEYLAMITES i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOMAN

    city in the Roman province of Cappadocia, conquered along with the surrounding area by the Sasanian Šāpūr I (240-70) during his second campaign against Rome.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • DOMES

    circular vaulted roofs or ceilings. The variety of forms and decoration of Persian domes is unrivaled. Domes on squinches first appeared in Persia in the Sasanian period in the palace at Fīrūzābād in Fārs and at nearby Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar, both erected by Ardašir I (r. 224-40).

    (Bernard O’Kane)

  • DOMESTIC ANIMALS

    This article is devoted to the principal characteristics of the predominant systems of domestication in Afghanistan and Persia, what they owe to neighboring or preceding systems, how they have departed from them, and whether or not it is possible to speak of a typically Iranian system of domestication.

    (Daniel Balland and Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • DONALDSON, BESS ALLEN

    (1879-1974) and DWIGHT MARTIN (1884-1976), American Presbyterian missionaries and writers about Persia.

    (Peter Avery)

  • DONBA

    the fatty part of the sheep’s tail, traditionally used as a cooking fat, sometimes in melted form, or as an inexpensive meat substitute.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • DONBAK

    See TONBAK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DONBĀVAND

    See DAMĀVAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DONBOLĪ

    name of a turkicized Kurdish tribe in the Ḵoy and Salmās regions of northwestern Azerbaijan and of the leading family of Ḵoy since the 16th century.

    (ʿAli Āl-e Dāwud and Pierre Oberling)

  • DONBOLĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BEG

    See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BEG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DONBOLI, AMIR BEHRUZ

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DONKEY

    i. In Persian tradition and folk belief. ii. Domestication in Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • DONKEY i. In Persian tradition and folk belief

    domesticated species descended from the wild ass, probably first bred in captivity in Egypt and western Asia, where by 2500 B.C.E. the domesticated donkey was in use as a beast of burden.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar and Teresa P. Omidsalar)

  • DONKEY ii. Domestication in Iran

    The Tol-e Nurābād sherd raises many questions about the locus of donkey domestication in the Old World, particularly since the Zagros highlands, where it was discovered, have been considered well to the east of the original range of Equid africanus.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • DONYĀ

    lit., “The world”; name of several Persian journals and newspapers.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DONYĀ-YE EMRŪZ

    lit. "Today’s world"; name of a weekly magazine published in Tehran and two weekly newspapers founded in Qazvīn and Isfahan, respectively.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DOORS AND DOOR FRAMES

    in Persian architecture major foci of decoration, varying in size and elaboration with the function and importance of the building and the location of the entrance in relation to the total composition.

    (Sheila Blair, Mortażā Momayyez)

  • DŌRĪ

    river in southern Afghanistan, the main tributary of the Arḡandā.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DORN, JOHANNES ALBRECHT BERNHARD

    (1805-1881), pioneer in many areas of Iranian studies in Russia. He never visited Afghanistan, but he nevertheless established the scientific basis for Afghan studies, particularly the first systematic description of Pashto.

    (N. L. Luzhetskaya)

  • DORNĀ

    See CRANE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DORR

    See PEARL i. Pre-Islamic Period and PEARL ii. Islamic Period.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DORRĀNĪ

    probably the most numerous Pashtun tribal confederation, from which all Afghan dynasties since 1747 have come. The Dorrānī confederation is a political grouping of ten Pashtun tribes of various sizes, which are further organized in two leagues of five tribes each.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DORRĀNĪ, AḤMAD SHAH

    See AFGHANISTAN x.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DORRĀNĪ DYNASTY

    See AFGHANISTAN x.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎORRAT

    maize or (Indian) corn, Zea mays L. (fam. Gramineae), with many varieties and hybrids.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DORRAT-AL-MAʿĀLĪ

    (b. Tehran, 1873, d. Tehran, Šahrīvar 1924), pioneer in female education in Persia.

    (Afsaneh Najmabadi)

  • DORRAT AL-NAJAF

    lit. "Pearl of Najaf"; monthly religious journal published in Persian at Najaf in southern Iraq at the end of the first decade of the 20th century.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DORRI EFENDI

    See DÜRRI EFENDI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DORŪD

    a town in Lorestān province, situated at the foot of Oštorānkūh, at an altitude of 1,460 m on the route from Tehran to Ḵorramābād at the confluence of the rivers Tīra and Mārbara.

    (ʿAli Āl-e Dāwud)

  • DŌŠĪ

    small town and district on the northern slope of the central Hindu Kush in Afghanistan.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • DOŠMANZĪĀRĪ

    name of two Lor tribes in southern Persia, the Došmanzīārī-e Mamasanī and the Došmanzīārī-e Kūhgīlūya.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • DŌST MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    (b. Qandahār December 1792, d. Herat, 9 June 1863), first ruler of the Bārakzay/Moḥammadzay dynasty of Afghanistan. He was the first to bring the region that today constitutes Afghanistan under the control, occasionally tenuous, of a single central government.

    (Amin H. Tarzi)

  • DOTĀR

    long-necked lute of the tanbūr family, usually with two strings (do tār). The principal feature is the pear-shaped sound box attached to a neck that is longer than the box and faced with a wooden soundboard. Dotārs can be classified in several different types.

    (Jean During)

  • DOZĀLA

    kind of flute consisting of two parallel pipes pierced with holes and fitted with a removable vibrating mouthpiece made by cutting a U-shaped incision into a thin reed.

    (Jean During)

  • DOZDĀB

    See ZĀHEDĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DOZY, REINHARD PETRUS ANNE

    (b. Leiden, 21 February 1820, d. Leiden, 29 April 1883), Dutch orientalist renowned especially as a lexicographer of Arabic and a historian of Muslim Andalusia.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • DRAGON

    See AŽDAHĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DRAINAGE

    the carrying away of excess surface water through runoff in permanent or intermittent streams. Persia can be divided into four main drainage regions: the Caspian region, the Lake Urmia region, the Persian Gulf region, and the interior. Most of it is characterized by endorheic basins, that is, by interior drainage.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • DRAMA

    in formal Western terms a relatively new art form in Persia, though various types of dramatic performance, including religious plays and humorous satirical skits, have long been a part of Persian religious and folk tradition.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • DRANGIANA

    or Zarangiana; territory around Lake Hāmūn and the Helmand river in modern Sīstān.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DRÁPSAKA

    Greek name of a Bactrian city in northern Afghanistan, the first town captured by Alexander the Great after crossing the Hindu Kush.

    (Frantz Grenet)

  • DRAWING

    an art form primarily dependent on expressive line. The high quality of Persian drawings maintained from the late 13th to the early 20th century provides a clear indication that this art form was appreciated by the Persian cultural elite.

    (M. L. Swietochowski)

  • DRAXT Ī ĀSŪRĪG

    lit. "The Babylonian tree"; a versified contest over precedence between a goat and a palm tree, composed in the Parthian language, written in Book Pahlavi script, and consisting of about 120 verses.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DREAMS AND DREAM INTERPRETATION

    i. In pre-Islamic Persia. ii. In the Persian tradition.

    (Hossein Ziai)

  • DRESDEN, MARK JAN

    (b. Amsterdam, 26 April 1911; d. Philadelphia, 16 August 1986), professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught Persian, then various Old and Middle Iranian languages from 1949 until his retirement in 1977. He worked especially on Khotanese literary texts.

    (Hiroshi Kumamoto)

  • DREYFUS-BARNEY

    joint surname adopted by two leading Bahai figures of the 20th century.

    (Shapour Rassekh)

  • DRIWAY-

    (or Driβi-), Younger Avestan noun from the Vidēvdād; the word probably referred either to a skin disease or to drooling.

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DRIYŌŠĀN JĀDAG-GŌW UD DĀDWAR

    Middle Persian title of a Sasanian official, “intercessor and judge of the poor.”

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • DṚNABĀJIŠ

    name of the fifth month (July-August) of the Old Persian calendar, equivalent to Akkadian Ābu and Elamite Zillatam.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DRŌN

    Zoroastrian ritual term originally meaning “sacred portion” and designating a ritual offering to divine beings.

    (Jamsheed K. Choksy)

  • DRUGS

    in medieval Muslim literature any vegetable, mineral, or animal substance that acts on the human body, whether as a medicament, a poison, or an antidote.

    (Ṣādeq Sajjādi)

  • DRUJ-

    Avestan feminine noun defining the concept opposed to that of aṧa-.

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DRUMS

    large group of percussion instruments.

    (Jean During)

  • DRUSTBED

    chief physician in the Sasanian period.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • DRVĀSPĀ

    or Drwāspā, Druuāspā, lit., “with solid horses”; Avestan goddess.

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DRYPETIS

    (Gk. Drýpĕtis [Arrian] or Drypêtis [Diodorus]), daughter of Darius III Codomannus and younger sister of Stateira; in the collective wedding arranged by Alexander the Great at Susa in 324 B.C.E. she was given in marriage to Hephaestion.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ḎU’L-AKTĀF

    See Šāpur II.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎŪ-BAḤRAYN

    a term in Persian and Arabic prosody designating a poem that can be scanned according to two or more different meters (baḥr).

    (Sīrūs Šamīsā)

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR

    lit., “provided with notches, grooves, vertebrae”; the miraculous sword of Imam ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāleb, with two blades or points, which became a symbol of his courage on the battlefield.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR KHAN AFŠĀR

    governor (ḥākem) of Ḵamsa province (ca. 1763-80) under the Zand dynasty.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ḎU’L-FAQĀR ŠĪRVĀNĪ

    MALEK-AL-ŠOʿARĀ QEWĀM-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN b. Ṣadr-al-Dīn ʿAlī (d. ca. 691/1291), Persian poet and panegyrist of the Il-khanid period.

    (Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi)

  • ḎU’L-JANĀḤ

    Imam Ḥosayn’s winged horse, known from popular literature and rituals.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ḎU’L-LESĀNAYN

    lit. “possessor of two tongues”; epithet often bestowed upon bilingual poets.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • DU MANS, RAPHAEL

    (d. 1696), FATHER, author of important descriptions of Persia.

    (Francis Richard)

  • ḎU’L-NŪN MEṢRĪ, ABU’L-FAYŻ ṮAWBĀN

    b. Ebrāhīm (b. Aḵmīm in Upper Egypt, ca. 791, d. Jīza [Giza], between 859 and 862), early Sufi master.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • ḎU’L-QADR

    (arabicized form of Turk. Dulgadır), a Ḡozz tribe that became established mainly in southeastern Anatolia under the Saljuqs.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ḎŪ QĀR

    watering place near Kūfa in Iraq where a battle was fought between Arab tribesmen and Persian forces in the early 7th century.

    (Ella Landau-Tasseron)

  • DU’L-QARNAYN

    See ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎU’L-RĪĀSATAYN

    See FAŻL B. SAHL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḎU’L-RĪĀSATAYN

    (b. Shiraz, 1873, d. Tehran, 15 June 1953), for thirty years qoṭb (leader) of a principal branch of the Neʿmatallāhī Sufi order.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ḎU’L-ŠAHĀDATAYN

    See AŠRAF ḠAZNAVĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DUALISM

    feature peculiar to Iranian religion in ancient and medieval times.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • DUBAI

    (Dobayy), second largest of the seven emirates constituting the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf.

    (Sussan Siavoshi)

  • DUCHESNE-GUILLEMIN, JACQUES

    (1910-2012), distinguished scholar of classical philology and Indo-Iranian studies.

    (Pierre Lecoq)

  • DUCK

    technically any species of the family Anatidae but in Persian popular usage including similar waterfowl from other families, particularly some geese and grebes.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • DŪḠ

    beverage made of yogurt and plain or carbonated water and often served chilled as a refreshing summer drink or with meals, especially with kebabs or čelow-kabāb.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • DŪḠ-E WAḤDAT

    lit. “beverage of unity”; concoction made from adding hashish extract (jowhar-e ḥaīš) to diluted yogurt.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • DUGDŌW

    the name of Zoroaster’s mother, which appears in several different spellings in the Pahlavi texts, mostly more or less corrupted from an original attempt at representing the Avestan form.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DULAFIDS

    See DOLAFIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DUMAQU

    or Domoko; administrative center of the eastern region of the Khotan oasis in Chinese Turkestan.

    (Gerd Gropp)

  • DUMÉZIL, Georges

    (1898-1986), French comparatist philologist and religious studies scholar. Among the most significant later modifications in Dumézil's views was his decision to abandon the claim that Indo-European society was originally divided into three functional groupings.

    (Bruce Lincoln)

  • DUNG

    human and animal excrement, widely used in Persia and Afghanistan for fuel and fertilizer.

    (Willem Floor)

  • DUNHUANG

    an oasis town situated in the northwest of the Chinese province of Gansu, famous for the nearby Mogao Caves.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • DUNHUANG i. The cave sites; Manichean texts

    The Mogao Caves are located some 25 km from Dunhuang at the edge of the Dunes of the Singing Sands (Mingshashan) of the Gobi desert. These contain over 45,000 square meters of predominantly Buddhist murals and more than 2,000 Buddhist painted stucco sculptures.

    (Gunner Mikkelsen)

  • DUNHUANG ii. Buddhist and Other Texts in Iranian Languages

    archeological site withaa library cave ithat has yielded a number of texts of the 8th to 10th centuries in two Middle Iranian languages, Khotanese and Sogdian.

    (Yutaka Yoshida)

  • DŪNQEŠLĀQ

    or Dong Qešlaq; group of pre-Islamic and Islamic archeological sites on the Emām Ṣāḥeb plain in the Qondūz province of Afghanistan, about 10 km south of the Oxus.

    (Klaus Fischer)

  • DUPREE, LOUIS

    Following the completion of his Ph.D. degree, Dupree taught at the Air University at Maxwell Air Force Base and Pennsylvania State University. Between 1959 and 1983 he was affiliated with the American Universities Field Staff (A.U.F.S.) as its expert on Afghanistan and Pakistan.

    (David B. Edwards)

  • DURA EUROPOS

    ruined city on the right bank of the Euphrates between Antioch and Seleucia on the Tigris, founded in 303 BCE by Nicanor, a general of Seleucus I. Its military function of the Greek period was abandoned under the Parthians, but at that time it was an administrative and economic center.

    (Pierre Leriche, D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DURAND, HENRY MORTIMER

    (b. Sehore, Bhopal State, India, 14 February 1850, d. Polden, Somerset, England, 8 June 1924), British diplomat and envoy to Tehran at the end of the 19th century.

    (Rose L. Greaves)

  • DŪRAOŠA

    Avestan word, attested once in the Older Avesta, in the Younger Avesta the preferred and exclusive epithet of haoma, the ritual liquid.

    (Jean Kellens)

  • DŪRĀSRAW

    according to the Pahlavi tradition the name of two legendary personages in the history of Zoroastrianism.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • DURIS OF SAMOS

    (Gk. Doûris), (ca. 340-281/270 B.C.E.), Greek historiographer of the early Hellenistic period.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • DŪRMEŠ, KHAN

    or Dormeš; b. ʿAbdī Beg TAVĀČĪ ŠĀMLŪ, powerful Qezelbāš amir, brother-in-law and confidant of Shah Esmāʿīl I.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • DŪRNEMĀ-YE ĪRĀN

    weekly of politics and culture edited and published by the Persian writer, scholar, and filmmaker ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Sepantā in Bombay from 30 November 1928 to March 1929.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • DÜRRI EFENDI, AḤMAD

    (or Dorrī Afandī; (b. Van, date unknown, d. Istanbul, 1722), Ottoman poet, civil servant, and diplomat who served as ambassador to Tehran and wrote Sefārat-nāma, the first Turkish account of Safavid Persia.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • DUSHANBE

    capital and most populous city of Tajikistan.

    (Muriel Atkin)

  • DŪST-ʿALĪ MOʿAYYER

    See MOʿAYYER-AL-MAMĀLEK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DŪST-MOḤAMMAD HERAVĪ

    (d. probably Qazvīn, shortly after 1564), master calligrapher, the only artist whom Shah Ṭahmāsb I kept with him after having gradually dismissed all the others from his direct service.

    (Chahryar Adle)

  • DŪST MOḤAMMAD KHAN BĀRAKZĪ

    See DŌST MOḤAMMAD KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • DŪST-MOḤAMMAD MOṢAWWER

    (d. ca. 1560), master painter, known in the Indo-Persian world and even among the Ottomans as a painter (moṣawwer), paper cutter (qāṭeʿ), calligraphic tracer/outliner (moḥarrer), and perhaps binder (saḥḥāf) and gilder (moḏahheb).

    (Chahryar Adle)

  • DUTCH-PERSIAN RELATIONS

    Until the 16th century the Dutch knew little of Persia; Franciscus Raphelengius, at Leiden University, drew up a short list of Persian words based on the first Persian text ever printed, a translation of the Pentateuch in Hebrew characters.

    (Willem Floor)

  • DŪZAḴ

    hell.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • DUŽYĀIRYA

    bad year or bad harvest.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • DVIN

    city in Armenia located north of Artaxata on the left bank of the Azat, about 35 km south of the present Armenian capital at Yerevan. It remained a significant center from the Sasanian period to the 13th century, and its pleasant climate was mentioned by many authors.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • DYAKONOV, MIKHAIL MIKHAĬLOVICH

    (b. St. Petersburg, 26 June 1907, d. Moscow, 8 June 1954), Russian scholar of Iranian studies.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • DYES

    See CARPETS ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • Dād

    (music sample)

  • Darviš Khān – Pishdarāmad

    (music sample)

  • Dastgāh-e Čahārgāh

    (music sample)

  • Dastgāh-e Māhur

    (music sample)

  • Dašti

    (music sample)

  • Delkaš (1)

    (music sample)

  • Delkaš (2)

    (music sample)

  • Denaseri

    (music sample)

  • Deylamān

    (music sample)

  • Divāna šo

    (music sample)

  • D~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter D entries.

    (DATA)