List of Articles

  • EAGLES

    (Ar. and Pers. ʿoqāb; also obsolete Pers. dāl < Mid. Pers. dālman; also obsolete Pers. and Mid. Pers. āloh), large, diurnal, raptorial birds of the family Accipitridae in several genera (45-90 cm long, wingspan 110-250 cm).

    (Steven C. Anderson, William L. Hanaway, Jr.)

  • EARTH IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    See ELEMENTS i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EARTHQUAKES

    in Persia and Afghanistan. Both countries lie on the great alpine belt that extends from the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean through the Indonesian archipelago and forms the world’s longest collision boundary, between the Eurasian plate in the north and several former Gondwanan blocks in the south, including the so-called “Iranian plates” and “Afghan plates.”

    (Daniel Balland, Habib Borjian, Xavier de Planhol, Manuel Berberian)

  • EAST AFRICA

    Persian relations with the lands of the East African coast, particularly Somalia, Kenya, and Tanzania. From early times monsoon winds have permitted rapid maritime travel between East Africa and Western Asia. Although large-scale Persian settlement in East Africa is unlikely Persian cultural and religious influences nonetheless were felt.

    (Mark Horton, Derek Nurse, Farouk Topan, Will. C. van den Hoonard)

  • EAST AND WEST

    an English language quarterly published since 1950 by IsMEO (Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente [Italian Institute for Middle and Far East]) and now by the IsIAO (Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente [Italian Institute for Africa and the Orient]).

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • EAST INDIA COMPANY (BRITISH)

    a trading company incorporated on 31 December 1600 for fifteen years with the primary purpose of exporting the staple production of English woolen cloths and importing the products of the East Indies.

    (R. W. Ferrier, John R. Perry)

  • EAST INDIA COMPANY (DUTCH)

    See DUTCH-PERSIAN RELATIONS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EAST INDIA COMPANY (FRENCH)

    a company established in 1664 to conduct all French commercial operations with the Orient.

    (Anne Kroell)

  • EAST SYRIAN MONASTERIES IN SASANIAN IRAN

    Traces of monastic foundations in Sasanian Iran can be found in the sources as early as the 4th century CE. In the present review of the main East Syrian monasteries, emphasis is on the reformed monastic settlements of the 6th-7th centuries.

    (Florence Jullien)

  • EASTERN IRANIAN LANGUAGES

    term used to refer to a group of Iranian languages most of which are or were spoken in lands to the east of the present state of Persia.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • EASTWICK, EDWARD BACKHOUSE

    (1814–1883), orientalist and diplomat, best known for his translations from Persian and Indian languages.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • ʿEBĀDĪ, AḤMAD

    (1906-1993), one of the outstanding modern masters of Persian music. He played a leading role in popularizing the setār; the appeal of his performance resulted partly from the development of a new style involving slight technical and acoustical modifications to the instrument.

    (Jean During)

  • EBĀḤĪYA

    or EBĀḤATĪYA; a polemical term denoting either antinomianism or groups and individuals accused thereof.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • EBER-NĀRI

    the Akkadian name used in Assyrian and Babylonian records of the 8th-5th centuries B.C.E. for the lands to the west of the Euphrates—i.e., Phoenicia, Syria, and Palestine.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • EBERMAN, VASILIĬ ALEKSANDROVICH

    (b. St. Petersburg, 1899, d. Orel, 1937), scholar of early Persian poets writing in Arabic.

    (Anas B. Khalidov)

  • EBIR NĀRĪ

    See EBER-NĀRI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBLĀḠ

    lit. “communication”; title of five Persian language newspapers.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EBLĪS

    a Koranic designation for the devil in Persian Sufi Tradition, derived ultimately from the Greek diabolos.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • EBN ʿABBĀD

    See ṢĀḤEB B. ʿABBĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ABHAR, MOḤAMMAD-TAQĪ

    (1854-1919), Bahai teacher and one of the “hands of the cause."

    (Stephen Lambden)

  • EBN ABI’L ḤADĪD

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. ABU’L ḤADĪD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ABĪ JOMHŪR AḤSĀʾĪ, Moḥammad

    b. Zayn-al-Dīn Abi’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ḥosām-al-Dīn Ebrāhīm (b. ca. 1433-34; d. after 4 July 1499), Shiʿite thinker.

    (Todd Lawson)

  • EBN ABĪ ṢĀDEQ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABD-al-RAḤMĀN

    b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad NAYŠĀBŪRĪ (Nīšāpūr, 11th century), medical author known in the century after his death, at least in Khorasan, as “the second Hippocrates," and reportedly a student of Avicenna.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • EBN ABĪ ṬĀHER ṬAYFŪR, ABU’L-FAŻL AḤMAD

    (819-93), littérateur (adīb) and historian of Baghdad, of a Khorasani family.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN AMĀJŪR

    See BANŪ AMĀJŪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ʿĀMER

    See ʿABD-ALLĀH B. ʿĀMER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN AL-ʿAMĪD

    cognomen of two famous viziers of the 4th/10th century: Abu’l-Fażl and his son Abu’l-Fatḥ.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • EBN AL-ʿARABĪ, MOḤYĪ-al-DĪN Abū ʿAbd-Allāh Moḥammad Ṭāʾī Ḥātemī

    (b. 28 July 1165; d. 10 November 1240), the most influential Sufi author of later Islamic history, known to his supporters as al-Šayḵ al-akbar, “the Greatest Master.”

    (William C. Chittick)

  • EBN ʿARABŠĀH, ŠEHĀB-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ʿABBĀS AḤMAD

    (1389-Cairo, 1450), b. Moḥammad … Ḥanafī ʿAjamī, literary scholar and biographer of Tamerlane (Tīmūr).

    (John E. Woods)

  • EBN AṢDAQ, MĪRZĀ ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD

    (b. Mašhad 1850; d. Tehran, 1928), prominent Bahai missionary.

    (Stephen Lambden)

  • EBN AŠTAR

    the name usually given to Abu Noʿmān Ebrāhim b. Mālek al-Aštar b. al-Hāreṯ al-Naḵaʿi (i.e., of al-Naḵaʿ, a branch of the South Arabian Maḏḥej tribal group), Arab chief and Shiʿite military leader (d. at Maskin on the Tigris, in Jomādā I 72/September-October 691).

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • EBN AL-AṮĪR, ʿEZZ-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    b. Moḥammad Jazarī (b. Jazīrat Ebn ʿOmar [modern Cizre, in eastern Turkey] 13 May 1160; d. Mosul, June 1233), major Islamic historian and important source for the history of Persia and adjacent areas from the Samanids to the first Mongol invasion.

    (D. S. Richards)

  • EBN ʿAṬṬĀŠ

    See ʿAṬṬĀŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ʿAYYĀŠ, ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    b. Moḥammad Baṣrī, Muʿtazilite theologian (d. late 10th century), member of the so-called “school of Baṣra” and a partisan of the ideas of Abū Hāšem Jobbāʾī.

    (Daniel Gimaret)

  • EBN BĀBĀ KĀŠĀNĪ (Qāšānī), ABU’L-ʿABBĀS

    (d. Marv, 1116-17), Persian writer and boon-companion (nadīm), whose manual for courtiers preserves otherwise lost information on the later Ghaznavids.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN BĀBAWAYH (1)

    (Bābūya), family of Persian builders, luster potters, and tile makers, descended from the Shiʿite scholar Ebn Bābūya al-Ṣadūq (d. 991) and active in the 12th-14th centuries.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • EBN BĀBAWAYH (2)

    (Bābūya), SHAIKH ṢADŪQ ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD b. Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī... Mūsā Qomī (b. Qom after 305, probably about 311/923; d. Ray, 381/991), author of one of the authoritative four books of Imami Shiʿite Hadith, Man lā yaḥżoroho’l-faqīh.

    (Martin McDermott)

  • EBN BĀKŪYA

    See BĀBĀ KŪHĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN AL-BALḴĪ

    conventional name for an otherwise unknown author of Fārs-nāma, a local history and geography of the province of Fārs written in Persian during the Saljuq period.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN BAQIYA

    called Naṣir-al-Dawla and Nāṣeḥ "Counselor,” vizier of the Buyids in Iraq, b. 314/926, d. 367/978.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN BAṬṬŪṬA

    (1304-1368/9), the most famous Muslim traveler.

    (Charles F. Beckingham)

  • EBN AL-BAYṬĀR, ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Aḥmad (?-1248), Andalusian botanist and pharmacologist.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • EBN AL-BAYYEʿ

    See ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH B. AL-BAYYEʿ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN BAZZĀZ

    author of the Ṣafwat al-ṣafāʾ, a biography of Shaikh Ṣafī-al-Dīn Esḥāq Ardabīlī (d. 935/1334), founder of the Safavid order of Sufis and the eponym of the Safavid dynasty.

    (Roger Savory)

  • EBN BĪBĪ, NĀṢER-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN

    b. Moḥammad b. ʿAlī Jaʿfarī Roḡadī, Persian historian and man of letters.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • EBN BOḴTĪŠŪʿ

    prominent family of physicians of Gondēšāpūr at court during the early ʿAbbasid period.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • EBN DĀʿĪ RĀZĪ, ABŪ TORĀB ṢAFĪ-AL-DĪN MORTAŻĀ

    b. Dāʿī b. Qāsem Rāzī Ḥosaynī (or Ḥasanī), known as ʿAlam-al-Hodā (d. after 1132), Imami traditionist and author of a heresiography in Persian.

    (Marco Salami)

  • EBN DĀROST, MAJD-AL-WOZARĀʾ MOḤAMMAD

    b. Manṣūr (d. Ahvā, 1074), vizier to the ʿAbbasid caliph al-Qāʾem from 9 May 1061 to 9 December 1062.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN DĀROST, TĀJ-AL-MOLK ABU’L-ḠANĀʾEM MARZBĀN

    b. Ḵosrow-Fīrūz Šīrāzī (1046-93), last vizier of the Great Saljuq Sultan Malekšāh.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN DAYṢĀN

    See BARDESANES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN DOROSTAWAYH, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALL

    b. Jaʿfar b. Dorostawayh b. Marzbān (b. Fasā, 871; d. Baghdad, May 958), grammarian and lexicographer of Persian origin.

    (Seeger A. Bonebakker)

  • EBN AL-ʿEBRĪ, ABU’L-FARAJ

    (1225-1286), Syriac historian and polymath. Most of his works were in Syriac, but he also wrote in Arabic. In his Syriac Chronicle, much attention is given to the vicissitudes of the Jacobite and East Syrian, or Nestorian, churches in the “Persian territories.”

    (Herman G. B. Teule)

  • EBN AL-EḴŠĪD, ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD

    b. ʿAlī b. Beḡčor (884-938), Muʿtazilite theologian.

    (Daniel Gimaret)

  • EBN ELYĀS, MANṢŪR

    (fl. late 14th-early 15th cent.), author of two extant Persian works: a medical compilation titled Kefāya-ye mojāhedīya and an illustrated anatomy text known as the Tašrīḥ-e manṣūrī. The five full-page drawings, corresponding to the five treatises in the Tašrīḥ, are unique in the history of Islamic medicine.

    (Gül A. Russell)

  • EBN ESFANDĪĀR, BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    b. Ḥasan, historian, probably from Āmol, who flourished around the turn of the 13th century.

    (Charles Melville)

  • EBN FAHD ḤELLĪ, ABU’L-ʿABBĀS JAMĀL-AL-DĪN AḤMAD

    b. Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad (1355-1437), Imami scholar and jurist.

    (Marco Salami)

  • EBN AL-FAQĪH, ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD

    b. Moḥammad b. Esḥāq b. Ebrāhīm HAMADĀNĪ Aḵbārī (fl. second half of the 9th century), man of letters, who wrote in Arabic Ketāb aḵbār al- boldān, a geographic work, in which primarily the Islamic world with its centers in Arabia, Persia, and Iraq are described.

    (Anas B. Khalidov)

  • EBN FARĪḠŪN

    See ĀL-E FARĪḠŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN FAŻLĀN

    See AḤMAD B. FAŻLĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN FONDOQ

    See BAYHAQĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN AL-FOWAṬĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    (1244-1323), b. Aḥmad, librarian and historian.

    (Charles Melville)

  • EBN FŪLĀD

    (or Ebn Pūlād), military adventurer, probably of Daylamī origin, active in northern Persia during the Buyid period (early 11th century) and typical of the soldiers of fortune characterizing the “Daylamī intermezzo” of medieval Persian history.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN FŪRAK

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḤAWQAL, ABU’L-QĀSEM MOḤAMMAD

    b. Alī ʿNaṣībī, traveler and geographer of the 10th century.

    (Anas B. Khalidov)

  • EBN ḤAWŠAB, ABU’L-QĀSEM ḤASAN

    b. Faraj (or Faraḥ) b. Ḥawšab b. Zāḏān Najjār Kūfī, known also as Manṣūr al-Yaman (d. 914), Ismaʿili dāʿī and founder of the Ismaʿili community in northern Yemen.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • EBN HENDŪ, ABU’L-FARAJ ʿALĪ

    b. Ḥosayn, also known as Ostāḏ (b. in Ṭabarestān, no later than the early 960s; d. in or after 1031), author of, inter alia, propaedeutic epistles on philosophy and medicine and of a gnomology of Greek wisdom, and generally renowned as a litterateur.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • EBN ḤOSĀM ḴᵛĀFĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    or Ḵūsfī, a poet of the 15th century.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā )

  • EBN AL-JEʿĀBĪ, ABŪ BAKR MOḤAMMAD

    (897-966), b. ʿOmar Tamīmī Ḥāfeẓ, traditionist with Shiʿite leanings.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • EBN AL-JONAYD, ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD

    or al-Jonaydī; b. Aḥmad Kāteb Eskāfī, 10th century Imami jurist.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • EBN ḴAFĪF

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḴĀLAWAYH, ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH ḤOSAYN

    b. Aḥmad b. Ḥamdān Hamaḏānī, philologist and Koran scholar.

    (Michael G. Carter)

  • EBN ḴALDŪN, ABŪ ZAYD ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    b. Moḥammad (b. 27 May 1332; d. 17 March 1406), the historian famous for the general theory of history and civilization brilliantly expounded in his Moqaddema.

    (Franz Rosenthal)

  • EBN ḴALLĀD, ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD BAṢRĪ

    (d. 2nd half of 10th century), Muʿtazilite theologian of the so-called “school of Baṣra,” partisan of the ideas of Abū Hāšem Jobbāʾī.

    (Daniel Gimaret)

  • EBN ḴAMMĀR, ABU’L-ḴAYR ḤASAN

    b. Savār (or Sovār), b. Bābā b. Bahrām (or Behnām) Ḵᵛārazmī, philosopher.

    (W. Montgomery Watt)

  • EBN ḴĀQĀN

    See Supplement. 4/4/2017 - Unpublished as per E.D.'s email

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḴĀQĀN, FATḤ

    See FATḤ B. ḴĀQĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḴARMĪL

    early 13th century military commander of the Ghurids, and connected, according to Jūzjānī, with the district of Gorzevān on the headwaters of the Morḡāb in the province of Gūzgān in northern Afghanistan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN ḴĀZEM

    See ʿABDALLĀH B. ḴĀZEM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḴĀZEN DĪNAVARĪ

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ḴORDĀḎBEH, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh (fl. 9th century), author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN MAFANA

    vizier to the Buyid ruler of Fars and Khuzestan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN MĀHĀN

    See ʿALĪ B. ʿĪSĀ B. MĀHĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MĀJŪR

    See BANŪ AMĀJŪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MĀKŪLA

    See ĀL-E MĀKŪLĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MARDAWAYH, AHMAD

    b. Mūsā b. Mardawayh b. Fūrak Eṣfahānī (935-1019), scholar of Isfahan in the Buyid period, who wrote in the fields of tradition, tafsīr (Koranic exegsis), history, and geography.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN MARZOBĀN, ABŪ AḤMAD ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    b. ʿAlī b. Marzbān Ṭabīb Marzbānī (d. Tostar, February-March 1006), administrative official under the Buyids.

    (D. M. Dunlop)

  • EBN MATTAWAYH, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ḤASAN

    b. Aḥmad b. Mattawayh, Muʿtazilite theologian of the Basran school, a student of Qāżī ʿAbd-al-Jabbār (d. 1025).

    (Martin McDermott)

  • EBN MESKAWAYH

    Persian chancery official and treasury clerk of the Buyid period, boon companion, litterateur and accomplished writer in Arabic on a variety of topics, including history, theology, philosophy and medicine (d. 421/1030). See MESKAWAYH, ABU ʿALI AḤMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MOʿĀVĪA

    See ʿABDALLAH B. MOʿĀVĪA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MOBĀRAK

    See ʿABDALLAH B. MOBĀRAK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MOHALHEL

    See ABŪ DOLAF AL-YANBŪʿĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MOLJAM

    Ebn Moljam will be discussed in a future online entry.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN AL-MOQAFFAʿ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH RŌZBEH

    (721-757), b. Dādūya/Dādōē, chancery secretary (kāteb) and major Arabic prose writer.

    (J. Derek Latham)

  • EBN MORSAL, LAYṮ

    b. Fażl, a client (mawlā) and governor of Sīstān 815-19.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN MOSTAWFĪ, ABU’L-BARAKĀT ŠARAF-AL-DĪN MOBĀRAK

    b. Aḥmad b. Mobārak Erbelī (1168-1239), historian of Erbel.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • EBN AL-MOṬAHHAR

    See ḤELLĪ, ʿALLĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN MOṬARREF

    See ABU’L-WAZĪR MARVAZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN AL-NADĪM

    Shi'ite scholar and bibliographer of the 10th century, famous as the author of Ketāb al-fehrest. See under FEHREST.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN NAWBAḴT, ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    See NAWBAḴTĪ FAMILY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN NAWBAḴT, ABŪ SAHL

    See ABŪ SAHL NAWBAḴTĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN NAWBAḴT, ḤASAN B. MŪSĀ

    See NAWBAḴTĪ, ḤASAN B. MŪSĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN NOṢRAT, AMIR BAHĀʾ-AL- DĪN BARANDAQ ḴOJANDĪ

    (b. 1356; d. ca. 1433), Timurid poet.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • EBN AL-QAṢṢĀB, ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR MOʾAYYAD-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    (b. ca. 1128), b. ʿAlī, Shiʿite vizier of the caliph al-Nāṣer from 1194 to 1195.

    (Richard W. Bulliet)

  • EBN QEBA, ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Rāzī (d. Ray, before 931), one of the most prominent and active Imami theologians.

    (Martin McDermott)

  • EBN QOTAYBA, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Moslem DĪNAVARĪ, (828-889), important early philologist in the widest sense of the term and author of numerous works on what is known as the “Arab sciences,” including the religious sciences dealing with the Koran and Hadith.

    (Franz Rosenthal)

  • EBN QŪLAWAYH, ABU’L- QĀSEM JAʿFAR

    b. Moḥammad b. Jaʿfar b. Mūsāb. Qūlawayh Qomī Baḡdādī (d. Baghdad, 978 or 979), Imami traditionist and jurist, a disciple of Abū Jaʿfar Kolaynī and teacher of Shaikh Mofīd.

    (Martin McDermott)

  • EBN RABBAN ṬABARI

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN RABĪṬ

    See ʿABDĀN B. AL-RABĪṬ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN RĀVANDĪ, ABU’l-ḤOSAYN AḤMAD

    b. Yaḥyā (d. 910?), Muʿtazilite theologian and “heretic” of Ḵorāsānī origin.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • EBN RĒVANDĪ

    See EBN RĀVANDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ROSTA, ABŪ ʿALĪ AḤMAD

    b. ʿOmar (d. after 903), Persian author of a geographical compendium.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBN RŪḤ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ḤOSAYN

    See ḤOSAYN B. RŪḤ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN SAʿD, ʿOMAR

    (k. Kūfa 686), commander of the Omayyad troops at Karbalāʾ.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • EBN ŠĀḎĀN

    family name of two Imami traditionists: Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan (or Ḥosayn) Fāmī Qomī (10th century) and his son.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • EBN ŠĀḎĀN, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ AḤMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ŠĀHAWAYH

    a leader and envoy of the Carmatians.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • EBN SAHLĀN SĀVAJĪ, Qāżī ZAYN-AL-DĪN ʿOMAR

    (b. Sāva, fl. early 12th century), Persian philosopher and logician.

    (Hossein Ziai)

  • EBN ŠAHRĀŠŪB, ABŪ JAʿFAR ZAYN-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿALī b. Šahrāšūb b. Abī Naṣr b. Abi’l-Jayš (b. Sārī, Māzandarān; d. Aleppo, 2 September 1192), the most illustrious Imami scholar of the 12th century.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • EBN SĪNA

    See AVICENNA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN SORAYJ

    See AḤMAD B. ʿOMAR B. SORAYJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN ṬABĀṬABĀ, ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

    b. Aḥmad b. Moḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Ebrāhīm Eṣfahānī (d. 933), poet and critic.

    (Ihsan Abbas)

  • EBN ṬĀWŪS, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN ABU’L- FAŻĀʾEL AḤMAD

    b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar b. Moḥammad Ḥasanī, 12th century Imami scholar.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • EBN ṬĀWŪS, RAŻĪ-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ

    b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar (b. Ḥella, 21 January 1193; d. Baghdad, 8 August 1266), Imami author, scholar, and bibliophile, called Ḏu’l-ḥasabayn “possessing two distinctions” because he was descended from both Ḥasan and Ḥosayn.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • EBN AL-ṬEQṬAQĀ, ṢAFĪ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    (1262 ?-after 1309 ?), b. ʿAlī b. Ṭabāṭabā, historian and naqīb of the ʿAlids in Ḥella.

    (Charles Melville)

  • EBN TORK

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. VĀSEʿ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN TORKA

    See ṢĀʾN-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ EṢFAHĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBN YAMĪN, AMĪR FAḴR-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    b. Amir Yamīn-al-Dīn Ṭoḡrāʾī, a poet of the 14th century.

    (Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak)

  • EBN ZĪĀD, ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH

    (b. ca. 648), Omayyad governor responsible for the death of the Imam Ḥosayn b. ʿAlī.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • EBRĀHĪM

    Abraham, the name of the first patriarch of the Hebrew people.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ALPTIGIN, ABŪ ESḤĀQ

    See ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ADHAM

    b. Manṣūr b. Yazīd b. Jāber ʿEjlī (d. 777-78), prominent Sufi and ascetic of 8th century.

    (EIr)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ESMĀʿĪL

    Safavid architect mentioned on two tiles: one in the dome of the tomb of Shaikh ʿAbd-al-Ṣamad at Naṭanz and another, dated 1661-62, in the south wall of the south ayvān of the congregational mosque at Isfahan.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ḤOSAYN

    See TAHERIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. JARĪR

    author of a general history called Tārīḵ-e ebrāhīmī or Tārīḵ-e homāyūnī.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. MASʿŪD

    b. Maḥmūd b. Sebüktegīn, Abu’l-Moẓaffar, Ẓahīr-al-Dawla, Rażī-al-Dīn, etc., Ghaznavid sultan (r. 1059-99).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. NAṢR

    See BÖRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM ʿAKKĀS-BĀŠĪ

    See ʿAKKĀS-BĀŠĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN

    See AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN, ĀQĀ EBRĀHĪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM BEG

    See ZAYN-AL-ʿĀBEDĪN MARĀḠAʾĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM DEDE ŠĀHEDĪ

    Turkish poet and lexicographer.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • EBRĀHĪM FĀRŪQĪ

    15th century poet and author of Farhang-e Ebrāhīmi. See under FARHANG-E EBRĀHIMI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM B. ʿOṮMĀN

    Persian metalworker named in the inscription in Kufic script on the copper door knockers removed from a city gate in medieval Ganja (Soviet Kirovabad, Republic of Azerbaijan) and taken to the convent of Gelatʿi in Imeretiya, just east of Kutaisi in Georgia.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • EBRĀHĪM ĪNĀL

    or Yenāl (d. 1059), early Saljuq leader.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR ŠĪRĀZĪ

    (b. 1745, d. 1800/1801), lord mayor (kalāntar) of Shiraz during the late Zand era, the first grand vizier (ṣadr-e aʿẓam), and a major political figure of the Qajar period.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • EBRĀHĪM ḴALĪL KHAN JAVĀNŠĪR

    Khan of Qarābāḡ in late 18th century.

    (George A. Bournoutian)

  • EBRĀHĪM KHAN AFŠĀR

    See AFSHARIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ

    See ḠAFFĀRĪ, MOḤAMMAD-EBRĀHĪM Khan .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM KHAN QĀJĀR

    See ẒAHIR-AL-DAWLA, EBRĀHIM KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM LODĪ

    See LODĪ DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM MAWṢELĪ, ABŪ ESḤĀQ

    the most celebrated musician at the court of Hārūn al-Rašīd and a central figure in the development of the Iraqi school of music under the early ʿAbbasids.

    (Everett Rowson)

  • EBRĀHĪM MĪRZĀ

    (b. April 1540; d. 23 February 1577), Safavid prince, patron, artist, and poet generally referred to as Solṭān Ebrāhīm Mīrzā.

    (Marianna Shreve Simpson)

  • EBRĀHĪM NAẒẒĀM

    See ABŪ ESḤĀQ NAẒẒĀM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM ṢAḤḤĀF-BĀŠĪ

    See ṢAḤḤĀF-BĀŠĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM ŠARQĪ

    See ŠARQĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM SHAH AFŠĀR

    nephew of Nāder Shah, claiming the Afsharid throne briefly (1748-49)

    (John R. Perry)

  • EBRĀHĪM ŠĪRĀZĪ

    historian of the ʿĀdelšāhī dynasty of Bījāpūr (b. 1540-41).

    (Carl W. Ernst)

  • EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN

    (1394-35), b. Šāhroḵ, Timurid prince, ruler of Shiraz, military commander, and renowned calligrapher.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    See ABU’L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪM ṬEHRĀNĪ

    also known as Mīrzā ʿAmū, a 19th century calligrapher specializing in the nastaʿlīq script.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • EBRĀHĪMĀBĀDĪ DIALECT

    See RĀMANDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪMĪ, ʿABD-AL-REŻĀ

    See ʿABD-AL-REŻĀ KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBRĀHĪMĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM KHAN

    See ABU’L-QĀSEM KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEBRAT

    a monthly magazine first published on 4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār.

    (EIr)

  • ʿEBRAT, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD-QĀSEM

    author of ʿEbrat-nāma, a history of the reigns of Awrangzēb’s successors to 1723.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • ʿEBRĪ

    "Hebrew." See under JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EBTEHAJ, ABOLHASSAN

    (1899-1999), prominent banker, economic planner, and one of the most important and powerful figures in the economic history of Iran during the middle decades of the 20th century.

    (Geoffrey Jones)

  • ECBATANA

    present-day Hamadān, capital of the Median empire, summer capital of the Achaemenids, and satrapal seat of the province of Media from Achaemenid to Sasanian times.

    (Stuart C. Brown)

  • ECKMANN, János

    (1905-1971), a Hungarian Professor of Chaghatay.

    (Andràs Bodrogligeti)

  • ECOLOGY

    the study of organisms, both flora and fauna, in relation to their environments. Five primary ecological regions in Persia each have a characteristic combination of features: Caspian lowlands, Alborz system and mountains in Khorasan, Persian plateau, Zagros system. Makrān mountains, and the Persian Gulf lowlands.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ECONOMY

    i. Economic geography, ii. In the Pre-Achaemenid period, iii. In the Achaemenid period, iv. In the Sasanian period, v. From the Arab conquest to the end of the Il-khanids, vi. In the Timurid period, vii. From the Safavids through the Zands, viii. In the Qajar period, ix. In the Pahlavi period, x. Under the Islamic Republic, xi. In modern Afghanistan, xii. In Tajikistan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ECONOMY i. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

    The high plateau and its external relations. The heartland of the Iranian world, encompassing both Persia and Afghanistan, is an arid high plateau, from which communication with the outside world is extraordinarily difficult.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • ECONOMY ii. IN THE PRE-ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Pre-Median Persia was a crucial economic component of ancient southwest Asia from the earliest times.

    (Robert C. Henrickson)

  • ECONOMY iii. IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    The Achaemenid empire, extending from the Indus river to the Aegean sea, comprised such economically developed countries as Egypt, Syria, Phoenicia, Babylonia, Elam, and Asia Minor, lands which had their long traditions of social institutions, as well as Sakai, Massagetai, Lycians, Libyans, Nubians and other tribes undergoing the disintegration of the primitive-communal phase.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ECONOMY iv. IN THE SASANIAN PERIOD

    The Sasanians, who inherited the economic conditions left by the Parthians, were quick to forge an economic state so powerful and distinctive that its fame spread well beyond their political frontiers and their period.

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ECONOMY v. FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE END OF THE IL-KHANIDS (part 1)

    The economic order in Islamic Persia was in theory, if not always in practice, derived from Islamic norms.

    (Ann K. S. Lambton)

  • ECONOMY v. FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE END OF THE IL-KHANIDS (part 2)

    The political breakdown of the caliphate in the 3rd/9th and 4th/10th centuries, although disastrous for the finances of the state and for agriculture in ʿErāq-e ʿArab and, perhaps, also in Ḵūzestān and parts of western Persia, did not have ill effects immediately on the economic life of Persia as a whole.

    (Ann K. S. Lambton)

  • ECONOMY v. FROM THE ARAB CONQUEST TO THE END OF THE IL-KHANIDS (part 3)

    As the needs of the state grew, there was a constant shortage of specie to meet its expenses. As a result of the devastation and demographic decline brought about by the invasions, there was less land under cultivation and fewer people engaged in agriculture.

    (Ann K. S. Lambton)

  • ECONOMY vi. IN THE TIMURID PERIOD

    The Timurid invasions against the Kartid rulers of Khorasan, which began in 783/1381, caused socioeconomic dislocation and unprecedented wholesale destruction and pillaging of towns, as well as brutal massacres of their populations.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • ECONOMY vii. FROM THE SAFAVIDS THROUGH THE ZANDS

    The first Safavid king, Esmāʿīl I (907-30/1501-24), initiated a process of political and religious change in Persia that profoundly affected the economic structure.

    (Bert G. Fragner)

  • ECONOMY viii. IN THE QAJAR PERIOD

    At the outset of the Qajar dynasty, the Persian economy displayed the characteristics of a traditional economy disintegrating under the stress of political anarchy.

    (Hassan Hakimian)

  • ECONOMY ix. IN THE PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Overall, under the Pahlavis the Persian economy made significant advances which compared favorably with the experience of countries such as Turkey and Egypt, which were in a better state of development after the First World War.

    (M. Hashem Pesaran)

  • ECONOMY x. UNDER THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Since 1979 there have been marked changes in the economic policies, institutions, and structure of the country, and major economic dislocation and disruption of production. Not all the changes have resulted directly from the revolution.

    (Vahid F. Nowshirvani)

  • ECONOMY xi. IN MODERN AFGHANISTAN

    From 1970 until the coup d’état in April 1978, followed by the Soviet invasion in December 1979, the Afghan economy experienced sustained high economic growth. Gross domestic product rose at a rate of 4.5 percent annually.

    (M. Siddieq Noorzoy)

  • ECONOMY xii. IN TAJIKISTAN

    During the seventy years of centralized Soviet administration, the economy of Tajikistan was modernized and integrated into the Soviet economy. The Tajik Soviet Republic exhibited comparatively remarkable growth in the agricultural and industrial sectors.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ʿEDĀLAT, ḤEZB-E

    (Ar. ʿAdālat “justice”), Persian political party founded by ʿAlī Daštī in December 1941.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi )

  • ʿEDĀLAT-ḴĀNA

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EDEB

    b. Armanī Bolāḡī (1860-1918), pen name of the Kurdish poet ʿAbd-Allāh Beg b. Aḥmad Beg Bābāmīrī Miṣbāḥ-al-Dīwān.

    (Amir Hassanpour)

  • EDESSA

    now Urfa in southeastern Turkey, former capital of ancient Osrhoene. Edessa was held successively by the Seleucids, Parthians, and Romans. The fact that coins were minted at Edessa under Antiochus IV suggests a degree of autonomy and importance in the Seleucid period. Greeks were never predominant in the population, however.

    (Samuel Lieu)

  • EDITING

    the techniques of preparing a text for publication, now widely practiced at the major publishing houses in Persia.

    (Karim Emami)

  • EDMONDS, C. J

    The son of a British missionary, Edmonds was born in Japan, where he stayed up to the age of eight. He was educated in England at Bedford and Christ’s Hospital public schools and finally studied oriental languages at Cambridge under the supervision of E. G. Browne for two years.

    (Yann Richard)

  • EDUCATION

    (Pers. āmūzeš o parvareš; earlier Ar. Per. taʿlīm o tarbīat) in Iranian-speaking areas.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EDUCATION i. IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    In two Elamite documents from Persepolis drafted in the 23rd regnal year of Darius I (499 B.C.E.) “Persian boys (who) are copying texts” are mentioned; the texts in question are records of the issue of grain to twenty-nine individuals and wine to sixteen.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • EDUCATION ii. IN THE PARTHIAN AND SASANIAN PERIODS

    No concrete evidence on education in Parthian times has survived. It may be postulated, however, that it was similar to education in the Sasanian period.

    (Aḥmad Tafażżolī)

  • EDUCATION iii. THE TRADITIONAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Before the establishment of a modern educational system in Persia, children received their early and intermediate education in the maktab (or maktab-ḵāna, lit., “place of writing”) under the tutelage of an āḵūnd, mulla (clerical teacher), or moʿallem (teacher).

    (Jalīl Dūstḵᵛāh and Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾī)

  • EDUCATION iv. THE MEDIEVAL MADRASA

    lit., “place to study” Ar. darasa “to study”. It was a college for the professional study of the Islamic sciences, particularly jurisprudence (feqh) but also the Koran, Hadith, and such ancillary fields as Arabic grammar and philology, knowledge of which helped in understanding sacred and legal texts.

    (Christopher Melchert)

  • EDUCATION v. THE MADRASA IN SHIʿITE PERSIA

    After the introduction of the institutionalized madrasa by Neẓām-al-Molk in the late 11th century, above) Shiʿite madrasas were also founded in Persia and Iraq. These schools were local efforts, however, and did not constitute a unitary system of education.

    (ʿAbbās Zaryāb)

  • EDUCATION vi. THE MADRASA IN SUNNI KURDISTAN

    Every mosque also contained a chamber called a ḥojra, where the mulla offered lessons in religion and theology free of charge to Muslim boys. Boys, though very seldom girls, began their studies at the age of seven years.

    (ʿAbd-Allāh Mardūḵ)

  • EDUCATION vii. GENERAL SURVEY OF MODERN EDUCATION

    A modern system of national education emerged in Persia in the 1920s and 1930s, after the Pahlavi state had been founded; during this period the influence of the religious establishment was minimized, and the government gained control over schools, expanding enrollment at all levels.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • EDUCATION viii. NURSERY SCHOOLS AND KINDERGARTENS

    Formalized preschool education in Persia can be traced back to ca. 1891, when Armenians in Jolfā, near Isfahan, founded a kindergarten, which continues today. By 1919 there were a few kindergartens in Tehran and other cities, primarily founded by missionaries and minority groups.

    (Tūrān Mīrhādī)

  • EDUCATION ix. PRIMARY SCHOOLS

    At first primary and secondary schools were not distinct, and the primary levels sometimes consisted of only four grades. There were no general instructional materials and no uniform curriculum, each school being under the direction of its founder or principal.

    (Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd)

  • EDUCATION x. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Modern secondary education in Persia was originally based on the 19th-century European humanistic system, focused on general knowledge and building character rather than on professional or vocational training. This philosophy dominated the Persian system until the 1960s, when reforms were introduced by American advisers.

    (Aḥmad Bīrašk)

  • EDUCATION xi. PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND EDUCATIONAL GROUPS

    After the Constitutional Revolution some of these schools were closed, and the others were brought under state management. During the next fifteen years several more private schools were founded.

    (Aḥmad Bīrašk)

  • EDUCATION xii. VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL SCHOOLS

    In 1958 the General Department of Vocational Training was established in the Ministry of Education. It was responsible for establishing a number of agricultural, industrial, commercial, and secretarial schools.

    (Šahlā Kāẓemīpūr)

  • EDUCATION xiii. RURAL AND TRIBAL SCHOOLS

    Compulsory-education laws enacted in 1911 and 1943 provided the legal framework for the extension of modern education into rural and tribal areas. Until the 1950s, however, the Persian government did not possess the resources to implement these laws; in addition, landowners and tribal khans resisted such efforts.

    (Moḥammad Bahmanbeygī, Nāṣer Mīr, Moḥammad Pūrsartīp, and EIr)

  • EDUCATION xiv. SPECIAL SCHOOLS

    Until 1968 responsibility for children with special educational needs had fallen on the individual schools. In that year the National Organization for Special Education was established as a general directorate under a deputy minister of education.

    (Samineh Baghchehban-Pirnazar)

  • EDUCATION xv. FOREIGN AND MINORITY SCHOOLS IN PERSIA

    Modern education was introduced to Persia in the 19th century by European and American religious institutions and military advisers.

    (EIr)

  • EDUCATION xvi. SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS

    No standardized schoolbooks existed in Persia before the advent of the modern educational system. The first were written by European teachers at the Dār al-fonūn in the mid-19th century.

    (Aḥmad Bīrašk and EIr)

  • EDUCATION xvii. HIGHER EDUCATION

    Initially Reżā Shah’s government, like the Qajar government before it, encouraged aspiring professionals to study abroad, but, while urging them to absorb practical elements of Western culture, he also warned them to reject “harmful” influences and preserve their own national identity.

    (David Menashri)

  • EDUCATION xviii. TEACHERS’-TRAINING SCHOOLS

    In March 1934 an act establishing lower and advanced schools for teachers’ training under the Ministry of Education (Wezārat-e maʿāref) was adopted by the Majles, and an operating charter for such schools was ratified in July of the same year.

    (Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾ ī)

  • EDUCATION xix. TEACHERS’-TRAINING COLLEGES

    Dānešgāh-e tarbīat-e moʿallem, the oldest institution for educating teachers in Persia, was founded in Tehran in 1336/1918. It has gone through various phases and changes of name since.

    (Majdoddin Keyvani)

  • EDUCATION xx. ADULT EDUCATION

    The Ministry of Education (Wezārat-e maʿāref) established adult-literacy classes in state schools considered suitable. They were to last two years and to consist of ninety-six two-hour classes each year, free of charge. Reading and writing Persian, arithmetic, and elementary history, geography, and civics were to be taught.

    (Šahlā Kāẓemīpūr)

  • EDUCATION xxi. EDUCATION ABROAD

    A survey of 350 students abroad between 1811 and 1920 indicates that more than 50 percent of the total studied in France, about 15 percent in Russia, and 5-10 percent in Germany, England, Switzerland, Istanbul, and Beirut. A small number studied in Egypt, India, and the United States.

    (Afshin Matin-Asgari)

  • EDUCATION xxii. PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    See PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EDUCATION xxiii. MILITARY EDUCATION

    See MILITARY EDUCATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EDUCATION xxiv. EDUCATION IN POSTREVOLUTIONARY PERSIA, 1979-95

    The history of education in the Islamic Republic falls into two phases: from the revolution to the cease-fire between Persia and Iraq in 1367 Š./1988 (the revolutionary period), when Islamic ideology predominated, and the subsequent period of reconstruction and privatization.

    (Golnar Mehran)

  • EDUCATION xxv. WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN THE QAJAR PERIOD

    The premodern conception of women’s education was varied. In some medieval books of ethical instruction and counsel teaching women to read was recommended, whereas other authors warned against it.

    (Afsaneh Najmabadi)

  • EDUCATION xxvi. WOMEN’S EDUCATION IN THE PAHLAVI PERIOD AND AFTER

    In the 1920s and 1930s women’s public education in Persia was established and grew rapidly. In 1926-27 the enrollment of females in primary schools was about 17,000, 21 percent of total enrollment at that level.

    (EIr)

  • EDUCATION xxvii. IN AFGHANISTAN

    By the end of the 19th century, mosque schools (maktabs) and madrasas had lost their vitality, rigor, and scope. Internecine struggles among the ruling Abdālī and subsequently among the Moḥammadzai clan ensured that no trace of regular and systematic education remained in the country.

    (M. Mobin Shorish)

  • EDUCATION xxviii. IN TAJIKISTAN

    Modern education in Tajikistan developed as the country emerged as a Soviet socialist republic, under the Soviet policy of standardization, with language as virtually the only variable. In Tajikistan, as in other Central Asian republics, this policy brought about nearly universal literacy.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • EFTEḴĀR DAWLATĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-WAHHĀB BOḴĀRĪ

    (b. Ahmadnagar; d. Dawlatābād, 1776), Deccani biographer and poet in Urdu and Persian.

    (S. Moinul Haq)

  • EFTEḴĀRĪĀN

    a family of officials and poets from Qazvīn, reputed descendants of the caliph Abū Bakr, who flourished under the early Il-khans in the 13th century.

    (François de Blois)

  • EGGPLANT

    See BĀDENJĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EḠLAMEŠ

    See SAYF-AL-DĪN ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN EḠLAMEŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EGLANTINE

    See NASTARAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EGYPT

    relations with Persia and Afghanistan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EGYPT i. Persians in Egypt in the Achaemenid period

    The last pharaoh of the Twenty-Sixth dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II in the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in 525 B.C.E.; Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid empire.

    (Edda Bresciani)

  • EGYPT ii. Egyptian influence on Persia in the Pre-Islamic period

    In the fields of artistic work, architecture and sculpture, the Persians do not seem to have had any lasting impact on Egyptian tradition, during either both Achaemenid occupations of Egypt, or the short-lived presence of the later Sasanians.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • EGYPT iii. Relations in the Seleucid and Parthian periods

    It remains difficult to ascertain the proportion of ethnic Persians who survived the transition from Achaemenid to Hellenistic rule in Egypt or who came to that country after the conquest by Alexander.

    (Heinz Heinen)

  • EGYPT iv. Relations in the Sasanian period

    The occupation of Egypt, beginning in 619 or 618, was one of the triumphs in the last Sasanian war against Byzantium. Ḵosrow II Parvēz had begun this war in retaliation for the assassination of the Byzantine emperor Mauricius.

    (Ruth Altheim-Stiehl)

  • EGYPT v. Political And Commercial Relations In The Islamic Period

    See under FATIMIDS; AYYUBIDS; IL-KHANIDS DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EGYPT vi. Artistic relations with Persia in the Islamic period

    Although direct evidence of artistic links between Persia and Egypt before the Mongol invasion of the Near East in the 13th century is limited, surviving works of art suggest that transfer of artistic ideas resulted from the movement of artisans and their works.

    (Jonathan M. Bloom)

  • EGYPT vii. Political and religious relations with Persia in the modern period

    The beginnings of modern diplomatic relations between Egypt and Persia may be dated from 1847, when Mīrzā Taqī Khan Amīr(-e) Kabīr signed the second treaty of Erzurum with the Ottomans.

    (Shahrough Akhavi)

  • EGYPT viii. Egyptian cultural influence in Persia, modern times

    Egypt, together with Turkey and the Caucasus, was one of the major sources of cultural and political influences in Persia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    (EIr)

  • EGYPT ix. Iran’s cultural influence in the Islamic period

    During the 16th-18th centuries, when Egypt was a province of the Ottoman empire, Persian literature was widely studied IN THE EMPIRE, and the Persian language was one of the administrative languages.

    (Moḥammad el Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Moʾmen)

  • EGYPT x. Relations with Afghanistan

    Both Egypt and Afghanistan came under British hegemony in the latter part of the 19th century; therefore no official relations existed between them.

    (Ludwig W. Adamec)

  • EGYPT xi. Persian Journalism in Egypt

    A number of Persian journals were published in Egypt, after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ĒHRPAT

    See HERBED.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EHRBEDESTĀN

    See HERBEDESTĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EḤSĀN ALLĀH KHAN DŪSTDĀR

    (ʿAlī-ābādī; b. Sārī, Māzandarān, 1883, d. Baku, ca. 1938), second most prominent figure in the the Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran (Ḥokūmat-e jomhūrī-e šūrawī-e Īrān), the radicalized second phase of the Jangalī movement in the years 1920-21.

    (Cosroe Chaqueri)

  • EḤSĀ-AL-ʿOLŪM

    See FARĀBĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-DAWLA

    (1839-92), first son of Farhād Mīrzā Moʿtamed-al-Dawla Qājār and maternal grandson of Moḥammad-ʿAlī Mīrzā Dawlatšāh.

    (Īraj Afšār)

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-DAWLA, ḴĀNLAR KHAN

    (d. Tehran, April 1862), seventeenth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and governor of several regions in Persia during the reigns of Moḥammad Shah and Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah Qajar.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-DAWLA, SOLṬĀN OWAYS MIRZĀ

    (1818-88), also known as Eḥtešām-al-Molk and Moʿtamed-al-Dawla, second son of Farhād Mīrzā Moʿtamed-al-Dawla Qājār.

    (Iraj Afšār)

  • EḤTEŠĀM-AL-SALṬANA

    (1863-1936), Mīrzā Maḥmūd Khan ʿAlāmīr Qajar, governor, diplomat, and speaker of the Persian Parliament.

    (Mehrdad Amanat)

  • EḤTĪĀJ

    weekly newspaper published in Tabrīz by ʿAlīqolī Khan Tabrīzī, known as Ṣafarov, who had distributed political šab-nāmas (lit. "night letters") in 1892.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EḤYĀ ʿOLŪM-AL-DĪN

    See ḠAZĀLĪ ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EILERS, WILHELM

    In 1958 Eilers was appointed to the professorship in Oriental philology at the University of Würzburg. Although he was offered in 1962 the professorship in ancient Near Eastern studies at the University of Vienna, he stayed in Würzburg and taught there until his retirement in 1974.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • EJĀZA

    "lit. permission, license, authorization"; a term describing a variety of academic certificates ranging in length from a few lines to many fascicles.

    (Devin J. Stewart)

  • EJMĀʿ

    lit. "consensus"; a technical term in Islamic jurisprudence (oṣūl al-feqh).

    (Devin J. Stewart)

  • EJMIATSIN

    currently designation of three separate but interrelated entities: the cathedral and monastic complex which forms the residence of the supreme patriarch and catholicos of all the Armenians, the city in which this complex is located, and the district of which the latter is the administrative center.

    (S. Peter Cowe)

  • EJTEHĀD

    in Shiʿism, an Arabic verbal noun having the literal sense of "exerting effort."

    (Aron Zysow)

  • EJTEMĀʿĪŪN, FERQA-YE

    (FEAM; lit., "Social-Democratic party"), an organization founded in 1905 by Persian emigrants in Transcaucasia with the help of local revolutionaries.

    (Janet Afary)

  • EKBĀTĀN

    See ECBATANA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EKEŁEACʿ

    Gk. Akilisēnē, region along the Euphrates in northwest Armenia.

    (James R. Russell)

  • EKRĀM, MOḤAMMAD

    or Ekrom, b. ʿAbd-al-Salām (1847-1925), known as Dāmollā Ekrāmče, a Bukharan scholar and madrasa teacher.

    (J. Bečka)

  • EKRĀMĪ, JALĀL

    or Jalol Ikromī (1909-93), considered to be Tajikistan’s most important fiction writer and playwright of the Soviet period.

    (J. Bečka)

  • EḴŠĪD

    Arabo-Persian form of a Sogdian royal title attested in Sogdian script as (ʾ)xšyδ and in Manichean script as (ʾ)xšy(y)δ.

    (Frantz Grenet and N. Sims-Williams)

  • EKSĪR

    See KĪMĪĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EḴTESĀN, TĀJ-AL-MOLK MOḤAMMAD

    b. Aḥmad b. Ḥasan ʿAbdūsī Dehlavī (1300-51), author in Persian and secretary (dabīr) at the courts of the Tughluqid sultans Ḡīāṯ-al-Dīn Tōḡloq and his son Ḡīāṯ-al-Dīn Mo-ḥammad.

    (Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi)

  • EḴTĪĀR-AL-DĪN

    the citadel of Herat located on an elevation adjacent to the north wall of the old city and actually consisting of two parts, the stronghold proper—a rectangle of fired brick and a larger area to the west of unfired brick—that were originally buttressed by 25 towers which reflect various periods of construction.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • EḴTĪĀR MONŠĪ, ḴᵛĀJA

    (fl. mid 10th/16th cent.), a master calligrapher of the chancery taʿlīq style from Herat.

    (Wheeler M. Thackston)

  • EḴTĪĀRĀT

    lit. "choices, elections"; a term used in Islamic divination and astrology in at least four principle meanings.

    (David Pingree)

  • EḴWĀN AL-MOSLEMĪN, JAMʿĪYAT AL-

    lit. "Society of Muslim brethren"; the first modern religio-political movement in the Islamic world, founded in 1928 by Ḥasan Bannāʾ in Esmāʿīlīya Egypt.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • EḴWĀN AL-ṢAFĀʾ

    a self-professed brotherhood of piously ascetic scholars.

    (Paul E. Walker)

  • ELĀHĪ

    or ʿAlīšāh (1895-1974), innovative and charismatic leader of one branch of the Ahl-e Ḥaqq and author of several texts on its teachings. The most complete presentation is to be found not in his Persian books, destined for circulation among Twelver Shiʿites, but in his unpublished writings in Gūrānī, intended to be read only by Ahl-e Ḥaqq initiates.

    (Hamid Algar, J. W. Morris, Jean During)

  • ELĀHĪ HAMADĀNĪ, SAYYED MĪR ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    b. Ḥojjat-Allāh Asadābādī, a poet of the 17th century from Asadābād, a village near Hamadān.

    (M. Asif Naim Siddiqui)

  • ELĀHĪ-NĀMA

    See ʿAṬṬĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELĀHĪ QOMŠA’Ī, MAHDĪ

    b. Abu’l-Ḥasan (b. in Qomša, 1902; d. in Tehran, 1975), poet and professor of Islamic law and philosophy.

    (S. Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī)

  • ELAHI, BIJAN

    (1945-2010), modernist Persian poet and translator.

    (Mahdi Ganjavi)

  • ELĀHĪYĀT

    See PHILOSOPHY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELAM

    ancient country encompassing a large part of the Persian plateau at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. but reduced to the territory of Susiana in the Achaemenid period.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ELAM i. The history of Elam

    During the several millennia of its history the limits of Elam varied, not only from period to period, but also with the point of view of the person describing it. It seems that Mesopotamians in the late 3rd millennium B.C.E. considered Elam to encompass the entire Persian plateau.

    (F. Vallat)

  • ELAM ii. The archeology of Elam

    The archeological use of the term “Elam” is based on a loose unity recognizable in the material cultures of the period 3400-525 BCE at Susa in Ḵūzestān, at Anshan in Fārs, and at sites in adjacent areas of the Zagros mountains. Text-based definitions often lead to interpretations that are at odds with those derived from the study of material culture.

    (Elizabeth Carter)

  • ELAM iii. Proto-Elamite

    "Proto-Elamite” is the term for a writing system in use in the Susiana plain and the Iranian highlands east of Mesopotamia between ca. 3050 and 2900 B.C.E., a period generally considered to correspond to the Jamdat Nasr/Uruk III through Early Dynastic I periods in Mesopotamia.

    (R. K. Englund)

  • ELAM iv. Linear Elamite

    a system of writing used at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. by Puzur-Inšušinak, the last of the twelve “kings of Awan,” according to a king list found at Susa. He ruled ca. 2150 B.C.E. and was a contemporary of Ur-Nammu, the first ruler of the Ur III dynasty in Mesopotamia.

    (Mirjo Salvini)

  • ELAM v. Elamite language

    is known from texts in cuneiform script, most of them found at Susa but some from other sites in western and southwestern Iran and, in the east, in Fārs and ranging in date from the 24th to the 4th century B.C.E.

    (Françoise Grillot-Susini)

  • ELAM vi. Elamite religion

    The information furnished by archeological excavations in Persia and by cuneiform documents permit a summary description of some aspects of Elamite religion from the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. until the Achaemenid period.

    (F. Vallat)

  • ELAM vii. Non-Elamite texts in Elam

    Most non-Elamite texts inscribed on Elamite territories have been found in Susiana, that is, the region nearest to Mesopotamia and most exposed to Mesopotamian political and cultural influences.

    (Sylvie Lackenbacher)

  • ELBURZ

    See ALBORZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELBURZ COLLEGE

    See ALBORZ COLLEGE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELČĪ

    (īlčī) envoy, messenger, or official traveling on government business during the Mongol period and thereafter.

    (David O. Morgan)

  • ELECTIONS

    i. Under the Qajar and Pahlavi monarchies. ii. Under the Islamic republic, 1979-92. iii. In Afghanistan.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi, Shaul Bakhash, M. Hassan Kakar)

  • ELEGY

    (Ar. marṯīa, Pers. mūya), poetry of mourning in Persian literature.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn )

  • ELEMENTS

    i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Manicheism. iii. In Persian.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • ELEPHANT i. IN THE NEAR EAST

    (Pers. pīl, fīl.

    (François De Blois)

  • ELEPHANT ii. In the Sasanian Army

    ii. IN THE SASANIAN ARMY

    (Michael B. Charles)

  • ELEPHANTINE

    the largest island in the Nile, opposite Syene.

    (Edda Bresciani)

  • ELGOOD, CYRIL LLOYD

    (1893-1970), British historian of medicine in Persia.

    (F. R. C. Bagley)

  • ELIAS OF NISIBIS

    See ELĪJĀ BAR ŠĪNĀJĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELĪF EFENDI, Ḥaṣīrīzāda

    (b. in Sütlüce, May 1850; d. 4 December 1926), Turkish poet and scholar.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ELĪJĀ BAR ŠĪNĀJĀ

    (975-1049) prominent Nestorian polyhistor. 975-1049). His work is an important source for Sasanian history. In 1002 he was made bishop of Bēṯ Nuhādrē in Adiabene, and in 1008 metropolitan of Nisibis (Naṣībīn). He wrote in Syriac and Arabic on theological issues.

    (Wolfgang Felix)

  • ELIKEAN, GRIGOR E.

    (1880-1951), an active figure in Persian and Armenian politics, the press, and literature.

    (Aram Arkun)

  • ELIŠĒ

    or Elisaeus, fifth century author of the History of Vardan and the Armenian War, a detailed account of the Armenian rebellion against Yazdegerd II in 450, which was prompted by his persecution of their Christian faith.

    (Robert W. Thomson)

  • ELJIGIDEI

    or Īlčīktāy, Īljīkdāy; the name of two Mongol generals.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • ELLIPI

    See ASSYRIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELM

    any of several species of hardy deciduous ornamental or forest trees of the genus Ulmus L. (fam. Ulmaceae), typically called nārvan in Persian.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ʿELM AL-KETĀB

    See DARD, ḴᵛĀJA MĪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿELM AL-REJĀL

    See REJĀL, ʿELM AL-.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿELM O HONAR

    title of two Persian magazines.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ʿELMĪYA

    a high school in Tehran with 500 students studying experimental sciences, mathematics, and economy.

    (Eqbāl Yaḡmāʾī)

  • ELOQUENCE

    (Faṣāḥāt). See BAYĀN (1).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELPHINSTONE, MOUNTSTUART

    (1779-1859), author of an important description of Afghanistan; a British Indian official who rose to become governor of Bombay.

    (Malcolm E. Yapp)

  • ELQĀNIĀN, ḤABIB

    Jewish merchant, industrialist, and philanthropist, who rose from modest beginnings to become one of Iran’s leading entrepreneurs.

    (Shaul Bakhash)

  • ELTON, JOHN

    (?-1751), English merchant, seaman and shipbuilder for Nāder Shah Afšār.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ĒLTOTMEŠ, ŠAMS-AL-DĪN

    (d. 1236), first Sultan of Delhi.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • ELWELL-SUTTON, LAURENCE PAUL

    Elwell-Sutton’s interests and publications in Persian studies fall into five categories: Persian language; Persian literature; modern Persian history and politics; Persian folklore; and Islamic science. His Colloquial Persian and Elementary Persian Grammar have remained in print as standard works.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ELYĀSIDS

    See ĀL-E ELYĀS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ELYMAIS

    semi-independent state frequently subject to Parthian domination, which existed between the second century B.C.E. and the early third century C. E. in the territories of Ḵūzestān, in southwestern Persia.

    (John F. Hansman)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DAWLA

    b. Būya b. Fanā-Ḵosrow, the eldest of three brothers who came to power in western Persia during the tenth century as military adventurers and founded the Buyid dynasty.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿEMĀD-al-DAWLA, Mīrzā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER

    WAḤĪD QAZVĪNĪ (ca. 1615-1701), poet and Safavid court historiographer for nearly three decades (1645-74).

    (Kathryn Babayan)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ FAQĪH KERMĀNĪ

    mystic and poet of the 14th century who used ʿEmād or, more rarely, ʿEmād-e Faqīh, as a pen name.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN KĀTEB, ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    b. Moḥammad b. Ḥāmed EṢFAHĀNĪ, an eminent 12th-century government servant and man of letters, born in Isfahan in 1125.

    (Donald S. Richards)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    b. Serāj-al-Dīn Masʿūd ŠĪRĀZĪ, the most prominent member of a 16th-century family of physicians in Shiraz.

    (Emilie Savage-Smith)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MARZBĀN, ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR

    b. Solṭān-al-Dawla Abū Šojāʿ (1009-48), amir of the Buyid dynasty in the period of that family’s decadence and incipient disintegration, being the last effective ruler of the line.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-ESLĀM

    b. Moḥammad ʿAtīq-Allāh (1470-1506), a vizier of the Timurid Sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā, executed in Herat in 1498.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • ʿEMĀD ḤASANĪ, MĪR, ʿEMĀD-AL-MOLK

    b. Ebrāhīm (ca. 1554-1615), calligrapher. His rendition of nastaʿlīq, with smooth lines, many curves, very occasional diacritical marks, symmetry of letters and words, and usually excellent choice of decorations surrounding the words, had widespread appeal.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-KOTTĀB, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN SAYFĪ QAZVĪNĪ

    (b. Qazvīn, 16 April 1866; d. Tehran, 17 July 1936), calligrapher.

    (ʿAbd-Allāh Forādi)

  • ʿEMĀD-AL-MOLK

    See NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEMĀDĪ RĀZĪ

    poet of the first half of the 12th century.

    (Taqi Pūr-Nāmdārīān)

  • EMĀM

    (Imam), see SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; ČAHĀRDAH MAʿSŪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀM-E ḠĀʾEB

    "The Hidden Imam." See ḠAYBA and ISLAM IN IRAN vii. THE CONCEPT OF MAHDI IN TWELVER SHIʿISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀM-AL-ḤARAMAYN

    See JOVAYNĪ, Emām-al-Ḥaramayn.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀM-E JOMʿA

    leader of the congregational prayer performed at midday on Fridays.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • EMĀM ṢĀḤEB

    two archeological sites in Afghanistan: (1) a village near the south bank of the Amū Daryā, about 50 km north of Qondūz, (2) a village in the Jōzjān region, south of the river Balḵāb, halfway between Balḵ and Āqča.

    (Mehrdad Shokouhi)

  • EMĀM-E ZAMĀN

    Mahdi or "The Hidden Imam." See ḠAYBA and ISLAM IN IRAN vii. THE CONCEPT OF MAHDI IN TWELVER SHIʿISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEMĀMA

    the turban. See ʿAMĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀMA

    (Imamate), see SHIʿITE DOCTRINE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀMĪ, Sayyed ḤASAN

    (1903-1981), Friday prayer leader of Tehran from 1947 to 1978. He studied traditional Islamic sciences in Tehran and continental law in Lausanne, Switzerland. Upon completing his doctorate, he returned to Iran and worked as a judge in the Ministry of Justice. He was regarded as a member of the shah’s inner circle.

    (Cyrus Mir)

  • EMĀMĪ, JAMĀL

    (b. 1901, Koy; d. 1966, Paris), politician.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi)

  • EMAMI, KARIM

    Emami took an early interest in contemporary Persian art and literature. In 1959, before starting his career as a journalist and translator, he worked as a photographer and filmmaker at the film studio of Ebrāhim Golestān (b. 1922), modernist writer and director.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āzarang and EIr)

  • EMĀMĪ HERĀVĪ, RAŻĪ-AL-DĪN ABŪ ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD

    b. Abī Bakr b. ʿOṯmān (b. in Herat; d. in Isfahan, 1287), Persian poet of the Mongol period also noted for his learning.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • EMĀMĪYA

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĀMQOLĪ KHAN

    son of the celebrated Georgian ḡolām Allāhverdī Khan; governor-general (beglarbeg) of Fārs in the early 17th century.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • EMĀMVERDĪ MĪRZĀ ĪL-ḴĀNĪ

    (b. 9 March 1796), the twelfth son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qajar; his mother was Begom Jān Qazvīnī.

    (Ḥosayn Maḥbūbī Ardakānī)

  • EMĀMZĀDA

    a shrine believed to be the tomb of a descendent of a Shiʿite Imam. such structures are also known as āstāna (lit., threshold), marqad (resting place, mausoleum), boqʿa (revered site), rawża (garden/tomb), gonbad (dome), mašhad (place of martyrdom), maqām (site/abode), qadamgāh (stepping place), and torbat (dust, grave).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EMĀMZĀDA i. Function and devotional practice

    "Sites where divine favor and blessing occur, where mercy and grace descend; they are a refuge for the distressed, a shelter for the despondent, a haven for the oppressed, and a place of consolation for weary hearts, and will ever remain so until resurrection.”

    (Hamid Algar)

  • EMĀMZĀDA ii. Forms, decorations, and other characteristics

    The identity of the people interred in emāmzādas and the exact location where they are entombed are often moot questions, as in most cases there are no historical documents authenticating the claims for these shrines.

    (Parviz Varjāvand)

  • EMĀMZĀDA iii. Number, distribution, and important examples

    Information and statistics regarding the number and distribution of emāmzādas in Persia vary from one source to another.

    (Parviz Varjāvand)

  • EMBROIDERY

    See CLOTHING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMDĀD-ALLĀH ḤĀJĪ

    (b. Thana Bhawan, India, 1817, d. Mecca, 1899), spiritual guide and scholar.

    (Barbara D. Metcalf)

  • ĒMĒD Ī AŠAWAHIŠTĀN

    (Exposition [of Zoroastrian doctrines] by Ēmēd, son of Ašawahišt), a major 10th-century Pahlavi work comprising forty-four questions (pursišn).

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • EMERALD

    See GEMS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMERSON, RALPH WALDO

    (b. 25 May 1803, Boston; d. 27 April 1882, Concord), distinguished American transcendentalist, philosopher, and poet.

    (John D. Yohannan)

  • EMIGRATION

    See HUMAN MIGRATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMĪN YOMNĪ, MEḤMED

    Moḥammad Amīn (b. Solaymānīya in Persia, 1845, d. Istanbul, 5 April 1924), Turkish poet and man of letters who also wrote in Persian.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • EMIR

    See AMIR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMIRATES OF THE PERSIAN GULF

    See UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EMLĀ BOḴĀRĀʾĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn (b. 1688, Sangārak, Afghanistan; d. 1749, Bukhara), Sufi poet of Arab descent.

    (Jirí Bečka)

  • EMMERICK, RONALD ERIC

    (1937-2001), distinguished Australian scholar of the ancient civilizations and languages of Iran, India, and Tibet.

    (Mauro Maggi)

  • EMPLOYMENT

    economic activity in which one engages and employs his or her time and energy. One of the major factors contributing to the growth of services is the considerable number of people working for the government.

    (M. Amani)

  • EMRĀNĪ

    the name or most likely the penname (taḵalloṣ) of the fifteenth century Jewish-Persian poet of Isfahan and Kāšān.

    (David Yeroushalmi)

  • EMTĪĀZĀT

    See CONCESSIONS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EN ISLAM IRANIEN, ASPECTS SPIRITUELS ET PHILOSOPHIQUES

    (4 vols., Paris, 1971-73), the magnum opus of Henry Corbin, consisting of essays summarizing most of the major themes that defined his scholarly career and revealing his intellectual grasp of Persian philosophical thought.

    (Daryush Shayegan)

  • ENAMEL

    a heat-fused glass paste colored by metal oxides and used to decorate metal surfaces. Enamel was associated with lapidary, glassworking, and goldmithing crafts and was probably used primarily in place of precious stones before the 17th century.

    (EIr, Layla S. Diba)

  • ʿENĀYAT, ḤAMĪD

    (1932-82), political scientist and translator.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • ʿENĀYAT-ALLĀH

    Timurid builder or tile maker of the 15th century.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • ʿENĀYAT-ALLĀH KANBO

    (b. Burhanpur, 31 August 1608; d. Delhi, 23 September 1671), Sufi and scholar, descendant of an old respected Lahore family that had converted to Islam in Punjab.

    (Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi)

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA IRANICA

    an alphabetically arranged reference work which seeks to provide scholarly articles relating to “all aspects of Iranian life and culture.”

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ISLAM

    a reference work of fundamental importance on topics dealing, according to its self-description, with “the geography, ethnography and biography of the Muhammadan peoples.”

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF TAJIKISTAN

    See ĖNTSIKLOPEDIYAI SOVETII TOJIK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENCYCLOPAEDIAS, PERSIAN

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Premodern, ii. Modern.

    (Živa Vesel and Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ENDOWMENTS

    On charitable endowments (waqf), at present see AMLĀK , ḴĀṢṢA. Regarding institutions, see CHARITABLE FOUNDATIONS. See under individual entries, such as BONYĀD-E FARHANG-E ĪRĀN;BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD; BONYĀD-E ŠĀH-NĀMA-YE FERDOWSĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENGINEEERING

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENGLAND

    See GREAT BRITAIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENGLISH i. Persian Elements in English

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Persian elements in English. ii. Persian influences in English and American literature. iii. Translations of classical Persian literature. iv. Translations of modern Persian literature. v. i. Translations of English literature into Persian.

    (D. N. Mackenzie)

  • ENGLISH ii. Persian Influences in English and American Literature

    Although academic Persian studies may be said to have begun in England in the early 17th century, it was not until the late 18th century that the Persian poets began to be read in English translations.

    (John D. Yohannan)

  • ENGLISH iii. Translations Of Classical Persian Literature

    fall initially into two categories. There is a group of texts whose purpose is to convey the information of the original in discrete units, most useful with prose or narrative poetry and not necessarily “literary.” There are other translations designed to carry over the formal elements of a literary text.

    (Michael Beard)

  • ENGLISH iv. Translations Of Modern Persian Literature

    Modernist literature in Persia can be said to develop gradually throughout the 19th century, but for English readers it begins abruptly, shortly after the Constitutional revolution, with the translations of Edward Browne.

    (Michael Beard)

  • ENGLISH v. Translation Of English Literature into Persian

    The first texts translated from English into Persian were diplomatic exchanges and bilateral treaties.

    (Karīm Emāmi)

  • ENJAVĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ, SAYYED ABU’L-QĀSEM

    (b. Shiraz, 1921; d. Tehran, 16 September 1993), eminent Persian folklorist.

    (Ulrich Marzolph)

  • ENJĪL

    See BIBLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENJŪ

    See INJU DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENOCH

    See AḴNŪḴ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENOCH, BOOKS OF

    attributed to the seventh antediluvian biblical patriarch Enoch (Genesis 5.21-24), which show Iranian influence.

    (J. C. Reeves)

  • ENQELĀB-E ESLĀMĪ

    See REVOLUTION OF 1978-79.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENQELĀB-E ESLĀMĪ NEWSPAPER

    a newspaper published by Abu’l-Ḥasan Banī-Ṣadr and supporting his political views.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ENQELĀB-E MAŠṞUṬĪYĀ

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENQELĀB-E SAFĪD

    See WHITE REVOLUTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ENŠĀʾ

    lit. "composition"; the process of creating or composing something as well as the result of this process and the rules of the art; it denotes a genre of prose literature, copies, drafts, or specimens of official and private correspondence.

    (Jürgen Paul)

  • ENŠĀʾ-ALLĀH KHĀN, SAYYED

    (b. Moršedābād, 1756; d. Lucknow, 1818), Urdu-Persian poet and writer.

    (M. Asif Naim Siddiqui)

  • ENSĀN-E KĀMEL

    lit. "the Perfect Human Being"; a key idea in the philosophy and ethics of Islamic mysticism.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • ENTEBĀH

    lit. “Awakening”; a Persian newspaper published in Karbalā, Iraq, in 1914 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Āqā Šīrāzī Labīb-al-Molk, editor of Moẓaffarī published in Būšehr and Mecca.

    (L. P. Elwell-Sutton)

  • ENTEẒĀM, ʿABD-ALLĀH and NAṢR-ALLĀH

    two brothers active in 20th-century Persian politics. ʿAbd-Allāh (1895-1983), as a career diplomat, served in various posts, including minister of foreign affairs. Naṣr-Allāh (1899-1980) held a series of ministerial posts under Moḥammad Reżā Shah, including the ambassadorship to the United States.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi)

  • ĖNTSIKLOPEDIYAI SOVETII TOJIK

    (Tajik Soviet Encyclopedia), the first general encyclopedia of Tajikistan, published in the Tajik Persian language and Cyrillic alphabet (8 vols., Dushanbe, 1978-88).

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    efforts to protect natural resources, wildlife, and ecosystems and to control pollution. In Persia conservation consciousness began, as it so often does, with concern for wildlife.

    (Eskandar Firouz, Daniel Balland)

  • ENZELI

    See ANZALĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPHESUS, SEVEN SLEEPERS OF

    Christian legend attested by texts in many languages.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • EPHRAIM KHAN

    See EPʿREM KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPICS

    narrative poems of legendary and heroic content.

    (François de Blois)

  • EPIDEMICS

    See PLAGUES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPIGRAM

    originally a Greek word meaning “inscription” and denoting in Western literatures a genre of short poems characterized by their contents and style rather than by a specific prosodic form.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • EPIGRAPHY

    the study of inscriptions, particularly their collection, decipherment, interpretation, dating, and classification.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EPIGRAPHY i. Old Persian and Middle Iranian epigraphy

    Iranian epigraphy of the pre-Islamic period covers mainly inscriptions in the Old and Middle Iranian languages. Old and Middle Persian inscriptions span by far the longest period of time, from the Bīsotūn inscription until the early Islamic period.

    (Helmut Humbach)

  • EPIGRAPHY ii. Greek inscriptions from ancient Iran

    In April 1815 the Prussian Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin enthusiastically accepted the proposal by August Boeckh to produce a comprehensive thesaurus of inscriptions that would include all Greek inscriptional material published to date.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • EPIGRAPHY iii. Arabic inscriptions in Persia

    In Persia, as in other Islamic lands, Arabic was the basic language for religious texts on buildings and objects. In the early Islamic period these texts were usually written in some variant of the angular script known as Kufic. From the 12th century inscriptions in Persian became more common.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • EPIGRAPHY iv. Safavid and later inscriptions

    The principal characteristic of epigraphy in Persia after the advent of the Safavids (1501) is the emphasis on Persian poetry and pious Shiʿite texts with an iconographic potency and deliberate frequency hitherto unknown. Arabic remained the language of koranic and Hadith quotations while Persian became increasingly prominent.

    (Sussan Babaie)

  • EPIGRAPHY v. Inscriptions from the Indian subcontinent

    The systematic survey and study of Perso-Arabic epigraphy of the Indian subcontinent is not even half a century old.

    (Ziyaud-Din A. Desai)

  • EPIGRAPHY vi. OSSETIC

    See OSSETIC.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPIGRAPHY vii. EARLY PERSIAN

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPIPHANIUS

    (b. Eleutheropolis, Judaea, ca. 315; d. Constantia, Cyprus), bishop of Constantia on Cyprus, founded on the remains of Salamis.

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • EPISCOPAL CHURCH IN PERSIA

    a diocese of the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East, one of thirty-seven independent churches of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

    (Hassan B. Dehqani-Tafti)

  • EPISTLES OF MANI

    See MANICHEISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPISTOLARY STYLE

    See CORRESPONDENCE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EPʿREM KHAN

    Pers. Yeprem/Efrem (1868-1912), Armenian revolutionary and important military leader of the Constitutional Revolution. He uneasily reconciled his beliefs with his position as police chief of Tehran, resigning and returning to office several times. On 24 December 1911, he shut down the parliament to comply with a Russian ultimatum, and this marked the close of Persia’s Constitutional Revolution.

    (Aram Arkun)

  • EQBĀL

    a newspaper. See EḤTĪĀJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQBĀL, MANŪČEHR

    (1909-1977), prime minister 1957-60, minister of the Royal Court, head of National Iranian Oil Company, and professor of medicine. He was regarded as an honest and ascetic man. His authoritarian character, obedience and unswerving loyalty to the shah, and political ambition, made him a trusted aide, but not a popular political figure.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • EQBĀL ĀḎAR, ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN QAZVĪNĪ

    or EQBĀL-AL-SOLṬĀN (b. Alvand, near Qazvīn, ca. 1869; d. Tabrīz, probably 1973), singer of Persian traditional music.

    (Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿudiya)

  • EQBĀL ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, ʿABBĀS

    During his years at Dār al-fonūn, Eqbāl came to know such litterati as Moḥammad-ʿAlī Forūḡī, Abu’l-Ḥasan Forūḡī, Mortażā Najmābādī, ʿAbd-al-ʿAẓīm Qarīb, Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Rahnemā, and ʿAbd-al-Razzāq Bōḡāyerī, under whose influence he embarked on a career of scholarship that continued until his death.

    (Īraj Afšār)

  • EQBĀL LĀHŪRĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    See IQBAL, MUHAMMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQBĀL PUBLISHERS

    See PUBLISHERS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQBĀL-AL-SOLṬĀN

    See EQBĀL ĀḎAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQBĀL-NĀMA

    See ESKANDAR-NĀMA-ye NEẒĀMI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEQD-AL-ʿOLĀ

    See AFŻAL-AL-DIN KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQDĀM

    name of two separate series of a Persian newspaper published and edited in the first half of the twentieth century in Tehran by the journalist, poet, novelist, and translator, ʿAbbās Ḵalīlī.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EQLĪD

    a small town of medieval Fārs, now in the modern rural subdistrict of the same name.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EQLĪM

    See CLIME.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EQṬĀʿ

    in its various forms one of the most persistent and important tenurial, economic and social institutions of medieval Persia.

    (Ann K. S. Lambton)

  • EQTEṢĀD

    See ECONOMY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĒR, ĒR MAZDĒSN

    an ethnonym, like Old Persian ariya- and Avestan airya-, meaning “Aryan” or “Iranian.”

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • ERĀDA-YE MELLĪ

    lit. "national will"; a pro-British political party founded on 19 January 1944 by Sayyed Żīāʾ al-Dīn Ṭabāṭabāʾī (1891-1969), a devout anglophile politician and journalist.

    (Pīrāya Yaḡmāʾī)

  • ĒRĀN, ĒRĀNŠAHR

    ērānšahr properly denotes the empire, while ērān signifies “of the Iranians.”

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • ĒRĀN-ĀMĀRGAR

    See ĀMĀRGAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĒRĀN-ĀSĀN-KERD-KAWĀD

    lit. "Kawād [has] made Ērān peaceful"; name of a Sasanian province (šahr) created by Kawād I (r. 488-531).

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ĒRĀN-ŠĀD-KAWĀD

    name of a Sasanian town occurring in post-Sasanian sources only.

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ĒRĀN-ŠAHR

    See ĒRĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĒRĀN-WĒZ

    the Middle Persian designation of the territory of the Aryans.

    (D. N. MacKenzie)

  • ĒRĀN-WIN(N)ĀRD-KAWĀ

    lit. "Kawād[has] arranged Ērān"; name of a Sasanian province (šahrestān) created by Kawād I (r. 488-531) in his reorganization of the empire.

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ĒRĀN-XWARRAH-ŠĀBUHR

    lit. "Ērān, glory of Šāpūr"; Sasanian province (šahrestān) containing Susa and probably created by Šāpūr II (r. 309-379).

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ĒRĀN-XWARRAH-YAZDGERD

    lit. "Ērān, glory of Yazdegerd"; Sasanian province probably created by Yazdegerd II (438-457).

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • ʿERĀQ

    musical mode mentioned for the first time in the 11th century by Kaykāvūs among some ten modes.

    (Jean During)

  • ‘Erāq, Nahib, Moḥāyyer, Ašur-āvand, Esfahānak, Ḥazin, Kerešma, Zangule

    (music sample)

  • ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM

    constitutionalist newspaper published in Tehran, 1907-08.

    (Pardis Minuchehr)

  • ʿERĀQ-E ʿAJAM(Ī)

    lit. “Persian Iraq”; the name given in medieval times to the largely mountainous, western portion of modern Persia.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿERĀQĪ,FAḴR-al-DĪN EBRĀHĪM

    b. Bozorgmehr Javāleqī Hamadānī (b. Komjān, ca. 1213-14, d. Damascus, 1289), Sufi poet and author.

    (William C. Chittick)

  • ERBEL

    See ARBELA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ERDMANN, KURT

    (b. Hamburg, 9 September 1901; d. Berlin, 30 September 1964), leading historian of Sasanian and Islamic art.

    (Jens Kröger)

  • EREKLE II

    (1720-1798), king of Kakheti (r. 1744-62) and king of Kartli-Kakheti in Caucasus (r. 1762-98).

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • ƎRƎTI

    the name of a minor goddess, one of a number of abstract deities who appear in the Avesta only in formulaic invocations of divinities.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • EREVAN

    ancient city and modern capital of the Republic of Armenia. After the Qara Qoyunlu made Erevan the administrative center of the Ararat region in the 15th century, travelers and historians frequently mentioned it as a major city of the region.

    (Erich Kettenhofen, George A. Bournoutian and Robert H. Hewsen)

  • ERĒZ

    See ARZENJĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿERFĀN (1)

    lit. "knowledge"; Islamic theosophy.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • ʿERFĀN (2)

    title of two Persian magazines and a newspaper.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ʿERFĀN, ḤASAN

    Hasan Aliḵonovič Mamadḵonov (b. Samarkand, 3 March 1900; d. 22 June 1973), Tajik translator and writer.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ERGATIVE CONSTRUCTION

    The most generally accepted definition of an ergative construction begins with the notion that languages utilize three primitive syntactic relations, referred to as S, A, and O. S is the subject of an intransitive clause, A is the subject of a transitive clause, and O is the object of a transitive clause.

    (John R. Payne)

  • ĒRĪČ MOUNTAIN

    mentioned in a chapter of the Bundahišn devoted to mountains.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • EROTIC LITERATURE

    expressed in Persian by the neologism "adabīyāt-e erotīk"; not a clearly defined genre, since the concept of what is “erotic” varies considerably from time to time and place to place.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • ERŠĀD

    title of two Persian newspapers and a magazine.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ERŠĀD AL-NESWĀN

    the first women’s periodical in Afghanistan, published weekly in Kabul from 16 March-9 June 1921.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ERŠĀD al-ZERĀʿA

    a Persian agricultural manual completed in Herat in 1515 by Qāsem b. Yūsof Abūnaṣrī, who was previously identified in the scholarly literature simply as Fāżel Heravī.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • ERṮ

    See INHERITANCE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ERUANDAŠAT

    a city in Armenia located on a rocky hill at the juncture of the Akhurean and Araxes rivers.

    (Robert H. Hewsen)

  • ERZENJĀN

    a town in northeastern Anatolia. See ARZENJĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ERZİ, ADNAN SADIK

    After graduating in 1947, ERZİ began work for the Society of Turkish History as a library and publications specialist. In April 1947 he was appointed the Library Manager of the Faculty of Language and History/Geography at the University of Ankara.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenlı and Mustafa Uyar)

  • ERZURUM

    a town in eastern Anatolia (39° 50´ N, 41° 20´ E).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESʿAD DEDE, MEHMED

    Moḥammad Asʿad Dada (b. Salonika, 1841; d. Istanbul, 9 August 1911), Turkish author and Sufi poet of the Mawlawī order.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ESʿAD EFENDİ, MEHMED

    Moḥammad Asʿad Efendi (b. Istanbul, 14 June 1570; d. Istanbul, 21 June 1625), Ottoman religious figure and author of both Persian and Turkish poetry.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ʿEṢĀMĪ, ʿABD-AL-MALEK

    (fl. 1350), Indo-Muslim poet writing in Persian.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • EŠĀRĀT WA’L-TANBĪHĀT, AL-

    a late work of Avicenna (Ebn Sīnā, d. 1037), written sometime between 1030 and 1034, which sums up his thought in a language that is often deeply personal and expressive.

    (M. E. Marmura)

  • ESCHATOLOGY

    the branch of theology concerned with final things, i.e., the advent of the savior to defeat evil and the end of the world.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ESCHATOLOGY i. In Zoroastrianism and Zoroastrian Influence

    Faith in the events beyond life on this earth is attested in the Zoroastrian scriptures from the very first, from the Gāθās. This faith developed and became central to later Zoroastrianism so that it colors almost all aspects of the religious life.

    (Shaul Shaked)

  • ESCHATOLOGY ii. Manichean Eschatology

    Manichean eschatology, teachings about final things, provided information on what happened during and after the death of a single human being and also on what would happen before and at the end of this world.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • ESCHATOLOGY iii. Imami Shiʿism

    It is known that among Islamic doctrinal trends and schools of thought that Shiʿism, Imami Shiʿism in particular, has developed eschatological doctrine most fully.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • ESCHATOLOGY iv. In Babism and Bahaism

    Individual Babis and Bahais have compiled testimonia and written “demonstrative treatises” (estedlālīya) to show the fulfillment, in their religion, of apocalyptic and eschatological prophecies.

    (Stephen Lambden)

  • EṢFAHĀN

    See ISFAHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EṢFAHĀN and EṢFAHĀNĀT

    See BAYĀT-E EṢFAHĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EṢFAHĀNĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤASAN

    b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan, author of the Ketāb al-bolhān on astrology, magic, divination, and demonology, which he composed around 1400 for Ḥosayn b. Aḥmad b. Moḥammad Erbelī.

    (David Pingree)

  • EṢFAHĀNĪ, ABU’L-ŠAYḴ ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    b. Moḥammad b. Jaʿfar b. Ḥayyān ḤĀFEẒ ANṢĀRĪ (887-979), traditionist and Koran commentator, important principally for his Ṭabaqāt al-moḥaddeṯīn.

    (Martin McDermott)

  • ESFAHANI, Jaleh

    (Žāla Eṣfahāni, b. Esfahan, 1921; d. London, 29 November 2007), poet and political activist. Esfahani’s poetry is ensconced in the tradition of Persian prosody. With few exceptions, she adheres to the metrical traditions of classical Persian poetry. She frequently borrows imageries from poets of the classical period and adapts them to the requirements of her politically laden poems.

    (Shadab Vajdi)

  • EṢFAHĀNI, MOḤAMMAD MAʿṢUM

    (ca. 1597-ca. 1647), Safavid bureaucrat and historian, whose history entitled the Ḵolāṣat al-siar chronicles the reign of Shah Ṣafi.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ESFAHSĀLĀR

    See SEPAHSĀLĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESFAND

    a common weed found in Persia, Central Asia, and the adjacent areas.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • ESFANDĪĀR (1)

    son of Goštāsp, Kayanian prince of Iranian legendary history and hero of Zoroastrian holy wars, best known for his tragic combat with with Rostam, the mightiest warrior of Iranian national epic.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ESFANDĪĀR (2)

    one of the seven great clans of Parthian and Sasanian times.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ESFANDĪĀR KHAN BAḴTĪĀRĪ, ṢAMṢĀM-AL-SALṬANA, SARDĀR(-E) ASʿAD

    (1844-1902), important leader of the Baḵtīārī tribe in southwestern Persia and grandfather of Queen Ṯorayyā.

    (G. R. Garthwaite)

  • ESFANDĪĀRĪ, ḤĀJJ MOḤTAŠAM-AL-SALṬANA ḤASAN

    (b. 23 April 1867; d. 24 February 1945), politician, governor, and speaker of the Majles.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqelī)

  • ESFARA

    a district in the Fergana valley south of the Jaxartes which extends to the foothills of the Turkestan range.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ESFARĀYEN

    or ESFARĀʾĪN; a district, and in pre-modern Islamic times, a town, of northwestern Khorasan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ESFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM

    5th/12th-century astronomer. See ASFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESFEZĀRĪ, MOʿĪN-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD ZAMČĪ

    (ca. 1446-1510), calligrapher specializing in the taʿlīq script, minor poet (pen name Nāmī), and master of the epistolary art who flourished in Herat during the reign of the Timurid Solṭān-Ḥosayn Bāyqarā.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • ESFĪJĀB

    See ASFĪJĀB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESḤĀQ AḤMAR NAḴAʿI

    a prominent Shiʿi extremist active in Iraq, founder of the Esḥāqiya ḡolāt sect, and the supposed author of a number of texts.

    (Mushegh Asatryan)

  • ESḤĀQ MAWṢELĪ

    (767?-850), prominent musician at the ʿAbbasid court in Baghdad and the successor of his equally famous father Ebrāhīm Mawṣelī as leader of the conservative school of musicians of the time.

    (Everett K. Rowson)

  • ESḤĀQ KHAN QARĀʾĪ TORBATĪ

    (ca. 1743-1816), one of the wealthiest and most powerful chieftains in Khorasan during the reigns of Āḡā Moḥammad Khan and Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qājār.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ESḤĀQ B. ṬOLAYQ

    b. ṬOLAYQ (or Ṭalīq), the secretary responsible for translating the financial dīvāns of Khorasan into Arabic in 741-42.

    (Mohsen Zakeri)

  • ESḤĀQ TORK

    propagandist sent by Abū Moslem Ḵorāsānī (governor of Khorasan and leading figure in the ʿAbbasid revolution) to the Turkish people of Transoxania.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb)

  • ESḤAQĪYA

    See ḠOLĀT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESḤĀQZĪ

    The geographical distribution of the tribe shows the dualism typical to those Pashtun tribes who have massively taken part in the colonization of North Afghanistan, a process in which the Esḥāqzī played a leading role.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • EŠĪK-ĀQĀSĪ-BĀŠĪ

    or Īšīk-āqāsī-bāšī, the title of two officials in the Safavid central administration, namely ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī-e dīvān, and ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī-e ḥaram.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ESKĀFI, ABŪ ḤANĪFA

    11th century Persian poet, mentioned among the court poets of Ḡazna.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ESKĀFĪ, ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh, Muʿtazilite theologian of the 9th century (d. 854).

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ESKANDAR

    See ALEXANDER THE GREAT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESKANDAR B. JĀNĪ BEG

    See ʿABD-ALLĀH KHAN b. ESKANDAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESKANDAR B. QĀBUS

    See QĀBŪS b. VOŠMGĪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESKANDAR BEG TORKAMĀN MONŠĪ

    sixteenth century author of Tārīḵ-e ʿālamārā-ye ʿabbāsī, a history of the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ESKANDAR MĪRZĀ

    pro-Persian member of the royal family of Georgia (b. 1770, d. after 1830).See ALEXANDER, PRINCE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESKANDAR SOLṬĀN

    b. ʿOmar Šayḵ b. Tīmūr (1384-1415), Timurid prince who ruled a succession of cities in western Persia between 1403 and 1415 but is remembered mostly for his cultural patronage.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ESKANDARĪ, ĪRAJ

    (1907-1985), prominent leader of the Tudeh Party. From 1948 he worked for the Tudeh party in Paris, Vienna, Budapest, Moscow, and finally Leipzig. His lukewarm attitude toward the Islamic Revolution and refusal of a Soviet offer to help turn Persia into another Afghanistan cost him his leadership position in 1979.

    (Cosroe Chaqueri)

  • ESKANDARĪ, MOḤTARAM

    a pioneer advocate of women’s rights in Persia (1895-1925) and the founder and leader of the first women’s association in Persia, namely Jamʿīyat-e taraqqī-e neswān, later Jamʿīyat-e neswān-e waṭanḵᵛāh (Society of Patriotic Women).

    (Mehrangīz Dawlatšāhī)

  • ESKANDARĪ, SOLAYMĀN (MOḤSEN) MĪRZĀ

    (1875-1944), constitutionalist, civil servant, statesman, founder of the Ejtemāʿīyūn (Socialists) political party in the 1920s. His interest in social justice and egalitarianism was more rooted in Islam than in the European Enlightenment or European socialism.

    (Cosroe Chaqueri)

  • ESKANDARĪYA

    See ALEXANDRIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESKANDAR-NĀMA

    Alexander the Great and the adventure tale about him known generically as the Alexander romance.

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • ESKANDAR-NĀMA OF NEẒĀMĪ

    the poetical version of the life of Alexander by the great 12th century narrative poet Neẓāmī Ganjavī (1141-1209).

    (François de Blois)

  • EŠKĀŠ(E)M

    a settlement in medieval Badaḵšān in northeastern Afghanistan, now in the modern Afghan province of Eškāšem.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • EŠKĀŠ(E)MĪ

    or Ishkashmi; one of the so-called “Pamir group” of the Eastern Iranian languages spoken in a few villages of the region of Eškāšem straddling the upper reaches of the Panj river.

    (I. M. Steblin-Kamensky)

  • ESKENĀS

    bank note, paper currency. In 1888 an English-owned New Oriental Bank established branches in Tehran and other cities, and for the first time Persians became acquainted with a bank in the modern sense. in 1889, Baron Julius de Reuter obtained from Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah the concession of establishing the Imperial Bank of Persia and the monopoly of issuing bank notes in Persia.

    (Ali Shargi)

  • EṢLĀḤ

    title of several Persian-language newspapers, especially the major 20th-century Kabul daily.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EṢLĀḤĀT-E ARŻĪ

    See LAND REFORM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESLĀM

    See ISLAM in IRAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESLĀMĪYA

    title of two Persian newspapers first appearing in Tabrīz in 1906.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ESM

    See PERSONAL NAMES; ALQĀB WA ʿANĀWĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EŠM b. ŠEḠĀY

    See CENTRAL ASIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL

    (ISHMAEL). See EBRĀHĪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. ʿABBĀD, ṢĀḤEB

    See ṢĀḤEB b. ʿABBĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL b. JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ

    the sixth Imam and the eponym of the Ismaʿilis.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Rokn-al-Dīn Yaḥyā

    See MAJD-AL-DĪN ESMĀʿĪL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Seboktegīn

    Ghaznavid prince and briefly amir in Ḡazna in 997-98.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ESMĀʿĪL ḤAQQĪ BORSAVĪ

    or Oskodārī, b. MOṢṬAFĀ, Shaikh Abu’l-Fedāʾ (b. Aydos 1652; d. Bursa, 1725), Turkish scholar, theologian, and mystic.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ESMĀʿĪL ḴANDĀN

    See ALTUNTĀŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Nūḥ, ABŪ EBRĀHĪM MONTAṢER

    (d. 1004), last Samanid amir.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Yasār NESĀʾĪ

    an eighth century poet of Persian origin from Medina.

    (Kevin Lacey)

  • ESMĀʿĪL KHAN QAŠQĀʾĪ

    ṢAWLAT-AL-DAWLA, SARDĀR-E ʿAŠĀYER. See ṢAWLAT-AL-DAWLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL I ṢAFAWĪ

    (1487-1524), SHAH ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR, founder of the Safavid dynasty whose decision, the promulgation of the Eṯnā-ʿašarī rite of Shiʿism to be the official religion of the state, had profound consequences for the subsequent history of Persia.

    (Roger M. Savory, Ahmet T. Karamustafa)

  • ESMĀʿIL II

    (1537-1577), the third Safavid monarch, fought the Ottomans as the governor of Šervan and later was made the crown prince by Ṭahmāsp I and sent to Qazvin. His liaisons with male companions led to his demotion and imprisonment, until he took the throne with the backing of his supporters.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ESMĀʿĪL III ṢAFAWĪ

    (r. 1750-73), ABŪ TORĀB, Safavid shadow-king, the third Safavid dynast of that name.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ESMĀʿĪL, b. Aḥmad b. Asad SĀMĀNĪ, ABŪ EBRĀHĪM

    (849-907), the first member of the Samanid dynasty to rule over all Transoxania and Farḡāna.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ESMĀʿIL KHAN BURBUR

    (1800-1888), high ranking military official under the Qajars.

    (Dariush Borbor)

  • ESMĀʿĪL KHAN ṢĪMQO

    or SEMĪTQŪ. See ṢĪMQO.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESMĀʿĪL ZĀDA, ḤOSAYN KHAN

    (d. 1941), teacher and master player of the kamānča.

    (Moḥammad-Taqī Masʿūdīya)

  • ʿEṢMAT

    See ČAHĀRDAH MAʿṢŪM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEṢMAT BOḴĀRĪ, Ḵᵛāja ʿEṢMAT-ALLĀH

    b. Masʿūd Boḵārī (d. 1436), poet and scholar of the early Timurid period, known also for his expertise in mathematics, history, prosody, riddles, and mastery of enšāʾ.

    (Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ESOTERIC SECTS

    See BĀṬENĪYA; ḠOLĀT; ISMAʿILISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESPAHBOD, ALI-REZA

    (1951-2007), painter and graphic designer who aimed to represent ideals of equality and justice; he was banned from exhibiting his paintings from 1991 to 2001.

    (Hengameh Fouladvand)

  • EŠPOḴTOR

    See TSITSIANOV.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEŠQ

    See LOVE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEŠQ MOBTALĀ

    8th-19th century author writing in Persian and Urdu.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • EŠQ O RŪḤ

    See ḤOSN O RŪḤ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EŠQĀBĀD

    See ASHKABAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEŠQĪ, MOḤAMMAD-REŻĀ MĪRZĀDA

    (1894-1923), poet and journalist of the post-constitution era and an important contributor to the modernization of poetry in Persia. After he was assassinated by two gunmen, the Majles members of the minority party and other opponents of Prime Minister Reżā Khan quickly turned his funeral into an occasion for public protest against the rising tide of Reżā Khan's power.

    (Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak)

  • EŠQĪ, MOLLĀ BĀBOR

    b. Hedāyat-Allāh (1792-1863), Central Asian poet writing in Persian.

    (Jirí Bečka)

  • ʿEŠQĪʿAẒĪMĀBĀDĪ, SHAIKH MOḤAMMAD WAJĪH-AL-DĪN

    18th-19th century poet and writer in Persian and Urdu.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • ʿEŠQĪ BELGRĀMĪ, SHAH BARKAT-ALLĀH

    (1659?-1729), Indo-Persian poet and author.

    (Asifa Zamani)

  • EŠRĀQ ḴĀVARĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD

    (b. Mašhad, 1902; d. Tehran, 1972), Bahai scholar, teacher, and author.

    (Vahid Rafati)

  • EŠRĀQĪ SCHOOL

    See ILLUMINATIONISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEŠRĪNĪYA

    See BĪSTGĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESTAHBĀN

    town and district in Fārs, bordered in the north by the Baḵtagān lake, in the northeast and the east by Neyrīz/Nīrīz, in the south by Dārāb, in the southwest by Fasā, and in the west by Shiraz.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • ESTAḴR NEWSPAPER

    a newspaper published in Shiraz from 1918-1932 and 1942-1962.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EṢṬAḴR

    (ESTAḴR, STAḴR), city and district in ancient Persia (Fārs). It was presumably a suburb of the urban settlement once surrounding the Achaemenid royal residences, of which few traces survive. After the death of Seleucus I (280 B.C.), when the province began to re-assert its independence, its center seems to have developed at Eṣṭaḵr.

    (A. D. H. Bivar, Mary Boyce)

  • EṢṬAḴRĪ, ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    b. Moḥammad Fāresī Karḵī, 10th-century Muslim traveler and geographer and founder of the genre of masālek (lit. “itineraries”) literature.

    (O. G. Bolshakov)

  • EṢṬAḴRĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ḤASAN

    b. Aḥmad b. Yazīd (858-939), Shafiʿite jurisconsult and author.

    (Jeanette Wakin)

  • ESTĀLEF

    large Persian-speaking village of the Kōhdāman, 55 km north of Kabul, built on a foothill of the Paḡmān range of the Hindu Kush between 1,875 and 1,950 m above sea-level.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • ESTEʿĀRA

    lit. "to borrow"; the general term for metaphor.

    (Julie Scott Meisami)

  • ESTEBDĀD-E ṢAGĪR

    "the lesser tyranny." See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESTEBṢĀR

    See ṬŪSĪ, ABŪ JAʿFAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EŠTEHĀRD

    a town and district (baḵš) in the province of Tehran.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • EŠTEHĀRDĪ

    the easternmost of the nine Southern Tati (Tātī) dialects and sharing with the others most phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical features. These are part of a band of dialects extending from the Aras River to central Persia and farther east.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • ESTEḴĀRA

    See DIVINATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ESTEQLĀL

    newspaper published by the constitutionalists who had taken refuge in the Ottoman consulate in Tabrīz during the Russian occupation of the city in 1909.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ESTEQLĀL-E ĪRĀN

    an evening daily published in Tehran from 31 May 1910-17 August 1911; it was the organ of the small Unity and Progress party (Ḥezb-e ettefāq o taraqqī) and was published by the party’s leader, the well-known constitutionalist Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn Mostaʿān-al-Molk

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ESTHER, BOOK OF

    a short book of the Old Testament, written in Hebrew.

    (Shaul Shaked)

  • ESTHER AND MORDECHAI

    a Jewish shrine in the city of Hamadān, where, according to Judeo-Persian tradition, Esther and Mordechai are buried.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ESTRĀBĀD

    See ASTARĀBĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEDĀLĪ, ḤEZB-E

    See EJTEMĀʿĪYŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA

    lit. “Confidant of the State”; an important title given to people in the administration favored by the court.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR

    See EBRĀHĪM KALĀNTAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD BEG TEHRĀNĪ

    Gīāṯ-al-Dīn Moḥammad Tehrānī (d. 1622), prime minister of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and father of the emperor’s wife, Nūr Jahān. See GĪĀṮ BEG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA, ĀQĀ KHAN NŪRĪ

    (1807-1865), MĪRZĀ, prime minister (ṣadr-e aʿẓam) of Persia under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah Qajar; though relatively young when he took office, he represented the old school of Qajar statecraft.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • EʿTEMĀD-AL-SALṬANA, MOḤAMMAD-ḤASAN KHAN MOQADDAM MARĀḠAʾĪ

    or ṢANĪʿ-AL-DAWLA (1843-1896), Qajar statesman, scholar, and author.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • EʿTEṢĀMĪ, MĪRZĀ YŪSOF KHAN ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, EʿTEṢĀM-AL-MOLK

    (b. Tabrīz, 1874; d. Tehran, 1938), Persian writer and journalist.

    (Heshmat Moayyad)

  • EʿTEṢĀMĪ, PARVĪN

    Parvīn was only seven or eight years old when her poetic talent revealed itself. Encouraged by her father, she rendered into verse some literary pieces that her father had translated from Western sources. Her earliest known poems, eleven compositions printed in 1921-22 issues of her father’s monthly magazine, Bahār, display maturity of thought and craft.

    (Heshmat Moayyad)

  • EʿTEŻĀD-AL-DAWLA

    See SOLAYMĀN KHAN QĀJĀR QOVĀNLŪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EʿTEŻĀD-AL-SALṬANA, ʿALĪQOLĪ MĪRZĀ

    (1822-1880), first minister of sciences (ʿolūm, meaning education) of the Qajar period and a scholar.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • ETHÉ, CARL HERMANN

    Initially Ethé worked as an assistant librarian at the Bodleian, on leave of absence from the University of Munich. In 1874 he abandoned his lectureship in Germany and settled down in Great Britain. The motivation for this move may have been political, at least in part, because Ethé is described as “a German radical, . . . a persona ingrata with absolutist governments”

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ETHICS

    a body of practical moral doctrine was elaborated as part of the earliest development of Persian literature, at which time considerable reflection was devoted to topics ranging from morals to ethics, from the exhortation not to harm one’s fellow creature to the search for the meaning of life.

    (C.-H. de Fouchecour)

  • ETHIOPIA

    Ethiopia (OPers. Kuša-) was located on the western fringe of the Achaemenid empire. The Ethiopians (OPers. Kušiyā; Gr. Aithí;-opes “with [sun]burnt faces”) are named among the peoples of the Persian Empire and are included at the end of Herodotus’s satrapy list.

    (E. van Donzel)

  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Text)

    the basic field research method in anthropology. Apart from ancient and medieval travelers such as Herodotus, Marco Polo and Clavijo, the record of close observation by foreigners in the Iranian region begins with the reports of travelers to the Safavid Court in the sixteenth century.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • ETHNOGRAPHY (Bibliography)

    For cited works not given in detail, see “Short References.” Priority has been given to coverage of ethnographic data based on long-term participant observation, but other ethnographically significant sources are also listed, including some based on shorter works, some by travelers from before the emergence of professional ethnography, and some from scholars trained in related fields such as folklore, linguistics and cultural geography.

    (Brian Spooner)

  • ETIQUETTE

    (Pers. nazākat, ādāb-e moʿāšarat), defined as the observance of conventional decorum particularly among the elite, is itself part of the wider topic of adab.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh, ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrinkub, Nancy H. Dupree)

  • EṮNĀ-ʿAŠARĪYA

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEṬR

    See ʿAṬR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ETTEFĀQ

    title of five Persian newspapers.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ETTEFĀQ-E ESLĀM

    lit. “Islamic Solidarity"; a weekly government newspaper which began publication in Herat as of 24 August 1920; renamed Faryād in November 1922.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ETTEFĀQ-E KĀRGARĀN

    a daily newspaper published by the striking print-workers union in Tehran in 1910, one of the first labor or socialist newspaper published in Persia.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ETTEḤĀD

    title of eleven Persian language newspapers.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ETTEHĀD-E ESLĀM

    See KUČEK KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ETTEHĀDĪYA, ŠERKAT-E

    an exchange company (ṣarrāfī) founded in Tabrīz in 1887 by the brothers Ḥājī ʿAlī and Ḥājī Mahdī Kūzakanānī in partnership with two local money changers, Sayed Mortażā and Ḥājī Loṭf-ʿAlī, and other Tabrīzī merchants.

    (Mansoureh Ettehadiyeh Nezam-Mafi)

  • EṬṬELĀʿ

    title of a Persian newspaper and a magazine.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • EṬṬELĀʿĀT

    lit. “information, knowledge”; the oldest running Tehran afternoon daily newspaper and the oldest running Persian daily in the world. It was first published on 10 July 1926 as the organ of Markaz-e Eṭṭelāʿāt-e Īrān, the first Persian news agency.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ETTINGHAUSEN, RICHARD

    Although Ettinghausen’s official role at the Berlin Museum ended in early 1933 because of decrees issued by the National Socialist Party, he retained an admiration for the work of his former colleagues, epecially that of F. Sarre.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • EUCRATIDES

    name of two Greco-Bactrian kings: (1) Eucratides I (r. 170-145 B.C.E.), one of the last and most powerful of the Greco-Bactrian kings and (2) Eucratides II, another Greco-Bactrian king, (r. 145-140 B.C.E.) known only through his coinage.

    (Paul Bernard)

  • EUGENIUS

    or MĀRAWGEN; legendary Christian saint traditionally credited with the introduction of Egyptian monasticism into Mesopotamia and Persia.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • EULAEUS RIVER

    See KARḴEH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EUNUCHS

    castrated males who were in charge of the concubines of royal harems, served in the daily life of the court, and sometimes carried out administrative functions.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EUPHRATES

    together with the Tigris, historically and geographically constituting one of the most important river-systems in the Near East.

    (Samuel N. C. Lieu)

  • EUROPE, PERSIAN IMAGE OF

    To Persians, as to other Muslim peoples, Europe was long synonymous with Christendom and was thus closely associated with Rūm, the realm of Byzantium or eastern Christianity.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • EUSEBIUS OF CAESAREA

    (260-339), Greek ecclesiastical historian and theologian.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • EUSTATHIUS, ACTS of

    Christian martyrological text, of which versions survive in many languages, including Greek, Latin, Syriac, and Armenian.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • EUTHYDEMUS

    name of two Greek kings of Bactria: (1) Euthydemus I (ca. 230-200 B.C.E.), considered the real founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom and (2) Euthydemus II (ca. 190-185 B.C.E.), presumably the second son of Euthydemus I, or less probably eldest son of Demetrius I.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • EUTROPIUS

    Roman administrator and historian, probably from Bordeaux, who accompanied the emperor Julian the Apostate on his ill-fated Persian expedition in 363.

    (Samuel N. C. Lieu)

  • EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria

    (877-940), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arabic and called Ketāb al-tārīḵ al-majmūʿ ʿalā’l-taḥqīq wa’l-taṣdīq or Naẓm al-jawhar) is a rich repository of much otherwise unobtainable information about the history of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, especially in the periods of Persian occupation in the seventh century and in Islamic times up to the early tenth century.

    (Sidney H. Griffith and EIr)

  • EVAGRIUS PONTICUS

    (346-399 C.E.), prolific author of Christian literature in Greek. After passing the first part of his career as a preacher in Constantinople, Evagrius took up abode in the Egyptian desert and became one of the most renowned of its many ascetics.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF IRAN

    See CHRISTIANITY viii. Christian Missions in Persia.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EVANGELION

    “gospel” (Gk. euangélion). For the Manichean scripture of that name, see ANGALYŪN; MĀNĪ; MANICHEISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EVIL

    wickedness, harm, ill fortune.

    (Gherardo Gnoli, Etan Kohlberg)

  • EVIL EYE

    See ČAŠM-ZAḴM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EVIL MIND

    See AKŌMAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EVIL SPIRIT

    See AHRIMAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EVĪN PRISON

    See Supplement.

    (Forthcoming)

  • EV-OḠLĪ family

    (or Īv-ōḡlī), name of a family that served three Safavid kings (ʿAbbās I, Ṣafī, and ʿAbbās II) as ešīk-āqāsī-bāšī of the harem, for a period of twenty-seven years (1617-43).

    (Kathryn Babayan)

  • EV-OḠLĪ, ḤAYDAR BEG

    or Īv-ōḡlī, b. Abu’l-Qāsem, a court official of the later Safavid period.

    (K. A. Luther)

  • EVOLUTION

    (takāmol, taḥawwol), a family of ideas embodying the belief that the physical universe and living organisms have developed in a process of continuous change from a lower, simpler to a higher, more complex state.

    (based on a longer article by ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn ZarrĪnkūb)

  • EWEN NĀMAG

    See ĀʾĪN-NĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ĒWĒNBED

    lit. "master of manners"; Pahlavi title attested from the 3rd century C.E.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • EXCAVATIONS

    i. In Persia, ii. In Afghanistan, iii. In Central Asia, iv. In Chinese Turkestan

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EXCAVATIONS i. In Persia

    a diachronic survey of the main patterns of archaeological field research in Persia from the time of the first excavations in the middle of the 19th century to the late l990s.

    (David Stronach)

  • EXCAVATIONS ii. In Afghanistan

    Archeological investigation, both excavation and recording of sites and monuments, began in Afghanistan in the early 19th century. Many of the reports were made by travelers and British Indian Army officers; often passing observations.

    (Warwick Ball)

  • EXCAVATIONS iii. In Central Asia

    Archeological and architectural monuments of Central Asia are mentioned in reports from the 18th and early 19th centuries. Major archaeological work began only after the Russian conquest of the region; it was first done by amateurs, in particular military officers.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • EXCAVATIONS iv. In Chinese Turkestan

    In spite of the large number of published archaeological reports, our knowledge about the archaeology of Chinese Turkestan is still incomplete and full of serious lacunae.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • EXEGESIS

    (Ar. tafsīr), commentary on or interpretation of sacred texts.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • EXEGESIS i. In Zoroastrianism

    Zoroastrian exegesis consists basically of the interpretation of the Avesta (q.v.). However, the closest equivalent Iranian concept, zand, generally includes Pahlavi texts which were believed to derive from commentaries upon Avestan scripture, but whose extant form contains no Avestan passages.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • EXEGESIS ii. In Shiʿism

    Shiʿite exegetes, perhaps even more than their Sunni counterparts, support their distinctive views by reference to Koranic proof-texts.

    (Meir M. Bar-Asher)

  • EXEGESIS iii. In Persian

    The writing of commentaries on the Koran in Persian seems to have begun during the second half of the 4th/10th century. The principal objective of such tafsīrs was ostensibly to give Persian speakers who were not proficient in Arabic direct access to the exegesis of the Koran.

    (Annabel Keeler)

  • EXEGESIS iv. IN SUFISM

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EXEGESIS v. IN ISMAʿILI SHIʿISM

    See TAʾWIL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EXEGESIS vi. In Aḵbārī and Post-Safavid Esoteric Shiʿism

    Aḵbārī exegesis of the Koran, the style and content of which are much older than the Safavid period, became during that time a common method of interpreting Islamic scripture.

    (Todd Lawson)

  • EXEGESIS vii. In Bahaism

    importance of Koranic exegesis (tafsīr) and interpretation (taʾwīl)—a somewhat arbitrary distinction—for the Bābī and Bahai religions may be gathered from the fact that the inception of the former is dated to the commencement of a work of scriptural interpretation, namely the Bāb’s Tafsīr sūrat Yūsof, and that, in many ways, the most important work in the Bahai canon is the Ketāb-e īqān by Bahāʾ-Allāh.

    (Todd Lawson)

  • EXEGESIS viii. Nishapuri School of Quranic Exegesis

    A school of Quranic exegesis was established by three scholars from Nishapur in the 11th century which transformed the genre of tafsir and Quranic sciences and came to be known as the Nishapuri School.

    (Walid A. Saleh)

  • EXILARCH

    (Hebrew resh galuta), the leading authority in the Jewish community in Babylonia.

    (Isaiah M. Gafni)

  • EXILE

    See DEPORTATIONS; DIASPORA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EXTRATERRITORIALITY

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EXTREMIST SHIʿITES

    See ḠOLĀT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EY IRĀN

    (O Iran, O bejeweled land), the title of an ardently patriotic hymn of praise to the land of Iran.

    (Morteza Hoseyni Dehkordi and Parvin Loloi)

  • EYES and EARS of KING

    See COURTS AND COURTIERS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EYVĀN

    See AYVĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EŻĀFA

    (annexation, suppletion), a grammatical term embracing several types of Persian noun phrase in which the constituents are connected by the enclitic -e/-ye (kasra-ye eżāfa “the eżāfa particle”).

    (John R. Perry and Ali Ashraf Sadeghi)

  • EZGĪL

    or AZGĪL. See MEDLAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • EZĪRĀN

    a village 32 km southeast of Isfahan on the south bank of the river Zāyandarūd.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • EZNIK OF KOŁB

    or KOŁBACʿI (b. ca. 374-80), Armenian Christian theologian and cleric; his work contains a refutation of the Zoroastrian religion.

    (James R. Russell)

  • ʿEZRĀ

    See BIBLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEZRĀ, BOOK OF

    canonical biblical book emanating from the early portion of the Second Temple period (515 B.C.E.-70 C.E.) of Jewish history.

    (J. C. Reeves)

  • ʿEZRĀʾĪL

    lit. "Angel of Death." See Supplement (ANGELS).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEZRĀ-NĀMA

    paraphrased versification of the Book of ʿEzrā containing midrashic and Iranian legends.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-al-RAŠĪD

    See ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD, ABŪ MANṢŪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD MĪRZĀ

    In 1872, ʿEzz-al-Dawla became the chieftain of the Qajar tribe, a prestigious albeit ceremonial position that he held for a year. It was in this capacity that he was selected to join Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s entourage on his first tour of Europe in 1873.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ʿEZZ-AL-DĪN KĀŠĀNĪ, MAḤMŪD

    b. ʿAlī Naṭanzī (d. 1334-35), an author and Sufi of the early 14th century.

    (Māšā-Allāh Ajūdānī)

  • ʿEZZAT-AL-DAWLA, MALEKAZĀDA ḴĀNOM

    (1834/35-1905), the only full sister of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah. The first (1849-52) of her five marriages was as second wife of Mīrzā Taqī Khan Amīr Kabīr. One of her two daughters by him married the crown prince Moẓaffar-al-Din Mirza and bore a son, the future Moḥammad-ʿAlī Shah (r. 1907-09).

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ʿEZZAT PĀŠĀ, MOḤAMMAD

    (1843-1914), author of a Persian-Turkish dictionary and translator of Persian literary works.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • Ebādī Aḥmad

    (music sample)

  • Ebrāhīm b. Adham

    (music sample)

  • Eqbāl Āḏar, Abu’l Ḥasan Khan Qazvīnī

    (music sample)

  • Eydetun mobārak

    (music sample)

  • Guše-ye Zābol

    (music sample)

  • E~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter E entries.

    (DATA)