List of Articles

  • GABAE

    the name of two places in Persia and Sogdiana.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GABAIN, ANNEMARIE VON

    Von Gabain was particularly interested in the question of the extent to which the religious ideas of the Central Asian peoples had been influenced by Zoroastrianism or other Iranian beliefs, and this perspective is reflected in several of her publications.

    (Peter Zieme)

  • GABBA

    a hand-woven pile rug of coarse quality and medium size (90 × 150 cm or larger) characterized by an abstract design that relies upon open fields of color and a playfulness with geometry. This kind of rug is common among the tribes of the Zagros (Kurdish, Lori-speaking ethnic groups, Qašqāʾīs).

    (Jean-Pierre Digard and Carol Bier)

  • GABR

    a New Persian term used from the earliest period as a technical term synonymous with mōḡ (magus). With the dwindling of the Zoroastrian community, the term came to have a pejorative implication.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • GABRA

    See GŌR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GABRI WARE

    See CERAMICS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GABRIEL, ALFONS

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GABRIELI, FRANCESCO

    The significance of Gabrieli’s contribution was widely recognized. He was a national member of Accademia dei Lincei since 1957 and served as its president in the years 1985-88; from 1968 to 1977 he was president of Istituto per l’Oriente.

    (Giuliano Lancioni)

  • GAČ

    See GYPSUM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAČ-BORĪ

    plasterwork or stucco. Gypsum plaster has been used as a building material in Persia for more than 2,500 years. Originally it may have been applied as a rendering to mud brick walls to protect them from the weather, but it was soon exploited for its decorative effects.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • GAČSAR

    a village in the Karaj district, situated at an altitude of 2,210 m at 110 km northwest of Tehran and 7 km south of the Kandavān Tunnel on the main road to the Caspian coast.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • GAČSĀRĀN

    town and oilfield in the province of Ḵūzestān, southwestern Persia.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • GADĀʾĪ

    See BEGGING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GÄDIATỊ (SEḰAYỊ FỊRT) COMAQ

    (1883-1931), Ossetic writer.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • ḠADĪR ḴOMM

    lit. “pool of Ḵomm”; the name of a pool near a small oasis along the caravan route between the cities of Mecca and Medina, near an area currently known as Joḥfa.

    (Maria Dakake and Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi)

  • GADŌTU

    a demon. See UDA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    See ABU ’L- ḤASAN KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, FARROḴ KHAN

    See AMĪN -AL- DAWLA , ABŪ ṬĀLEB FARROḴ KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    Following in the footsteps of his father, he began his career as one of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s personal pages. He had already received the title amīn(-e) ḵalwat when he accompanied the shah on his second journey to Khorasan in 1883. His promotion to the position of chief musketeer in 1883-84 was followed by two other appointments.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ḠAFFARĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    a prominent Qajar painter. See KAMĀL-AL-MOLK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, MOḤAMMAD-EBRĀHĪM KHAN

    son of Farroḵ Khan Amīn-al-Dawla, a high-ranking Qajar official. He spent his early years in the inner circle of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s court and then traveled to Europe to continue his education. In 1891 he received the title Moʿāwen-al-Dawla, and was named the head of the Commerce Court and deputy minister of justice.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN

    (1844-1915), Qajar minister and engineer. In his later years, Ḡaffārī held several important positions, including the minister of mines, the minister of public services, and minister of education.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ṢANĪʿ-AL-MOLK

    See ABU ’L- ḤASAN KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAFFĀRI QAZVINI, AḤMAD

    (d. 1568), 16th-century Persian scribe and historian who authored two universal histories and dedicated them to Shah Ṭahmāsp Ṣafavi.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • GAFUROV, BOBODZHAN GAFUROVICH

    (1908-1977), Tajik statesman, academician, and historian. His energy and administrative skills were instrumental in establishing Tajikistan’s first State University in 1948, and in inaugurating its national Academy of Sciences in 1951. He published more than 500 works.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • GAGIK

    See ARTSRUNI and BAGRATIDS .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĀH

    a Middle Persian, Parthian, and New Persian word meaning either “place” or “time.”

    (Mary Boyce)

  • GĀHAMBĀR

    See GĀHĀNBĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĀHĀNBĀR

    Middle Persian name for the feasts held at the end of each of the six seasons of the Zoroastrian year.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • GAHĪZ

    weekly newspaper published in Kabul from January 1968 to April 1973, owned, edited, and published by Menhāj-al-Dīn Gahīz (1922-73), who was apparently assassinated by Soviet agents.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • GĀH-ŠOMĀRĪ

    See CALENDARS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAIL, MARZIEH

    (1908-1993), Persian-American Bahaʾi author, essayist, and translator; child of the first Persian-American Bahaʾi marriage, and the first woman to work at a newspaper in Tehran.

    (Wendy Heller)

  • GALBANUM

    There has been confusion or uncertainty about the nature (color, taste, odor, medicinal properties) of galbanum, the plants involved, and habitats. The confusion has resulted mainly from the similarity of galbanum to resins yielded by some other umbelliferous plants.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • ḠĀLEB, Mīrzā ASAD-ALLĀH Khan

    (b. Agra, 1797; d. Delhi, 1869), one of the greatest poets of Muslim India who wrote poems in both Persian and Urdu.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • ḠĀLEB DADA, MOḤAMMAD ASʿAD

    also known as Mehmed Esad Galib Dede, Shaikh Ḡāleb, or Şeyh Galib (b. Istanbul, 1757; d. Galata, 1799) poet in Turkish and Persian.

    (Tahsın Yazici)

  • GALEN

    See JĀLINUS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GALERIUS

    See NARSEH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĀLEŠĪ

    See GĪLĀN x. LANGUAGES

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GALĪN QAYA

    dialect. See HARZANDĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GALLIMARD PRESS

    See PUBLISHING HOUSES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠALYĀN

    or QALYĀN (nargileh); a water pipe chiefly used in the Middle East and Central Asia for smoking tobacco. It is composed of several parts: the bādgīr (chimney); sar-e ḡālyān or sarpūš (the top bowl; sar-ḵāna in Afghanistan); tana (the body); mīlāb (the immersion pipe); ney-e pīč (hose); and kūza (the reservoir of water).

    (Shahnaz Razpush and EIr)

  • ḠALZĪ

    See ḠILZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAMĀM HAMADĀNĪ

    See ḠEMĀM HAMADĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAMASĀB

    See KARḴA RIVER, forthcoming online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAMBRA

    See BANDAR-e ʿABBĀS(Ī).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAMBRON

    See BANDAR-e ʿABBĀS(Ī).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAMES

    See BĀZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAN(N)ĀG MĒNŪG

    See AHRIMAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GANĀVA

    county (šahrestān) and port city on the Persian Gulf in the province of Būšehr.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • GANDĀPŪR

    one of two Šērānī Pashtun/Paxtun tribal segments (the other being the Baḵtīār), who claim origin in southwestern Afghanistan.

    (M. Jamil Hanifi)

  • GANDĀPŪR, ŠĒR MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    b. Mehrdād Khan b. Āzād Khan, author of the Persian Tawārīḵ-e ḵoršīd-e jahān, an important chronicle containing genealogical accounts and tables of Pashtun/Paxtun tribal groups.

    (M. Jamil Hanifi)

  • GAṆDARƎBA

    (Mid. Pers. Gandarw/Gandarb), a term attested the Avesta as the name of a monster living in the lake Vourukaṧa.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • GANDHĀRA

    (OPers. Gandāra), a province of the Persian empire under the Achaemenids. The name of Gandhāra or Gandhārī occurs in ancient Indian texts as the name of a people.

    (Willem J. Vogelsang)

  • GANDHĀRAN ART

    Iranian contribution and Iranian connections. The region of Gandhāra attained its peak of prosperity in the Kushan period (1st to 3rd centuries CE), when it became one of the strongholds of Buddhism.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • GĀNDHĀRĪ LANGUAGE

    The language of ancient Gandhāra, the area around the Peshawar Valley in the modern North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, lying near the border of the Indian and Iranian linguistic areas.

    (Richard Salomon)

  • GANDOM

    “wheat,” both the plant and the grain. Wheat bread has been the staple of local diets throughout Iranian plateau for millennia. A very broad range of bread wheat varieties has traditionally been grown in the Iranian lands, especially in Afghanistan.

    (Daniel Balland and Marcel Bazin)

  • GANDOMAK, TREATY OF

    an agreement between Amir Moḥammad-Yaʿqub of Afghanistan (r. February to October 1879) and Major Pierre Louis Napoléon Cavagnari, representing the British Government of India, signed at the British army camp near the village of Gandomak, about seventy miles east of Kabul, on 26 May 1879, and ratified by Lord Edward Robert Bulwer Lytton, Viceroy of India, on 30 May 1870. Most historical writings consider the Treaty of Gandomak as the prelude to the Second Anglo-Afghan War (q.v.), 1879-1880.

    (M. Jamil Hanifi)

  • GĀNEMĪ

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GANG DEŽ

    See KANGDEŽ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠANĪ, QĀSEM

    Qasem Gani was a prolific writer and, during his many years abroad, corresponded with several eminent figures of the time. His diaries, notebooks, and letters have been compiled and edited in twelve volumes under the general supervision of his son, Cyrus Ghani.

    (Abbas Milani)

  • ḠANĪ KAŠMIRI

    Pen name of Mollā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER KAŠMĪRĪ (1630-69), one of the most celebrated poets of Kashmir who wrote in the Indian Style (sabk-e hendī).

    (G. L. Tikku and EIr)

  • ḠANI KAŠMIRI

    Pen name of Mollā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER KAŠMĪRĪ (1630-69) . He practiced the “Speaking Anew” (tāza-guʾyi) stylistics of the ḡazal that had arisen across the Persian world in the early 1500s.

    (Prashant Keshavmurthy)

  • ḠANĪMAT KONJĀHĪ

    Persian poet from the Indian subcontinent, famous for composing Nīrang-e ʿešq (d. ca 1713).

    (Arif Naushahi)

  • ḠANĪZĀDA, MAḤMŪD

    b. Mīrzā Ḡanī Dīlmaqānī, liberal journalist, historian, and poet (1879-1936).

    (Hassan Javadi)

  • GANJ-E ARŠADĪ

    An Indo-Persian collection of sayings (malfūẓāt) of the Češtī saint of Jaunpour Aršad Badr-al-Ḥaqq (1047-1113/1637-1701).

    (S. H. Askari)

  • GANJ-E BĀDĀVARD

    (the treasure brought by the wind), name of one of the eight treasures of the Sasanian Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628 C.E.) according to most Persian sources.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • GANJ DAREH TEPE

    See ECBATANA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GANJ-E ŠAKAR, Farid-al-Din Masʿud

    Popularly known as Bābā Farid, a major Shaikh of the Češtīya mystic order, born in the last quarter of the 6th/12th century in Kahtwāl near Moltān, Punjab.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • GANJ-E ŠĀYAGĀN

    See Supplement

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GANJA

    (Ar. Janza), the Islamic name of a town in the early medieval Islamic province of Arrān (the classical Caucasian Albania, Armenian Alvankʿ).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GANJA, TREATY OF

    See NĀDER SHAH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GANJAFA

    See CARD GAMES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GANJAʾĪ, REŻĀ

    Ganjaʾī owes his fame to his publication of the politico-satirical weekly Bābā Šamal in 1943-45 and 1947, which became one of the most popular satirical journals in the history of journalism in Persia. Thereafter, most of his colleagues, journalists, writers, and even public figures addressed him as “Bābā Šamal.”

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • GANJAK

    See GANZAK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GANJ-ʿALĪ KHAN

    a military leader and governor of Kermān, Sīstān, and Qandahār under Shah ʿAbbās I (996-1038/1588-1629).

    (Mohammad-Ebrahim Bastani Parizi)

  • GANJĪNA-YE FONŪN

    a biweekly magazine published in Tabrīz for a year (1903-04). It was the first scholarly Persian periodical published in Persia.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • GANJ-NĀMA

    (lit. treasure book), location in a pass at an altitude of about 2,000 m across the Alvand Kūh leading westward to Tūyserkān, 12 km southwest of Hamadān.

    (Stuart C. Brown)

  • GANJVAR B. ESFANDĪĀR

    translator of Javīdān ḵarad, q.v.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GANZABARA

    (treasurer), title of provincial and sub-provincial financial administrators in the Achaemenid empire, extended to workers attached to Achaemenid treasuries.

    (Matthew W. Stolper)

  • GANZAK

    a town of Achaemenid foundation in Azerbaijan. The name means “treasury” and is a Median form (against Pers. gazn-), adopted in Persian administrative use.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • GAOTƎMA

    an Avestan proper name only attested in Yt. 13.16: “An eloquent man will be born, who makes his words heard in verbal contests, ... victorious over the defeated Gaotəma.”

    (Bernfried Schlerath)

  • ḠĀR

    (cave) and Stone Age cave dwellers in Iran. Caves and rock shelters were particularly attractive living places for the hunter gatherers of the early Paleolithic period. The geography of the Iranian Plateau with its bordering mountain system meant that there were many cave sites which would have been suitable for early cave dwelling man.

    (Ezzat O. Negahban)

  • GARAMAIOI

    See BĒT GARMĒ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠARB-ZADEGĪ

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠARČESTĀN

    name of a region in early Islamic times, situated to the north of the upper Harīrūd and the Paropamisus range and on the head waters of the Moṟḡāb.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GARCIN DE TASSY

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GARDANE MISSION

    (1807-9), a diplomatic and military project between France and Persia which represented Napoleon’s last attempt to realize his Oriental ambitions. From late 1795, Persia became part of French projects against British India. From the renewal of Franco-Ottoman relations (June 1802), he sought information on Persia.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • GARDEN

    referring to a garden estate, intended primarily for pleasure rather than permanent residence or production of crops, formally laid out, usually incorporating architectural elements, such as ornamental pools, gate-houses, and pavilions.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GARDEN i. ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Since the first millenium B.C.E., the garden has been an integral part of Persian architecture, be it imperial or vernacular.

    (Mehrdad Fakour)

  • GARDEN ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Donald Wilber’s study of the Persian garden remains the most comprehensive, to which should be added the articles by Ettinghausen and Pinder-Wilson in the proceedings of the Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the Islamic Garden.

    (Lisa Golombek)

  • GARDEN iii. INFLUENCE OF PERSIAN GARDENS IN INDIA

    Traces of Sultanate period gardens in the Persian style survive around Delhi in the citadel (Kōṭlā) of the Tughluqid Fīrūzšāh III (1351-88) and at Vasant Vihar (14th century).

    (Howard Crane)

  • GARDEN iv. BOTANICAL GARDENS

    In Persia there are only three botanical gardens (bāḡ-e gīāh-šenāsī) in the exact scientific sense of this term.

    (Borhan Riazi)

  • GARDEN v. In Persian Literature

    See BĀḠ iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GARDEN vi. IN PERSIAN ART

    For the decorative arts, the “garden carpet” is the quintessential re-creation of the garden, while paintings depict the garden as a setting for events. Vegetal motifs as ornament may be understood as generic allusions to the garden. In special circumstances, these allusions may be viewed as allusions to paradise themes.

    (Lisa Golombek)

  • GARDĪZ

    (Gardēz), a city in the Solaymān Mountains of eastern Afghanistan, 122 km south of Kabul. The city is situated at 2,300 m above sea-level, in a large intramountainous depression watered by the upper course of the Rūd-e Gardīz.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • GARDĪZĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿABD-al-ḤAYY

    b. Żaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd, Persian historian of the early 5th/11th century. He was clearly connected with the Ghaznavid court and administration and close to the sultans.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GARDŌY

    sister of Bahrām Čōbīn. See Bahrām VI Čōbīn.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GARGAR RIVER

    See KĀRŪN RIVER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GARLIC

    or allium sativum; a species in the onion family Alliaceae used as an ingredient in a variety of Persian dishes mainly as a condiment.

    (Etrat Elahi)

  • GARMAPADA

    (g-r-m-p-d-, attested only in gen. Garmapadahya), name of the fourth month (June-July) of the Old Persian calendar, mentioned in Darius I’s Bisotun inscription, DB I 42, III 7 f., and 46 (see Kent, Old Persian, p. 161a, 183ab).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GARMSĀR

    a region (Qešlāq and Garmsār) in the province of Semnān situated beyond the Caspian Gates, known particularly as a stopover on the great road to Khorasan.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • GARMSĪR AND SARDSĪR

    lit. "warm zones and cold zones"; two terms identifying regional entities that form a major geographical contrast deeply affecting the popular conscience in Persia.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • GARŌDMĀN

    the Pahlavi name for heaven and paradise.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • GARRETT COLLECTION

    one of the finest collections of Near Eastern manuscripts, bequeathed to the Princeton University Library by Robert Garrett (1875-1961), a graduate and a trustee of the university.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • GARRŪS

    See under KURDISTAN, forthcoming online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GARRŪSĪ

    See KURDISH DIALECTS, forthcoming online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GARRŪSĪ, AMĪR NEẒĀM

    See AMĪR NEẒĀM GARRŪSĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GARRŪSĪ, FAŻEL KHAN

    See FĀŻEL KHAN GARRŪSĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GARŠĀH

    See GAYŌMART .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GARŠĀSP

    See KARSĀSP.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GARŠĀSP-NĀMA

    or Karšāsp-nāma; a long heroic epic by Asadī Ṭūsī (d. 1072/73) completed, as the author says in the epilogue, in 1066, and dedicated to a ruler of Naḵjavān by the name of Abū Dolaf.

    (François de Blois)

  • GARSĒVAZ

    See KARSĒVAZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAS, NATURAL

    See NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY IN IRAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAṢB

    concept in Shiʿite law, meaning usurpation or unlawful seizure. See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GASTEIGER, ALBERT JOSEPH

    In 1870, Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah decided to make a pilgrimage to Karbalāʾ, and Gasteiger repaired and partially rebuilt the road via Hamadān and Kermānšāh to the Turkish border and also rendered the road from Kangāvar via Qom to Tehran usable.

    (Helmut Slaby)

  • GATE

    See DARVĀZA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GATHAS

    or GĀΘĀS; the core of the great Mazdayasnian liturgy, the Yasna, consisting of five gāθās, or modes of song (gā) that comprise seventeen songs composed in Old Avestan language, and arranged according to their five different syllabic meters.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GATHAS i

    Each single song covers one chapter (Av. hāiti-, Phl. ) of the Yasna.

    (Helmut Humbach)

  • GATHAS ii

    Of the entire corpus of the Avesta, the Gathas have been translated far more frequently than any of its other divisions.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • GAUB(A)RUVA

    Old Persian personal name, spelled g-u-b-ru-u-v (DB IV 84 etc.) and reflected in Elamite Kam-bar-ma, Babylonian Gu-ba-ru(-ʾ) (DB etc.), Ku-bar-ra (DNc 1), Gu-ba(r)-ri, etc., Aramaic gwbrw (not gwbrwh, as restored in the past), Greek Gōbrýās, Gōbrýēs, and Latin Gobryas.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GAUDEREAU, MARTIN

    (b. Langeais, 1663; d. Paris, 1743), French missionary priest (and later Abbé) who left valuable observations on Persia and played a part in Franco-Persian relations.

    (Jacqueline Calmard-Compas)

  • GAUGAMELA

    site of one of the greatest battles in history, resulting in the decisive victory of Alexander the Great over Darius III on 1 October 331 B.C.E.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • GAUMĀTA

    according to the Bīsotūn inscriptions, the Magian pretender who seized the Achaemenid throne by claiming to be Bardiya (Smerdis), the son of Cyrus the Great.

    (Pierre Briant)

  • GĀV

    See CATTLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAVA

    See SOGHDIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĀVĀHAN

    See PLOW.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠĀVĀL

    or daf; the most widespread percussion instrument in the Republic of Azerbaijan, played as much in artistic as in popular music and professional ensembles.

    (Jean During)

  • GAVAN

    plant of the genus Astragalus. See TRAGACANTH (pending).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĀVĀN GĪLĀNĪ

    See MAḤMŪD GĪLĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAVAZN

    See RED DEER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĀVBAND

    the owner of the oxen (gāv) in the traditional farming system of Persia.

    (Amir Ismail Ajami)

  • GĀVBĀRA

    See DABUYIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĀVBĀZĪ

    arranged fights between bulls. These now take place only in the Caspian provinces of Gīlān and Mazandarān. In the past, however, they were common throughout Persia and formed part of the entertainment in local festivities along with other games involving pitting animals and creatures of all kinds against each other.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GĀVMĪŠ

    buffalo. See CATTLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAVOR QALʿA

    See GYAUR KALA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĀV-ZABĀN

    lit. ”ox-tongue” (in reference to the rough, tongue-shaped leaves of the plant); the popular designation for several medicinal species of the borage family (Boraginaceae).

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • GĀW Ī ĒWDĀD

    or ēwagdād; the name of the primordial Bovine in Zoroastrian mythology.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • ḠAWṮ KHAN, NAWWĀB MOḴTĀR-AL-MOLK

    See NAWWĀB-E DAKHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAWṮĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    b. Ḥasan b. Mūsā Šaṭṭārī MANDOVĪ (b. Mandu, 1554), author of Golzār-e-abrār, a Persian hagiography of Indian saints.

    (K. A. Nizami)

  • GAY

    See ISFAHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAYBA

    (Pers. ḡaybat), lit. "absence"; term used by the Shiʿites to refer to the occultation of the Hidden Imam.

    (Said Amir Arjomand)

  • ḠĀYER KHAN

    b. Tekeš (d. 1220), Turkish general of the Ḵᵛārazmšāh ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn Moḥammad.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • GAYḴĀTŪ KHAN

    (1291-95) fifth Mongol Il-khan of Persia; his coins also bear the name Īrinjīn Dūrjī (Tibetan Rin-chen rDo-rje, lit. “Jewel Diamond”) bestowed upon him by Buddhist lamas.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • GAYŌMART

    or Gayūmarṯ, Kayūmarṯ; the sixth of the heptad in Mazdean myth of creation, the protoplast of man, and the first king in Iranian mythical history.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • GAYŌMARD (ARTICLE 2)

    in the Zoroastrian tradition, a primordial giant, the first man from whom mankind descends.

    (Carlo Cereti)

  • GAYSĀTA

    the name of a town in Khotanese documents in the A. F. R. Hoernle, Mark Aurel Stein, Sven Hedin, and N. F. Petrovsky collections.

    (Hiroshi Kumamoto)

  • GAZ and GAZ-ANGOBIN

    common term in Persian for several species of the genera Tamarix (desert trees) and Astragalus (spiny shrubs of gavan); also the name of a confection made with the sweet exudate (gaz-angobīn) produced on Astragalus.

    (Bahram Grami, M. R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • GAZ (town)

    or Jaz; a town in the province of Isfahan, of the šahrestān of Barḵᵛār and Mayma, situated 18 km north of the city of Isfahan at an altitude of 1,578 m above sea level.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • ḠAZĀ

    See ISLAM IN IRAN xi. JIHAD IN ISLAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAZA

    See GANZAK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAZACA

    See GANZAK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAŻĀʾERĪ

    nesba of two Imami authors and traditionists (10th-11th centuries).

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • ḠAŻĀʾERĪ RĀZĪ, ABŪ ZAYD MOḤAMMAD

    or ḠAŻĀYERĪ RĀZĪ, b. ʿALĪ, Persian poet of the early 11th century.

    (François de Blois)

  • ḠAZAL

    the most important Persian lyric, adopted also by literatures influenced by the classical Persian tradition, in particular Turkish and Urdu poetry.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ḠAZAL i. HISTORY

    The basic meaning of the word in Arabic is “spinning.” At a very early stage, the figurative sense of “having amorous talks with women, flirting” must have led to the association with erotic poetry.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ḠAZAL ii. CHARACTERISTICS AND CONVENTIONS

    The Persian ḡazal, especially the Hafezian and the post-Hafezian, does not usually follow a sustained narrative, but consists of a number of lines and statements largely independent of each other.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD

    b. Moḥammad Ṭūsī (1058-1111), one of the greatest systematic Persian thinkers of medieval Islam and a prolific Sunni author on the religious sciences (Islamic law, philosophy, theology, and mysticism) in Saljuq times. Overview of entry: i. Biography, ii. The Eḥyāʾ ʿolum al-dīn, iii. The Kīmīā-ye saʿādat, iv. Minor Persian works, v. As a Faqīh, vi. Ḡazālī and Theology, vii. Ḡazālī and the Bāṭenīs, viii. Impact on Islamic Thought.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD i

    (variant name Ḡazzālī; Med. Latin form, Algazel; honorific title, Ḥojjat-al-Eslām"The Proof of Islam”), born at Ṭūs in Khorasan in 450/1058 and grew up as an orphan together with his younger brother Aḥmad Ḡazālī (d. 520/1126; q.v.).

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, ii, iii

    ii. The Eḥyāʾ ʿolum al-dīn.

    (W. Montgomery Watt)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, iii

    See KIMIYĀ-YE SAʿĀDAT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, iv

    iv. Minor Persian works.

    (Nasrollah Pourjavady)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, v

    v. As a Faqīh.

    (Wael B. Hallaq)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, vi

    vi. Ḡazālī and Theology.

    (Michael E. Marmura)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, vii, viii

    vii. Ḡazālī and the Bāṭenīs, viii. Impact on Islamic thought.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD viii

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, MAJD-AL-DĪN Abu’l-Fotūḥ AḤMAD

    b. Moḥammad b. Aḥmad (ca. 1061-1126), outstanding mystic, writer, and eloquent preacher.

    (Nasrollah Pourjavady)

  • ḠAZĀLĪ MAŠHADĪ

    (b. Mašhad, 1526-27, d. Ahmadabad, 1572), poet laureate in Persian (malek-al-šoʿarāʾ) at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • ḠĀZĀN KHAN, MAḤMŪD

    (1271-1304), oldest son of Arḡūn Khan and his eventual successor as the seventh Il-khanid ruler of Persia (r. 1295-1304).

    (R. Amitai-Preiss)

  • ḠĀZĀN-NĀMA

    a verse chronicle of the reign of the Il-khan Ḡāzān Khan (1295-1304), by Ḵᵛāja Nūr-al-Dīn b. Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad Aždarī.

    (Charles Melville)

  • ḠAŻĀYERĪ RĀZĪ

    See ḠAŻĀʾERĪ RĀZĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAŽDAHAM

    an Iranian hero of Dež-e Safīd, a fortress near the border seperating Iran from Tūrān, during the reigns of the Kayanid kings Nōḏar and Kay Kāvūs.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • GAZELLE

    See ĀHŪ, CHINKARA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAZĪ

    See ISFAHAN xxii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GAZMA

    See CITIES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠAZNA or ḠAZNI

    or Ḡazna, Ḡaznīn; province and city in southeastern Afghanistan. The earliest known monuments of Ḡaznī belong to the Ghaznavid period (366-583/977-1187), the best representative of which are the two minarets standing east of the citadel, close to two large mounds resembling mosques.

    (Xavier de Planhol, Roberta Giunta)

  • ḠAZNAVĪ, ABŪ RAJĀʾ

    b. Masʿūd III, a poet at the court of the Ghaznavid sultan Bahrāmšāh (r. ca. 1117-1157).

    (EIr)

  • GAZOPHYLACIUM LINGUAE PERSICAE

    See DICTIONARIES iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĀZORGĀH

    a village approximately 2.5 miles northeast of the city of Herat in present-day northwestern Afghanistan at 34°22′ N and 62°14′ E, situated at an elevation of 4,100 feet.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny and Lisa Golombek)

  • GĀZORGĀHĪ, MĪR KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN

    b. Šeḥāb-al-Dīn Esmāʿīl Ṭabasī (b. 1469/70), a Timurid ṣadr and author of a collection of biographies of Sufis known as the Majāles al-ʿoššāq.

    (Shiro Ando)

  • ḠAZZĀLI

    See ḠAZĀLI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GEBER

    See GABR, MAJŪS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GEDROSIA

    or Kedrosia; a place-name known only from Classical sources.

    (Willem J. Vogelsang)

  • GEIGER, BERNHARD

    Geiger studied Hebrew and Arabic before being persuaded by Leopold von Schroeder to turn to Indian and Iranian studies. Among his teachers in Vienna, Bonn, Prague, Göttingen, and Heidelberg were the Indologists Leopold von Schroeder, Moriz Winternitz, and Franz Kielhorn and the Iranists Friedrich Carl Andreas (q.v.) and Jacob Wackernagel.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GEIGER, WILHELM

    Geiger’s first publication (1877) was an edited version and annotated translation of the Pahlavi version of the first chapter of the Vidēvdād, the first part of which was his doctoral thesis. Later in 1880 he published a translation with commentary of the third chapter.

    (Bernfried Schlerath)

  • GĒL

    tribes in the Arsacid and Sasanian periods. See GĪLĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GELDNER, KARL FRIEDRICH

    Geldner’s first significant work appeared in 1874 while he was still a student, in the form of an answer to a prize essay question posed by the Philosophical Faculty at Tübingen. The essay was expanded and published in 1877 under the title Über die Metrik des jüngeren Avesta.

    (Bernfried Schlerath)

  • GELĪM

    See CARPETS v. Flat-woven carpets: Techniques and structures; and vii. Islamic Persia to the Mongols.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GELPKE, RUDOLF

    Rudolf Gelpke was educated at the universities of Basel, Zürich, and Berlin. He became a noted writer in his early twenties, and his novel Holger und Mirjam was published in Zürich in 1951. His interests in the Islamic world began after a visit to Tunisia in 1952.

    (Hermann Landolt)

  • GELŠĀH

    See GAYŌMART.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GEMCUTTING

    (Pers. ḥakkākī); the first-known reference in Persian to gem cutting is found in an anonymous treatise on jewelry, Jowhar-nāma-ye neẓāmī.

    (Parviz Mohebbi)

  • GENÇOSMAN, MEHMED NURÎ

    (b. Ağın district of Elazığ, 1897; d. Istanbul, 1976), Turkish poet and translator of Persian works.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • GENDARMERIE

    the first modern highway patrol and rural police force in Persia. The Government Gendarmerie (Žāndārmerī-e dawlatī) was established in 1910 by the second Majles and proved the most enduring in a series of official projects for the modernization of the armed forces under the leadership of foreign officers.

    (Stephanie Cronin)

  • GENDER RELATIONS i

    Gender relations in Persia. Overview of article: i. In Modern Persia, ii. In the Islamic Republic.

    (Farzaneh Milani )

  • GENDER RELATIONS ii

    ii. In the Islamic Republic.

    (Hammed Shahidian)

  • GENGHIS KHAN

    See ČENGĪZ KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GENIE

    name of a category of supernatural beings believed to have been created from smokeless fire and to be living invisibly side-by-side the visible creation.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • GENOA

    an important port city in Liguria, in northwestern Italy, which during the Middle Ages played a significant role between Europe and the East, including Persia. Genoa was sacked by Muslim raiders from North Africa in 935 but became an economic and commercial power during the First Crusade (1096-1101).

    (Michele Bernardini)

  • GEOGRAPHY

    Geography of Persia and Afghanistan. Overview of the entry: i. Evolution of geographical knowledge, ii. Human geography, iii. Political geography, iv. Cartography of Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GEOGRAPHY i. Evolution of geographical knowledge

    Geography of Persia and Afghanistan. The concept of Iran and ancient Iranian geography (Justi; Spiegel, I, pp. 188-243 and especially pp. 210-12; Herzfeld, pp. 671-720; Gnoli, 1980, 1989).

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • GEOGRAPHY ii. Human geography

    The primordial component of the land of Iran, since it was a sedentary world as opposed to the nomadic Tūrān, must have been situated above the level of the internal steppes and deserts, in the highland river valleys having both arable alluvial soils and plenty of water from the rainfall in the mountains.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • GEOGRAPHY iii. Political Geography

    The territory of Tajikistan corresponds with the predominantly Iranian ethnic sector of the mountainous southeastern periphery of the Bukhara emirate, which came under Russian influence at the end of the 19th century.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • GEOGRAPHY iv. Cartography of Persia

    The world’s oldest known topographical map is a Babylonian clay tablet (ca. 2300 B.C.E.) found at Nuzi in northeastern Iraq. The site covered by this map may have lain between the Zagros mountains and the hills running through Kirkuk.

    (Cyrus Alai)

  • GEOLOGY

    This article is concerned with those aspects of the geology of Persia that are of immediate economic and cultural significance for the country and its inhabitants, primarily (1) geological structure and orohydrographic differentiation of Persia, (2) geology and natural hazards, and (3) geology and natural resources.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • GEOMANCY

    See OCCULT SCIENCES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GEOPOTHROS

    See GŌDARZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GEORGIA

    (Pers. Gorjestān; Ar. al-Korj). This series of entries covers Georgia and its relations with Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GEORGIA i. The land and the people

    At a crossroads of great empires to the east, west, and north throughout their history, the Georgians absorbed and adapted elements from the cultures of diverse peoples, while at the same time defending their political and cultural independence against all comers. The Georgians are today distinguished by a unique cultural heritage.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • GEORGIA ii. History of Iranian-Georgian Relations

    Between the Achaemenid era and the beginning of the 19th century, Persia helped to shape Georgian political institutions, modified social structure and land holding, and enriched literature and culture.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • GEORGIA iii. Iranian elements in Georgian art and archeology

    Ancient Georgian tribes had close cultural contacts with Near Eastern civilizations from the 18th century BCE. Iranian elements appeared from the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C.E., as they did in the art of the entire Caucasian region.

    (Gocha R. Tsetskhladze)

  • GEORGIA iv. Literary contacts with Persia

    The tribes of Georgia had a well-established and vast literary tradition and folklore long before the Christian era. None of the pre-Christian Georgian literary works have survived, however. Christianity became established in Georgia as an official religion at the beginning of the 4th century.

    (Aleksandre Gvakharia)

  • GEORGIA v. LINGUISTIC CONTACTS WITH IRANIAN LANGUAGES

    Due to many centuries of close contacts between Georgia and Persia, a large number of Iranian loanwords came into the Georgian language.

    (Thea Chkeidze)

  • GEORGIA vi. Iranian studies and collections in Georgia

    The institutional foundations of Iranian studies in Georgia were laid after the Russian Revolution of 1917.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • GEORGIA vii. Georgians in the Safavid Administration

    Safavid interaction with Georgia and its inhabitants dates from the inception of the state in the early 16th century, when Georgians fought alongside the Qezelbāš in Shah Esmāʿīl I’s arm.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • GEORGIA viii. Georgian communities in Persia

    Many thousands of Georgians, Armenians, and Circassians who were transplanted to Persia by Shah ʿAbbās I (996-1038/1588-1629) were peasants, and they were settled in villages in the Persian hinterland.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • GEORGIEVSK, TREATY OF

    See GEORGIA, iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GEOY TEPE

    a rich archeological site located in western Azerbaijan about 7 km south of the town of Urmia (Reżāʾīya) plain made known through the aerial survey of ancient sites in Persia carried out by Erich F. Schmidt in the 1930s.

    (Ezat O. Negahban)

  • GERĀMĪ

    son of Jāmāsp. See JĀMĀSP.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GERĀYLĪ

    a Turkic tribe of Khorasan, Gorgān, and Māzandarān.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • GERDKŪH

    a fortress on the summit of an isolated rocky hill in the Alborz mountains, situated some 18 km west of Dāmḡān in northern Persia.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • GERDŪ

    See WALNUT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GEREH-SĀZĪ

    (lit. "making knot”), a form of geometric interlaced strapwork ornament that is commonly found in architecture and the minor arts throughout the Islamic world. In Persian Islamic architecture gereh-sāzī designs exist in a variety of media, particularly cut brickwork (bannāʾī), stucco, and cut tilework (mosaic faïence).

    (Sheila S. Blair and Marcus Milwright)

  • GEREŠK

    a small oasis-city on the right bank of the Helmand river in Southern Afghanistan, the headquarters of the district (woloswālī) of Nahr-e Serāj within the province of Helmand.

    (Daniel Balland)

  • GERMANIKEIA

    city in the ancient country of Commagene in the Roman province of Syria, present-day Maraş in southeast Turkey.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • GERMANIOI

    (also Karmanians, Carmanians), name of an ancient Persian tribe engaged in farming.

    (Pierre Briant)

  • GERMANY

    i. German-Persian diplomatic relations, ii. Archeological excavations and studies, iii. Iranian studies in German: Pre-Islamic period, iv. Iranian studies in German: Islamic period, v. German travelers and explorers in Persia, vi. Collections and study of Persian art in Germany, vii. Persia in German literature, viii. German cultural influence in Persia, ix. Germans in Persia, x. The Persian community in Germany.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GERMANY i. German-Persian diplomatic relations

    Around 1555 a man coming from Italy, who called himself the son of the “king of Persia,” turned up at the University of Wittenberg.

    (Oliver Bast)

  • GERMANY ii. Archeological excavations and studies

    The first Germans who reported on the historical and archeological monuments of the ancient Persian world, were, as in other nations, adventurers and travelers of a different kind.

    (Dietrich Huff)

  • GERMANY iii. Iranian studies in German: Pre-Islamic period

    This contribution aims at presenting an overview of the studies on all aspects of the culture of pre-Islamic Iran as conducted by German, Austrian, and Swiss scholars.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GERMANY iv. Iranian studies in German: Islamic Period

    Until World War I, there were only a few scholars concentrating on subjects specifically Iranian, but many Orientalists did not refrain from dealing with Iranian, particularly Persian, affairs.

    (Bert G. Fragner)

  • GERMANY v. German travelers and explorers in Persia

    Hans Schiltberger, a Bavarian soldier, was the first German to give an eyewitness account of his travels in Persia. Initially captured by the Ottomans in 1396, he later became a prisoner of Tīmūr at the battle of Ankara (1402).

    (Oliver Bast)

  • GERMANY vi. Collections and Study of Persian Art in Germany

    From the 19th century on, Persian works of art were collected systematically to acquire knowledge of the world and to educate and inspire artists and craftsmen. Collecting, exhibiting, and studying Persian art reached an unprecedented scale in the 20th century.

    (Jens Kröger)

  • GERMANY vii. PERSIA IN GERMAN LITERATURE

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GERMANY viii. German cultural influence in Persia

    A lasting influence was mainly exercised on Persians who either attended a German school in Persia, had other personal contacts with Germans, studied in Germany, or worked there.

    (Christl Catanzaro)

  • GERMANY ix. Germans in Persia

    The Germans in Persia who have risen to a certain prominence fall mainly into one or more of the following categories: a) travelers and explorers (see above); b) experts in the service of the Persian government; c) agents and soldiers; d) members of German institutions in Persia.

    (Oliver Bast)

  • GERMANY x. The Persian community in Germany

    Only a small number of Persians resided in Germany before World War I. They were for the most part students besides several merchants and a few political emigrants.

    (Asghar Schirazi)

  • GERMANY xi. Iranian Coins in the Federal Bank of Germany

    The collection of Iranian coins in the Deutsche Bundesbank comprises a number of pieces of rare or very rare specimens, almost all minted in precious metal, from Achaemenids to Pahlavi dynasties.

    (Karin Mosig-Walburg)

  • GEROWGĀN-GĪRĪ

    See HOSTAGE CRISIS; IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GEŠNĪZ

    See CORIANDER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĒSŪ-DARĀZ

    See GĪSŪ-DARĀZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĒTĪG AND MĒNŌG

    a pair of Middle Persian terms that designate the two forms of existence according to the traditional Zoroastrian view of the world as expressed in the Pahlavi books.

    (Shaul Shaked)

  • GƎUŠ TAŠAN

    (the fashioner of the Cow), a divine craftsman who figures prominently in the Gathas of Zoroaster but falls into obscurity in the Younger Avesta, being there associated with the fourteenth day of the month, known in Middle Persian simply as Gōš.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • GƎUŠ URUUAN

    “the soul of the Cow,” the name of the archetypal Bovine, whose plight is a subject of Zoroaster’s gāθā, often identified as “the Cow’s Lament.”

    (William W. Malandra)

  • GĒV

    one of the foremost heroes of the national epic in the reigns of Kay Kāvūs and Kay Ḵosrow.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • GHAFFARY, FARROKH

    (1922-2006), Iranian artist and one of the founders of the National Archives of Iranian Cinema; he served as one of the directors of the National Iranian Radio-Television, worked as the chief organizer of the Shiraz Festival of Arts.

    (Michele Epinette)

  • GHAZNAVIDS

    an Islamic dynasty of Turkish slave origin 977-1186, which in its heyday ruled in the eastern Iranian lands, briefly as far west as Ray and Jebāl; for a while in certain regions north of the Oxus, most notably, in Kᵛārazm; and in Baluchistan and in northwestern India.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GHILAIN, Antoine

    In addition to his demanding teaching responsibilities, Ghilain continued with his academic work at the University of Leuven. The commitment documents his intellectual stamina and iron will, as he had to travel by train between La Louvière and Leuven, even in the dark days of World War II when Belgium was under German occupation.

    (Aloïs van Tongerloo)

  • GHIRSHMAN, ROMAN

    Ghirshman came from an affluent family in Kharkov and was enlisted in 1914 into the Russian army. In 1917, he joined the counter-revolutionary camp, and after the Communist victory took refuge in Istanbul, where he earned a living as a violinist.

    (Laurianne Martinez-Sève)

  • GHURIDS

    There were at least three raids by the early Ghaznavids into Ḡūr, led by Sultan Maḥmūd and his son Masʿūd, in the first decades of the 11th century; these introduced Islam and brought Ḡūr into a state of loose vassalage to the sultans.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GĪĀH-ŠENĀSĪ

    See BOTANICAL STUDIES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĪĀʾĪ, ḤAYDAR

    or Heydar Ghiaï-Chamlou (b. Tehran, 1922; d. Cap d’Antibe, 1985), an influential pioneer of modern architecture in Persia and professor at the University of Tehran. Stylistically, his work was thoroughly “modern,” introducing aspects of the contemporary and International Style architecture of Europe.

    (Mina Marefat)

  • GĪĀN TAPPA

    See GIYAN TEPE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĪĀNĪ

    a Lori dialect. See GĪŌNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GIANTS, THE BOOK OF

    a book mentioned as a canonical work of Mani in the Coptic Kephalaia, in the Homilies and Psalms, as well as in the Chinese compendium of Mani’s teachings.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • ḠĪĀṮ BEG, ʿEʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA

    or Gīāṯ-al-Dīn Moḥammad Tehrānī (d. 1622), prime minister of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and father of the emperor’s wife, Nūr Jahān.

    (Mehrdad Shokoohy)

  • ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN BALBAN

    See DELHI SULTANATE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN DAŠTAKĪ

    (1462-1541), scholar, philosopher, and motakallem (theologian) of the late Timurid and early Safavid period, and, for a brief interval under Shah Ṭahmāsb, one of two ṣadrs (chief clerical overseers). See DAŠTAKI, ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GIĀṮ-AL-DIN KĀŠĀNI

    astronomer and mathematician (d. 832/1429).

    (David Pingree)

  • ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    (d. 1336), Il-khanid vizier, the son of Rašīd-al-Dīn Fażl-Allāh Hamadānī (executed 1318), the celebrated historian and vizier of Ḡāzān Khan.

    (Peter Jackson and Charles Melville)

  • ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD TEHRĀNĪ

    (d. 1622), prime minister of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and father of the emperor’s wife, Nūr Jahān. See ḠĪĀṮ BEG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN NAQQĀŠ

    a painter (naqqāš) active in Herat ca. 1419-30, where he was in the employ of the Timurid Bāysonḡor b. Šāhroḵ.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • ḠIĀṮ-AL-DIN RĀMPURI

    (1785-1852), MOḤAMMAD, Persian lexicographer, literary scholar, philologist, poet, and teacher.

    (Gregory Maxwell Bruce)

  • ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN ŠĪRĀZĪ

    master architect in Khorasan during the reign of the Timurid Šāhroḵ (1405-47).

    (Lisa Golombek)

  • ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DIN TOḠLOQ

    See DELHI SULTANATE i; TUGHLUQIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GIĀṮ-AL-DIN YAZDI

    Timurid historian. See Supplement

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠĪĀṮ AL-LOḠĀT

    (‘Aid in [the explication of] vocabulary’, punning on the author’s name), a Persian dictionary compiled in India in 1827 by the linguist, philologist, and poet Moḥammad Ḡīāṯ- al-Din b. Jamāl-al-Din b. Šaraf-al-Din Rāmpuri Moṣṭafā-ābādi. The dictionary comprises more than 17,000 entries; this number is considerably enhanced when homographs and phrasal units defined within the entries are also taken into account.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • ḠĪĀṮVAND

    a Kurdish tribe of the Qazvīn region.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • GIBB MEMORIAL SERIES

    or GMS; a series of publications, which has continued for almost a century, mainly, but not exclusively, dedicated to editions and translations of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish texts.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GIBBON, EDWARD

    (1737-1794), author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (London, 1776-88). Relations of Persia and the later steppe nomads with the East Roman/Byzantine empire are an essential component of Gibbon’s celebrated history.

    (Michael Rogers)

  • GIFT GIVING

    various aspects of gift giving in Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GIFT GIVING i. Introduction

    The following article constitutes a preliminary attempt at studying various aspects of gift giving in a chronological and historical framework, from the pre-Islamic era to the early modern period.

    (EIr)

  • GIFT GIVING ii. In Pre-Islamic Persia

    Giving and receiving gifts appears to have assumed a particular significance and a specific manner in the ancient Near East, and especially in ancient Iran.

    (Josef Wiesehöfer)

  • GIFT GIVING iii. In The Medieval Period

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GIFT GIVING iv. In The Safavid Period

    Virtually all available information on the practice of gift giving in pre-modern Persia is limited to the political elite; It is clear, though, that offering gifts was a conspicuous part of traditional social and political life in Persia.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • GIFT GIVING v. In the Qajar Period

    This habit of gift giving was part of the fabric of Persian life and held for all classes and ranks or social and ethnic groups.

    (Willem Floor)

  • GĪLAKĪ

    See GĪLĀN x. Languages

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĪLĀN NEWSPAPERS

    title of four newspapers published in Rašt.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • GILĀN PROVINCE

    or Ḡelān; province at the southwestern coast of the Caspian Sea.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GĪLĀN i. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

    Gīlān includes the northwestern end of the Alborz chain and the western part of the Caspian lowlands of Persia. The mountainous belt is cut through by the deep transversal valley of the Safīdrūd between Manjīl and Emāmzāda Hāšem near Rašt.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • GĪLĀN ii. Population

    The first general census was carried out in 1956 and the sixth in 1996. The geographical boundaries and area have varied from one census to another; at the present time it is 14,819 square kilometers and includes 99 districts, 30 counties and 12 townships. In 1996, there were 2,700 settlements and 35 cities.

    (Habibollah Zanjani)

  • GĪLĀN iii. Archeology

    The archeology of Gīlān, particularly in the pre-Islamic period, is usually studied in the wider context of the entire south Caspian region, including Mazandarān and Gorgān. Articles on three important locations, Marlik Tepe, Amlaš, and Deylamān, illustrate the perennial difficulties faced by archeological research in Persia.

    (Ezat O. Negahban)

  • GĪLĀN iv. History in the Early Islamic Period

    The Gelae (Gilites) seem to have entered the region south of the Caspian coast and west of the Amardos River (later Safīdrūd) in the second or first century B.C.E.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • GĪLĀN v. History under the Safavids

    Gīlān has traditionally been considered by its local population as a land of two distinct regions divided by the course of Safīdrūd River.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • GĪLĀN vi. History in the 18th century

    The rapid decline of the Safavids in the first decades of the 18th century, leading to their ultimate demise in 1722, created a general state of chaos in the country.

    (EIr and Reza Rezazadeh Langaroudi)

  • GĪLĀN vii. History in the 19th century

    Sealed off by mountains from the rest of the country, political and social life in Gīlān had always been highly influenced, if not determined, by its geographical position. The history of 19th-century Gīlān began with the continuation of the binary division of Bīa-pas and Bīa-pīš and the rule of local families.

    (EIr and Reza Rezazadeh Langaroudi)

  • GILĀN viiia. In the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11

    Two classes featured prominently in Gilān as the driving forces of the revolution, and the alliance of these two, the peasantry and the urban petty-bourgeoisie of artisans, shopkeepers, and petty traders, was the hallmark of a radical movement on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea.

    (Pezhmann Dailami)

  • GĪLĀN ix. Monuments

    Most buildings of historical interest in Gilān have been repeatedly repaired and rebuilt. Some have clear records of their history, but most lack reliable, primary documents, and one has to rely on a variety of indirect evidence, such as the dates engraved on entrance doors or tombstones to reconstruct part of the past of a given edifice.

    (Manouchehr Sotoudeh)

  • GĪLĀN x. LANGUAGES

    In Gīlān there are three major Iranian language groups, namely Gīlakī, Rūdbārī, and Ṭālešī, and pockets of two other groups, Tātī and Kurdish. The non-Iranian languages include Azeri Turkish and some speakers of Gypsy (Romany, of Indic origin).

    (Donald Stilo)

  • GILĀN xi. Irrigation

    In the rice-growing regions of the Caspian hinterland, water requirements are considerable and irrigation requires careful organization. It is estimated that one hectare of rice, on average, requires 12,400 cubic meters of water. To meet this demand various techniques are used.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILĀN xii. Rural Housing

    In the north of the province, these minimal constructions (wells and rice barns) are traditionally complemented by a covered area for rice threshing, and, in Rašt district, by a separate building for drying paddy, known as a dudḵāna, garmḵāna, or bujḵāna. In the silkworm growing areas, the silkworm nursery occupies a place of honor.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILĀN xiii. Kinship and Marriage

    According to a 1991 sample survey, in Iran, the plain of Gilān has the lowest proportion of marriages whether with paternal or maternal cousins or with a near or distant (non-consanguineous) relation.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILĀN xiv. Ethnic Groups

    Each group living in the province is characterized by one or several specific production activities, so that an ethnonym refers as much to territorial, linguistic, and cultural roots as to any dominant professional specialization.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILĀN xv. Popular and Literary Perceptions of Identity

    In Afghanistan, Uzbeks are called “noodle eaters” by their neighbors and in Persia the Arabs from Khuzestan are stigmatized as susmārḵor “lizard eaters”.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILAN xvi. FOLKLORE

    Even today, old women believe that cutting down an āzād tree is an act of sacrilege. Whether they are themselves objects of worship or simply grow near the tombs of saints, near cemeteries or inside mosques, these trees are places of devotion, each one dedicated to a specific type of wish (naẕr).

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILAN xvii. Gender Relations

    In Gilan roles and tasks are distributed according to a more flexible pattern: to a large extent, women take an important part in agricultural work; in their homes, the line between male and female spaces is blurred; craftwork, industrial, and commercial activities are not the exclusive prerogative of men in this region.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILAN xviii. Rural Production Techniques

    Chaff produces a great amount of smoke and was once used to punish miscreants or disobedient children who were locked up in the dud otāḡ (literally “smoke room,” where sheaves of rice were dried and cocoons stifled). This punishment was called fal-a dud (“the smoke from the rice chaff”).

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILĀN xix. Landholding and Social Stratification

    Prior to the Land Reform of 1962 that began the process of land redistribution, the dominant production system in Gilān, as in the majority of Persianprovinces, was of a feudal nature.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILĀN xx. Handicrafts

    Gilān was a region that produced raw materials (including silk), to which one came for supplies, much more than a region where finished products were made; and the area long remained rural, with only minor importance accorded to towns housing professionals, workshops, and master craftsmen.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILĀN xxi. Cooking

    Eating habits and culinary preparations in Gilān have several distinct characteristics. In this rice-producing region, the consumption of rice is much higher than elsewhere in Persia. Garden vegetables and kitchen herbs (sabzi) generally appear in the makeup of most dishes and give the regional cuisine the green touch that is its hallmark.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • GILANENTZ CHRONICLE

    a compendium of reports collated as a journal by Petros di Sarkis Gilanentz (Gilanencʿ), which constitutes an important source for the history of events in Transcaucasia and Persia during the period March 1722 to August 1723, notably the Afghan invasion and siege of Isfahan.

    (Ina Baghdiantz McCabe)

  • GĪLĀNŠĀH

    See ONṢOR-AL-MAʿĀLĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GĪLĀS

    See CHERRY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GILCHRIST, JOHN BORTHWICK

    (1759-1841), physician, Indologist, and teacher of Persian and Urdu who pioneered the Western study and teaching of modern Indian languages in British India.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ḠILZĪ

    or ḠALZĪ, one of three major Pashtun/Paxtun tribal confederations in Afghanistan.

    (M. Jamil Hanifi)

  • GINDAROS

    present-day Jendīres, a town in the ancient region of Cyrrhestike in Syria.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • GIŌNI

    or Giāni; a Persian dialect of the Northern Lor type, spoken in the village of Giān/Giō, 12 km west of the city of Nehāvand.

    (Colin MacKinnon)

  • GISTĀN QARA

    b. Jani Beg. See KISTĀN QARĀ b. Jani Beg.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GISU-DARĀZ

    or Gēsu-darāz (b. Delhi, 1321-d. Gulbarga, 1422), the popular title of Sayyed MOḤAMMAD b. Yusof Ḥosayni, the most important transmitter of Sufi traditions from North India to the Deccan plateau.

    (Richard M. Eaton)

  • GITI

    a leftist daily paper published from 24 June 1943 to December 1943 by Ḵalil Enqelāb Āḏar as the official organ of the Workers union.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • GIV

    Giv. See Gēv.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GIV, ROSTAM

    In 1953, Giv created the Rostam Giv Charitable Foundation for the promotion of the education and welfare of the Zoroastrian community. In the same year, he encouraged his brother’s heirs to endow an elementary school for girls in Tehran. He also built sixty low-rent houses, equipped with modern amenities, for needy Zoroastrians.

    (Farhang Mehr)

  • GIVA

    a traditional footwear in Persia, mainly consisting of an upper part made of twined white cotton thread sewn up on the edges of a cloth and leather or rubber sole. The earliest known mention of the word giva is probably ca. 1333, a reference to the bāzār-e giva-duzān (giva-makers’ market) of Shiraz.

    (Jamšīd Ṣadāqat-Ḵīš)

  • GIYAN TEPE

    or GIĀN TAPPA, Žiān Tappa; a large archeological mound located in Lorestān province in western Persia, about 10 km southeast of Nehāvand and southwest of Giān village in the Ḵāva valley.

    (Ezat O. Negahban)

  • GLACIERS

    and ice fields in Persia. Due to Persia’s location in the very center of the arid dry belt, stretching from North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east, and also due to its very specific topography, glaciers and/or permanent ice fields are restricted and concentrated in a very few locations.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • GLADWIN, FRANCIS

    (d. ca. 1813), lexicographer and prolific translator of Persian literature into English.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • GLASS

    Glass blowing was invented in the Syro-Palestinian region during the Parthian period in the mid-first century B.C.E. and quickly spread from there to neighboring regions. Production of glass was much more widely spread within the Sasanian empire; it also became in both shapes and types of decoration independent from Parthian prototypes.

    (Jens Kröger)

  • GLASS INDUSTRY

    Glass making has been known and practiced in Iran for about 3,500 years. Until about 1930 local glass making was done in small craft workshops. The raw materials needed for glass production abound in Iran except for soda ash, but this input will also soon be entirely domestically produced.

    (Willem Floor)

  • GLOSSAR ZU FIRDOSIS SCHAHNAME

    See WOLFF, FRITZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GLYPTIC

    See CYLINDER SEALS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GNOLI, GHERARDO

    (1937-2012), an Ira nist and historian of religion, combining an extraordinary scientific output with a constant focus on cultural policy.

    (Carlo Cereti)

  • GNOSTICISM

    in Persia. The current academic term gnosticism or gnosis goes back to the early Christian period and has a heresiological background; its representatives were called Gnostics, meaning people who believed in specific “insights” and ways of behavior that deviated from the official church and its teachings and who disseminated their beliefs through their own writings.

    (Kurt Rudolph)

  • GOAT

    See BOZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GŌBADŠĀH

    the name of a mythical ruler first appearing in medieval Zoroastrianism.

    (D. N. Mackenzie)

  • ḠOBĀRI, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh (d. 1566), Ottoman poet, calligrapher, and Sufi who wrote in both Turkish and Persian.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ḠOBAYRĀ

    medieval township in Kermān province, located at 57° 29 E and 47° N, 70 km by road south of Kermān City (historical Bardsir) at the intersection of the medieval eastern highway and the route from Kermān to Bāft, Esfandaqa, and Jiroft.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • GOBINEAU, Joseph Arthur de

    Gobineau’s father, Louis (1784-1858), a military officer, was for a time retained in Spain (1823-28), and the son’s education was left to his adventurous mother and her lover, Charles Sottin de la Coindière, who was Arthur’s private tutor.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • GÖBL, ROBERT

    Gobl's mentor in studying numismatics was Karl Pink, whose methodology had a lasting influence on Göbl’s further academic career. One of Göbl’s most pressing aims was to try out Pink’s structural methodology of the minting of coins in the Roman Empire on other well-defined numismatic complexes.

    (Michael Alram)

  • GOBRYAS

    the most widely known (Greek) form of the Old Persian name Gaub(a)ruva, attested for various officers and officials of the Achaemenid period.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GOD

    See AHURA MAZDĀ; BAGA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GODARD, ANDRÉ

    (b. Chaumont, France, 1881; d. Paris, 1965), French architect, archeologist, art historian, and director of the Archeological Services of Iran (Edāra-ye koll-e ʿatiqāt).

    (Ève Gran-Aymerich and Mina Marefat)

  • GŌDARZ

    name of various Iranian historical figures; an Iranian epic hero in wars against the “Turanians” in northeastern Iran; and the scion of a clan of paladins in Iranian traditional history.

    (Mary Boyce, A. D. H. Bivar, A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • GODIN TEPE

    or GOWDIN TEPE; an archeological site in the central Zagros, which was occupied from ca. 5,000 to 500 B.C.E. located at 48° 4′ E and 34° 31′ N in the Kangāvar valley, approximately halfway between Hamadān and Kermānšāh.

    (T. Cuyler Young, Jr.)

  • GOEJE, Michael Jan de

    See DE GOEJE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG von

    (1749-1832), the most renowned poet of German literature, interested in the East and in Islam.

    (Hamid Tafazoli)

  • GOETHE INSTITUTE

    in Persia and Afghanistan. Named after the celebrated German poet and writer, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), the Goethe Institute was founded in 1951 in Munich as a non-profit organization for training foreign teachers of the German language.

    (Houchang E. Chehabi)

  • ḠOJDOVĀN

    (also Ḡojdavān, Ḡajdovān), town and district in the oasis of Bukhara.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ḠOJDOVĀNI

    See ʿABD-AL-ḴĀLEQ ḠOJDOVĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GÖK TEPE

    See GEOY TEPE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOKARN

    See HAOMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GÖKLEN

    See GUKLĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOL

    or gul; rose (Rosa L. spp.) and, by extension, flower, bloom, blossom.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • GOL O BOLBOL

    lit. “rose and nightingale,” a popular literary and decorative theme. Together, rose and nightingale are the types of beloved and lover par excellence; the rose is beautiful, proud, and often cruel, while the nightingale sings endlessly of his longing and devotion.

    (Layla S. Diba)

  • GOL ḴĀNĀN MORDA

    Three pit graves, of which one was covered with flat stones, were found underneath the Iron Age III tombs. One contained a button base beaker and two comparable beakers were found between the Iron Age III tombs. This indicates the presence of Iron Age I graves at the site.

    (Bruno Overlaet)

  • GOL-E GĀVZABĀN

    See GĀVZABĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOL-E GOLĀB, ḤOSAYN

    (1895-1985) botanist, musician, poet, scholar, and member of the Farhangestān. See GOL-GOLĀB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOL-E SORḴI, ḴOSROW

    (1943-1974), poet and revolutionary figure whose defiant stand during his televised show trial, and subsequent execution by firing squad in 1974, enshrined his place in the cultural and political history of modern Persia. See GOLSORḴI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOL-E ZARD

    literary, socio-satirical newspaper, published 1918-1924.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • GOLĀB

    rose water, a distillate (ʿaraq) obtained chiefly from the gol-e moḥammadi, the best-known product made from rose petals in Persia, widely used in sherbets, sweetmeats, as a home medicament, and on some religious occasions.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • GOLĀBI

    See PEAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀM

    See Supplement; on ḡolāms as military slaves, see BARDA AND BARDA-DĀRĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀM ʿABD-AL-QĀDER NAẒIR

    author of Golestān-e nasab. See NAẒIR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀM HAMADĀNI

    author of Taḏkera-ye fārsi and other works. See MOṢḤAFI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀM JILĀNI

    poet and author of Dorr-e manẓum. See RAFʿAT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀM SARVAR

    b. Mofti Ḡolām Moḥammad LĀHURI (b. Lahore, 1828; d. near Medina, 1890), historian, hagiographer, and poet in Persian and Urdu.

    (Arif Naushahi)

  • ḠOLĀM YAḤYĀ

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀM-ʿALI

    See NAQŠBANDI ORDER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀM-ʿALI KHAN, AMIR TUMĀN

    See ʿAZĪZ-AL-SOLṬĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀMĀN-E ḴAṢṢA-YE ŠARIFA

    See ʿABBĀS I; BARDA and BARDADĀRĪ v.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN ṢĀḤEB(-E) EḴTIĀR

    See AMĪN-E ḴALWAT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN SEPAHDĀR

    provincial governor and minister of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah. See SEPAHDĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN ṬABĀṬABĀʾI

    (b. Delhi, 1727-28, d. after 1781), Sayyed, secretary (monši) by profession, political intermediary, and author of a popular history of India called Siar al-motaʾaḵḵerin.

    (Arif Naushahi)

  • ḠOLĀM-REŻĀ ḴOŠNEVIS

    Eṣfahāni, Mirzā (b. Tehran, 1829/30; d. Tehran, 1886/87), a calligrapher and epigraphist of late 19th-century Persia.

    (Maryam Ekhtiar)

  • GOLANDĀM

    See BAHRAM O GOLANDĀM. (--> SEE KĀTEBI)

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOL-ĀQĀ

    a weekly satirical magazine founded by Kayumarṯ Ṣāberi which first began publication on 23 October 1990.

    (EIr)

  • ḠOLĀT

    lit. "exaggerators," sing. ḡāli; an Arabic term originally used by Twelver Shiʿite (eṯnā ʿašariya) heresiographers to designate those dissidents who exaggerate the status of the Imams in an undue manner by attributing to them divine qualities.

    (Heinz Halm)

  • GOLBADAN BĒGOM

    (ca. 1522/23-1603), daughter of Ẓahir-al-Din Moḥammad Bābor, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, half sister of Bābor’s successor, Homāyun, and author of Homāyun-nāma, the account of the reign of Homāyun.

    (Munibur Rahman)

  • GOLČIN GILĀNI

    (b. Rašt, 1910; d. London, 1972), pen name of the poet MAJD-AL-DIN MIR-FAḴRĀʾI. Throughout the 1940s, Golčin sent his compositions to Persia for publication; many appeared in the literary journals of the period, such as Soḵan, Yaḡmā, Armaḡān, Foruḡ, Yādgār, and Jahān-e now.

    (Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak and Homa Katouzian)

  • GOLČIN MAʿĀNI, AḤMAD

    (b. Tehran, 1916; d. Mašhad, 2000), literary scholar, bibliographer, and poet. He held various administrative and judicial posts in the Ministry of Justice (1934-59). His considerable knowledge of literary manuscripts was later put to good use when he was transferred to the Majles Library, where he catalogued the Persian and Arabic manuscripts.

    (Iraj Afshar)

  • GOLD

    Persia possesses a number of gold sources—in the northwest (Azerbaijan and Zanjān), near Kāšān at the western edge of the central plateau, and, according to Strabo, in Kermān. Gold sources in Afghanistan are located in Badaḵšān, which is also the source region for lapis lazuli.

    (Jennifer C. Ross and James W. Allan)

  • GOLDEN HORDE

    name given to the Mongol Khanate ruled by the descendants of Joči (Juji; d. 1226-27), the eldest son of Čengiz (Genghis) Khan.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • GOLDSMID, Major-General Sir Fredrick John

    (b. Milan, 1818; d. Hammersmith, England, 1909), British scholar, negotiator and arbitrator of Perso-Afghan boundary dispute.

    (Denis Wright)

  • GOLESTĀN

    the title of two early 20th-century Persian newspapers.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • GOLESTĀN-E HONAR

    a 16th-century treatise on the art of calligraphy, with brief biographical notices on a selection of past and contemporary calligraphers and artists, by the Safavid author and historian Qāżi Aḥmad b. Šaraf-al-Din Ḥosayn Monši Qomi Ebrāhimi.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • GOLESTĀN PALACE

    See ARG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOLESTĀN PALACE LIBRARY

    See BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES; ROYAL LIBRARY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOLESTĀN PROVINCE

    See GORGĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOLESTĀN-E SAʿDI

    probably the single most influential work of prose in the Persian tradition, completed in 1258 by Mošarref-al-Din Moṣleḥ, known as Shaikh Saʿdi of Shiraz.

    (Franklin Lewis)

  • GOLESTĀN TREATY

    agreement arranged under British auspices to end the Russo-Persian War of 1804-13. The origins of the war can be traced back to the decision of Tsar Paul to annex Georgia (December 1800) and, after Paul’s assassination (11 March 1801), the activist policy followed by his successor, Alexander I.

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • GOLESTĀNA, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN GOLESTĀNA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOLESTĀNA, ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Mirzā MOḤAMMAD

    b. Šāh Abu Torāb Moḥammad-ʿAli (d. 1698-99), prominent religious scholar of the Safavid period, a scion of the Golestāna family of Ḥosayni sayyeds in Isfahan.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • GOLESTĀNA, ʿALI-AKBAR

    (b. 1857-58; d. 1901), calligrapher, scholar, and mystic of late 19th-century Persia.

    (Maryam Ekhtiar)

  • GOL-GOLĀB, ḤOSAYN

    Among Gol-golāb’s best known songs are “Aḏarābādagān” and “Ey Irān”; the latter has become virtually the national anthem of Persia. Gol-golāb also composed Persian lyrics for the music of Georges Bizet’s Carmen and Charles Gounod’s Faust.

    (H. Ettehad Baboli)

  • GOLGUN, FARID-AL-DAWLA Mirzā MOḤAMMAD-ḤASAN KHAN HAMADĀNI

    (1877-1937), constitutionalist and journalist.

    (Parviz AḏkāʾI)

  • GOLHĀ, BARNĀMA-YE

    lit. “Flowers Program”; a series of radio programs on music and poetry, on the air for almost twenty-three years (March 1956 to February 1979), which aimed at illustrating the perennial thematic and aesthetic relationships between poetry and traditional music in Persian culture.

    (Daryush Pirnia with Erik Nakjavani)

  • GOLINDUCH

    or GOLEN-DOḴT (d. 591), female Christian martyr.

    (Sebastian Brock)

  • GOLIUS, JACOBUS

    (b. The Hague, 1596; d. Leiden, 1667), Dutch orientalist who widened the scope of Persian studies, as they had been pursued by Dutch Arabists since the end of the 16th century.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • GOLḴANI

    poet and satirist from Kokand (Ḵōqand), bilingual in Persian and Chaghatay.

    (Evelin Grassi)

  • GOLKONDA

    See HYDERABAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOLPAR

    any of several perennial aromatic herbaceous plants of the genus Heracleum L. (fam. Umbelliferae) growing wild in humid alpine regions in Persia and some adjacent areas.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • GOLPĀYAGĀN

    or GOLPĀYEGĀN; a šahrestān (county) and town located in Isfahan province, bordered on the east by the county of Barḵᵛār and Meyma, on the south by Ḵᵛānsār county, on the north by the counties of Maḥallāt and Ḵomeyn (Central province), and on the west by Aligudarz county (province of Lorestān).

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • GOLPĀYAGĀNI, ABU’L-FAŻL

    See ABU’L-FAŻL GOLPĀYEGĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOLPĀYAGĀNI, MOḤAMMAD-REŻĀ

    (1899-1993), Ayatollah Sayyed, a chief figure in the contemporary Shiʿite clerical hierarchy, who took a moderate stand in the opposition to what was considered the state’s disregard for Islamic principles in the name of modernization.

    (Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi)

  • GOLPĀYEGĀNI DIALECT

    See CENTRAL DIALECTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GÖLPINARLI, ABDÜLBAKI

    (1900-1982), Turkish scholar noted in particular for his studies of the Turkish Sufi orders. He joined many Sufi orders without remaining in any of them for long. His greatest interests were in Shiʿism and the Mevlevi (Mawlawiya) order.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • GOLŠAHRI, SOLAYMĀN

    or GÜLŞEHRÎ; 13th century Ottoman Sufi and poet who wrote in Persian and Turkish.

    (EIr)

  • GOLŠĀʾIĀN, ʿABBĀSQOLI

    After private schooling at home, Golšāʾiān studied at the French-run Alliance Française and at the Dār al-fonun. In 1920, he enrolled in the new law school created by the Ministry of Justice (ʿAdliya). After completing the required courses in two years, he was employed at the same ministry.

    (Abbas Milani)

  • GOLŠAN

    cultural magazine published in the early days of 1917 in Tehran by Sayyed Reżā Yazdi “Amir Reżwāni” (d. 1936), first twice a week and from its sixth year three times a week.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • GOLŠAN ALBUM

    or Moraqqaʿ-e golšan; a sumptuous 17th-century album of paintings, drawings, calligraphy, and engravings by Mughal, Persian, Deccani, Turkish, and European artists in the Golestān Palace Library, Tehran.

    (Kambiz Eslami)

  • GOLŠAN DEHLAVI, Shah SAʿD-ALLĀH

    b. Ḵᵛāja Moḥammad-Saʿid (1664-1728), Naqšbandi Sufi and prolific poet in Persian with the pen name (taḵallosá;) Golšan.

    (Moinuddin Aqeel)

  • GOLŠAN-E MORĀD

    a history of the Zand Dynasty (1751-94) by Mirzā Moḥammad Abu’l-Ḥasan Ḡaffāri.

    (John R. Perry)

  • GOLŠAN-E RĀZ

    lit. "The Rose Garden of Mysteries"; a concise didactic matnawi in a little over a thousand distichs on the key terms and concepts of Sufism, which has for long served as a principal text of theoretical mysticism in the Persian-speaking and Persian-influenced world.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • GOLŠANĪ, EBRĀHIM

    b. Moḥammad b. Ebrāhim b. Šehāb-al-Din (d. 1534), Sufi poet and the founder of the Golšaniya branch of the Ḵalwati Sufi order.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • GOLŠANI, MOḤYI MOḤAMMAD

    b. Fatḥ-Allāh b. Abi Ṭāleb (1528/29-1606/7), scholar and author in Persian and Turkish and inventor of an artificial language.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • GOLŠANI ṢĀRUḴĀNI

    a 15th-century Turkish poet who also wrote in Persian.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • GOLŠEHRI, SOLAYMĀN

    Sufi and poet in Turkish and Persian. See GÜLŠEHRI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOLŠIRI, HUŠANG

    (b. Isfahan, 1938; d. Tehran, 2000), novelist who explored new literary techniques. He received the Lillian Hellman and Dashiell Hammett award (1997) via the Human Rights Watch Organization and was awarded the Osnabrück Peace prize (1999) from the Erich Maria Remarque Foundation for his defense of freedom of speech.

    (Ḥasan Mirʿābedini and EIr)

  • GOLSORḴI, ḴOSROW

    (1943-1974), poet and revolutionary figure whose defiant stand during his televised show trial, and subsequent execution by firing squad in 1974, enshrined his place in the cultural and political history of modern Persia.

    (Maziar Behrooz)

  • GŌMAL

    or Gōmāl: a sub-province (woloswāli) and village in Paktiā province, eastern Afghanistan; a river originating in the Ḡazni province and flowing southeast through the Wazirestān tribal agency and the North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan; and a passage linking the eastern foothills of the Solaymān mountain range with the Indus plains.

    (Shah Mahmoud Hanifi)

  • GOMBROON

    See BANDAR-e ʿABBĀS(Ī).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOMBROON WARES

    See CERAMICS; ČĪNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GŌMĒZ

    cow's urine.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • GOMIŠĀN

    a district in Golestān Province. See GORGĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GONĀBĀD

    a town and a sub-province (šahrestān) in the province of Khorasan.

    (Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

  • GONĀBĀDI, Mirzā ABU’L-QĀSEM QĀSEMI

    poet. See QĀSEMI Gonābādi, Mirzā Abu’l-Qāsem.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GONĀBĀDI, MOḤAMMAD PARVIN

    Persian scholar and translator. See PARVIN GONĀBĀDI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GONĀBĀDI, ʿEMĀD-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD

    or Jonābādi, b. Zayn-al-ʿĀbedin b. Neẓām-al-Din Moḥammad (b. 1415), Timurid financial officer and vizier.

    (Shiro Ando)

  • GONĀBĀDI ORDER

    an offshoot of the Neʿmat-Allāhi Sufi order, still active in Persia.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • GONBAD -E ʿALAWIĀN-E Hamadān

    See HAMADĀN, vii. MONUMENTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GONBĀD-E KĀVUS

    See GONBAD-E QĀBUS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GONBAD-E QĀBUS

    (now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative center of the sub-province (šahrestān) of the same name and the urban center of the Turkman tribal area in northern Persia. It is named after its major monument, a tall tower that marks the grave of the Ziyarid ruler Qābus b. Vošmgir (r. 978-1012).

    (Eckart Ehlers, M. Momeni, and EIr, Habib-Allāh Zanjāni, Sheila S. Blair)

  • GONBAD-E SORḴ

    the “Red Tomb,” completed on 4 March 1148, the earliest of five medieval mausolea located in Marāḡa in Azerbaijan. It combines elements of the two common forms of Islamic Iranian monumental tomb, the domed cube, and the conically-roofed circular or polygonal tower.

    (Marcus Milwright)

  • GONDĒŠĀPUR

    in the Sasanian epoch, Gondēšāpur was one of the four major cities of Ḵuzestān, the other three being Karḵa, Susa, and Šuštar. The extensive irrigation systems developed there by the early Sasanians were probably aimed at supplying a large population.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi, Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • GONDOPHARES

    Indo-Parthian king (20-46 C.E.) in Drangiana, Arachosia, and especially in the Punjab.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • GŌR

    the historical name for present-day Firuzābād in Fārs. See ARDAŠIR ḴORRA; FIRUZĀBĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GŌRĀN

    a tribe in Kurdistan. See GURĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORĀN, ʿABD-ALLĀH SOLAYMĀN

    (1904-62), the leading Kurdish poet of the twentieth century.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • GORĀZ

    See BOAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORBA

    See CAT I; CAT II.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠŌRBAND

    or ḠURBAND; a major valley of Kōhestān/Kuhestān and a sub-province (woloswāli) of Parvān province in the southern foothills of the Hindu Kush massif, located approximately 50 miles north of Kabul.

    (M. Jamil Hanifi)

  • ḠORBATI

    See GYPSY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORDĀFARID

    daughter of Gaždaham, the castellan of Dež-e Sapid, the Iranian fortress on the frontier with Turān.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • GORDIA

    a female character in the Shah-nama. See BAHRĀM (2) vii. Bahrām VI Čōbīn.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORDIANUS III

    Roman emperor. See Šāpur I.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORDON, THOMAS EDWARD

    (1832–1914), General Sir, British intelligence officer, director of the Imperial Bank of Persia (Bānk-e šāhi-e Irān) from 1893 to 1914, author, and apparently the first person to use the term Middle East, which meant particularly Persia and Afghanistan.

    (Rose L. Greaves)

  • GORDUENE

    See KORDUK.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORG

    See WOLF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORGĀN

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Geography, ii. Dašt-e Gorgān, iii. Population, iv. Archeology, v. Pre-Islamic history, vi. History from the rise of Islam to the beginning of the Safavid Period, vii. To the end of the Pahlavi era.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GORGĀN i. Geography

    the ancient Hyrcania, an important Persian province at the southeast corner of the Caspian sea.

    (Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni)

  • GORGĀN ii. Dašt-e Gorgān

    the designation of a steppe-region of approximately 10,000 km2 near the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, stretching for almost 200 km east-west between Morāva Tappa and the coast of the Caspian Sea near Gomišān.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • GORGĀN iii. Population

    Over the past four decades, the population of Golestān Province as a whole has increased 4.5 times, 8.5 times in the urban and 3.3 times in the rural areas. In the same period, the number of its cities has increased from 5 to 16.

    (Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni)

  • GORGĀN iv. Archeology

    The Greek historian Arrian, recording Alexander’s expedition to the East, speaks of Alexander’s march to the city of Zadracarta, the largest town in the region and the capital of Hyrcania, where the royal palace was situated.

    (Muhammad Yusof Kiani)

  • GORGĀN v. Pre-Islamic history

    The area comprises two distinct climatic zones: the rainforest of the Alborz northern slopes and the Gorgān plain, well-watered and fertile close to the mountains but passing into increasingly desert steppe as the distance from the foothills increases.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • GORGĀN vi. History From The Rise Of Islam To The Beginning Of The Safavid Period

    formed in Sasanian and pre-modern Islamic times a transitional zone, a corridor, between the subtropical habitat and climate of Māzandarān to its west, and the arid steppes of Dehestān and beyond them, the Qara Qum Desert to its northwest.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GORGĀN vii. History from the Safavids to the end of the Pahlavi era

    Two characteristics dominated the history of Gorgān in the period between the 16th and early 19th centuries: incessant tribal unrest and power politics.

    (Jawād Neyestāni and EIr)

  • GORGĀN BAY

    See ASTARĀBĀD BAY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORGANAJ

    See CHORASMIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORGĀNI DIALECT

    See MĀZANDARĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORGĀNI, ABU’L-HAYṮAM AḤMAD

    See ABU’L-HAYṮAM GORGĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORGĀNI, FAḴR-AL-DIN ASʿAD

    (fl. ca. 1050), poet, best known for his verse romance Vis o Rāmin, completed in 1055 or shortly thereafter and dedicated to the Saljuq governor of Isfahan, the ʿAmid Abu’l-Fatḥ Moẓaffar b. Moḥammad.

    (Julie Scott Meisami)

  • GORGIJANIDZE, PARSADAN

    (1626-1696), a Georgian literary figure and historian who served in the Safavid administration as deputy governor of Isfahan and royal chamberlain.

    (Jemshid Giunashvili)

  • GORGIN

    son of Milād, one of the heroes of the reigns of Kay Kāvus and Kay Ḵosrow and the head of the Milād family.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • GORGIN KHAN

    also known as Giorgio XI and Šāhnavāz Khan II; Georgian prince (d. 1709), who was alternately ruler of Georgia and holder of high positions in the Safavid administration and military.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • GORGIN, IRAJ

    (1935-2012), radio and television broadcaster, journalist, and the founder of several Persian radio and television networks, whose life and career unfolded in two distinct sociopolitical milieus, in Iran in the two decades that culminated in the Revolution of 1979 and in exile over the subsequent three decades of his life.

    (Mandana Zandian)

  • GORJESTĀN

    See GEORGIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORUH-E FARHANGI-E HADAF

    See HADAF EDUCATIONAL GROUP.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORUH-E FARHANGI-E ḴᵛĀRAZMI

    See ḴᵛĀRAZMI SCHOOLS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GORZ

    or gorza, gorz-e gāvsār/sar, lit. "ox-headed club/mace," a weapon often mentioned and variously described in Iranian myths and epic. In classical Persian texts, particularly in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma, it is characterized as the decisive weapon of choice in fateful battles.

    (Jalil Doostkhah)

  • GORZEVĀN

    a town in the medieval Islamic region of Guzgān in northern Afghanistan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GŌŠ YAŠT

    the title of the ninth Yašt of the Avesta, also known as Drwāsp Yašt, after the goddess Druuāspā (see DRVĀSPĀ) to whom, in fact, it is dedicated.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • GŌSĀN

    a Parthian word of unknown derivation for “poet-musician, minstrel.”

    (Mary Boyce)

  • GOŠASB BĀNU

    or Bānu Gošasb; entitled savār (knight), Rostam’s daughter and the wife of Gēv.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • GŌSFAND

    See GUSFAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠOSL

    See CLEANSING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOŠNASP ASPĀD

    Sasanian military commander. See ḴOSROW II.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GŌSPAND

    See CATTLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOSPEL

    See BIBLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOSTAHAM

    name of two heroes in the Šāh-nāma.

    (Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh)

  • GOŠTĀSP

    Kayanian king of Iranian traditional history and patron of Zoroaster.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • GŌŠURUN

    the Pahlavi name for the soul of the Sole-created Bull.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • GOTARZES

    See GŌDARZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOTTHEIL, RICHARD JAMES HORATIO

    Gottheil’s tenure at the New York Public Library (NYPL) is of relevance to the field of Iranian studies because he oversaw the development of its Near Eastern and Asian collections, first as Chief of Semitica and Orientalia (1897-1901), and afterwards as Chief of the Oriental Division.

    (Dagmar Riedel)

  • GÖTTINGEN, UNIVERSITY OF, HISTORY OF IRANIAN STUDIES

    History of Iranian Studies at the University of Göttingen.

    (Ludwig Paul)

  • GOUVEA, ANTONIO DE

    (b. Beja, Portugal, 1575; d. Manzanares, Spain, 1628), Augustinian missionary and Portuguese envoy who visited Persia three times between 1602 and 1613 and who wrote on Persia.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • GOVĀḴARZ

    a district in the medieval province of Qohestān in Khorasan. See BĀKARZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOWD-E ZEREH

    See HĀMUN;

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOWDIN TEPE

    an archeological site in western Persia. See GODIN TEPE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOWHAR

    a cultural journal published monthly from January 1973 to December 1978 (issue no. 72) of the philanthropic organization of Mortażā Nuriāni.

    (Nasereddin Parvin)

  • GOWHAR ḴĀTUN

    a Saljuq princess who became the second wife of the Ghaznavid Sultan Masʿud III (r. 1099-1115).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GOWHAR-E MORĀD (1)

    philosopher and poet. See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ LĀHĪJĪ

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOWHAR-E MORĀD (2)

    pen name of the 20th-century author Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Sāʿedi. See SA'EDI, GHOLAM-HOSAYN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOWHAR-ĀʾĪN, Saʿd-al-dawla

    (d. 1100), Turkish eunuch slave commander of the Great Saljuqs.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GOWHARIN, SAYYED SĀDEQ

    Gowharin came from an old and distinguished family which traced its lineage back to the eponymous founder of the Nurbaḵšiyya, Sayyed Moḥammad Nurbaḵš (1392-1464). Himself a Sufi of the Ḵāksār order, his interest in mysticism went far beyond that of an academic.

    (Peter Avery)

  • GOWHAR-ŠĀD ĀḠĀ

    wife of Sultan Šāhroḵ b. Timur (r. 1409-47) and daughter of Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Tarḵān, a ranking amir under Timur.

    (Beatrice Forbes Manz)

  • GOWHAR-ŠĀD MOSQUE

    constructed in the early 15th century, the Friday mosque for pilgrims to the tomb of Imam ʿAli al-Reżā in Mašhad, so named after this famous shrine.

    (Lisa Golombek)

  • GOWHAR-ŠĀD MOSQUE RIOT

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOWJA FARANGI

    See TOMATO.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GOWRAK

    a Kurdish tribe in northwestern Persia.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • GOWZ

    See WALNUT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GŌZEHR

    Bazarangid ruler in Fārs. See ARDAŠĪR I.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GŌZIHR

    the Middle Persian development of an old Iranian compound adjective *gau-čiθra-, recorded in the Younger Avesta in the form gaočiθra-, as an epithet of the moon, “bearing the seed, having the origin of cattle” (or, “the ox”).

    (D. N. Mackenzie)

  • ḠOZZ

    a significant Turkic tribe in western Eurasia in the 5th century.

    (Peter B. Golden, C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GRAND LODGE OF IRAN

    See FREEMASONRY, iii-iv.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GRANICUS

    river (mod. Kocabaş Çay) flowing into the Sea of Marmara.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • GRANT, Captain NATHANIEL PHILIP

    (b. New York, 1774; k. Ḵorramābād, 1810), a military officer of the East India Company.

    (Denis Wright)

  • GRANT DUFF, Sir EVELYN MOUNTSTUART

    (b. 1863; d. Bath, 1926), British diplomat serving successively in Rome, Tehran, St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Berlin, then London.

    (Denis Wright)

  • GRANTOVSKIĬ, EDVIN ARVIDOVICH

    Grantovskiĭ specialized in the history of ancient Iranian tribes (especially the Medes, Persians and Scythians) and their civilizations. His research was based on Akkadian and Urartian inscriptions, Iranian texts, and classical sources and on evidence of archaeology, ethnography, and folklore.

    (Mohammad Dandamayev)

  • GRAPES

    See ANGŪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GRAPES

    See ANGUR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GRAPHIC ARTS

    Broadly speaking, graphic art and design have a long history in Persia; their antecedents can be seen in graphic motifs and patterns on ancient clay and metal vessels, stone reliefs, seals, brickwork, glazed tiles, plaster and wood carvings, cloths, carpets, marquetry, miniature paintings, calligraphy, and illumination of manuscripts.

    (Mortażā Momayyez, Peter Chelkowski)

  • GRAY, BASIL

    Gray's initiation into eastern art, for which there was then no provision at any British university, came in 1928, when he worked for a season on the excavations at the great palace of the Byzantine emperors in Constantinople, followed by study in Vienna under Josef Strzygowski, who was, however, already sunk deep in diffusionism.

    (John Michael Rogers)

  • GRAY, LOUIS HERBERT

    In 1921 Gray was appointed associate professor of philology at the University of Nebraska, where he remained until his appointment at Columbia University as professor of Oriental Languages in 1926. In 1935, he became Professor of Comparative Linguistics, a position he held until his retirement in 1944.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • GREAT BRITAIN

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Introduction, ii. An Overview of Relations: Safavid to the Present, iii. British influence in Persia in the 19th century, iv. British influence in Persia, 1900-21, v. British influence during the Reżā Shah period, 1921-41, vi. British influence in Persia, 1941-79, vii. British Travelers to Persia, viii. British Archeological Excavations, ix. Iranian Studies in Britian, Pre-Islamic, x. Iranian Studies in Britain, the Islamic Period, xi. Persian Art Collections in Britain, xii. The Persian Community in Britain, xiii. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), xiv. The British Institute of Persian Studies, xv. British Schools in Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GREAT BRITAIN i. INTRODUCTION

    During the 16th century, several unsuccessful attempts were made by the Muscovy (or Russia) Company of London to develop trade between London and Persia via Russia.

    (EIr)

  • GREAT BRITAIN ii. An Overview of Relations: Safavid to the Present

    Prior to the Safavid period, contacts between Britain and Persia were confined to the 13th century, and were infrequent and of short duration.

    (Denis Wright)

  • GREAT BRITAIN iii. British influence in Persia in the 19th century

    British imperial interests in Persia in the Qajar period were primarily determined by the concern for the security of colonial India and, secondarily, by trade, telegraphic communication, and financial or other conces-sionary agreements.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • GREAT BRITAIN iv. British influence in Persia, 1900-21

    In the late 1890s, the Foreign Office in London came to regard Germany as the main threat to the European balance of power and British imperial hegemony around the globe.

    (Mansour Bonakdarian)

  • Great Britain v. British influence during the Reżā Shah period, 1921-41

    During the reign of Reżā Shah (1925-1941) a profound transformation took place in both the character and the scope of British influence in Persia.

    (Stephanie Cronin)

  • Great Britain vi. British influence in Persia, 1941-79

    For the greater part of the Qajar era (1796-1924) Persia was the scene of intense rivalry between the Russian and British empires.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi)

  • Great Britain vii. British Travelers to Persia

    The British, more than any others, have been prolific authors of travelogues, and memoirs about Persia.

    (Denis Wright)

  • Great Britain viii. British Archeological Excavations

    excavations began in Persia before the so-called “French monopoly” on archeological excavations.

    (St. John Simpson)

  • Great Britain ix. Iranian Studies in Britain, Pre-Islamic

    Several fields of pre-Islamic Iranian Studies have seen great expansion during recent centuries, and to these, scholars and travelers from Great Britain have made substantial contributions.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • Great Britain x. Iranian Studies in Britain, the Islamic Period

    British interest in, and scholarship on, Persia and Persian culture in the Islamic period goes back to the first formal contacts between the two countries, that is, at least to the 16th century and the growth of Britain’s involvement in the Levant and East Indian trades.

    (Charles Melville)

  • Great Britain xi. Persian Art Collections in Britain

    The collecting of Persian art in Great Britain goes back at least to the missions despatched by the Safavid Shah ʿAbbās I (1588-1629) and the activities of the Sherley brothers at his court in Isfahan. The early 17th century also saw the growth of trade with Persia through the East India Company.

    (J. Michael Rogers)

  • Great Britain xii. The Persian Community in Britain (1)

    This entry will be treated in two separate articles: (1) Persian Community and (2) The Library for Iranian Studies.

    (Kathryn Spellman)

  • Great Britain xii. The Persian Community in Britain (2)

    The Library for Iranian Studies in London was opened to members on 16 November 1991 and at that time the library consisted of a collection of 2,500 books and other publications.

    (Namdar Baghaei-Yazdi)

  • Great Britain xiii. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

    In the late 1930s, the British Government began to fund BBC broadcasts in languages other than English designed to counter anti-British broadcasts from Germany and Italy. The first were in Arabic, in January 1938, followed by Spanish and Portuguese to Latin America in March. Persian broadcasts followed in December 1940.

    (F. Safiri and H. Shahidi)

  • Great Britain xiv. The British Institute of Persian Studies

    was founded in the spring of 1961, thanks to the vision and commitment of a small group of scholars in Britain, each of whom had a special interest in the arts and letters of Persia.

    (D. Stronach)

  • Great Britain xv. British Schools in Persia

    This article will outline the major educational efforts of the British missionaries in Persia from 1871. The British schools in Persia were primarily founded by missionary organizations, most notably the Church Missionary Society (CMS).

    (Gulnar E. Francis-Dehqani)

  • GREECE

    Relations with the Persian Empire.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GREECE i. Greco-Persian Political Relations

    After subjugating the Medes, Cyrus II started his first expedition westwards. In 547 B.C.E. he turned against Lydia and its king, Croesus.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GREECE ii. Greco-Persian Cultural Relations

    This article is addresses the evidence for receptivity to Persian culture in Greece, the North Aegean, and West Anatolia, including receptivity on the part of the non-Greek peoples of these regions.

    (Margaret C. Miller)

  • GREECE iii. Persian Influence on Greek Thought

    The idea of Iranian origins of Greek philosophy had a legendary aura, either by declaring that Pythagoras had been Zoroaster’s pupil in Babylon, or by writing, as did Clement of Alexandria, that Heraclitus had drawn on “the barbarian philosophy.”

    (Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin)

  • GREECE iv. Greek Influence on Persian Thought

    After the conquest of Ionia, Lydia, and other regions of Asia Minor by Cyrus II, the Persians came into close contact with the Hellenes, their skilled artisans, renowned physicians, artists, statements, men-of-arms, and the like.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • GREECE v. Greek Influence on Philosophy

    See FALSAFA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GREECE vi. The Image of Persia and Persians in Greek Literature

    The image of Persia in Greek literature is highly stylized and may not be considered as a reflection of actually experienced cultural contacts.

    (Reinhold Bichler and Robert Rollinger)

  • GREECE vii. Greek Art and Architecture in Iran

    The influx of elements of Greek art into Persia during the Achaemenid period was primarily the result of the importation of artists and artisans from Hellenized Asia Minor and rarely due to a direct supply of objects.

    (Rémy Boucharlat)

  • GREECE viii. Greek Art in Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Northwest India

    The emergence of Greek art as a phenomenon following the expedition of Alexander the Great was a major cultural event in Central Asia and India. Its effects were felt for almost a thousand years, down to the early Islamic period.

    (Claude Rapin)

  • GREECE ix. Greek and Persian Romances

    Three Persian verse romances of the 11th century stand out as significantly unlike other Persian verse romances, and they share enough features with the Greek Hellenistic Romances to suggest the existence of links between the two sets of tales.

    (Richard Davis)

  • GREECE x. Greek Medicine in Persia

    The question of Greek medicine in Iran is closely bound up with the history of Greco-Arabic medicine, which developed with the impetus of the “translation movement” between the 8th and the 10th centuries.

    (Gül A. Russell)

  • GREECE xi. Greek Inscriptions in Iran

    See EPIGRAPHY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GREECE xii. Persian Loanwords and Names in Greek

    The Greeks came into direct contact with speakers of Iranian languages when Cyrus II conquered the Lydian empire in 547 B.C.E. However, the possibility of linguistic borrowings in prehistoric times cannot be ruled out.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GREECE xiii. Greek Loanwords in Middle Iranian Languages

    The number of loanwords borrowed from Greek into the pre-Islamic Iranian languages is far less impressive than the number of borrowings in the other direction.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • GREECE xiv. Greek Loanwords in New Persian

    In the Islamic period, Persian learned literature was largely modelled upon Arabic antecedents and that these, whether translations from Greek or Arabic originals, strove to minimize foreign and unfamiliar-sounding vocabulary.

    (Lutz Richter Bernburg and EIr)

  • GREECE xv. Ancient Greek borrowings of Persian herbs and plants of medicinal value

    It is well attested that the ancient Greek city-states (poleis) and the Persian Empire had continuous commercial contact which influenced the ordinary life of both parties.

    (Luigi Arata)

  • GREECE xvi. Greek Ideas and Sciences in Sasanian Iran

    The arrival of Greek ideas and sciences in Iran have been traced through translated texts. However, there are allusions and references that we can glean from Pahlavi literature, and on occasion in longer passages where the closely related medical and philosophical theories of the ancient East indicate their origins in Greek or Indian civilization. Some of these references go back as far as the Achaemenid period too.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • GREEKS IN MODERN IRAN

    economic and political trends beginning in the 19th century led to the establishment of a significant Greek community in Iran

    (Evangelos Venetis)

  • GRIBOEDOV, ALEXANDER SERGEEVICH

    Griboedov joined the Russian administration in Transcaucasia in early 1819 and was sent by the Chief Administrator, General Ermolov, to Persia to establish the Russian Mission in Tehran.

    (George A. Bournoutian)

  • GRIGORIAN, Marcos

    (Mārcos [better known as Marco] Grigoriān, b. Kropotkin, Russia, 5 December 1925; d. Yerevan, 27 August 2007), Iranian-Armenian artist, actor, teacher, gallery owner, and collector who played a pioneering role in the development of Iranian modern art.

    (Hengameh Fouladvand)

  • GRĪW

    a Middle Iranian word meaning “neck, throat” and “self, soul.”

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • GROTEFEND, GEORG FRIEDRICH

    (b. Hannoversch-Münden, 1775; d. Hannover, 1853), German philologist and scholar of oriental studies.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GROUSSET, RENÉ

    (b. Aubais, Gard, France, 1885; d. Paris, 1952), French historian who based his wide-ranging research on the studies of the leading French orientalists of his time, and wrote works of synthesis on various aspects of Oriental history and culture.

    (Jacqueline Calmard-Compas)

  • GRUMBATES

    See CHIONITES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GRUNDRISS DER IRANISCHEN PHILOLOGIE

    (Encyclopaedia of Iranian Philology; Strassburg, 1895-1904, reprinted Berlin and New York, 1974), the first attempt to summarize the knowledge of all subjects concerning Iran — the languages and literatures, history and culture of Iran and the Iranian peoples — that had been achieved by the end of the 19th century.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GRÜNWEDEL, ALBERT

    (b. Munich, 1856; d. Lenggries, 1935), prominent German Indologist, Tibetologist, art scholar, and archeologist.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • GRYUNBERG TSVETINOVICH, ALEKSANDR LEONOVICH

    (b. St. Petersburg, 1930; d. St. Petersburg, 1995), Russian linguist who specialized in Iranian languages.

    (Vladmir Kushev)

  • GUARDIAN COUNCIL

    or Šurā-ye Negahbān; a powerful 12-member council with vast legislative and executive jurisdictions that forms a cornerstone of the Islamic Republic’s Constitution.

    (A. Schirazi)

  • GUBARU

    Babylonian rendering of the Iranian name Gaub(a)ruva, which is best known in the Greek form Gōbryas.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • GUDARZ

    See GŌDARZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUEVREKIAN, GABRIEL

    (b. Istanbul, 1900; d. 1970), Armenian avant-garde architect, an influential figure in the development of modern architecture in Persia, linking Persian architects with Europe’s pioneers of the modern movement.

    (Mina Marefat)

  • GUIDI, IGNAZIO

    Guidi’s most valuable discovery, the Syriac chronicle of an anonymous Nestorian Christian, contains otherwise non-attested details of late Sasanian history. Guidi recognized the significance of the synodal records of the Nestorian church for reconstructing the administration of the empire.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • GUIDI’S CHRONICLE

    an anonymous, 7th-century chronicle of Nestorian Christians, known also as “the Khuzistan Chronicle,” written in Syriac and covering the period from the reign of the Sasanian Hormizd/Hormoz IV (579-89) to the middle of the 7th century and the time of the early Arab conquests.

    (Sebastian P. Brock)

  • GUILDS

    See AṢNĀF; CHAMBER OF GUILDS; CHAMBER OF COMMERCE; BĀZĀR iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUILLEMIN, MARCELLE

    One of the early investigators of the reconstruction of ancient Babylonian musical scales and music theory, she was the first scholar to explore and explain the musicological significance of the sequence of number-pairs of musical strings in a cuneiform text of the first millennium B.C.E. excavated at the archaeological site of Nippur in southern Iraq.

    (Anne Draffkorn Kilmer)

  • GUJAR

    See GOJAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUJARAT

    (Skt. Gurjaṛ), a province of India on its northwestern coastline.

    (Gavin R. G. Hambly)

  • GUJARATI

    or Gojarati; the mother tongue of Gujaratis, which has been for centuries a vehicle of thought and expression for Hindus, Parsis, and Muslims of Gu-jarat in western India.

    (K. M. Jamaspasa)

  • GUJASTAG ABĀLIŠ

    See ABĀLIŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUKLĀN

    Turkmen tribal confederacy of the Gorgān region in northeastern Persia, the district of Qara Qalʿa in Turkmenistan, and the Ḵiva region in Uzbekistan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ḠUL

    designation of a fantastic, frightening creature in the Perso-Arabic lore.

    (Mahmoud and Teresa P. Omidsalar)

  • GULBARGA

    or Golbargā; city and district in the central Deccan, India.

    (Gavin R. G. Hambly)

  • GULBENKIAN, CALOUSTE

    (1869-1955), Armenian oil financier, art collector, and philanthropist born in Lisbon.

    (Jennifer Manoukian)

  • GULF WAR and PERSIA

    the final conflict, which was initiated with United Nations authorization, by a coalition force from 34 nations against Iraq, with the expressed purpose of expelling Iraqi forces from Kuwait after its invasion and annexion on 2 August 1990.

    (Lawrence G. Potter)

  • GÜLŞEHRI, SÜLEYMAN

    See GOLŠAHRI, SOLAYMĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUMĒZIŠN

    a Middle Persian noun, spelled gwmycšn in Pahlavi and gwmyzyšn in Manichean script, meaning “mixing, mingling, mixture.”

    (D. N. Mackenzie)

  • GÜNDÜZLÜ

    See TURKIC TRIBES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUNPOWDER

    See BĀRUT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUNS, GUNNERY

    See BĀRUT; FIREARMS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUR

    See ARDAŠIR ḴORRA, FIRUZĀBĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḠUR

    a region of central Afghanistan, essentially the modern administrative province (welāyat) of Ḡōrāt.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • GUR-E AMIR

    See SAMARQAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUR-E DOḴTAR

    See BOZPĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GURĀN

    a tribe dwelling in the dehestān of Gurān, between Qaṣr-e Širin and Kermānšāh (Bāḵtarān), in Kurdistan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • GURĀNI

    comprises a group of similar North-west Iranian dialects which includes that of Kandula, 25 miles north-north-west of Kermānšāh, and Bāǰalānī, in the region around Zohāb and Qaṣr-e Šīrīn, with an offshoot among the Šabak, Ṣārlī, and Bāǰalān (Bēǰwān) villages east of the city of Mosul in Iraq.

    (D. N. Mackenzie)

  • GURDZIECKI, BOGDAN

    known in Persia as Bohtam Beg; Polish envoy of Georgian-Armenian origin and first permanent Polish resident in Safavid Persia (d. Moscow, 1700).

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • ḠURIĀN

    See FUŠANJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GURKHAN

    See QARA ḴETĀY; CENTRAL ASIA; TITLE OF RULERS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GURUMU

    See BĒṮ GARMĒ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUŠA

    lit. "corner" or "part"; a term in Persian music designating a unit of melody of variable importance, which occupies a special place in the development of one of the twelve modal systems (dastgāh or āvāz).

    (Jean During)

  • GUSAN

    See EPICS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUSFAND

    sheep, ovine.

    (Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • GUŠYĀR GILĀNI, ABU’L-ḤASAN B. LABBĀN

    Arabicized Kušyār; an astronomer and mathematician from Gilān, whence his nesba Jili/Gilāni (fl. late 10th-early 11th cent.).

    (David Pingree)

  • GUTIANS

    name used in ancient Mesopotamian texts to refer to a variety of people, mostly from the Zagros mountain area.

    (Marc Van De Mieroop)

  • GUTSCHMID, HERMANN ALFRED FREIHERR VON

    (b. Loschwitz near Dresden, 1831; d. Tübingen, 1887), classical scholar and ancient historian with a special interest in the Ancient Near East.

    (Ronald E. Emmerick)

  • GUY O ČOWGĀN

    See POLO.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GÜYÜK KHAN

    (r. 1246-48), Mongol great khan (qaḡan), given posthumously the regnal title Ting-tsung.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • GUZAŠTAG ABĀLIŠ

    See ABĀLIŠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GUZGĀN

    a district of what was in early Islamic times eastern Khorasan, now roughly corresponding to the northwest of modern Afghanistan, adjacent to the frontier with the southeastern fringe of the Turkmenistan Republic. See JOWZJĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GWĀTI

    See BALUCHISTAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GYMNASTICS IN PERSIA

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • GYPSUM

    soft mineral produced from natural gypsum rock by firing in kilns or piles and subsequent pulverization by pounding and grinding.

    (Dietrich Huff)

  • GYPSY

    generally referred to by the term kowli in Persian, seemingly a distortion of kāboli, that is, coming from Kabol, the capital of Afghanistan. It is not at all certain, however, that all the groups referred to as kowli are authentic gypsies; nor that only the groups referred to as kowli should be considered as gypsies.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • GYPSY i. Gypsies of Persia

    Almost everywhere in Persia there are groups with characteristics similar to those of the Gypsies, but they are called by different names, sometimes designating their geographic or ethnic origin, sometimes their social status, and sometimes their profession.

    (Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • GYPSY ii. Gypsy Dialects

    The languages and dialects popularly called “Gypsy” (< Egipcien < qebṭi “Coptic, Egyptian”) constitute three major groups: Asiatic or Middle Eastern Domari, Armenian Lomavren, and European Romani.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • Gurughli

    (music sample)

  • G~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter G entries.

    (DATA)