List of Articles

  • HA-GE’ULLAH

    Judeo-Persian weekly newspaper published in Tehran between 1920 and 1923.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • HAAS, WILLIAM S.

    (1883-1956), German-born Iranist, advisor to the Iranian ministry of education and a pioneer of Iranian studies in the United States.

    (Hossein Kamaly)

  • ḤABAQUQ, TOMB OF

    This brick monument, the overall shape of which is comparable with the tomb of Amir Timur in Samarqand, consists essentially of an octagonal tower topped by a conical roof. Each of the eight sides of the roughly 7 meter high tower is embellished with the design of an inset arch.

    (S. Soroudi)

  • ḤABIB EṢFAHĀNI

    (1835-93), MIRZĀ, Iranian poet, grammarian, and translator, who spent much of his life in exile in Ottoman Turkey; noted for his Persian grammar, Dastur-e Soḵan, regarded as the first systematic grammar of the Persian language and a model for many later works.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ḤABIB AL-ESLĀM

    Persian-language weekly newspaper published in Kabul, 1929 replacing Amān-e afḡān at the time of Bačča-ye Saqqā.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ḤABIBĀBĀDI, MOʿALLEM

    See MOʿALLEM ḤABIBĀBĀDI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤABIB-ALLĀH

    (1872-1919), Amir, monarch who initiated modernization in Afghanistan.

    (Ludwig W. Adamec)

  • ḤABIB-ALLĀH ḴORĀSĀNI

    (1850-1909), Hājj Mirzā, an enlightened religious scholar of Mašhad and a poet.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • ḤABIB-ALLĀH SĀVAJI

    (1587-1628), one of the more conservative artists active during the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1587-1628). All we know about him, besides his paintings, is the brief note by his contemporary Qāżi Aḥmad, who, writing in 1596, referred to him as a masterful artist distinguished among his peers.

    (Barbara Schmitz)

  • ḤABIBIYA SCHOOL

    an elite high school for boys established in 1903 in Kabul and named after its founder, Amir Ḥabib-Allāh.

    (Ludwig W. Adamec)

  • ḤABL AL-MATIN

    (lit. strong cord), name of three newspapers published in Calcutta, Tehran, and Rašt.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ḤABLARUD

    river in Damāvand and Garmsār districts of Semnān province in northern Persia.

    (M. H. Ganji)

  • ḤADĀʾEQ AL-SEḤR

    shortened title of the famous treatise Ḥadāʾeq al-seḥr fi daqāʾeq al-šeʿr (“Gardens of magic in the subtleties of poetry”) by Rašid(-e) Waṭwāt (d. 1182-83).

    (N. Y. Chalisova)

  • HADAF EDUCATIONAL GROUP

    (Goruh-e Farhangi-e Hadaf), a pioneering private educational complex founded in Tehran in 1949-50.

    (Aḥmad Birašk)

  • HĀDI ḤASAN

    Indian scholar of Persian literature (1894-1963).

    (K. A. Jaisi)

  • HĀDI SABZAVĀRI

    (1797-1873), Shaikh Mollā, prominent Islamic philosopher of the Qajar period, also known as a theologian and poet.

    (Seyyed Hossein Nasr)

  • ḤADIQAT AL-ḤAQIQA WA ŠARIʿAT AL-ṬARIQA

    a Persian didactical maṯnawi by the twelfth-century poet Ḥakim Majdud b. Ādam Sanāʾi.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • HADIŠ (1)

    See PALACE i. ACHAEMENID.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HADIŠ (2)

    the Avestan name of a minor Zoroastrian divinity, glossed in Pahlavi (tr. of Visprad 1:9) by mēnōg ī xānag “Spirit of the house.”

    (Mary Boyce)

  • HADITH

    term denoting reports that convey the normative words and deeds of the Prophet Moḥammad; it is understood to refer generically to the entire corpus of this literature and to the thousands of individual reports that comprise it.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HADITH i. A GENERAL INTRODUCTION

    Hadith literature is understood to be the repository of the sonna (normative conduct) of the Prophet, which is regarded as second in authority only to the Koran as a source of Divine truth.

    (Shahab Ahmed)

  • HADITH ii. IN SHIʿISM

    The Twelver Shiʿite conception of Hadith is generally in line with that of the Sunnites as discussed in Section i. However, Hadith about the Imams are authoritative as well.

    (A. Kazemi-Moussavi)

  • HADITH iii. IN ISMAʿILISM

    Ismaʿilis had neither a Hadith collection of their own nor a distinct Ismaʿili law before the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty in North Africa in 297/909.

    (Ismail K. Poonawala)

  • HADITH iv. IN SUFISM

    In keeping with all other categories of Islamic literature, the writings of the Sufis are replete with not only Koranic citations but also quotations of Hadith.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • HADITH v. AS INFLUENCED BY IRANIAN IDEAS AND PRACTICES

    The contact of Arabia with ancient Iran started even before Islam, and there are definite traces of the presence of Iranian religious notions in the Koran.

    (Shaul Shaked)

  • HĀDŌXT NASK

    (Book of scriptures), the sixth of the seven Gaθic (Gāsānīg) nasks of the Sasanian Avesta, according to the Dēnkard (8.45.1).

    (Jean Kellens)

  • HADRIAN

    (Publius Aelius Hadrianus), Roman emperor 117-38. He abandoned the Parthian War and the provinces east of the Euphrates that had been instituted by Trajan but never securely held. He permanently renounced any intervention in Armenia and Parthia.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • ḤĀʾERI, ʿABD-AL-KARIM YAZDI

    (1859-1937), Shaikh, an influential “source of emulation” and founder of the institution of religious teaching and guidance in Qom. His literary legacy was relatively meager, the result of his preoccupation with administering the Ḥawza and teaching.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • HAFEZ

    Celebrated Persian lyric poet (ca. 715-792/1315-1390).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HAFEZ i. AN OVERVIEW

    Hafez is the most popular of Persian poets. Many of his lines have become proverbial sayings, and there are few who cannot recite some of his lyrics.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • HAFEZ ii. HAFEZ’S LIFE AND TIMES

    In spite of this enormous popularity and influence, details of his life are extremely sketchy, and the brief references in taḏkeras (anthologies with biographical sketches) are often unreliable or even purely fictitious.

    (Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr)

  • HAFEZ iii. HAFEZ’S POETIC ART

    Perhaps the greatest progress in research on Hafez during the past century has been made in the domain of philology. Critical editions have been published which begin to provide a reliable basis for the study of Hafez’s poetry.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • HAFEZ iv. LEXICAL STRUCTURE OF HAFEZ’S GHAZALS

    Despite limitations, it is nevertheless necessary to base textual criticism on complete and reliable lexico-statistical inventories of Hafez’s ghazals.

    (D. Meneghini Correale)

  • HAFEZ v. MANUSCRIPTS OF HAFEZ

    A major concern of 20th-century Hafez scholarship has been the establishment of a reliable text of his poems.

    (Julie Scott Meisami)

  • HAFEZ vi. PRINTED EDITIONS OF THE DIVĀN OF HAFEZ

    Printed editions of Hafez’s poems include partial and complete collections, non-critical and critical editions, in lithographic, calligraphic, facsimile, and typeset formats. The first printed edition was commissioned by Richard Johnson of the East India Company and published by Upjohn’s Calcutta press in 1791.

    (Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr)

  • HAFEZ vii. HAFEZ AND ʿERFĀN

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAFEZ viii. HAFEZ AND RENDI

    Rend, variously translated in English as “rake, ruffian, pious rogue, brigand, libertine, lout, debauchee,” is the very antithesis of establishment propriety.

    (Franklin Lewis)

  • HAFEZ ix. HAFEZ AND MUSIC

    The poetics of Hafez depends on a sensuality of language and imagery. Smell, taste, texture, color and certainly sound imagery abound. Translations and adaptations from Hafez have repeatedly been set to music of the Western classical music tradition.

    (Franklin Lewis)

  • HAFEZ x. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN ENGLISH

    The first poem by Hafez to appear in English was the work of Sir William Jones (1746-94).

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • HAFEZ xi. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN GERMAN

    The name of Hafez is closely associated with that of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in German literature. This is directly attributable to the status Goethe accords Hafez in his West-West-östlicher Divan (1819).

    (Hamid Tafazoli)

  • HAFEZ xii. HAFEZ AND THE VISUAL ARTS

    The 16th century constitutes the apex in production for illustrated copies of Hafez’s Divān; they were made in several places for a range of patrons. The largest group of the illustrated Hafez manuscripts was produced in Shiraz, the most impressive among them dating to the 1580s.

    (Priscilla P. Soucek)

  • HAFEZ xiii. FĀL-E ḤĀFEẒ

    See FĀL-NĀMAHĀ; DIVINATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAFEZ xiv. HAFEZ’S TOMB (ḤĀFEẒIYA)

    The Hafeziya is located south of the Koran Gate (Darvāza-ye Qorʾān) on the northern edge of Shiraz. It is on the site of the famous Golgašt-e Moṣallā, the pleasure ground often mentioned in the poems of Hafez.

    (Kuros Kamali Sarvestani)

  • ḤĀFEẒ-E ABRU

    (d. 1430), author of many historical and historico-geographical works in Persian, which were commissioned by Šāhroḵ, the Timurid ruler of Herat during the first decades of the 15th century.

    (Maria Eva Subtelny and Charles Melville)

  • ḤĀFEẒ-E ʿAJAM

    HĀFEẒ-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD, scholar of religion and author, renowned for his ability to write with speed and in an attractive style.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ḤĀFEẒ EṢFAHĀNI

    Mawlānā Moḥammad, known as Moḵtareʿ (inventor), 15th-16th century engineer, summoned by the Timurid court of Sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā to construct a clock after a European model.

    (Parviz Mohebbi)

  • HAFT

    (seven), the heptad and its cultural significance in Persian history. The number has been explained as the symbolic expression of a distinct culture.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HAFT AMAHRASPAND YAŠT

    or simply Haf-tān yašt, the second hymn of the Avestan corpus. It is dedicated to the seven Zoroastrian entities and recited on the first seven days of the month.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • HAFT EQLIM

    See HAFT KEŠVAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAFT ḴᵛĀN

    the title of two famous episodes in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma, the Haft Ḵᵛān-e Rostam, and the Haft Ḵᵛān-e Esfandiār, describing seven exploits that each hero had to undertake.

    (Olga M. Davidson)

  • HAFT KEŠVAR

    (seven regions), the usual geographical division of the world in Iranian tradition; ancient Iranians envisioned the world as vast and round and encircled by a high mountain.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HAFT ḴOSRAVĀNI

    the seven musical systems or modes attributed to Bārbad, the famous court musician of the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 590-628).

    (Ameneh Youssefzadeh)

  • HAFT LANG

    See BAḴTIĀRI TRIBE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAFT OWRANG

    See JĀMI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAFT PEYKAR

    a famous romantic epic by Neẓāmi Ganjavi from the last decade of the 6th/12th century. The title can be translated literally as “seven portraits,” but also with the figurative meaning of “seven beauties.”

    (François de Blois)

  • HAFT QOLZOM

    (lit., The seven seas), the title of a Persian dictionary compiled in India in 1229-34 /1813-18 by Abu’l-Moẓaffar Ḡāzi-al-Din Ḥaydar (d. 1243/1827), the sultan of Awadh province in the State of Uttar Pradesh, and arranged and prefaced by Mawlawi Qabul-Moḥammad, a secretary and poet in his court. This voluminous work represents no originality except for the extravagant subdivision of its contents.

    (Ṣafurā Hušyār)

  • HAFT SIN

    “seven items beginning with the letter sin (S),” a component of the rituals of the New Year’s Day festival (see NOWRUZ) observed by most Iranians. The items are traditionally displayed on the dining cloth (sofra) that every household spreads out on the floor (or on a table) in a room normally reserved for entertaining guests.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HAFT TEPE

    In the 1950s and 1960s, Haft Tepe became part of a large sugar cane plantation. In the course of leveling the land for planting, some of the archaeological remains were destroyed and others exposed. During the construction of the main road to the plantation, a baked brick wall was uncovered and the discovery reported to the Iranian Archaeological Service.

    (Ezat O. Negahban)

  • HAFTA

    (“week”), history of the calendar week in Iran.

    (Badri Gharib)

  • HAFTĀNBŌXT

    traditional reading of the name of a legendary warlord in southern Persia, mentioned in the Kār-nāmag ī Ardašīr ī Pābagān (The exploits of Ardašīr son of Pābag).

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • HAFTAVĀN TEPE

    one of the three largest settlement mounds in the Urmia basin, Azerbaijan, covering fifty acres and not far from the village of Haftavān, itself barely two miles from the district town of Salmās.

    (Charles Burney)

  • HAFTŌRANG

    the circumpolar constellation Ursa Major (UMa), known in Young Avestan literature under the appellative of haptōiriṇga- (only pl. with star- “star”).

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • HAFTVĀD

    (Haftwād), the hero of a legend associated with the rise of the Sasanian Ardašir I (r. 224-39). The Šāh-nāma gives his “strange story” (dāstān-e šegeft).

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HAGIOGRAPHIC LITERATURE

    in Persia and Central Asia. Hagiographic literature may be defined broadly as a biographical genre devoted to individuals enjoying an exclusive religious status as “saints” or “holy men” in the eyes of the authors.

    (Jürgen Paul)

  • HAGMATĀNA

    See HAMADĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAIFA

    a port city in northwestern Israel and the site of a number of significant Bahai holy places, administrative buildings, and historical monuments. Bahais consider it their most sacred location after the shrine of Mirzā Ḥosayn-ʿAli Nuri Bahāʾ-Allāh, the prophet of the Bahai faith, situated across the bay in nearby ʿAkkā.

    (Hossein Amanat)

  • HAIKU

    a Japanese poetic form adopted and employed by Iranian poets since the second half of the 20th century.

    (Eva Lucie Witte)

  • ḤAIM, MOREH ḤAḴĀM

    eminent Jewish scholar (b. Tehran, 1872; d. Tehran, 1942).

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ḤAIM, ŠEMUʾEL

    generally known as Monsieur Ḥaim or Mister Ḥaim, journalist and Majles deputy (b. Kermānšāh, 1891; executed Tehran, Dec. 15, 1931).

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ḤAIM, SOLAYMĀN

    twentieth-century lexicographer, became known as one of the first serious lexicographers to prepare Persian-language dictionaries into and from English, French and Hebrew (1886-1970).

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • HAJAR

    See BAHRAIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAJĀR

    See ŠARAFKANDI, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤĀJEB

    administrative and then military office in the pre-modern Iranian world.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ḤĀJEB i. IN THE MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC PERIOD

    The office of ḥājeb, implying military command, appears in the Iranian world with the Samanids, where it probably grew out of the amir’s domestic household.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ḤĀJEB ii. IN THE SAFAVID AND QAJAR PERIODS

    In the Safavid period the ḥājeb, the major domo or master of ceremony, was called the išik-āqāsi-bāši, literally “head of the masters of the threshold.”

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • ḤĀJI ʿALILU

    a Turkic tribe of Persian Azerbaijan. Its main branch lives north of Varzaqān and Ahar, in Qarājadāḡ (Arasbārān); another branch dwells in the vicinity of Marāḡa.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ḤĀJI ĀQĀ

    a satirical novella by Ṣādeq Hedāyat, published in the journal Soḵan in 1945, followed by a second edition in 1952.

    (F. Farzaneh)

  • ḤĀJI BĀBĀ

    a satirical and politically critical newspaper, published in Tehran, 1949-53.

    (Nasseredin Parvin)

  • ḤĀJI BĀBĀ AFŠĀR

    son of an officer in the army of the Crown Prince ʿAbbās Mirzā and one of the first Persian students sent to study in Europe (1811).

    (Anna Vanzan)

  • ḤĀJI BĀBĀ OF EṢFAHĀN

    See HAJJI BABA OF ISPAHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤĀJI FIRUZ

    a prominent type of traditional folk entertainer, who appears as a street performer in the days preceding Nowruz. The Ḥāji Firuz entertains passers-by by singing traditional songs and dancing and playing his tambourine for a few coins.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • ḤĀJI MIRZĀ ĀQĀSI

    grand vizier of Moḥammad Shah Qāǰār (r. 1250-64/1834-48) between 1251-64/1835-48. See ĀQĀSI, ḤĀJI MIRZĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤĀJI PIĀDA

    Mosque of. See ISFAHAN x, MONUMENTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤĀJI PIRZĀDA

    (d. 1904), Moḥammad ʿAli Nāʾini, Persian sufi and traveler, whose diary follows the convention of the Qajar safar-nāmas in its description of the wonders seen abroad; he expresses a sincere apprehension for those Iranians abroad whom he felt had forgotten their culture and religion.

    (Anna Vanzan)

  • ḤĀJI VĀŠANGTON

    In his dispatches to Persia Ḥāji Vāšangton presented information about the American political system and society. He openly admired the Americans’ disdain for Europeans and regarded Americans as “alert, intelligent, learned, polite, and wealthy.” He stressed that all government dignitaries were “servants of the people.”

    (Hossein Kamaly)

  • HAJIABAD

    (Ḥājiābād), site of bilingual inscription of Šāpur I on the wall of a cave near Persepolis. OVERVIEW of the entry: i. The Inscriptions. ii. The Texts.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HAJIABAD i. INSCRIPTIONS

    The Hajiabad inscriptions in Parthian and Middle Persian were discovered in 1818 in a grotto a few kilometers north of Persepolis. This text describes a feat of archery by King Šāpūr I performed in the presence of kings and princes, of the grandees and the nobles.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • HAJIABAD ii. THE TEXTS

    “This (is) the bowshot of me, the Mazda-worshipping god Shapur, king of kings of Eran and Non-Eran ..."

    (EIr)

  • ḤĀJIĀNI

    a guša or subdivision of a mode in the canonic repertory (radif) of Persian classical music.

    (Bruno Nettl)

  • HAJJ

    See PILGRIMAGE, forthcoming online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤĀJJ SAYYĀḤ

    (ca. 1836-1925), constitutionalist and human rights activist who pursued democratic political reforms in Persia; the first modern Persian to tour the world, the first to become a naturalized U.S. citizen, wrote the first modernist Persian book of travels and the first modern prison notebook.

    (Ali Ferdowsi)

  • ḤAJJĀJ B. YUSOF

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAJJI BABA OF ISPAHAN

    hero of The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan by James Justinian Morier (3 vols., London, 1824), the most popular Oriental novel in the English language and a highly influential stereotype of the so-called “Persian national character” in modern times.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • HAJW

    and its synonym hejā, two of the many terms which denote types of humorous writing or light verse in Persian.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ḤAKAMI

    (ca.1848-1925-6), Mirzā ʿALI-AKBAR, philosopher and theosopher, known in his lifetime as Ḥakim but later referred to as Ḥakami.

    (Mohammad-Mahdi Khalaji)

  • ḤĀKEM

    See ADMINISTRATION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤĀKEM BE-AMR-ALLĀH

    ABU ʿALI MANṢUR, the sixth Fatimid caliph and sixteenth Ismaʿili Imam (r. 996-1021), arguably the most controversial member of the Fatimid dynasty.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ḤAKIM ʿALAWI KHAN

    an Iranian physician and author in the service of the Mughal Emperor Moḥammad Shah as his chief physician with the title of Moʾtamen-al-Moluk.

    (Farid Ghassemlou)

  • ḤAKIM ATĀ

    a Central Asian Sufi; he is usually named as a direct disciple of Aḥmad Yasavi, and would therefore have lived in the early 13th century.

    (Devin DeWeese)

  • ḤAKIM TERMEḎI

    (ca. 820-830-ca. 907-12), ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD b. ʿAli, a prolific mystic author, many of whose writings have survived.

    (Bernd Radtke)

  • ḤAKIMI, EBRĀHIM

    Ḥakimi was born into an old and prominent family of court physicians. The family had been court physicians since the 17th century, starting with the eponym of the family, Moḥammad-Dāwud Khan Ḥakim, a physician at the courts of the Safavid Shah Ṣafi and Shah ʿAbbās II and the founder of the Ḥakim Mosque in Isfahan.

    (Abbas Milani and EIr)

  • ḤAKIMOVA, MAWJUDA

    (1932-1993), Soviet Tajik poetess, editor, and dramatist. Her poetry consists mainly of lyric miniatures on the theme of love and all manifestations of the natural world, from the Pamir mountains to the simplest flower plucked in a park in the suburbs of Dushanbe.

    (Evelin Grassi)

  • ḤĀL

    (lit. condition, state), an essential notion in Persian arts, especially music, which is supposed to bring about a meditative state.

    (Jean During)

  • ḤALABI, ABU'L-ṢĀLEḤ

    Taqi-al-Din b. Najm-al-Din b. ʿObayd-Allāh b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Moḥammad (b. 984-85, d. 1055), Imami jurist and theologian.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • ḤALABI, MAḤMUD

    (1900-1998), Shaikh, charismatic cleric and founder of the Ḥojjatiya Association whose primary objective was to meet the polemical challenge of the Bahai faith and the perceived danger of its aggressive missionary activity in Persia.

    (Mahmoud Sadri)

  • ḤALĀL O ḤARĀM

    a pair of Islamic legal terms: ḥalāl meaning permissible, and ḥarām meaning prohibited. Both terms occur in the Koran numerous times.

    (Dana al-Sajdi)

  • ḤĀLAT, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Ḥālat is considered by some observers to be the greatest contemporary Persian satirical poet. His enormous success and mastery of satirical prose and, especially, poetry have sometimes earned him the titles of Malek-al-šoʿarāʾ, Sayyed-al-šoʿarāʾ, and Amir-al-šoʿarā.

    (Hušang Etteḥād)

  • ḤĀLI, ALṬĀF ḤOSAYN

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HALICARNASSUS

    ancient town of Caria, near the present-day city of Bodrum in Turkey, once seat of a kingdom which was a tributary of Persia.

    (Bruno Genito)

  • HALIL RUD

    river in the Jiroft and Kahnuj districts of Kerman Province in southeastern Iran, which stretches a total length of 390 km.

    (M. H. Ganji)

  • ḤALIM

    a traditional Persian breakfast dish for the winter, now served at lunch and dinner as well, made with lamb and wheat.

    (Etrat Elahi)

  • ḤALIMI, LOṬF-ALLĀH

    b. Abi Yusof, an Ottoman poet and lexicographer of Persian origin (d. 1516).

    (Tahsin Yazici)

  • ḤALLĀJ, ABU’L-MOḠIṮ ḤOSAYN

    b. Manṣur b. Maḥammā Bayżāwi (857-922), popularly referred to in Persian literature as “Manṣur-e Ḥallāj,” controversial Arabic-speaking mystic from Fārs, whose execution has been considered a major turning-point in the history of Islamic mysticism.

    (Jawid Mojaddedi)

  • HALLOCK, RICHARD TREADWELL

    (1906-1980), Elamitologist and Assyriologist, whose magnum opus, Persepolis Fortification Tablets, transformed the study of the languages and history of Achaemenid Persia.

    (Charles E. Jones and Matthew W. Stolper)

  • ḤALWĀ

    (Ar. ḥalwāʾ, Pers. ḥalwā “sweetmeat”), a generic term applied to various kinds of sweet dishes and fruits.

    (Etrat Elahi)

  • HĄM.VAINTĪ

    Zoroastrian divinity “Victory,” only attested as a companion with Āxšti “Peace.”

    (Bernfried Schlerath)

  • HAMADĀN

    province, governorship, and city located in the Zagros region of western Persia.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY

    Hamadān is one of the western provinces of Persia, situated to the southwest of Tehran between latitudes 33°59′ and 35°48′ N and longitudes 47°34′ and 49°36′ E. The city of Hamadān is located at an altitude of 1,645 m on the eastern slope of the Alvand massif. In the National Physical Plan (Ṭarḥ-e kālbodi-e melli), which divides the country into 10 regions, the province is identified as a part of the central Zagros sub-region.

    (Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr)

  • HAMADĀN ii. POPULATION

    A part of the population of Hamadān consists of migrating tribes. According to the census definition most parts of these tribes are considered as rural population and only a small part as non-sedentary. Nevertheless, census data provide some information concerning their number, tribal name and other social characteristics.

    (Habibollah Zanjani)

  • HAMADĀN iii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    The city of Hamadān lies at the extreme northwest of the series of major urban sites stretching along the line of contact between the Zagros range and the central plateau.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • HAMADĀN iv. URBAN PLAN

    Hamadān is the only city in Persia which has a star-shaped urban design, with six boulevards and a network of avenues autonomously branching out in various directions from the circular city center.

    (Abdolhamid Eshragh)

  • HAMADĀN v. HISTORY, PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    See ECBATANA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAMADĀN vi. HISTORY, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    At the end of 23/643, Jarir conquered Hamadān and its surroundings again by force, and made peace with the populace on terms similar to those of the Nehāvand settlement.

    (Parviz Aḏkāʾi)

  • HAMADĀN vii. MONUMENTS

    The city of Hamadān, besides its pre-Islamic remains, contains some important Islamic monuments. The most significant is the mausoleum called Gonbad-e ʿAlawiān, square and massive, almost entirely of baked brick. Its façade was once covered with opulent stucco decoration.

    (Ali Mousavi and EIr)

  • HAMADĀN viii. JEWISH COMMUNITY

    The relative religious freedom that existed in Persia at Yudḡān’s time had widespread effects on the Jewish communities, in Hamadān in particular. Religious authorities of the two Talmudic schools in Iraq were able to better influence the Jewish communities of Persia, opening yeshivas in Hamadān.

    (Houman Sarshar)

  • HAMADĀN ix. JEWISH DIALECT

    According to Ehsan Yarshater’s informants, the Jewish community had dwindled from around 13,000 souls in 1920 to less than 1,000 by 1969, and of these about half originated from the Jewish communities of Malāyer, Tuyserkān, and various points in Kurdistan.

    (Donald Stilo)

  • HAMADĀN x. LEATHER MAKING

    See LEATHER MAKING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAMADĀN xi. CERAMICS

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAMADĀNI, ABU YAʿQUB YUSOF

    See ABU YAʿQUB HAMADĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAMADĀNI, SAYYED ʿALI

    b. Sayyed Šehāb-al-Din (1314-1384), Sufi author and preacher who undertook a celebrated mission to convert the people of Kashmir to Islam.

    (Parviz Aḏkāʾi)

  • HAMADĀNI, BADIʿ-AL-ZAMĀN

    See BADIʿ-AL-ZAMĀN HAMADĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAMADĀNIĀN FACTORIES AND ENDOWMENTS

    Established by ʿAli Hamadāniān (1907-63) and his brother Ḥosayn (1909-78), entrepreneurs and industrialists based in Isfahan, these include textile, cement, and sugar factories.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • HAMAN

    the chief courtier of King Ahasuerus (Xerxes), according to the story of the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible. He is portrayed as the villain of the narrative.

    (Shaul Shaked)

  • HAMĀRAKARA

    (*hmāra-kara-, lit. “account-maker”), “bookkeeper,” an Old Iranian title attested in various sources of Achaemenid and later times.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • HAMASPATHMAĒDAYA

    See GĀHANBĀR; FRAWARDIGĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤAMĀVAND

    (from MOḤAMMADVAND), a Kurdish tribe of northeastern Iraq which has been described as “the most celebrated fighting tribe of southern Kurdistan.”

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ḤAMAYD

    an Arab tribe of Ḵuzestān. In the early 1900s, it dwelled mostly in the boluk of Ḥamayd, on the left bank of the Kārun river.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • HAMĀZŌR

    a Zoroastrian Persian adjective “of the same strength” which occurs only in a formula of greeting, in ritual uses accompanied by the giving of hands.

    (Mary Boyce and F. M. Kotwal)

  • ḤAMD-ALLĀH MOSTAWFI

    historian and geographer of the Il-khanid period (1281-1344), author of Tāriḵ-e gozida, Ẓafar-nāma, and Nozhat al-qolub.

    (Charles Melville)

  • ḤAMDĀN QARMAṬ

    b. al-Ašʿaṯ (d. 933), Ismaʿili dāʿi and founder of the Ismaʿili movement in Iraq.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • HAMDARD ISLAMICUS

    English-language quarterly for Islamic Studies, founded in Pakistan in 1978. Published by the Hamdard Foundation of Pakistan.

    (Ansar Zahid Khan)

  • ḤĀMED B. AL-ḴEŻR AL-ḴOJANDI

    ABU MAḤMUD, mathematician and astronomer of the 10th century. His nesba suggests that he originated from Ḵojand in Ferḡāna.

    (David Pingree)

  • ḤĀMEDI EṢFAHĀNI

    (or Ḥāmedi ʿAjam), a poet of Persian origin (1439-ca. 1485) at the court of the Ottoman Sultan Moḥammad Fāteḥ (Mehmed the Conquerer).

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • HAMĒSTAGĀN

    a word of uncertain etymology, used in Pahlavi literature to designate the intermediate stage between paradise and hell.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • HAMGAR, MAJD-AL-DIN

    (1210-1287), MAJD-AL-DIN B. AḤMAD, known also as Ebn-e Hamgar (hamgar means “weaver”), an important poet of the 13th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ḤAMID QALANDAR

    (d. 1366), author of Ḵayr al-majāles, the obiter dicta (malfuẓāt) of the Češti shaikh Naṣir-al-Din Maḥmud Čerāḡ-e Dehli, Ḥamid’s father,

    (Khaliq Ahmad Nizami)

  • ḤAMID-AL-DIN KERMĀNI

    (d. after 1020-21), ABU’L-ḤASAN AḤMAD b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Moḥammad, a prominent Ismaʿili dāʿi and one of the most accomplished Ismaʿili theologians and philosophers of the Fatimid period.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ḤAMID-AL-DIN ABU BAKR BALḴI

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤAMIDI ŠIRĀZI

    Ḥamidi left Shiraz for Tehran in 1934 and enrolled in the Teachers College of Tehran University, where he received a B.A. degree in Persian Literature in 1937, graduating at the top of his class. He returned to Shiraz as a high school teacher, and a year later he published his first collection of poems, Šoku-fahā “Blossoms.”

    (Jafar Moayyad Shirazi)

  • HAMKALĀM

    “of the same word, ” a Zoroastrian-Persian priestly technical term.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal)

  • ḤAMMĀM-E WAKĪL

    (bathhouse of the Wakil), a historic monument in Shiraz built by Karim Khan Zand “the Wakil” (r. 1751-79) after 1776.

    (Karāmat-Allāh Afsar)

  • HAMMER-PURGSTALL, JOSEPH FREIHERR von

    (1774-1856), prolific Austrian orientalist, among whose many works is the first ever complete translation of the Divān of Ḥāfeẓ into a Western language.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE

    (or simply Hāmun), lit. “lake of the plain, lowland,” a lake covering the deepest part of the Sistān depression and the Sistān watershed.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE i. GEOGRAPHY

    The Sistān basin is the easternmost endorheic basin in Persia, draining a watershed 350,000 km2.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE ii. IN LITERATURE AND MYTHOLOGY

    In the literature and mythology of ancient Persia, Lake Hāmun occupied, along with the Helmand Riiver, a position of particular importance, especially in Zoroastrian eschatology.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • ḤAMZA B. ĀḎARAK

    or Atrak or ʿAbd-Allāh Abu Ḵozayma (d. 828), Kharijite rebel in Sistān and Khorasan during early ʿAbbasid times.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • HAMZA NİGARİ

    (Ḥamza Negāri) Ḥāji Mir Ḥamza Efendi b. Mir Pāšā, Sufi and poet from Azerbaijan, who wrote in both Persian and Turkish (d. 1886).

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ḤAMZA-NĀMA

    a popular prose romance transmitted orally and written down at a time unknown.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ḤAMZA-NĀMA i. GENERAL

    The hero of Ḥamza-nāma is Ḥamza b. ʿAbd-al-Moṭṭaleb, whose adventures are thought to be a conflation of stories from eastern Persia about Ḥamza b. ʿAbd-Allāh the Kharijite (d. 797-8).

    (William L. Hanaway)

  • ḤAMZA-NĀMA ii. IN THE SUBCONTINENT

    The Indo-Persian romance tradition, extending from the medieval period to the early 20th century, produced prose works of considerable literary and cultural interest, chief among which were many versions of the Ḥamza romance.

    (Frances W. Pritchett)

  • HANAFITE MAḎHAB

    a school of Sunni jurisprudence named after Abu Ḥanifa Noʿmān b. Ṯābet (699-767), an early Kufan jurist and theologian of Persian descent.

    (Merlin Swartz)

  • HANBALITE MAḎHAB

    a school of Sunni law and theology named after Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal (d. 855) which was founded largely under his influence in Baghdad.

    (Merlin Swartz)

  • HANG-E AFRĀSIĀB

    in the national epic, the cave in which Afrāsiāb, the fugitive king of Turān, spent his last days.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HĀNIBĀL, ʿALI

    (1891-1966), Russian-born Persian scholar and founder of the first journal of anthropology (majalla-ye mardom-šenāsi) in Persia.

    (Ali Boloukbashi)

  • HĀNSAVI

    (1184/85-1260/61), Shaikh, mystic, poet, and author.

    (S. H. Qasemi)

  • HANWAY, JONAS

    (1712-86), an English merchant who traveled to Persia and wrote an account of the trip which provides an eyewitness view of northern Iran during Nāder Shah’s last years.

    (Ernest Tucker)

  • ḤANẒALA BĀDḠISI

    one of the earliest (possibly the earliest) Persian poets of whom we have any record.

    (François de Blois)

  • HAOMA

    Avestan name for a plant and its divinity.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HAOMA i. BOTANY

    Haoma is the Avestan name for a plant and its divinity, Mid. Pers. hōm, Sogd. xwm, Pers. and other living Iranian languages hōm, hūm and related forms.

    (Dieter Taillieu)

  • HAOMA ii. THE RITUALS

    Haoma yields the essential ingredient for the parahaoma, the consecrated liquid prepared during the main act of worship, the Yasna, and its extensions, the Visperad and Vendidad.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • ḤAQIQAT (1)

    (“truth”), title of six different Persian-language newspapers or periodicals, published at various times in Tehran, Rašt, Isfahan, Kabul, and Aarhus (Denmark).

    (Nasseredin Parvin)

  • ḤAQIQAT (2)

    (“truth,” apparently a rendering of Russian Pravda), the title of several newspapers in Tajik Persian.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • HARĀ BƎRƎZAITĪ

    See ALBORZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HARAHUVATIŠ

    See ARACHOSIA; ROḴAJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HARAIVA

    See HERAT i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HARĀSP

    See ZAV.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HARĀT

    See HERĀT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HARAXVATIŠ

    See ARACHOSIA; ROḴAJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HARBURZ

    In ancient Iranian tradition, the mountain at the middle of the earth’s surface; see ALBORZ ii. Alborz in Myth and Legend .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HARDINGE, ARTHUR

    (1859-1933), Sir, British diplomat, who worked assiduously and effectively to counter the influence of Russia and enhance that of Britain.

    (Denis Wright)

  • HARDINGE, CHARLES

    (1858-1944), Lord, First Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, British diplomat.

    (Denis Wright)

  • HAREM

    (Ar. and Pers. ḥaram “sanctuary”), wives and other female associates in former aristocratic families and the secluded quarter of a house reserved for them.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HAREM i. IN ANCIENT IRAN

    There is no evidence for the practice among the early Iranians of taking large numbers of wives or concubines and keeping them in secluded quarters.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HAREM ii. IN THE QAJAR PERIOD

    Women played an important role in the life of the Qajar monarchs. Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah and Nāṣer-al-Din Shah, in particular, kept a large harem.

    (Anna Vanzan)

  • ḤĀRESI ʿĀMELI

    See SHAIKH MOFID.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḪARḪAR

    a land and a city at the western border of Media. It was taken several times by the Assyrian kings Shalmanaser III (r. 860-825 BCE) and Adad-nerari III (r. 812-782).

    (Inna Medvedskaya)

  • HARI RUD

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤARIRA

    a very light and diluted Persian dish made of fine wheat flour or wheat starch, or with rice flour or rice powder.

    (Etrat Elahi)

  • HARISA

    a cooked dish made from a mixture of grains, usually half-ground wheat and barley, and meat, usually lamb and more recently sometimes beef.

    (Etrat Elahi)

  • HARKARN DĀS KANBŌH

    the first Hindu author of a Persian work, Eršād al-ṭālebin, commonly known as Enšāʾ-e Harkarn, a collection of documents and model letters.

    (S.H. Qasemi)

  • HARKI

    (Herki), a Kurdish tribe of western Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, and northeastern Iraq.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • HARP

    (čang), a string instrument which flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 3000 BCE, until the 17th century.

    (Bo Lawergren)

  • HARPAGOS

    a Median magnate and the trusted advisor of the last Median king Astyages, In 550 BCE, during the war between the Medes and Persians, Harpagosdefected to support Cyrus II.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • ḤARRĀN

    an ancient town of Upper Mesopotamia, now located in the modern Turkish province of Diyarbakir approximately 40 km/25 miles south-southeast of Edessa, or Urfa.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • HARRIMAN MISSION

    The American diplomat W. Averell Harriman was sent to Tehran in July 1951 to mediate between Persia and Great Britain after Persian nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi)

  • HARTNER, WILLY

    (1905-1981), professor of the History of Sciences specializing in astronomy, author of many works devoted to Oriental studies, including ancient Persian calendar systems.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • HĀRUN B. ALTUNTAŠ

    son of a Turkish slave commander of Maḥmud of Ghazna who served as governor in Kᵛārazm 1032-35, first for the Ghaznavids, and then as an independent ruler.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • HĀRUN AL-MONAJJEM

    (d. 987), astronomer, astrologer, and Hadith expert.

    (David Pingree)

  • HĀRUN AL-RAŠID

    (d. 809), HĀRUN B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿABD-ALLĀH, the fifth caliph of the ʿAbbasid dynasty (r. 786-809), the third son of the caliph al-Mahdi.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • HĀRUN WELĀYAT

    See ISFAHAN x. MONUMENTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HĀRUT and MĀRUT

    two fallen angels who taught mankind magic in Babylon, mentioned once in the Koran. Their names derive from the Zoroastrian Ḵordād and Amurdād, two of the Aməša Spəntas.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HARZANI

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḪARZIANU

    a city and a district in Media, mentioned in the Assyrian texts of the time of Sargon II (r. 722–705 BCE).

    (I. N. Medvedskaya)

  • ḤASAB O NASAB

    term used in Arabic and New Persian literature to express complementary aspects of the concept of nobility.

    (Louise Marlow)

  • ḤASAN II

    ʿALĀ ḎEKREHE’L-SALĀM, Nezāri Ismaʿili Imam and the fourth ruler of Alamut (1162-66). The most important event of his brief reign was his declaration of the qiāma (the Resurrection).

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ḤASAN B. ʿABD-AL-MOʾMEN ḴOʾI

    full name: ḤASAN B. ʿABD-AL-MOʾMEN, ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ḴOʾI, 13th-century scribe, poet, and lexicographer from Azerbaijan.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ḤASAN B. ʿABD-ALLĀH SIRĀFI

    B. AL-MARZOBĀN AL-SIRĀFI. See SIRĀFI, ABU SAʿID ḤASAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤASAN B. ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB

    eldest surviving grandson of the Prophet Moḥammad through his daughter Fāṭema, and second Imam of the Šiʿa after his father ʿAli.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ḤASAN B. ʿALI AL-ʿASKARI

    See ʿASKARI, ḤASAN B. ʿALI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤASAN B. ʿALI AL-QOMMI

    ABU NAṢR, astrologer of the late 10th century.

    (David Pingree)

  • ḤASAN B. MOHAMMAD NIŠĀBURI

    See NIŠĀBURI, ḤASAN B. MOḤAMMAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤASAN B. MUSĀ NOWBAḴTI

    See NOWBAḴTI, ḤASAN B. MUSĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤASAN B. NUḤ B. YUSOF

    a Mostaʿli Ṭayyebi Ismaʿili savant and the author of Ketāb al-azhār, a chrestomathy of Ismaʿili literature (d. 1533).

    (Ismail K. Poonawala)

  • ḤASAN B.TIMURTAŠ B. ČUBĀN KUČAK

    See CHOBANIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤASAN BAṢRI

    (642-728), ABU SAʿID B. ABI’L-ḤASAN YASĀR, an important early Muslim preacher, theologian, jurist, Koran-reciter, and ascetic.

    (Christopher Melchert)

  • ḤASAN BEG RUMLU

    (b. 1530-31), author of Aḥsan al-tawāriḵ and a cavalryman (qurči) of the Rumlu Turkman tribe of qezelbāš during the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsb Ṣafawi.

    (Sholeh Quinn)

  • ḤASAN BOZORG B. ḤOSAYN

    See JALAYERIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤASAN DEHLAVI

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤASAN GĀNGU

    ʿALĀ ʿ-AL-DIN ḤASAN BAHMANŠĀH (r. 1347-57), a Khorasani adventurer at the court of Delhi.

    (M. Shokoohy)

  • ḤASAN-E ḠAZNAVI

    (d. ca. 1161), SAYYED EMĀM AŠRAF ḤASAN B. MOḤAMMAD ḤOSAYNI, poet chiefly associated with the court of the Ghaznavid ruler Bahrāmšāh.

    (Julie Scott Meisami)

  • ḤASAN KHAN QĀJĀR SĀRI AṢLĀN

    See SĀRI ASÂLĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤASAN ṢABBĀḤ

    (1050s-1124), prominent Ismaʿili dāʿi and founder of the medieval Nezāri Ismaʿili state.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ḤASAN ŠIRĀZI

    (1814-1895), MIRZĀ MOḤAMMAD, often referred to as Mirzā-ye Širāzi, leading Shiʿite cleric chiefly renowned for the role he played in the celebrated Tobacco Boycott of 1892.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ḤASAN-ʿALI BEG BESṬĀMI

    one of Nāder Shah’s closest associates, who held the title moʿayyer al-mamālek or “chief assayer” and played an important advisory role throughout Nāder’s reign.

    (Ernest Tucker)

  • ḤASAN-ʿALI MIRZĀ ŠOJĀʿ-AL-ṢALṬANA

    See ŠOJĀʿ-AL-ṢALṬANA, ḤASAN-ʿALI MIRZĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤASANI, ABU’L-ʿABBĀS AḤMAD B. EBRĀHIM

    Zaydi scholar from Āmol in Ṭabarestān, who flourished in the first half of the 3rd/9th century and taught three Caspian Zaydi imams.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ḤASANLU TEPPE

    archeological site in West Azerbaijan Province in northwest Persia, a short distance southwest of Lake Urmia (former Reżāʾiya). OVERVIEW of the entry: i. The site. ii. The golden bowl.

    (Robert H. Dyson, Jr)

  • ḤASANLU TEPPE i. THE SITE

    The Qadar River rises to the west in the Zagros on the Assyrian frontier near the ancient Urartian city of Musasir. Its eastern end drains into marshes north of the modern town of Mahābād, which lies northwest of the ancient country of Mannai.

    (Robert H. Dyson, Jr)

  • ḤASANLU TEPPE ii. THE GOLDEN BOWL

    The “gold bowl of Ḥasanlu” was found in the debris of Burned Building I West on the Citadel Mound at Ḥasanlu in 1958. It had fallen into room 9 in the southeastern corner of the building.

    (Robert H. Dyson, Jr)

  • ḤASANVAND

    a Lor tribe of the Piškuh region in Lorestān. In the 1870s it numbered some 2,500 families distributed among 16 tiras.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ḤĀŠEM, RAḤIM

    (1908,-1993), Tajik essayist, literary critic, and translator, who is considered to have been one of the founders of modern Tajik literature.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • HĀŠEMIDS

    See ĀL-E HĀŠEM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HASHISH

    See BANG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤASIBI, KĀẒEM

    (1906-1990), political figure and university professor. When the oil industry was nationalized in 1951, Ḥasibi, as Deputy Minister of Finance, became a member of the delegation charged with the eviction of the former oil company. He accompanied Dr. Moṣaddeq to the U.N. Security Council.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli and EIr)

  • HAŠT BEHEŠT (1)

    See ISFAHAN x. MONUMENTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAŠT BEHEŠT (2)

    (lit: “the Eight Heavens, the Eight paradises”), a cosmological concept used on several occasions as the title of literary works, or as the name of a particular architectural form in Persian, Turkish, and Indian contexts.

    (Michele Bernardini)

  • HAŠTPAR

    city in the western part of Gilān Province, center of the šahrestān (sub-provincial district) of Ṭāleš (or Tāleš).

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • HAŠTPĀY

    name of a game from the Sasanian era which has not been precisely identified.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • HAŠTRUD

    a sub-province (šahrestān) in the south of Azerbaijan, situated between lat 36°45’ and 37°24’ N, long 46°25’ and 47°24’ E, some 134 km from Tabriz and 101 km from Miāna Sub-province.

    (Z. Sadrolashrafi)

  • HAŠTRUDI, MOḤSEN

    In Tehran, Mohsen Hastrudi was appointed assistant professor at the Faculty of Science of the Dānešsarā-ye ʿāli and became full professor in 1941. He was also appointed the Director of Tehran’s Department of Education, President of the University of Tabriz (1951), and the Dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of Tehran (1957).

    (A. Shadi Tahvildar-Zadeh and Fariborz Majidi)

  • ḤĀTAMI, ʿALI

    (b. Tehran, 1944; d. Tehran, 1996), Iranian scriptwriter and film director. For all his interest in dealing with the characters and incidents shaping the political and social history of the Qajar and Pahlavi periods, Ḥātami’s films are not particularly concerned with faithful representation and historical accuracy.

    (Jamsheed Akrami)

  • HATAMTU

    See ELAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HATARIA, MANEKJI LIMJI

    (1813-1890), emissary of the Parsis of India to the Zoroastrians of Iran from 1854 to 1890. His forebears were among the Zoroastrian migrants from Safavid Persia to the major commercial port of Surat.

    (Firoze M. Kotwal, Jamsheed K. Choksy, Christopher J. Brunner, and Mahnaz Moazami)

  • HĀTEF, SAYYED AḤMAD EṢFAHĀNI

    (d. 1783), an influential poet of the 18th century.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā and EIr)

  • HĀTEFI, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    (d. Ḵargerd, 1521) Persian poet and nephew of ʿAbd-al-Rahmān Jāmi.

    (Michele Bernardini)

  • ḤĀTEM ṬĀʾI

    the epitome of generosity and munificence in Arabic and Persian anecdotal traditions.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • ḤĀTEM-NĀMA

    a popular prose romance by an unknown author, consisting of the imaginary adventures of Ḥātem Ṭāʾi, the pre-Islamic Arab noble, renowned for his boundless generosity and graceful hospitality.

    (Pegah Shahbaz)

  • HATRA

    (Ḥaṭrā; Ar. Ḥażr), a strongly fortified city in Upper Mesopotamia (today northern Iraq), situated at lat 35°40′ N, long 42°45′ E in the midst of the desert steppe of the northern Jazīra.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • HAUG, MARTIN

    (1827-1876) Oriental scholar and one of the founders of Iranian studies. His contributions to Old and Middle Iranian studies remained influential well into the twentieth century.

    (Almut Hintze)

  • HAUMAVARGĀ

    a term distinguishing one of the three groups of Sakā tribes, Sakā haumavargā, in some of the lists of the peoples in the Achaemenid royal inscriptions.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • HAURVATĀT

    See HORDĀD; AMƎŠA SPƎNTA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤĀWI, AL-

    (i.e., al-Ketāb al-ḥāwi fi’l-ṭebb “Comprehensive book on medicine”), the title of a major Arabic work on medicine in twenty-five volumes by Abu Bakr Moḥammad.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • HAWK

    See BĀZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAWRAMAN

    See AVROMAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤAWZA-YE ʿELMIYA

    See IRAQ xi. SHIʿITE SEMINARIES IN IRAQ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAXAMĀNIŠ

    See ACHAEMENES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤAYĀT-DĀWUDI

    a sedentary Lor tribe dwelling in the dehestān of Ḥayāt-dāwūd, stretching from the Persian Gulf to the Māhur-e Mīlāti mountains, northwest of Bušehr.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • HAYĀṬELA

    See HEPHTHALITES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAYʾATHĀ-YE MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI

    See JAMʿIYATHĀ-YE MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤAYĀTI, ABDÜLHAY

    or ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy, 15th century poet who wrote a series of Turkish poems modeled on Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ḤAYĀTI TABRIZI, QĀSEM BEG

    16th-century Persian historian, whose chronicle, Tāriḵ, spans the period between Shaikh Ṣafi-al-Din Esḥāq Ardabili and Shah Esmāʿil I.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ḤAYDAR ʿALI EṢFAHĀNI, Ḥājji Mirzā

    (b. Isfahan, ca. 1830; d. Haifa, 1920), Bahāʾi polemicist.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • ḤAYDAR KHAN ʿAMU-OḠLI

    (1880-1921), revolutionary activist who used terror to radicalize Persian politics in the early 20th century. Forced to leave Persia in 1911, he was sent back by the Bolsheviks to settle the conflict between the Jangalis and the Communist Party of Persia in Gilān.

    (Alireza Sheikholeslami)

  • ḤAYDAR, MIR

    See MANGHITS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤAYDAR MIRZĀ ṢAFAVI

    Safavid prince who considered himself to be the chosen successor of his father, Shah Ṭahmāsb, but was killed immediately after the latter’s death on 14 May 1576.

    (Michel M. Mazzaoui)

  • ḤAYDAR ṢAFAVI

    (ca. 1459-88), spiritual leader of the Ṣafaviya Sufi order and father of Shah Esm>āʿil I, the founder of the Safavid dynasty.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ḤAYDARI and NEʿMATI

    (also Amir-Ḥaydari; Neʿmat-Allāhi), mutually hostile urban moieties of Safavid and post-Safavid Iran.

    (John R. Perry)

  • HĀYEDA

    (b. Tehran, 1942; d. San Jose, Calif., 1990), popular Persian singer. Hāyeda primarily distinguished herself by a naturally rich, operatic alto voice. For nearly two decades, she performed the āvāz and interpreted popular traditional and contemporary songs, all based on the modal system of traditional Persian music.

    (Erik Nakjavani)

  • ḤAYRAT, MOḤAMMAD ṢEDDIQ

    (1878-1902) Tajik poet from Bukhar, literary scholars praise him as one of the best Persian poets of the late 19th century

    (Habib Borjian)

  • HAYTON

    an Armenian prince, lord of the city of Gorighos in Cilicia, and nephew of King Hetʿum I; he was exiled by his cousin King Hetʿum II and lived as a monk in Cyprus before moving to Poitiers in France, where in 1307 he composed a treatise commissioned by Pope Clement V outlining the conduct of a crusade.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • ḤAYYA ʿALĀ ḴAYR AL-ʿAMAL

    a religious formula, meaning “Come to the best of actions,” included in the call to prayer (aḏān) by all three major branches of Shiʿism, Twelvers, Zaydis and Ismaʿilis.

    (Meir M. Bar-Asher)

  • HAŽĀR

    pen name of ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Šarafkandi (b. Mahābād, 1921; d. Tehran, 1991), Kurdish poet, philologist, and translator. A master of traditional Kurdish poetry, he infused the content of his poems with a new, uncompromising militancy. His language is simple and direct, close to the spoken form.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • HAZĀR AFSĀN

    The Persian title of The Arabian Nights, the world-famous collection of tales. See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAZĀR O YAK ŠAB

    See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HAZĀRA

    the third largest ethnic group of Afghanistan, after the Pashtuns and the Tājiks, who represent nearly a fifth of the total population. OVERVIEW of article: i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt, ii. History, iii. Ethnography and social organization, iv. Hazāragi dialect.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HAZĀRA i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt

    Hazārajāt, the homeland of the Hazāras, lies in the central highlands of Afghanistan. In some respects Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone rather than a geographical one–that of Afghanistan’s Turko-Mongol Shiʿites.

    (Arash Khazeni)

  • HAZĀRA ii. HISTORY

    Among the Hazāras themselves, three main theories exist: they are of Mongolian or Turko-Mongolian descent; they are the pre-Indo-European autochthones of the area; or they are of mixed race as a result of several waves of migration.

    (Alessandro Monsutti)

  • HAZĀRA iii. Ethnography and social organization

    It would be misleading to present a fixed and definitive image of the main Hazāra tribes, as the affiliations are changing over time and the designations reflect the political situation.

    (Alessandro Monsutti)

  • HAZĀRA iv. Hazāragi dialect

    The number of hazāragi speakers is approximately 1.8 million. The Afghan hazāragi varieties of Persian are essentially very close to modern tājiki, or rather of modern dari Persian, or even kāboli Persian, but their typology still has to be fully defined.

    (Charles M. Kieffer)

  • HAZĀRASPIDS

    a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs, and which flourished in the later Saljuq, Il-khanid, Mozaffarid, and Timurid periods.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • HAZĀRBED

    or Hazāruft; title of a high state official in Sasanian Iran.

    (M. Rahim Shayegan)

  • HAZĀRSOTUN

    the palace-complex of Moḥammad b. Toḡloq (1325-1551) at Jahānpanāh (Delhi).

    (Gavin R. G. Hambly)

  • HAZELNUT

    (fandoq), the hard-shelled fruit of the shrub (or small tree) Corylus avellana L. (fam. Corylaceae), containing an edible kernel of high nutritious value.

    (Hūšang Aʿlam)

  • ḤAZIN

    in Persian music, a small guša (melodic type) of the Persian classical model repertoire radif.

    (Jean During)

  • ḤAZIN LĀHIJI

    Persian poet and scholar (1692-1766), emblematic of the cultivated Shiʿite mirzā of Safavid and post-Safavid Iran who fled a politically dangerous and economically depressed milieu for the courts of Muslim India.

    (John R. Perry)

  • HAŽIR, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN

    (1895-1949), Minister, Prime Minister, Court Minister. Hažir’s assassination was a result of religio-political sentiments, accentuated by his royalism, identification with the least popular policies and conduct of the court and government, and his image as a close ally of the British.

    (Fakhreddin Azimi)

  • HAZL

    See HUMOR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HEAD GEAR

    See CLOTHING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Pre-Islamic period. ii. Medieval period. iii. Qajar period. iv. Pahlavi period.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Health and medicine are clearly defined in Pahlavi literature in the philosophical and moral tradition already taught by the fifth-century BCE Greek “father of medicine,” Hippocrates.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA ii. MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA iii. QAJAR PERIOD

    Under the Qajars a centralized public health policy was introduced for the first time in Persia.

    (Amir Arsalan Afkhami)

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA iv. PAHLAVI PERIOD

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HEAVEN

    See ĀSMĀN; ESCHATOLOGY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HECATAEUS OF MILETUS

    a Greek author from the city of Miletus in Asia Minor (fl. between 560 and 418 BCE), author of a geographical survey of the regions and the peoples in the Achaemenid empire.

    (Josef Wiesehöfer)

  • HECATOMPYLUS

    See ŠAHR-E QUMIS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HEDĀYAT AL-MOTAʿALLEMIN FI’L-ṬEBB

    the complete title of the oldest extant treatise on medicine written in Persia, which is also commonly referred to simply as Ketāb-e Hedāyat.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • HEDĀYAT, MOḴBER-AL-DAWLA

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HEDĀYAT, MOḴBER-AL-SALṬANA

    (1864-1955), MEHDIQOLI, statesman, author, and musicologist.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HEDĀYAT, MOḴBER-AL-SALṬANA i. LIFE AND WORK

    (1864-1955), statesman, author, and musicologist, whose political career include a role in the Constitutional Revolution, tenures as governor-general of Fārs and of Azerbaijan during World War I and its aftermath, and premiership in the early Pahlavi era.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • HEDĀYAT, MOḴBER-AL-SALṬANA ii. AS MUSICIAN

    Apart from a book about musical theory, the Majmaʿ al-adwār (Tehran, 1938), we owe him one of the earliest complete notations of the repertoire of Persian music (radifs).

    (Ameneh Yousefzadeh)

  • HEDĀYAT, REŻĀQOLI KHAN

    Persian literary historian, administrator, and poet of the Qajar period (1800-1871).

    (Paul E. Losensky)

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ

    (Hedāyat, Ṣādeq), the eminent fiction writer (1903-1951), who had a vast influence on the next generation of Persian writers.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ i. LIFE AND WORK

    Sadeq Hedayat was the youngest child of Hedā-yatqoli Khan Eʿteżād-al-Molk, the notable literary historian, the dean of the Military Academy.

    (Homa Katouzian and EIr)

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ ii. THEMES, PLOTS, AND TECHNIQUE IN HEDAYAT’S FICTION

    Most of the short stories that Sadeq Hedayat wrote between the late 1920s and the mid-1930s are generally culture-specific, full of local color, and depict some aspects of Iranian life.

    (Michael C. Hillmann)

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ iii. HEDĀYAT AND FOLKLORE STUDIES

    Hedayat is acknowledged as a major contributor in twentieth-century Iran to the growing awareness devoted to the collection and study of various aspects of everyday culture, particularly verbal art.

    (Ulrich Marzolph)

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ iv. TRANSLATIONS OF PAHLAVI TEXTS

    Sadeq Hedayat traveled to India in 1936 and stayed for less than two years. In Bombay he began studying Middle Persian and some Pāzand with the Parsi scholar B. T. Anklesaria.

    (Touraj Daryaee)

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ v. Hedayat in India

    Hedayat’s sojourn in India (1936) helped him add a new aspect to his works and provided him with the opportunity to study Middle Persian with the Parsi scholar Bahramgore Tahmuras Anklesaria. His story “Mihanparast” is apparently a reflection of his experience during the sea trip to India.

    (Nadeem Akhtar)

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ vi. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    This article contains a selected bibliography of the works of Sadeq Hedayat.

    (EIr)

  • HEDGEHOG

    (ḵār-pošt, juja-tiḡi, čula), member of the Erinaceinae sub-family of the Erinaceidae family of insectivores; animals the size of a small rabbit. The various species of hedgehogs are found in deciduous woodlands, cultivated fields, and desert regions.

    (Steven C. Anderson)

  • HEDIN, SVEN

    Swedish explorer of, and prolific writer on, Central Asia and Persia (1865-1952).

    (Håkan Wahlquist)

  • ḤEFẒ AL-ṢEḤḤA

    the first Iranian medical journal, published as a monthly during 1906.

    (Nasseredin Parvin)

  • HEGEL, GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH

    German idealist philosopher (1770-1831). Hegel based his discussion of pre-Islamic Persia on two main sources: 1. ancient Greek sources on Persia, such as Herodotus; 2. A. H. Anquetil-Duperron’s pioneering work, Le Zend-Avesta (1771).

    (M. Azadpour)

  • ḤEJĀB

    See ČĀDOR (2).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤEJĀZ

    in Persian music, an important modal type (šāh-guša) of the Persian radif.

    (Jean During)

  • ḤEJĀZI, MOḤAMMAD MOṬIʿ-AL-DAWLA

    novelist, short-story writer, playwright, essayist, translator, government official, and member of the Senate (1901-1974)—one of a small group of Persians with Western-style education in the early twentieth century who displayed a sense of responsibility and mission to change and modernize Persia.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • ḤEJLA

    a bridal chamber (ḥejla-ye ʿarusi), generally in the shape of a curtained canopy, built by a ḥejla-sāz.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ḤEKMAT

    the first Persian-language newspaper to be published in an Arab country, published in Cairo, 1892-1911.

    (Nasseredin Parvin)

  • HEKMAT, ʿALI-AṢḠAR

    man of letters, university professor, cabinet minister, and the chief architect of the modernization of the educational system under Reza Shah (1893-1980). Once Reza Shah decided to unveil Persian women, he placed Hekmat in charge of mapping out a plan of action, which included co-education in the first four years of elementary school.

    (EIr, with an initial contribution by Abbas Milani)

  • ḤEKMAT BEY

    ʿĀREF, Ottoman šayḵ-al-eslām (supreme authority in religious matters) 1845-54, poet in Turkish, Arabic, and Persian.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • HEKMAT, REŻĀ SARDĀR FĀḴER

    Hekmat was a staunch critic of the infamous 1919 agreement between Persia and Britain and joined forces with the anti-British Tangestāni movement. Because of these activities, ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mirzā Farmānfarmā, the powerful governor of Fārs, confiscated Ḥekmat’s properties.

    (Abbas Milani)

  • HEKMAT, ŠAMSI MORĀDPUR

    Hekmat, as the honorary treasurer of the High Council of Women’s Organization of Iran, she represented Iran in various international conferences on the status of women and was instrumental in organizing ten daycare centers and orphanages throughout the country.

    (Houman Sarshar)

  • HELĀLI ASTARĀBĀDI JAGATĀʾI

    Mawlānā Badr-al-Din (Nur-al-Din) accomplished Persian poet of Turkish origin (1470-1529).

    (Michele Bernardini)

  • HELIOCLES I

    the last Greek king to reign in Bactria (ca. 145-130 BCE), known only through his monolingual coins. His power, in contrast to that of his Greco-Bactrian predecessors, was limited to the south and southwest territories of Bactria.

    (Osmund Bopearachchi)

  • HELL

    This entry will treat the concept of hell in the Iranian culture under two rubrics.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HELL i. IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    Hell is not explicitly mentioned in the Gathas. There are only allusions, where it is said that the soul and the daēnā of the wicked will be guests in the “house of falsehood.”

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • HELL ii. IN ISLAMIC PERSIA

    Duzaḵ and jahannam are the terms commonly used in Persian for hell.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • HELLANICUS OF LESBOS

    a polyhistorian, probably younger than Herodotus but older than Thucydides (ca. 480-395 B.C.?), who was much read in the ancient world.

    (J. Wiesehöfer)

  • HELLENISM

    Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Achaemenid Empire between 334 and 324 and the submission of the East under Greek political control provided Hellenism with much greater significance. Greek culture became that of the rulers. Cultural exchange was, however, by no means one-sided.

    (Laurianne Martinez-Sève)

  • HELLESPONT

    See XERXES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤELLI, ḤASAN B. YUSOF B. MOṬAHHAR

    generally referred to, using his title, as “ʿAllāma Ḥelli,” prominent Imami theologian and jurist (1250-1325).

    (Sabine Schmidtke)

  • ḤELLI, NAJM-AL-DIN ABU’L-QĀSEM JAʿFAR

    known as Moḥaqqeq or Moḥaqqeq-e awwal, a leading jurist of the Twelver Shiʿite school of Ḥella (b. ca. 1205-06, d. 1277).

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • HELMAND RIVER

    the border river of Afghanistan and Persia. It originates in the mountains in the Hazārajāt (q.v) and flows into the Sistān in southeastern Persia and finally drains into the Hāmun Lake.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HELMAND RIVER i. GEOGRAPHY

    At approximately 1,300 km, the Helmand River is the longest river in Afghanistan. Originating from the Koh-e Bābā heights of the Hindu Kush mountain range (about 40 km west of Kabul), the Helmand receives five tributaries—Kajrud (Kudrud), Arḡandāb, Terin, Arḡastān, and Tarnak.

    (M. Jamil Hanifi and EIr)

  • HELMAND RIVER ii. IN ZOROASTRIAN TRADITION

    According to Avestan geography, the region of the Haētumant River extends in a southwest direction from the point of confluence of the Arḡandāb with the Helmand.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • HELMAND RIVER iii. IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    The early Islamic geographers refer variously to the Helmand River as Hendmand, Hilmand, Hirmid, Hidmand, Hermand, or Hirmand, the usual name in Persian down to the present time.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • HELMAND RIVER iv. IN THE LATE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES

    The late 19th and 20th centuries saw a number of colonial and national schemes, including boundary commisions and large-scale irrigation projects, that aimed to demarcate the Iran-Afghan borderlands.

    (Arash Khazeni)

  • HELMET

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. In Pre-Islamic Iran. ii. In the Islamic period.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HELMET i. In Pre-Islamic Iran

    The Iranian tradition of helmet making is very old. Elam produced hemispherical bronze helmets with decorative figures that can be dated to the 14th century BCE. Bronze and iron helmets from the 9th-8th centuries have been found at western Iranian sites (Ḥasanlu, Mārlik, Safidrud).

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • HELMET ii. In the Islamic Period

    By the time the Muslims conquered the Iranian world (the territory now occupied by Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Azerbaijan), two helmet types were already known: egg-shaped and conical.

    (M. V. Gorelik)

  • ḤELMI, RAFIQ

    Kurdish historian, poet, and political activist (1898-1960).

    (Joyce Blau)

  • ḤELYAT AL-MOTTAQIN

    (“The Adornment of the Godfearing”), a compendious work that has remained highly popular, on recommended customs, norms, and modes of behavior.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • HEMIN MOKRIĀNI

    the pen name of Sayyed Moḥammad Amini Šayḵ-al-Eslām Mokri, Kurdish poet and journalist (1921-1986).

    (Joyce Blau)

  • HEMP

    See BANG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HENDAVĀNA

    See WATERMELON.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HENDUŠĀH B. SANJAR

    B. ʿABD-ALLAH SAḤEBI KIRANI, author of a Persian history Tajāreb al-salaf (fl. first half of the 8th/14th century).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • HENNA

    (Pers. ḥanā, Ar. ḥennāʾ), a russet or orange dye obtained from the pulverized leaves of the henna plant, Lawsonia alba Lam. (= L. inermis/spinosa L.; fam. Lythraceae).

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • HENNING, WALTER BRUNO

    The emphasis on the philological character of Henning’s work is justified not only because all his discoveries were made through deductions from or new interpretations of original sources, but also because his working system kept astonishingly aloof from theorems regarding contemporary linguistics, the philosophy of history, ethnology, and comparative religion.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • HEPHTHALITES

    (Arabic Hayṭāl, pl. Hayāṭela), a people who formed apparently the second wave of “Hunnish” tribal invaders to impinge on the Iranian and Indian worlds from the mid-fourth century CE.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • HERACLEIDES OF CYME

    (fl. ca. 350 BCE), Greek author of a “Persian History” (Persika) in five books, which survives only in a few fragments.

    (J. Wiesehöfer)

  • HERACLEITUS OF EPHESUS

    (fl. ca. 500 BCE), Greek philosopher traditionally credited as the first to have written on the magi.

    (J. Wiesehöfer)

  • HERACLES

    Heracles entered many other religions of the ancient world. He was adopted into the Roman pantheon in an early stage of its development and was identified—both as a “translation” and in the development of cultic practices—with the Phoenician god Melqart and the Babylonian god Nergal, as well as with Zoroastrian Verethraghna.

    (Albert de Jong)

  • HERACLIUS

    See ḴOSROW II

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HERAT

    ancient city and province in northwestern Afghanistan. OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Geography. ii. History, Pre-Islamic Period. iii. History, Medieval Period. iv. Topography and urbanism. v. Local histories. vi. The Herat question. vii. The Herat frontier, 19th and 20th centuries.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HERAT i. GEOGRAPHY

    The province of Herat constitutes roughly the northern one-third of the western lowlands of Afghanistan, bordering on Persia and comprising the eastern extensions of the province of Khorasan.

    (Arash Khazeni and EIr)

  • HERAT ii. HISTORY, PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    The present town of Herat dates back to ancient times, but its exact age remains unknown. In Achaemenid times (ca. 550-330 BCE), the surrounding district was known as Haraiva.

    (W. J. Vogelsang)

  • HERAT iii. HISTORY, MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    When the Arab armies appeared in Khorasan in the 650s, Herat was counted among the twelve capital towns of the Sasanian empire.

    (Maria Szuppe)

  • HERAT iv. TOPOGRAPHY AND URBANISM

    In the medieval period, Herat, together with Nišāpur, Marv, and Balḵ, was one of the four main urban centers of the eastern Iranian world. In contrast to some other ancient towns, Herat has existed on the same location since its foundation.

    (Maria Szuppe)

  • HERAT v. LOCAL HISTORIES

    Local histories of Herāt belong to three distinct literary genres: the biographical dictionary, the dynastic history, and the guide for pilgrims.

    (Jürgen Paul)

  • HERAT vi. THE HERAT QUESTION

    From the middle of the 18th century, following Nāder Shah’s assassination in 1747, Herat became the focus of a century-long power struggle and regional rivalry.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • HERAT vii. THE HERAT FRONTIER IN THE LATTER HALF OF 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES

    In the latter half of the 19th century, following the settlement of the Khorasan frontier with Persia in 1857, the rulers of Kabul, with British support, sought to make Herat a part of the Afghan state.

    (Arash Khazeni)

  • HERAT viii. SOVIET OCCUPATION TO POST-ṬĀLEBĀN

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HERAUS

    Central Asian clan chief of the Kushans, one of the five constituent tribes of the Yuezhi confederacy in the early first century CE. He struck tetradrachms and obols in relatively good silver.

    (D. W. Mac Dowall)

  • HERBARIUMS

    See BOTANICAL STUDIES iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HĒRBED

    a Zoroastrian priestly title, at present used for a “priest in minor orders,” that is, a man of priestly family who has undergone the initiatory Nāwar ceremony and is qualified to officiate at lower rituals.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • HĒRBEDESTĀN

    (school for priests, religious school), a Middle Persian term designating (1) Zoroastrian priestly studies and (2) an Avestan/Pahlavi text found together with the Nērangestān manuscripts.

    (Firoze M. Kotwal)

  • HERBELOT de MOLAINVILLE, BARTHÉLEMY D’

    (1625-95), one of the first orientalists to produce a systematic survey and alphabetized account of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish literature with dictionaries for each language.

    (Moti Gharib Shojania)

  • HERBERT, THOMAS

    (1606-1682), Sir, author of the first English account of Persia, having accompanied the royal embassy from King Charles I to the Safavid Shah ʿAbbās I in 1626-29.

    (R. W. Ferrier)

  • HERBERT, THOMAS (2)

    Herbert traveled to Persia and India as a very junior member of an embassy under Sir Dodmore Cotton sent by King Charles I to Shah Abbas I in 1627 to establish formal trade and diplomatic relations with Persia.

    (John Butler)

  • HERDS and FLOCKS

    In the Iranian world, domestic herbivores have long been raised exclusively on natural grazing, as it is still true in many places, especially among the nomadic tribes.

    (J.-P. Digard and M.-H. Papoli Yazdi)

  • HERMAEUS

    See INDO-GREEK DYNASTY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HERMAS, THE SHEPHERD OF

    title of an early Christian paraenetic apocalypse composed in Greek by a certain Hermas, who presents himself as an emancipated slave and then a Roman businessman.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • HERMELIN, AXEL ERIC

    (1860-1944), Swedish author and prolific translator of Persian works of literature.

    (Bo Utas)

  • HERMENEUTICS

    of pre-modern Islamic and Shiʿite exegesis, the principles and methods, or philosophy, of scriptural interpretation, as distinct from the act of interpretation.

    (B. Todd Lawson)

  • HERMES

    Hermes was identified with the Roman god Mercury, god of commerce and trade, and came to be symbolized with the moneybag. In Egypt, he was identified with the god Thoth; he was the source of a large number of writings outlining the ways in which the soul could be released from the bonds of matter.

    (Albert de Jong)

  • HERMIAS

    See ḴOSROW I, forthcoming online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HERMIPPUS OF SMYRNA

    third-century BCE Greek grammarian who wrote on “Zoroaster’s writings.”

    (J. Wiesehöfer)

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM

    The State Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg, Russia, possesses some of the richest collections of Persian art.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM i. COLLECTION OF THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Among the most ancient objects of Iranian art in the Hermitage collection are 55 Elamite painted vessels of the late 4th-3rd millennium BCE.

    (Boris I. Marshak and A. B. Nikitin)

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM ii. COLLECTION OF THE ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Persian art from the advent of Islam until the beginning of the 20th century is well represented in the State Hermitage Museum. However, not all periods in this 1400-year time-span are represented equally well, because of the way the collection developed.

    (Anatol A. Ivanov)

  • HERODIAN

    (fl. shortly before 250 CE), historian, probably a native of Syria, who wrote a Greek history of the Roman emperors from the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE to the accession of Gordian III in 238.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • HERODOTUS

    author of the Histories, the first monumental Greek work in prose which is still extant (5th cent. BCE).

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS i. INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORIES

    Philologists of Hellenistic times divided Herodotus’s opus magnum into nine books and subdivided these into chapters.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS ii. THE HISTORIES AS A SOURCE FOR PERSIA AND PERSIANS

    An evaluation of Herodotus’s treatment of Persia and the Persians is a difficult task. The subject is not limited to a specific logos but is ubiquitous in the Histories.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS iii. DEFINING THE PERSIANS

    In the Histories the Persians are sometimes not exactly distinguishable from other peoples of their empire, especially when the Greeks’ opponents are simply qualified as “Persians.” The Persians generally are run together with the Medes.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS iv. CYRUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    The historical past takes on clearer outline beginning with the figure of Cyrus the Great. With him the Persians too are introduced into world history.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS v. CAMBYSES ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, is first described by Herodotus at a time when his father’s reign was already about to end.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS vi. DARIUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Herodotus connects the beginning of Darius’s reign with a deep break in the history of Persian royalty. He describes the rule of the Magus and palace administrator Patizeithes as an attempt at usurpation.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS vii. XERXES ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    The young king inherited a solid empire, which was greater than any before in history. The subsequent great war of the years 480 and 479 Herodotus describes as an immense struggle, to which he devotes a third of his work.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS viii. MARDONIUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    After Xerxes’ retreat, Mardonius prepared his offensive on land. He also wanted the higher powers to be on his side.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS ix. TIGRANES AND THE BATTLE OF MYCALE

    After Salamis, the escaped Persian fleet for a while ceased playing any further part. During the winter it was anchored in part at Cyme, and in part before Samos.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS x. ARTAYCTES AND THE FINALE

    After the battle of Mycale, the Greeks advanced as far as the Hellespont, where they found that Xerxes’ bridge was already destroyed.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERODOTUS xi. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    This article constitutes a selected biography of Herodotus.

    (Robert Rollinger)

  • HERON

    See BŪTĪMĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HERON-ALLEN, EDWARD

    Although Heron-Allen did not have a full formal education, his intellectual curiosity and passion for learning never waned, as illustrated by the long list of hobbies and interests in his entry in Who’s Who.

    (Joan Navarre)

  • HERTEL, JOHANNES

    Hertel’s lasting contributions to scholarship are his earlier works on Sanskrit narrative literature and its transmission. They culminated in the publication of a four-volume edition of the Pañcatantra in the Harvard Oriental Series, vols. 11-14 (1908-15). After his appointment to the Indology chair in Leipzig, he turned to Vedic studies and, from 1924, to Avestan.

    (Almut Hintze)

  • HERZEGOVINA

    See BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HERZFELD, ERNST

    Herzfeld is known as an archeologist, philologist, and polyhistor, one of the towering figures in ancient Near Eastern and Iranian studies during the first half of the 20th century. To him we owe many decisive contributions to Islamic, Sasanian, and Prehistoric archeology and history of Iran, Iraq, and Syria. He was the first professor for Near Eastern archeology in the world.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HERZFELD, ERNST i. LIFE AND WORK

    (1879-1948). In retrospect, Herzfeld was one of the last examples of the all-encompassing, erudite learning of the 19th century humanistic cultural tradition. Herzfeld combined a wide array of talents and interests.

    (Stefan R. Hauser)

  • HERZFELD, ERNST ii. HERZFELD AND PASARGADAE

    Ernst Herzfeld probably devoted more attention to the study of Achaemenid Iran than to any other single topic. His name will always be associated with Pasargadae, the dynastic seat of Cyrus II (the Great), the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.

    (David Stronach)

  • HERZFELD, ERNST iii. HERZFELD AND PERSEPOLIS

    Herzfeld first visited Persepolis in November 1905 during his return from the Assur excavation. He returned to Persepolis during his expedition to Persia, Iraq, and Afghanistan, which lasted from February 1923 to October 1925.

    (Hubertus von Gall)

  • HERZFELD, ERNST iv. HERZFELD AND THE PAIKULI INSCRIPTION

    The monument at Paikuli (Pāikūlī) lies on the Iraqi side of the border with Iran on a north-south line drawn from Solaimānīya in Iraq to Qaṣr-e Šīrīn in Persia on the ancient road from Ctesiphon to Azerbaijan.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • HERZFELD, ERNST v. HERZFELD AND THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT IRAN

    Herzfeld’s classical education, giving him familiarity with Greek and Latin literature, and his training in Oriental philology as well as in archeology and architectural techniques proved of great benefit in his study of pre-Islamic Iranian history and culture.

    (Josef Wiesehöfer)

  • ḤESĀBI, MAḤMUD

    Mahmud Hesabi worked as an electrical engineer in the Paris railway system. In the meantime, he continued his studies in physics at Paris University, Sorbonne under the noted physicist Aimé Cotton and obtained his doctorate in 1927. His dissertation was on Sensibilité des cellules photoélectriques.

    (Hessamaddin Arfaei and Fariborz Majidi)

  • ḤEṢĀR (music)

    in Persian music, an important section (šāh-guša) in the Persian and Azeri radifs, its name probably originating from the town in Tajikistan.

    (Jean During)

  • ḤESĀR (region)

    region in the eastern part of Transoxania, in the upper course of the Sorḵān Daryā (medieval Čaḡānrud) and the Kāfernehān.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • ḤEṢĀR, TEPE

    (Tappa Ḥeṣār), prehistoric site located just south of Dāmḡān in northeastern Persia. See TEPE HISSAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤESBA

    See MOḤTASEB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HESIOD

    (Gk. Hēsí;odos), Greek epic poet (fl. ca. 700 BCE). By mentioning for the first time the Scythians, Hesiod belongs to the Greek authorities for Iranian matters.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • HESYCHIUS

    (Gk. Hēsýchios), Greek lexicographer from Alexandria, whose lexicon records a number of Iranian words (6th or possibly 5th century CE).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • HIDALI

    city and region in Elam; a residence of Elamite kings in the early 7th century B.C.E., a regional administrative center thereafter.

    (Matthew W. Stolper)

  • HIDDEN IMAM

    See ISLAM IN IRAN vii. The Concept of Mahdi in Twelver Shi'ism; ESCHATOLOGY iii. Imami Shiʿism.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HILL, GEORGE FRANCIS

    Hill was born at Berhampore, Bengal, the youngest of five children to the missionary Rev. Samuel John Hill and Leonora Josephine, born Müller, of Danish descent. He came to England at the age of four, attended the School for Sons of Missionaries at Blackheath, and went to University College School and University College, London.

    (Carmen Arnold-Biucchi)

  • HINDU

    (Hendu) denotes in Persian an inhabitant of the Indian subcontinent as well as a follower of Hinduism. The stereotype of the Hindu developed into an element of lyrical imagery which had little to do with reality.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • HINDU KUSH

    the name given to the southwest range of the massive middle and south Asiatic mountain complex lying partly in Afghanistan and partly in Pakistan.

    (Ervin Grötzbach)

  • HINDU PERSIAN POETS

    From the late 16th century Hindus contributed to the development of Indo-Persian literary culture in general, and to the output of Persian verse in particular.

    (Stefano Pello)

  • HINZ, (A.) WALTHER

    Hinz served as a counter-intelligence officer during World War II and suffered a period of internment afterwards. Due to his suspension from his teaching post by the British military government, he was forced to earn his living by another profession, partly as a translator, and, from 1950, as the political editor of a newspaper in Göttingen.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • HIPPOCRATES

    or Boqrāṭ in Islamic tradition, where he is often referred to as “the first codifier of medicine” (4th-3rd cents. BCE).

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • ḤIRA

    city on the desert fringes of southwestern Mesopotamia; known in pre-Islamic times as the capital of the Lakhmid Arab dynasty, clients of the Sasanians, it survived as an urban settlement into the early centuries of the Islamic period.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • HISSAR, TEPE

    (Tappa Ḥeṣār), prehistoric site located just south of Dāmḡān in northeastern Persia. See TEPE HISSAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY

    This entry is concerned with the historiography of the Iranian and Persephone world from the pre-Islamic period through the 20th century in Persian and other Iranian languages. The periods and their subdivisions of this historiography are covered in 14 articles.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY i. INTRODUCTION

    Historiography, literally, is the study not of history but of the writing of history. In modern usage, this term covers a wide range of related but distinct areas of inquiry.

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ii. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Iranian historiography remained unaffected by the Herodotean school and developed from oral traditions and the Mesopotamian-style “quasi-history,” which embellished historical narratives.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY iii. EARLY ISLAMIC PERIOD

    It might be questioned whether there is, strictly speaking, any “historiography of Persia in the early Islamic period” at all, since it is by no means clear that there was an Islamic “Persia” prior to the rise of the Safavids.

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY iv. MONGOL PERIOD

    Persian historiography reached its maturity during the period of 13th-15th centuries, which might broadly be described as the Turko-Mongol era.

    (Charles Melville)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY v. TIMURID PERIOD

    Timurid historiography is firmly rooted within the Persian literary tradition of official court histories of the post-Mongol period.

    (Maria Szuppe)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY vi. SAFAVID PERIOD

    Safavid historiography, although developing unique features of its own, had its origins in the eastern Timurid tradition that was centered in Herāt.

    (Sholeh Quinn)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY vii. AFSHARID AND ZAND PERIODS

    Persian historical writing in the 18th century reflected the profound changes that occurred in Iran after the1722 Afghan conquest of Isfahan.

    (Ernest Tucker)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY viii. QAJAR PERIOD

    In the century and a half that constituted the Qajar period (1786-1925), writing of history evolved from production of annalistic court chronicles and other traditional genres into the earliest experimentations in modern historiography.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ix. PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Historiography of this period will be treated in two separate entries: (1) General survey of historical writings; and (2) Specific topics concerning historical works.

    (Abbas Amanat, EIr)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ix. PAHLAVI PERIOD (1)

    The historical studies of this period are primarily about documenting Iran’s national identity.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ix. PAHLAVI PERIOD (2)

    a survey of contributions in the fields of chronology, calendar systems, religious history, and cultural continuity from pre-Islamic to the Islamic period, and a survey of the ultra-nationalistic current in historical writings in the Pahlavi period.

    (EIr)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY x. ISLAMIC REPUBLIC.

    See Supplement

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xi. AFGHANISTAN

    The historiography of the day not only bears witness to the perceptions current at the time but also was subject to reinterpretation as new historical predilections arose. The available historical accounts may thus be read on several levels.

    (Christine Noelle-Karimi)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xii. CENTRAL ASIA

    The first Persian historical work produced in Central Asia (Transoxiana, Ḵʷārazm, Farḡāna, and Eastern Turkestan) was the 10th-century translation of the history of Ṭabari.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xiii. THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

    See INDIA xvi.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xiv. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

    Ottoman historical works composed in Persian occupy an important place in the corpus of court-oriented Ottoman historical writing of the early and classical periods.

    (Sara Nur Yildiz)

  • HNČʿAK

    colloquial term for members of the Social Democratic Hnčʿakean Party [SDHP], founded in Switzerland by Russian Armenians in 1887, with branches in Persia, the Russian empire, the Ottoman empire, and elsewhere.

    (Aram Arkun)

  • ḤOBAYŠ B. EBRĀHIM B. MOḤAMMAD TEFLISI

    author of numerous scientific works who lived in Anatolia (d. ca. 1203-04).

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ḤOḎEQ, JUNAYDOLLO MAḴDUM

    (ḤĀḎEQ, JONAYD-ALLĀH; b. mid-1780s; killed 1843), one of the leading Tajik poets of his time.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • HODGSON, MARSHALL GOODWIN SIMMS

    (1922-1968), prominent scholar of Islamic civilization and professor of history and social thought at the University of Chicago.

    (Saïd Amir Arjomand)

  • HODIVALA, SHAHPURSHAH HORMASJI DINSHAHJI

    (d. 1944), professor of literature, history, and political economy, best known for his works on Parsi history and on numismatics.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • HODIVALA, SHAPURJI KAVASJI

    (1870-1931), scholar of Avestan and Zoroastrian studies.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • ḤODUD AL-ʿĀLAM

    a concise but very important Persian geography of the then known world, Islamic and non-Islamic, begun in 982-83 by an unknown author from the province of Guzgān (in northern Afghanistan).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • HOERNLE, AUGUSTUS FREDERIC RUDOLF

    philologist of Indian languages and decipherer of Khotanese (1841-1918).

    (Ursula Sims-Williams)

  • HOFFMANN, KARL

    Hoffmann was mainly interested in Indo-Iranian studies, which he did not conceive of as a mere combination of Indology and Iranian studies, but as a distinct subject comprising historical philology and comparative linguistics. His studies are essentially devoted to Vedic (in India) and to Avestan and Old Persian.

    (Johanna Narten)

  • HOJIR

    in traditional Iranian history, a hero who guarded the Dež-e Sapid “White Fort” on the border of Iran and Turān.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ḤOJJAT

    (“proof or argument”), a term used as: (1) a line of argument in debate; (2) designation of the Shiʿite Imams; (3) an epithet of the Twelfth Imam; (4) a high official in the Ismaʿili missionary activities

    (Maria Dakake)

  • ḤOJJAT-AL-ESLĀM

    (lit. Proof of Islam), a title awarded to Shiʿite scholars, originally as an honorific but later as a means of indicating their status in the hierarchy of the learned.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ḤOJJATIYA

    a Shiʿite religious lay association founded in 1953 by the charismatic cleric Shaikh Maḥmud Ḥalabi to defend Islam against the Bahai missionary activities.

    (Mahmoud Sadri)

  • HOJVIRI, ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALI

    B. ʿOṮMĀN B. ʿALI AL-ḠAZNAVI AL-JOLLĀBI (d. ca. 1071-72), author of the Kašf al-maḥjub, the most celebrated early Persian Sufi treatise.

    (Gerhard Böwering)

  • HOLDICH, THOMAS HUNGERFORD

    As head of the Baluchistan Survey Party from 1883, Holdich organized surveys of south Baluchistan and Makran. In 1884 he headed the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission’s survey party; in 1896 he was chief British Commissioner on the Perso-Baluch Boundary Commission.

    (Denis Wright)

  • ḤOLWI, JAMĀL-AL-DIN MAḤMUD

    biographer of the leaders of the Ḵalwati Sufi order and minor poet (1574-1654).

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • HŌM

    See HAOMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HŌM YAŠT

    name given to a section of the Avestan Yasna, namely, Y. 9-11.11. It is central to the ritual and is recited prior to the priestly consumption of the parahaoma (Pahl. parāhōm).

    (William W. Malandra)

  • HOMĀM-AL-DIN

    13th-century Persian poet, best known for his ḡazals, which follow those of Saʿdi in style and tone.

    (William L. Hanaway and Leonard Lewisohn)

  • HŌMĀN

    son of Vēsa, in Iranian traditional history one of the most celebrated heroes of Turān.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HOMĀY ČEHRZĀD

    according to Iranian traditional history, a Kayānid queen; she was daughter, wife, and successor to the throne of Bahman, son of Esfandiār.

    (Jalil Doostkhah)

  • HOMĀY O HOMĀYUN

    See ḴᵛĀJU KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HOMĀYUN

    (lit. “auspicious”), an important modal system (dastgāh) in traditional Persian music.

    (Jean During)

  • HOMĀYUN PĀDEŠĀH

    (1508–56), NĀṢER-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD, second Mughal emperor in Kabul and northern India, and the succesor to Bābor.

    (Wheeler M. Thackston)

  • HOMMAIRE de HELL, IGNACE XAVIER MORAND

    French engineer, geographer, traveler (1812-1848). He carried out pioneering scientific research in the Ottoman empire, southern Russia, and Persia

    (Jacqueline Calmard-Compas)

  • HOMOSEXUALITY

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Islamic law. iii. In Persian literature. iv. In modern Persia. See Supplement.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HOMOSEXUALITY i. IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    Zoroastrian literature contains discussions of personal relations only in legal contexts and is quite explicit with regard to sins of a sexual nature.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • HOMOSEXUALITY ii. IN ISLAMIC LAW

    The foundational texts of Islam address, and generally condemn, sexual relations between members of the same sex.

    (E. K. Rowson)

  • HOMOSEXUALITY iii. IN PERSIAN LITERATURE

    a sharp contrast exists between the treatment of homosexuality in Islamic law and its reflection in Persian literature, particularly poetry (the chief vehicle of Persian literary expression).

    (EIr)

  • HOMOSEXUALITY iv. IN MODERN PERSIA

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HONAR O MARDOM

    a monthly magazine published by the General Office of Fine Arts in the Ministry of Education, 1957, 1962-79.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • HONARESTĀN-E ʿĀLI-E MUSIQI-E MELLI

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HONARMANDI, HASAN

    poet, translator, and literary scholar.

    (Kāmyār ʿĀbedi)

  • HONEY

    (ʿasal, archaic Pers. angobin). In Iranian lore, according to the Nowruz-nāma, Hušang, the second Pišdādiān king, first “brought out honey from the zanbur (“wasp”).

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • ḤOQAYNI

    the nesba of two 11th-century Zaydi Imams, father and son, scholars of religious law.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ḤOQUQ

    the name of various 20th-century periodicals in Iran and Afghanistan.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • ḤOQUQ-E EMRUZ

    a journal published irregularly in Tehran, 1963-76.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • HORDĀD

    “Integrity (of body), Wholeness”, one of the Avestan entities (AMƎŠA SPƎNTA), normally mentioned in association with Amərətāt (AMURDĀD) already in the Gāθās.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • HORMIZD

    See HORMOZD i.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HORMOZĀN

    one of the last military leaders of Sasanian Persia, a member of one of the seven great families of Sasanian Persia (d. 644).

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HORMOZD (1)

    See AHURA MAZDĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HORMOZD (2)

    (Ormisdas), a brother of the Sasanian great king Šāpur II (r. 307-79 CE), who participated on the Roman side in the emperor Julian’s Persian expedition of 363 CE.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HORMOZD I

    Sasanian great king (r. 272-73 CE), the throne name of Šāpur I’s son and and successor, Hormozd-Ardašēr.

    (M. Rahim Shayegan)

  • HORMOZD II

    Sasanian great king (r. 303-09 CE). He assumed a crown very similar to that of Bahrām II, representing the varəγna, the royal falcon.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HORMOZD III

    Sasanian great king (r. 457-59 C.E.). He was the eldest son and heir of Yazdegerd II and “was king of Sejestān" (Ṭabari).

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HORMOZD IV

    Sasanian great king (r. 579-90 CE). He succeeded Ḵosrow I Anōširavān just as the latter was negotiating a peace treaty with the Byzantine empire.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HORMOZD V

    Sasanian great king (r. 630-32 CE) in the turbulent years following the murder of Ḵosrow II Parvēz (628).

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HORMOZD KUŠĀNŠĀH

    Sasanian prince governor of Kušān. He is known from his coins minted in eastern Iran and references in three Latin sources. His coins are gold scyphate (cup-shaped) and light bronze issues; rare heavy copper and silver coins also occur.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HORMOZDGĀN

    BATTLE OF, the engagement which brought Ardašir I and the Sasanian dynasty to power, 28 April 224 CE.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HORMOZGĀN PROVINCE

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HORMOZI, SAʿID

    Said Hormozi did not perform in public, worked as a bank employee, and frequented musical circles such as that of Solaymān Amir Qāsemi, who preserved the purity of Persian music. He was a Sufi affiliated to the Ṣafi-ʿAlišāh brotherhood and entered a state of profound meditation when he played the setār, which made his music particularly captivating.

    (Jean During)

  • HORMUZ i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    island and a strategic strait (Tanga-ye Hormoz) in the Persian Gulf, linking it to the Gulf of Oman, as well as the name of a medieval port near the strait.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • HORMUZ ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Hormuz fell to the Arabs in 650-51. In the 10th century, the town of Hormuz was the chief port for Kermān and Sistān, although the main Persian Gulf port was Jannāba. It was known for its cultivation of a variety of millet (ḏorra), indigo, cumin, and sugarcane.

    (Willem Floor)

  • HORN, PAUL

    German philologist and specialist in Iranian and Turkish languages (1863-1908).

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • HOROSCOPE

    the horoscopic diagram or theme which depicts the positions of the planets in the zodiacal signs and of the zodiacal signs relative to the local horizon at a given time.

    (David Pingree)

  • ḤORR-E ʿĀMELI

    (1624-1693), one of the outstanding Twelver Shiʿite Hadith scholars of the Aḵbāri school and a prolific author.

    (Meir M. Bar Asher)

  • ḤORR-E RIĀḤI

    a leading tribesman in Kufa, who intercepted Ḥosayn b. ʿAli and his party and led them to Karbalā, but later repented and fought and died (10 October 680) there on Ḥosayn’s side.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • HORSE

    See ASB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HORSE RACING

    The history of horse racing in Iran can be traced back to the Achaemenid period. Xenophon refers to a race set up by Cyrus II.

    (Azartash Azarnoush)

  • HORSESHOES

    (naʿl), iron protectors for the hooves of pack animals and mounts. In Persia, as in southern Europe, both horses and donkeys are shod.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • HORUFISM

    a body of antinomian and incarnationist doctrines evolved by Fażl-Allāh Astarābādi (d. 1394), known to his followers also as Fażl-e Yazdān (“the generosity of God”). Its principal features were elaborate numerological interpretations of the letters of the Perso-Arabic alphabet and an attempt to correlate them with the human form.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ʿALI BEDLISI

    NURBAḴŠI, Kurdish Sufi author of a commentary on the Koran, among other works (d. 1494-95).

    (Tahsin Yazici)

  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ČALABI

    (d. 1284), ḤASAN B. MOḤAMMAD b. Ḥasan, Ebn Aḵi Tork, leading disciple and first successor of Jalāl-al-Din Rumi.

    (Mohammad Estelami)

  • HŌŠANG

    called Pēšdād, an early hero-king in Iranian tradition, father of the Iranians and founder of the Pēšdādian dynasty.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HŌŠANG JĀMĀSP

    a distinguished Parsi scholar-priest (1833-1908).

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal)

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    See JALĀYERIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI

    Hosayn b. Ali is the second surviving grandson of the Prophet Moḥammad through his daughter Fāṭema and the third Imam of the Shiʿites after his father and his elder brother Ḥasan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI i. LIFE AND SIGNIFICANCE IN SHIʿISM

    In contrast to the pacifist and conciliatory character of his elder brother, Ḥosayn inherited his father’s fighting spirit and intense family pride, although he did not acquire his military prowess and experience.

    (Wilferd Madelung)

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI ii. IN POPULAR SHIʿISM

    Legendary accounts about Ḥosayn and his martyrdom were from the outset influenced by his status as a Shiʿite Imam.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI iii. THE PASSION OF ḤOSAYN

    The taʿzia (literally “mourning”) is a dramatic form which Shiʿite Muslims in Persia have created to commemorate the tragedy of Ḥosayn ebn ʿAli, and thus it is comparable to the Christian passion play. See also TA'ZIA.

    (Peter Chelkowski)

  • ḤOSAYN B. OVAYS

    See JALAYERIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤOSAYN B. RUḤ

    (d. 938), SHAIKH ABU’L-QĀSEM ḤOSAYN B. RUḤ B. ABI BAḤR NOWBAḴTI, third of the four “special vicegerents” (nowwab-e ḵāṣṣa) of the Hidden Imam.

    (Said Amir Arjomand)

  • ḤOSAYN BĀYQARĀ

    the common designation for Sultan Abu’l-Ḡāzi Ḥosayn Mirzā b. Manṣur b. Bāyqarā, the last Timurid ruler of major importance in Khorasan (r. 1469-70 and 1470-1506).

    (Hans R. Roemer)

  • ḤOSAYN KARBALĀʾI

    TABRIZI BĀBĀ-FARAJI, popularly known as Ebn Karbalāʾi, a major Persian historian of Sufis and Sufism of 16th-century Persia and a poet (d. 1589).

    (Leonard Lewisohn)

  • ḤOSAYN KHAN ĀJUDĀN-BĀŠI

    probably the most important officer to hold the military rank of adjudant-en-chef (see ĀJŪDĀN-BĀŠI) during the Qajar period (d. ca.1866-67).

    (Ḥ. Maḥbubi Ardakāni)

  • ḤOSAYN KHAN KAMĀNČAKAŠ

    a famous musician and a master of the kamānča, the chief traditional Persian string instrument played with a bow (d. 1934).

    (Ameneh Youssefzadeh)

  • ḤOSAYN KHAN MOQADDAM MARĀḠAʾI

    See ĀJUDĀN-BĀŠI; NEẒĀM-AL-DAWLA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤOSAYN KHAN ŠĀMLU

    (d. 1535), b. ʿAbdi Beg Šāmlu, nephew of Shah Esmāʿil I, Safavid governor of Herat.

    (Roger M. Savory)

  • ḤOSAYN-E KORD-E ŠABESTARI

    Persian popular romance narrating the exploits of a Kurdish warrior from Šabestar known solely by the name of Ḥosayn.

    (Ulrich Marzolph)

  • ḤOSAYN SHAH ARḠUN

    See ARGHUNID DYNASTY OF SIND in Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤOSAYNI

    a guša (significant melodic unit) of the canonic repertory of Persian classical music (radif).

    (Bruno Nettl)

  • ḤOSAYNI BALḴI

    13th-century translator into Persian of Wāʿeẓ-e Balḵi’s no longer extant Arabic work, the Fażāʾel-e Balḵ.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy Ḥabibi)

  • ḤOSAYNI DAŠTAKI ŠIRĀZI

    See DAŠTAKI, AMIR JAMĀL-AL-DIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤOSAYNIYA

    buildings specifically designed to serve as venues for Moḥarram ceremonies commemorating the martyrdom of Ḥosayn b. ʿAli.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ḤOSAYNIYA-YE MOŠIR

    a ḥosayniya building in the Sang-e Siāh quarter of Shiraz, famous for its exquisite tile paintings.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI, ĀQĀ

    noted tār player and teacher (1853-1916). His performances were considered both technically brilliant and artistically exquisite. The regularity and force of the down and up strokes (rāst and čap) of his plectrum were much admired. He used a five-string tār and disapproved of the addition of the sixth string.

    (Ameneh Youssefzadeh)

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN MĀFI

    See NEẒĀM-AL-SALṬANA MĀFI, ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN SARDĀR-E IRAVĀNI

    important governor in the early Qajar period (b. ca. 1742, d. 1831).

    (George A. Bournoutian)

  • ḤOSN O DEL

    an allegorical work by Fattāḥi Nišāburi (1404-46), one of the best examples of rhyming prose in the Timurid period.

    (Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā)

  • ḤOSN-E TAʿLIL

    (lit. “beauty of rationale”), “fantastic etiology,” a rhetorical device among the figures of ʿelm-e badiʿ (the science of rhetorical embellishment).

    (Natalia Chalisova)

  • HOSSEIN, ANDRÉ

    As a composer, Hossein was much inspired by traditional Persian music, and most of his works demonstrate this intellectual preoccupation. He knew the tār very well and could be considered one of the great tār players of his time. He began playing this instrument as a child, and later composed several works for it.

    (Iraj Khademi)

  • HOSSEINI, MANSOUREH

    (1926-2012), pioneer modernist painter, writer, and gallerist, among the first Iranian artists who incorporated calligraphy in their modern works.

    (Hengameh Fouladvand)

  • HOSTAGE CRISIS

    the events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by leftist Islamist students in 1979 with subsequent wide-ranging repercussions on Iran’s domestic politics as well as on U.S.-Iran relations.

    (Mohsen M. Milani and EIr)

  • HOTZ, ALBERT PAUL HERMAN

    a Dutch trader, collector of artifacts, and author on Iran (1855-1930).

    (Cyrus Ala’i)

  • HOUGHTON ŠĀH-NĀMA

    See ṬAHMĀSBI ŠĀH-NĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

    or parliament of Iran, the Majles. See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION. Unpublished as per M.A. email - 5/28/2014

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HOUSING IN IRAN

    This entry examines: (1) the growth of housing units during 1966-96; (2) housing policies adopted in various development plans and the results; (3) main characteristics of housing in Iran; and (4) investment in, and economics of, housing.

    (Habibollah Zanjani)

  • HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, ALBERT

    (1846-1916), Sir, engineer and employee of the Persian government for over thirty years in the later 19th and early 20th centuries; he was both loyal and knowledgeable.

    (John D. Gurney)

  • HOVEYDA, AMIR-ABBAS

    (Amir ʿAbbās Hoveydā; 1919-1979), the longest serving prime minister in the modern history of Iran (1964-1977). His tenure can be divided into two phases. In the 1960s, he was full of optimism and energy; in the 1970s he was characterized by cynicism, a clinging attachment to power and its perks, and an almost despondent air of resignation. What remained the same were his economic policies.

    (Abbas Milani)

  • HUART, CLÉMENT

    French orientalist (1854-1926), especially known as editor and translator of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish sources and prolific author of works covering many aspects of Oriental studies.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • HÜBSCHMANN, (JOHANN) HEINRICH

    Hübschmann felt himself to be an orientalist. Originally an Iranian scholar, through his fundamental studies he became also the founder of modern Armenian linguistics; for it was he who created a solid basis for future historical-comparative research in this field.

    (Erich Kettenhofen and Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ḪUDIMIRI

    a peripheral district and city in Elam, mentioned only in the 7th century BCE, in the Assyrian sources during the reign of Ashurbanapal.

    (Inna Medvedskaya)

  • HŪGAR

    See ALBORZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HŪITI

    See AVESTAN PEOPLE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HUḴT

    monthly periodical published in Persian by Iranian Zoroastrians, 1950-84.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • HULĀGU KHAN

    fifth son of Tolui (and thus grandson of Čengiz Khan) and founder of the Il-khanid dynasty (b. ca. 1215, d. 1265).

    (Reuven Amitai)

  • HUMAN MIGRATION

    This subject includes three types of human migration in modern Iran: (1) migration within the country; (2) immigration of foreign nationals to Iran; and (3) emigration of Iranians to foreign countries.

    (Mehdi Amani and Habibollah Zanjani)

  • HUMAN RIGHTS

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HUMATA HŪXTA HUVARŠTA

    three Avestan words which encapsulate the ethical goals of Zoroastrianism. In form verbal adjectives, they were substantivized to mean “good thought, good word, good act.”

    (Mary Boyce)

  • HUMBAN

    See ELAM vi.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HUMOR

    The making of jokes. In the present article the focus will be on description and classification of the types of humor that can be found in Persian literary sources, mainly belonging to the classical period.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • HUMORALISM

    (ṭebb-e jālinusi/ṭebb-e yunāni), or Galenism, a medical philosophy that considers illness as an imbalance in the body’s four elemental humors. which are identified as blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Each of these humors is believed to possess two natures: hot or cold and dry or moist.

    (Amir Arsalan Afkhami)

  • HUMORS

    See HUMORALISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HUNGARY ii. Iranian and Persian Studies in Hungary

    The Polish diplomats and the literary professionals were among the first to study and translate Persian literary works in the 18th century Europe.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • HUNNIC COINAGE

    coins struck from the late fourth to the early eighth century by successive Central Asian invaders (so-called Iranian Huns) of northeastern Iran and northwestern India. It must be emphasized that our knowledge of these Central Asian nomads is, to a certain extent, still vague; and the research on their history is controversial.

    (Michael Alram)

  • HUNS

    collective term for horsemen of various origins leading a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle, thought to have descended from the Hsiung-nu, a nomadic people first mentioned in Chinese sources in 318 BCE.

    (Martin Schottky)

  • HUNTING IN IRAN

    i. In the pre-Islamic period. ii. In the Islamic period. See Supplement. Persian has two terms for hunting, naḵjīr and šekār, both of which have spread beyond Iranian languages.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • HUNTING IN IRAN ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HUNTINGTON, ELLSWORTH

    American geographer (1876-1947). In Central Asia ihe collected extensive data and acquired several manuscripts and wooden documents in Kharoṣṭhī, Tibetan, Sanskrit, and Khotanese.

    (Ursula Sims-Williams)

  • HUR

    name of a newspaper (1943-45) and a bilingual (Persian and Armenian) monthly journal (1971-74).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • HÜSING, GEORG

    versatile German scholar, whose fields included Old Iranian and Elamite studies (1869-1930).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • HUŠT

    Zoroastrian-Persian term for the area (in known practice a town-quarter, a village, or a group of villages) assigned to a priest.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal)

  • HUŠYĀR ŠIRĀZI

    Upon his return to Persia with his German wife, Sirazi was employed as professor in the newly established University of Tehran. As a devoted and enthusiastic educator and author, his life, until his early death, was spent on energetically teaching his students and on introducing certain texts of German literature to Persian readers.

    (Daryoush Ashouri)

  • HUTAOSA

    See ATOSSA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HUTH, GEORG

    (1867-1906) German Indologist, Tibetologist, Tugusologist, Mongolist, and the founder of Tibetology as a field of research at German universities.

    (Michael Knüppel)

  • HUTUXŠ

    and HUTUXŠBED, artisans as a class and the chief of artisans in Sasanian society. See CLASS SYSTEM ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HUVIŠKA

    ruler of the Great Kushan lineage, successor of Kaniška I the Great, known chiefly from inscriptions and from a prolific coinage. He reigned from at least the year 28 to 60 of the Kaniška Era, equivalent to 154-86 CE.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • HUZWĀREŠ

    a term describing the use of Semitic word masks in Middle Persian texts, written in the official orthography of the Sasanian state and surviving in Zoroastrian texts, and a small number of inscriptions, and letters.

    (Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst)

  • HVARCIERA

    See XWARČIHR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HYDARNES

    (Gk. Hydá;rnēs), rendering of the Old Persian male name Vidṛna held by several historical persons of the Achaemenid period.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • HYDE, THOMAS

    (1636-1703), D.D., English orientalist, Professor of Arabic and Hebrew in the University of Oxford, the first scholar to attempt to write a comprehensive description of the religion of Zoroaster.

    (A. V. Williams)

  • HYDERABAD

    (Ḥaydarābād), city in the Deccan of India, the former capital of the Nizams (Neẓāms) of Hyderabad (ca. 1724-1948) and at present the state capital of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. It had a three and a half century history as one of the major Muslim states and as a center of Indo-Persian culture in the subcontinent.

    (Gavin R. G. Hambly, Deborah Hutton)

  • HYDROLOGY

    i. Iranian plateau. ĀB. ii. Southwestern Persia. iii. Afghanistan. From a hydrological perspective, southwestern Persia must be considered as part of the Persian Gulf drainage region. Extending over an area of more than 350,000 km², its main drainage area covers the central and southwestern Zagros mountain areas with their extremely complex geomorphology.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • HYENA

    Hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758), Pers. kaftār. The striped hyena is the only current Asian representative of the mammalian family Hyaenidae. Principal threats to hyena populations today are vehicular traffic (since they scavenge road kills at night), wanton shooting, and secondary poisoning. The hyena is a protected species in Iran.

    (Steven C. Anderson)

  • HYGIENE

    See HEALTH IN PERSIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HYMN OF THE PEARL

    or Hymn of the Soul, a Syriac poem, of which an early Greek translation also exists, composed probably in the third century CE in the region of Edessa.

    (James R. Russell)

  • HYPERBOLE

    a figure (or figures) of speech in the classical Persian system of ʿelm al-badiʿ.

    (Natalia Chalisova)

  • HYRCANIA

    See GORGĀN v. Pre-Islamic history.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • HYSTASPES

    father of Darius I. See GOŠTĀSP.

    (Cross Reference)

  • HYSTASPES, ORACLES OF

    (Gk. Khrēseis Hystaspou), a collection of prophecies ascribed to Vištāspa, the patron and follower of Zarathustra.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • Hāji Firuzi

    (music sample)

  • Hālā čerā?

    (music sample)

  • Ḥanā bandān in Kermān

    (music sample)

  • Harāy-āhang-e bolbol

    (music sample)

  • Ḥazin

    (music sample)

  • Hejāz

    (music sample)

  • Hejāz, Bastenegār, Yaquluna, Čāhārpāre

    (music sample)

  • Ḥeṣār (part 1)

    (music sample)

  • Ḥeṣār (part 2)

    (music sample)

  • Ḥeṣār (part 3)

    (music sample)

  • Heydar Bābā

    (music sample)

  • Hormozi Saʿid

    (music sample)

  • Hosayn Khān - Segāh

    (music sample)

  • Ḥosayni (1)

    (music sample)

  • Ḥosayni (2)

    (music sample)

  • Hosaynqoli - Shur

    (music sample)

  • Hosaynqoli – Hajiani

    (music sample)

  • Hymn of Fozieh

    (music sample)

  • H~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter H entries.

    (DATA)