List of Articles

  • IBEX, PERSIAN

    Capra aegagrus, also called Persian Wild Goat, in Persian pāzan. It is regarded as the ancestor of the domestic goat. Formerly it was numerous, found in almost all of Persia’s mountainous areas with rugged cliffs.

    (Eskandar Firouz, D. T. Potts)

  • ʿID-E FEṬR

    See FASTING.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿID-E ḠADIR

    See ḠADĪR ḴOMM .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿID-E MEHREGĀN

    See MEHREGĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿID-E NIMA-YE ŠAʿBĀN

    See Islam In Iran vii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿID-E NOWRUZ

    See NOWRUZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿID-E QORBĀN

    See PILGRIMAGE, forthcoming online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IḎA

    town and county in northeast Khuzestan Province. Iḏa is located 20 km east of the Kārun River, in a small oval shaped valley, flanked by part of the Zagros range.

    (Kaveh Ehsani)

  • IDA

    a land and a city, part of Inner Zamua, located in the area of the southwest shore of Lake Urmia, mentioned in Neo-Assyrian sources dating to the 9th century BCE.

    (Inna N. Medvedskaya)

  • IDEOGRAPHIC WRITING

    the representation of language by means of “ideograms,” that is, symbols representing “ideas,” rather than (or usually side by side with) symbols which represent sounds. i. Terminology and conventions. ii. Ideographic writing in the Ancient Near East.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams, D. Testen)

  • IGDIR

    a Turkic tribe in Persia and Anatolia. It was one of the 24 original Oghuz tribes. Like other tribes that migrated to the Middle East in Saljuqid times, it has become widely scattered.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • IGNATIUS OF JESUS

    (Ignazio di Gesù, 1596-1667), an Italian missionary in Persia and a scholar of the Persian language, renowned mainly for his studies on religion and on the customs of the Mandaeans.

    (Paola Orsatti)

  • IHĀM

    literally meaning “making one suppose,” a term applied to a rhetorical figure (badiʿ), a kind of play on words based on a single word with a double meaning.

    (Natalia Chalisova)

  • IJEL

    Timurid prince (1394-1415), the fourth son of Mirānšāh b. Timur. Was named by the conqueror after one of his ancestors.

    (John Woods)

  • IJI, ʿAŻOD-AL-DIN

    See ʿAŻOD-AL-DIN IJI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IL

    “tribe.” For the other Persian terms that also are used and an overview of tribal groups, see ʿAŠĀYER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ILAK-KHANIDS

    (or Qara-khanids), the first Muslim Turkic dynasty that ruled in Central Asia from the Tarim basin to the Oxus river, from the mid-late 10th century until the beginning of the 13th.

    (Michal Biran)

  • ILĀM

    a province, sub-province, and town in western Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ILĀM i. GEOGRAPHY

    Until the mid-1930s Ilam was known as the Poštkuh of Lorestān as opposed to the Piškuh of Lorestān, which was located in the eastern part of the region. Since the Ṣafavid era Lorestān had been administered under the wālis (governors-general), who came from the chieftains of Lor-e Kuček tribes.

    (M. Rezazadeh Shafarudi)

  • ILĀM i. GEOGRAPHY - ii.

    Until the mid-1930s Ilam was known as the Poštkuh of Lorestān as opposed to the Piškuh of Lorestān, which was located in the eastern part of the region. Since the Ṣafavid era Lorestān had been administered under the wālis (governors-general), who came from the chieftains of Lor-e Kuček tribes. 8/23/2016 Created new parent: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ilam-parent , divided the article and Unpublished this page

    (M. Rezazadeh Shafarudi)

  • ILĀM ii. History

    See LORESTĀN ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ILĀM iii. POPULATION

    According to the first national census of 1956, the present province (ostān) of Ilām used to be a sub-province (šahrestān) of the province of Kermānšāhān.

    (Habibollah Zanjani)

  • ILĀQ

    medieval name of an area in what is now Uzbekistan, to the south of Tashkent along the middle reaches of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) river.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • ILĀQI, SAYYED ŠARAF-AL-ZAMĀN

    follower of Avicenna and author in medicine, science, and philosophy (d. 1141).

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • IL-ARSLĀN

    Chorasmian king of the line of Anuštegin Ḡarčaʾi (r. 1156-72). He was the son and successor of ʿAlāʾ-Din Atsïz b. Moḥammad, , who had skillfully preserved the autonomy of Chorasmia.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ILBĀRS KHAN

    name of two rulers of Ḵᵛārazm in the 16th and 18th centuries: (1) Ilbārs Khan b. Buräkä (or Bürgä), from the ʿArab-šāhi (q.v.) branch of the Jochids, was the founder of the dynasty which ruled Ḵᵛārazm from 1511 to the end of the 17th century.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • ILČI

    See ELČI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ILDEGOZIDS

    See ATĀBAKĀN-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ILEDONG

    site in Central Asia of uncertain location, source of a number of Khotanese fragments.

    (Mauro Maggi)

  • IL-KHANIDS

    the Mongol dynasty in Persia and the surrounding countries, from about 1260 until about 1335. The dynasty was founded by Holāgu/Hülegü Khan, the grandson of Čengiz Khan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • IL-KHANIDS i. DYNASTIC HISTORY

    The first part of this entry will be a short survey of the reigns of the various Il-khans. The second part will review some of the salient characteristics and institutions of the state they ruled.

    (Reuven Amitai)

  • IL-KHANIDS ii. Architecture

    The architecture produced during the period of Il-khanid rule in Persia and Iraq is notable for its mammoth size, soaring height, sparkling color, and ingenious methods of covering space.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • IL-KHANIDS iii. Book Illustration

    The Il-khanid period (ca. 1260-ca. 1335) is no doubt the historical moment during which the art of painting, in particular in illustrated manuscripts, witnessed a dramatic increase in number, subject matter, artistic output, and patronage. The late 13th century and especially the first quarter of the 14th can be regarded as perhaps the most important formative period in the history of Persian painting, an epoch of great changes.

    (Stefano Carboni)

  • IL-KHANIDS iv. Ceramics

    This entry deals with glazed wares and tiles of the so-called “Sultanabad” (Solṭānābād) group, lajvardina (< Pers. lājvard “lapis lazuli”) wares, and luster wares produced in the Il-khanid period. The period extends from the fall of Baghdad in 1258 to the last dated luster tiles made in 1339.

    (Peter Morgan)

  • IL-KHANIDS v. CARPETS

    See CARPETS viii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IL-KHANIDS v. CLOTHING

    See CLOTHING ix.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ILLUMINATIONISM

    or Illuminationist philosophy, first introduced in the 12th century as a complete, reconstructed system distinct both from the Peripatetic philosophy of Avicenna and from theological philosophy.

    (Hossein Ziai)

  • IMĀMIYA

    In history and theology, see: SHIʿITE DOCTRINE. In the clergy, see: SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya. See also: ISMAʿILISM xvii. The imamate in Ismaʿilism.

    (Cross-reference)

  • IMAMS IN TWELVER SHIʿA ISLAM

    1st Imam: see ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB. 2nd Imam: see ḤASAN B. ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB. 3rd Imam: see ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB. 4th Imam: see ʿALI B. AL-ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB. 5th Imam: see MOḤAMMAD AL-BĀQER. 6th Imam: see JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ. 7th Imam: Musā al-Kāẓem. 8th Imam: see ʿALI AL-REŻĀ. 9th Imam: Mohammad al-Taqi. 10th Imam: see ʿALI AL-HĀDI. 11th Imam: see ʿASKARI, ABU MOḤAMMAD ḤASAN B. ʿALI. 12th Imam: see MAHDI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IMMORTALS

    (Gk. athá;natoi), name of a corps of 10,000 Persian élite infantry soldiers in Herodotus, in connection with Xerxes’ campaign against Greece in 480–479 BCE.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • IMPERIAL BANK OF PERSIA

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INĀLU

    See ḴAMSA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ÏNĀNČ ḴĀTUN

    wife of the Atābeg Jahān-Pahlavān Moḥammad (r. 1175-86), the Eldigüzid (or Ildegizid) ruler in Arrān, most of Azerbaijan, and then Jebāl.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • INCEST AND INBREEDING

    Incest and inbreeding are two different but related aspects of marriage and human reproduction.

    (Geert Jan Van Gelder)

  • INDIA

    This series of entries covers Indian history and its relations with Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • INDIA i. Introduction

    This entry presents a series of survey articles on selected areas of interaction and mutual influence between the two culture areas, including overviews of the enormous body of literature produced in India in the Persian language.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • INDIA ii. Historical Geography

    The geographical borders between the Iranian plateau and the Indian subcontinent are well defined by features, such as mountain ranges, which represent the western limits of the Indus River valley.

    (Pierfrancesco Callieri)

  • INDIA iii. RELATIONS: ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    The conquest by Darius I of the territories of the Indian subcontinent west of the Indus for the first time created a clear relationship between India and Iran.

    (Pierfrancesco Callieri)

  • INDIA iv. RELATIONS: SELEUCID, PARTHIAN, SASANIAN PERIODS

    Seleucus I (d. 281 BCE) led an expedition to India (Matelli, 1987) ca. 305 B.C.E. It ended, however, with the cession of territories to a new Indian king, Candragupta Maurya.

    (Pierfrancesco Callieri)

  • INDIA v. RELATIONS: MEDIEVAL PERIOD TO THE 13TH CENTURY

    The first political and military footholds of the Muslims in the subcontinent proper were in Sind, and at Multan in the middle Indus valley, secured in the early 8th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • INDIA vi. Political and Cultural Relations (13th-18th centuries)

    Relations between peoples of the Iranian plateau and India were extensive and uninterrupted between the 13th and 18th centuries. Migration, commerce, and politics all led to a range of cross-regional influences.

    (Richard M. Eaton)

  • INDIA vii. RELATIONS: THE AFSHARID AND ZAND PERIODS

    The invasion of the Persian capital (Isfahan) by Ḡilzai Afghan forces in 1722 and the collapse of Safavid central authority had a marked impact on Indo-Persian relations,

    (Mansour Bonakdarian)

  • INDIA viii. RELATIONS: QAJAR PERIOD, THE 19TH CENTURY

    By the time of Āqā Moḥammad Khan’s founding of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, Persia’s diplomatic relations with the Mughal empire and other territories in the Indian subcontinent were gradually passing under the supervision of British authorities in India.

    (Mansour Bonakdarian)

  • INDIA ix. RELATIONS: QAJAR PERIOD, EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    The contributions made by various non-Iranian individuals and groups to the constitutional/ nationalist cause in Persia have long been acknowledged in the historiography of the revolution.

    (Mansour Bonakdarian)

  • INDIA x. RELATIONS: PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Iranian-Indian relations during the Pahlavi period will be discussed in a future online entry.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xi. RELATIONS: ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xii. ISLAMIC DYNASTIES OF

    See under individual dynasties.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xiii. INDO-IRANIAN COMMERCIAL RELATIONS

    Indo-Persian commercial relations were mediated by merchants originating from India, Persia, Afghanistan, and later Europe. Ethnic minority groups, such as Armenians and Jews, also played an important role in Persia’s international commercial relations.

    (Scott C. Levi)

  • INDIA xiv. Persian Literature

    The amount of Persian literature composed in the Indian subcontinent up to the 19th century is larger than that produced in Iran proper during the same period.

    (Mario Casari)

  • INDIA xv. Persian Correspondence Literature

    See CORRESPONDENCE iv.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xvi. INDO-PERSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

    Historical works in Persian began to appear in India in the era of the Delhi Sultanate during the late 13th to 14th centuries.

    (Stephen F. Dale)

  • INDIA xvii. PERSIAN PRESS IN

    See INDIA viii and INDIA ix. See also CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION vi and ḤABL AL-MATIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xviii. PERSIAN ELEMENTS IN INDIAN LANGUAGES

    Some Persian elements are present in most of the modern languages of the subcontinent of South Asia, as a consequence of the prolonged cultivation of Persian associated with pre-modern Indo-Muslim culture.

    (Christopher Shackle)

  • INDIA xix. INDIAN LITERARY INFLUENCES ON PERSIAN LITERATURE

    Iranian-Indian literary influences on Persian literature will be discussed in a future online entry.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xx. PERSIAN INFLUENCES ON INDIAN PAINTING

    Between about 1300 and 1600, Persian painting styles had a sustained impact on the Indian art at the Sultanate and Mughal courts as well as on Hindu painting styles.

    (Barbara Schmitz)

  • INDIA xxi. INDIAN INFLUENCES ON PERSIAN PAINTING

    During the 17th century, the flow of artistic influences between Persia and India reversed. Paintings and drawings in the developed Mughal style of the first quarter of the century were imported to the courts and bazaars of Isfahan.

    (Barbara Schmitz)

  • INDIA xxii. PERSIAN INFLUENCE ON INDIAN ARCHITECTURE

    See DECCAN ii; DELHI SULTANATE ii; GARDEN iii; HYDERABAD ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xxiii. INDIAN INFLUENCE ON PERSIAN CINEMA

    See x, above.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xxiv. PERSIAN CALLIGRAPHY IN

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xxv. MUTUAL MYSTICAL INFLUENCES

    See under SUFISM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xxvi. MUTUAL MUSICAL INFLUENCES

    See under MUSIC.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xxvii. MUTUAL SCIENTIFIC INFLUENCES

    See under SCIENCE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xxviii. IRANIAN IMMIGRANTS IN INDIA

    Although emigration from the Iranian plateau to the Indian subcontinent is not a phenomenon specific to any particular period, the trend does seem to have grown after the foundation of Muslim governments on the subcontinent.

    (Masashi Haneda)

  • INDIA xxix. SHIʿITE COMMUNITIES IN

    See CONVERSION iii. TO IMAMI SHI'ISM IN INDIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xxx. INDIAN MERCHANTS IN CENTRAL ASIA AND IRAN

    The Indian merchant diaspora in Central Asia and Persia emerged in the mid-16th century and remained active for over four centuries.

    (Scott C. Levi)

  • INDIA xxxi. INDIAN MERCHANTS IN 19TH-CENTURY AFGHANISTAN

    Indian communities in Afghanistan performed an array of commercial functions in both the private and state sectors that served to integrate the Afghan economy and link it to surrounding markets in Central and South Asia.

    (Shah Mahmoud Hanifi)

  • INDIA xxxii. PARSI COMMUNITIES

    See PARSI COMMUNITIES i. and PARSI COMMUNITIES ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIA xxxiii. INDO-MUSLIM PHYSICIANS

    Medicine constitutes the scientific field on which the largest corpus of works has been composed in Muslim India.

    (Fabrizio Speziale)

  • INDIAN OCEAN

    This entry will deal with the role of Indian Ocean in international trade in the following periods: i. Pre-Islamic period. ii. Islamic Period. See Supplement.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • INDIAN OCEAN ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDIGO

    (Pers. nil), the common name of a broad genus, Indigofera, with numerous species. Many tribal groups in Persia have relied on the use of indigo to achieve a stable blue color for the wool of carpets and kilims.

    (Carol Bier)

  • INDO-EUROPEAN TELEGRAPH COMPANY

    (IETC), a telegraph company that controlled telegraph wires between Tehran and the Russian border and onward through Russia and Germany to London.

    (Michael Rubin)

  • INDO-EUROPEAN TELEGRAPH DEPARTMENT

    (IETD), a branch of the British Government of India, based in London, which managed a series of telegraph lines in Iran.

    (Michael Rubin)

  • INDO-GREEK DYNASTY

    Greco-Bactrian kings who ruled over the region south of the Hindu Kush in the second and first century B.C.E.

    (Osmund Bopearachchi)

  • INDO-IRANIAN FRONTIER LANGUAGES

    This article surveys Indo-Iranian frontier languages the territory of present-day Pakistan, which have been under the cultural and linguistic influence of successive stages of the Persian language since the time of the Achaemenid Empire.

    (Elena Bashir)

  • INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES

    See IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDO-IRANIAN RELIGION

    Indo-Iranian comparative studies enable us to distinguish a fund of religious concepts, beliefs, and practices that are common to ancient Iran and ancient India.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • INDO-PARTHIAN DYNASTY

    While maritime disturbances were known to have driven merchants to use the caravan routes, during the periods of Mughal-Safavid rivalry over Kandahar merchants would temporarily favor the more predictable maritime routes.

    (Christine Fröhlich)

  • INDO-PERSIAN LITERATURE

    For Indo-Persian poetry and other literature, see INDIA xiv. Persian Literature.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDO-SCYTHIAN DYNASTY

    from Maues, the first (Indo-)Scythian king of India (ca. 120-85 BCE) to the mid-1st century CE. When precisely Maues arrived in India is uncertain, but the expulsion of the Scythian (Saka/Sai) peoples from Central Asia is referred to in the Han Shu.

    (R. C. Senior)

  • INDRA

    the name of a minor demon (daēwa) in the Avesta, In sharp contrast to the Indra of the Ṛgveda [RV], the most celebrated god (devá;) of the Vedic pantheon.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • INDUS RIVER

    See INDIA ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION

    : the foundation and development of modern industries in 20th-century Iran. Although generally characterized as an oil economy, Iran has a relatively rich history of industrialization going back to the early 20th century.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION i. The Reza Shah Period And Its Aftermath, 1925-53

    Archaic and underdeveloped infrastructure as well as a low level of human resources were limiting factors; however, changes after the 1920s, paved the way for the emergence of Iran’s nascent industrial sector from the 1930s onwards.

    (Hassan Hakimian)

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION ii. The Mohammad Reza Shah Period, 1953-79

    Public sector investment in this period started from a very slender base but soon witnessed an annual growth rate of 25 percent in real terms; more than 68 percent of government investment went into economic infrastructure.

    (M. Karshenas and H. Hakimian)

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION iii. The Post-Revolutionary Period, 1979-2000

    Available evidence indicates that the share of the manufacturing sector in the economy declined after the Revolution; it was around 19-20 percent of non-oil GDP by 1977 but dropped to about 15 percent by 1990.

    (Parvin Alizadeh)

  • INDUSTRY, TRADITIONAL

    See CRAFTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INFLUENZA

    In Persia, the first established evidence of influenza’s visitation dates back to the summer of 1833, when it erupted with great virulence in Tehran.

    (Amir A. Afkhami)

  • INHERITANCE

    i. Sasanian period. ii. Islamic period.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • INHERITANCE i. SASANIAN PERIOD

    Our main source on jurisprudence during the Sasanian period is the Lawbook Hazār dādestān “One Thousand Judgements” of the 7th century.

    (Maria Macuch)

  • INHERITANCE ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    In the pre-Islamic period, the Arab family was socially and politically composed of males (ʿaṣaba), namely those who were able to fight and defend the common property.

    (Agostino Cilardo)

  • INJU

    See ḴĀLEṢA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INJU DYNASTY

    (ca. 1325-53), one of the minor dynasties that controlled Persia following the collapse of the Il-Khanid state.

    (John Limbert)

  • INOSTRANTSEV, KONSTANTIN ALEXANDROVICH

    (1876-1941), Russian orientalist and historian of culture, best known abroad as the author of Sasanidskie et’udy (Etudes sassanides).

    (Aliy I. Kolesnikov)

  • INSCRIPTIONS

    See EPIGRAPHY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INSECTIVORES

    members of the mammalian order, small animals with several conservative anatomical characteristics. They retain five digits on all limbs and walk or run with soles and heels on the ground (plantigrade). Three families are represented in Persia and Afghanistan: hedgehogs, family Erinaceidae; moles, family Talpidae; and shrews, family Soricidae.

    (Steven C. Anderson)

  • INSECTS

    The insects of Persia and Afghanistan belong to the Palearctic fauna, although in the eastern and southeastern parts of the region there are representatives of the Oriental fauna characteristic of the Indian subcontinent.

    (Steven C. Anderson)

  • INSTITUT PASTEUR

    the institute for bacteriology and vaccination founded by the Persian government in 1921 as a branch of Institut Pasteur of Paris. The idea of establishing an institute for microbiological research and immunology in Iran was conceived in the aftermath of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic in Persia.

    (Amir A. Afkhami)

  • INSTITUTE FOR IRANIAN PHILOLOGY

    (INSTITUT FOR IRANSK FILOLOGI), University of Copenhagen. i. Forerunners. ii. History. Although the Institute was founded only in 1961, it has a long prehistory, since it is the natural culmination of about 200 years of Iranian studies in the Kingdom of Denmark.

    (Jes P. Asmussen, Claus V. Pedersen)

  • INSTITUTE OF ISMAILI STUDIES

    founded in 1977 by H. H. Prince Karim Aga Khan, a gathering point for the Ismaili community’s interest in its own history and in its relationship with the larger world of Islamic scholarship and contemporary thought.

    (Paul E. Walker)

  • INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL STUDIES AND RESEARCH

    (MOʾASSESA-YE MOṬĀLEʿĀT WA TAḤQIQĀT-E EJTEMĀʿI), an academic body established in 1958 at the University of Tehran for research, counseling, education, and publication.

    (Kazem Izadi)

  • INTAPHERNES

    See VINDAFARNĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • INTERNATIONAL DUNHUANG PROJECT

    (IDP), founded in 1994, a collaboration among libraries, museums, and research institutes worldwide to conserve, catalogue, digitize and research archeological artifacts, manuscripts, and archives relating to the archeological sites of Central Asia during the period of the ‘Silk Road.’

    (Susan Whitfield)

  • INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS

    IN IRAN, AFGHANISTAN, AND NEIGHBORING CENTRAL ASIA. This category includes all animals without a vertebral column. Thus it is a term of convenience that, though widely used, has little biological meaning.

    (Steven C. Anderson)

  • INVESTITURE

    the ceremonies and symbolic actions used to assert the assumption of rulership and to elicit affirmation of it. i. The Achaemenid period. ii. The Parthian period. iii. The Sasanian period.

    (Maria Brosius, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, Jenny Rose)

  • IONIAN REVOLT

    the unsuccessful uprising of the Greek cities of Asia Minor against Achaemenid control, 499-493 BCE. The main and almost the only source for the Revolt is Herodotus of Halicarnassus. The revolt of the Ionians and of some Aeolians joining them had clearly not been a spontaneous rising. Dislike of Persian rule does seem, at this time, to have been universal among the western subjects.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • IQĀʿ

    (pl. iqāʿāt), an Arabic term used in texts on music to denote rhythmic mode (or cycle) or rhythmic pattern.

    (Gen'ichi Tsuge)

  • IQĀN

    See KETĀB-E IQĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IQBAL, MUHAMMAD

    spiritual father of Pakistan and leading Persian and Urdu poet of India in the first half of the 20th century (1877-1938). He was well versed in the various fields of European philosophy and thought. He was equally well read in the Eastern tradition, and special mention should be made of his analysis of Persian thought in his thesis of 1907.

    (Annemarie Schimmel)

  • IRAJ

    the youngest son of Ferēdun and the eponymous hero of the Iranians in their traditional history.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • Iraj Afshar (1925-2011)

    (Obituary)

  • Iraj Afshar (1925-2011)

    ( اعلان وفات)

  • IRAJ MIRZĀ

    (1874-1926), JALĀL-AL-MAMĀLEK, a major Persian poet and satirist of the early 20th century and one of the most popular poets of the late Qajar period.

    (Behrooz Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari)

  • IRAN

    The following sub-entries will provide an overview of the unifying factors which constitute Iran through time and across space, while also showing the complexity and heterogeneity of the components of Iranian culture.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • IRAN i. LANDS OF IRAN

    This article intends to examine the relationship between Iranian culture and its natural environment.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (1) Pre-Islamic Times

    This section provides a concise introduction to the history of Iran from its beginnings to modern times. The generally recognized periods of the country’s history are reviewed, and some of the major motifs or themes in the politics or culture of the various periods are discussed.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 1)

    Iran in the Islamic Period (651-1980s). This section of Persian history begins with the conquest by Muslim Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Persia, the gradual conversion of the Persians to the faith of the conquerors, and some 200 years of Arab rule.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 2)

    Formation of local dynasties. The Taherids (821-73). The first of these dynasties came into being when Ṭāher b. Ḥosayn was appointed the governor of Khorasan with full power.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 3)

    The Saljuqids (1040-1194). The plains of Central Asia, northwestern China, and western Siberia were breeding grounds for nomadic people, who kept multiplying and searching for new pastures.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 4)

    The Safavids (1501-1722). The advent of the Safavids constitutes one of the major turning points in Persian history.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 5)

    The Qajar dynasty (1779-1924). The Qajar were a Turkmen tribe who first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia and were among the seven Qezelbāš tribes that supported the Safavids.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 6)

    Moḥammad Reza Shah (1941-79). The long history of Russian and British interventions in Persian affairs had fostered widespread resentment against the two great powers.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (3) Chronological Table

    A chronological table of events. This records major happenings of Iranian pre-history and history from the most ancient times to 2005.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (4) Index of Proper Names

    Index of proper names that occur in the chronological table.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • IRAN iii. TRADITIONAL HISTORY

    Before assimilating the results of European research on Persian history, the Iranians were in possession of a historical tradition that combined a mixture of myth, legend, and factual history.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • IRAN iv. MYTHS AND LEGENDS

    In the study of religion, myths are seen as narratives which encapsulate fundamental truths about the nature of existence, god(s), God(s), the universe. They explain the origin of the world or of a tribe or of a ritual.

    (John R. Hinnells)

  • IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (1) A General Survey

    The term “Iranian” may be understood in two ways. It is, first of all, a linguistic classification, intended to designate any society which inherited or adopted, and transmitted, an Iranian language.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (2) Pre-Islamic

    This survey focuses on the early phase of the Iranian-speaking peoples’ presence on the plateau, during the early state-building phase.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (3). Islamic Period

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS

    The term “Iranian language” is applied to any language which is descended from a proto-Iranian parent language (unattested by texts) spoken, presumably, in Central Asia in the late 3rd to early 2nd millennium BCE.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (1) Earliest Evidence

    The Indo-Aryan and Iranian tribes separated about 2000 BCE., but attempts to correlate the proto-Indo-Iranians with archeological sites are all problematic.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (2) Documentation

    Iranian languages are known from roughly three periods, commonly termed Old, Middle, and New (Modern).

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (3) Writing Systems

    Writing systems for Iranian languages include cuneiform (Old Persian); scripts descended from “imperial” Aramaic, two Syriac scripts, Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Cyrillic, Georgian, and Latin.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (3) Origins of the Iranian Languages

    Origins of the Iranian languages.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (5) Indo-Iranian

    the reconstructed common ancestor of Iranian and Indian languages.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (6) Old Iranian Languages

    Proto-Iranian split into at least four distinct dialect groups, characterized, among other things, by the typical developments of the palatal affricates.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (1) Overview

    This entry will discuss the non-Iranian languages spoken in Iran in the course of its history as the result of various peoples settling in parts of Iran and interacting with Iranian-speaking peoples.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (2) In Pre-Islamic Iran

    Of the three known pre-Islamic languages (Urartian, Kassite, and Elamite), only Urartian and Elamite are fairly well known.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (3) Elamite

    Elamite was spoken in the southern Zagros regions, which correspond to the ancient cultural-political entities of Elam and Anshan, and expanded into Akkadian-speaking Susiana.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (4) Urartian

    Urartian was most likely the dominant vernacular around Lake Van and the upper Zab valley. It was written from the late ninth to seventh century BCE in the empire of Urartu.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (5) Kassite

    The Kassites, Akkadian Kaššu, were mountain tribes probably somewhere in the central Zagros who ruled Babylon from the sixteenth to the middle of the twelfth century BCE.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (6) in Islamic Iran

    The non-Iranian languages spoken today in Iran include members of the following language families: (1) Altaic, (2) Afro-Asiatic Semitic, (3) Indo-European, (4) Caucasian (5) Dravidian.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (7) Turkic Languages

    In Iran, there are two distinct branches of Turkic: Oghuz Turkic languages and dialects that represent the southwestern branch of Turkic, and Khalaj, which presents a tiny branch of its own.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (8) Semitic Languages

    First Aramaic and then Arabic had considerable contact with Iranian languages. Their impact differs.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (9) Arabic

    Most extensive was the Arab settlement in eastern Iran and Greater Khorasan (including northwestern Afghanistan, and Central Asia, including Marv and Bukhara).

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (10). Aramaic

    Speakers of North-Eastern Aramaic have been in contact with Iranian languages in the western regions of the plateau and on the western side of the Zagros for some 3,000 years.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • IRAN viii. PERSIAN LITERATURE (1) Pre-Islamic

    Iranian “literature” was for a long time essentially of oral nature as far as composition, performance, and transmission are concerned.

    (Philip Huyse)

  • IRAN viii. PERSIAN LITERATURE (2) Classical

    We will pay special attention to the early formation and origins of different literary genres in Persian works, even though the very notion of literary genres is somewhat arbitrary and a subject of continuing debate.

    (Charles-Henri de Fouchécour)

  • IRAN viii. PERSIAN LITERATURE (3) Modern

    See FICTION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (1) Pre-Islamic (1.1) Overview

    From the 2nd millennium BCE until Islam became dominant in Iran, a remarkable number of religious traditions existed there.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (1) Pre-Islamic (1.2) Manicheism

    Called after the founding prophet Mani (216-74 or 277), Manicheism was a syncretistic religion that, combining elements of the various religions current in Mesopotamia and the Iranian plateau at the time, claimed to be the ultimate religion.

    (Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst and Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.1) The Advent of Islam

    Persian acquaintance with Islam began already in the time of the Prophet. Well known is the case of Salmān-e Fārsi, the Persian companion of the Prophet around whom many legends have been spun.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.2) Mongol and Timurid Periods

    It is sometimes assumed that the general predominance of Sunnism in Persia was significantly weakened by the destruction of the ʿAbbasid caliphate by the Mongols in 1258.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.3) Shiʿism in Iran Since the Safavids

    The Safavids originated as a hereditary lineage of Sufi shaikhs centered on Ardabil, Shafeʿite in school and probably Kurdish in origin. Their immediate following was concentrated in Azerbaijan.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • IRAN x. Persian art and architecture

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRAN xi. MUSIC

    (Bruno Nettl)

  • IRĀN newspapers

    title of five newspapers, of which four were published in Persia and one in Baghdad, Iraq.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • IRAN AND THE CAUCASUS

    the annual international academic journal of the Caucasian Center for Iranian Studies, Yerevan (CCIS), founded in 1997.

    (Victoria Arakelova)

  • IRAN, JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH INSTITUTE OF PERSIAN STUDIES

    The British Institute of Persian Studies (BIPS) was inaugurated in December 1961 in the wake of Queen Elizabeth II’s official visit to Iran in March of that year.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth and Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis)

  • IRĀN/LA REVUE IRAN

    the first philatelic magazine ever published in Persia; it was published from Mehr 1302 to Bahman 1311 Š. (September 1923-February 1933) as the organ of Kolub-e bayn-al-melali-e Irān, a society founded by Naṣr-Allāh Falsafi (q.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • IRAN LEAGUE

    organization established in 1922 by prominent Parsis with the aim of reviving and strengthening cultural and other ties between the Parsis of India and Iran.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • IRAN NAMEH

    the oldest post-Islamic Revolution scholarly journal published since 1982 by the Iranian Diaspora.

    (Abbas Milani)

  • IRAN-NAMEH

    journal of Oriental studies, founded in Yerevan, Armenia, in May 1993 as a scholarly monthly publication in the Armenian language.

    (Vahe Boyajian)

  • IRAN NATIONAL COMPANY

    established in August 1962, the single pioneer of the automotive industry in Iran, assembling and manufacturing various motor vehicles and their spare parts.

    (Parviz Alizadeh)

  • IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIRS

    the linkage in the mid-1980s of two separate and distinct U.S. covert operations in Iran and Central America.

    (Malcolm Byrne)

  • IRAN-IRAQ WAR

    See IRAQ vii. IRAN-IRAQ WAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRĀN-E JAVĀN

    weekly paper published in Tehran from 5 Esfand 1305 to 28 Bahman 1306 Š. (25 February 1926-17 February 1927) as the organ of an association with the same name (Anjomān-e Irān-e javān).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • IRĀN-E JAVĀN, ANJOMAN-E

    (The society of young Iran), a society founded in January 1921 by a number of young intellectuals who had received their higher education in Europe.

    (Jamšid Behnām)

  • IRAN-E KABIR

    periodical published in the city of Rašt by the political activist Grigor Yaqikiān, 1929-30.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • IRĀN-E MĀ

    a political newspaper published in Tehran, 1943-60, with long interruptions. It was an influential liberal paper with nationalistic orientations.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • IRĀN-E NOW

    title of two political newspapers published in Tehran during the second and third decades of the 20th century.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • IRANI, DINSHAH JIJIBHOY

    (1881-1938), a prominent member of the Zoroastrian community of Bombay . He was trained and worked as a professional lawyer, but at the same time he was also active as a philanthropist and scholar of Zoroastrianism and Persian literature.

    (Afshin Marashi)

  • IRANI, DINSHAH JIJIBHOY [2006]

    (ARCHIVED VERSION) As printed in EIr. Vol. XIII, Fasc. 5, 2006, pp. 500-501.

    (Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa)

  • IRANI, HUSHANG

    (1925-1973), radical modernist poet and pioneer of modern mystical poetry in Iran, whose early poems are categorized among the first examples of concrete or visual poetry in Persian poetry.

    (Sayeh Eghtesadinia)

  • IRANIAN IDENTITY

    collective feeling by Iranian peoples of belonging to the historic lands of Iran. This sense of identity, defined both historically and territorially, evolved from a common historical experience and cultural tradition.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • IRANIAN IDENTITY i. PERSPECTIVES

    Perspectives on Iranian identity have been influenced by competing views on the origins of nations.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • IRANIAN IDENTITY ii. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    The idea of Iran as a religious, cultural, and ethnic reality goes back as far as the end of the 6th century BCE.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • IRANIAN IDENTITY iii. MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC PERIOD

    While Syria and Egypt lost their languages under the hegemony of Arabic, Iran survived as the main cultural area in the emerging Islamic empire that maintained its distinct linguistic and cultural identity.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • IRANIAN IDENTITY iv. 19TH-20TH CENTURIES

    Comparative historians of nationalism acknowledge that Iran was among the few nations that experienced the era of nationalism with a deep historical root and experience of recurrent construction of its own pre-modern identity.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • IRANIAN IDENTITY v. POST-REVOLUTIONARY ERA

    Iranian identity during the post-revolutionary era will be discussed in a future online entry.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRANIAN STUDIES

    See under the names of individual countries and universities.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRANIAN STUDIES, SOCIETY FOR

    See SOCIETY FOR IRANIAN STUDIES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRĀNŠĀH

    term now used by the Parsis as the name of their oldest sacred fire, the Ātaš Bahrām established originally at Sanjān and now installed at Udwada, both in Gujarat.

    (Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal)

  • IRĀNŠĀH, BAHĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    See SALJUQS OF KERMAN. Unpublished as per M.A. email - 4/19/2017

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRĀNŠAHR (1)

    See ĒRĀN, ĒRĀNŠAHR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRĀNŠAHR (2)

    city, formerly Fahraj, and sub-province (šahrestān) in the province of Sistān and Baluchistan.

    (EIr)

  • IRĀNŠAHR ii. Population, 1956-2011

    the population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status for 2006 and/or 2011.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • IRĀNŠAHR (3)

    an encyclopedic collection of articles published under the auspices of the UNESCO National Commission in Iran. The ambitious idea, as presented in the preface of the first volume, was to produce a highly reliable condensed, but comprehensive, sourcebook covering every aspect of the civilization of Iran from ancient times to 1960.

    (Manouchehr Kasheff)

  • IRĀNŠAHR (4)

    monthly Persian journal, published in forty-eight issues in Berlin by Ḥosayn Kāẓemzāda Irānšahr, June 1922 to February 1927. Two principal tendencies can be distinguished in these articles: a strong interest in ancient Persia and its language and culture, and belief in the potency of a nationalistic spirit.

    (Jamšid Behnām)

  • IRĀNŠAHR, ḤOSAYN KĀẒEMZĀDA

    (1884-1962), ardent Iranian nationalist active during the First World War, prolific author on political, religious, and educational subjects, and publisher of the journal Irānšahr 1922-27; he resided in Berlin 1917-36, in Switzerland thereafter.

    (Jamšid Behnām)

  • IRĀNŠAHRI

    ABU’L-ʿABBĀS MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad (fl. 2nd half 9th cent.), mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer, philosopher, and author.

    (Dariush Kargar and EIr)

  • IRĀNŠĀN B. ABI’L-ḴAYR

    See KUŠ-NĀMA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRANSHENASI

    a journal of Iranian studies, began publication under the editorship of Jalāl Matini and with the help of generous Iranians who have been willing to subsidize it since the spring of 1989, when its first issue was published.

    (Abbas Milani)

  • IRANZAMIN, TEHRAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

    (Irānzamin, Madrasa-ye Baynalmelali-e Tehrān), a combined Iranian and American international school founded in 1967.

    (J. Richard Irvine)

  • IRAQ

    the southern part of Mesopotamia, known in the early Islamic period as del-e Irānšahr (lit. “the heart of the kingdom of Iran”), served as the central province of the Sasanian empire as well as that of the ʿAbbasid caliphate.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • IRAQ i. IN THE LATE SASANID AND EARLY ISLAMIC ERAS

    The late Sasanid era. The late Sasanid winter capital was located at the urban complex on the Tigris river called “the cities” (al-Madāʾen) by the Arabs that included Ctesiphon, Aspānpur, Veh-Antioḵ-e Ḵosrow, and Veh-Ardašir.

    (Michael Morony)

  • IRAQ ii. ABBASIDS TO MONGOLS

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRAQ ii - iii. FROM THE MONGOLS TO THE SAFAVIDS

    The Mongol capture of Baghdad in 1258 came at a time when Persian influence was on the rise but the city as a whole in decline.

    (ʿAbbās Zaryāb)

  • IRAQ iv. RELATIONS IN THE SAFAVID PERIOD

    Iraq was frequently the scene and the object of the intermittent wars the Ottomans and the Safavids fought in the 16th and early 17nth century.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • IRAQ v. AFSHARIDS TO THE END OF THE QAJARS

    The collapse of the Safavid dynasty in the 1720s ushered in a new round of conflict in Iraq that would continue through the first half of the 18th century.

    (Ernest Tucker)

  • IRAQ vi. PAHLAVI PERIOD, 1921-79

    Relations between Iran and Iraq underwent three different phases between 1921, when Britain installed Faysal Ibn Hossein as king of a newly formed nation-state of Iraq and 1979, when the Pahlavi dynasty was swept away by revolution.

    (Mohsen M. Milani)

  • IRAQ vii. IRAN-IRAQ WAR

    The war between Iran and Iraq commenced with the Iraqi invasion of Iran on 22 September 1980, and ended with the bilateral acceptance of the UN Security Council Resolution 598 on 20 July 1988.

    (Saskia M. Gieling)

  • IRAQ viii. THE SHIʿITE SHRINE CITIES OF IRAQ

    See ʿATABĀT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRAQ ix. IRANIAN COMMUNITY IN IRAQ

    See DIASPORA vi.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • IRAQ x. SHIʿITES OF IRAQ

    Iraq was the cradle of Shiʿism, where it evolved as a political and religious movement, yet, Shiʿites became a majority there only during the 19th century.

    (Meir Litvak)

  • IRAQ xi. SHIʿITE SEMINARIES

    The communities of learning in the shrine cities of Najaf and Karbalā emerged as the most important centers of Twelver Shiʿite learning during the 19th century.

    (Meir Litvak)

  • IRAQ xii. PERSIAN SCHOOLS IN IRAQ

    At the time of the 1905-11 Constitutional Revolution in Persia, local committees in Iraq created Persian-language schools with the backing of the leading, progressive religious scholars.

    (Eqbal Yaghmaʾi)

  • IRAQ xiii. PERSIAN NEWSPAPERS IN IRAQ: 1909-22

    The publication of Persian-language newspapers in Iraq began with the implementation of the 1909 Ottoman Constitutional Law.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • IRON IN EASTERN IRAN

    Ancient iron objects in Central Asia were found for the first time at the southern mound of Anau (Turkmenistan) in 1904; these should be dated to the 9th-8th centuries BCE.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • IRON AGE

    In Iran the term Iron Age is employed to identify a cultural change that occurred centuries earlier than the time accorded its use elsewhere in the Near East, and not to acknowledge the introduction of a new metal technology.

    (Oscar White Muscarella)

  • IRONSIDE, WILLIAM EDMUND

    (1880-1959), Field Marshall, 1st Baron Ironside of Archangel and Ironside, noted for his important role as commander of British forces in Persia in 1920-21.

    (Denis Wright)

  • ʿISĀ B. ṢAHĀRBOḴT

    medical author of the third/ninth century, from Gondēšāpur. descendant of an apparently Nestorian Christian Syro-Persian family.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • ʿISĀ B. YAḤYĀ MASIḤI JORJĀNI

    (d. after 925), Abu Sahl, physician, philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer. Little is securely known about the life of this Christian scholar.

    (David Pingree)

  • ISAAC

    bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon and Catholicos of the Church of the East (399-410). At the importnt church synod held, with permission of the Sasanian king, not long before his death, he worked with Marutha, bishop of Maipharqat, to obtain the approval of the creed of the Council of Nicaea (325) on the part of the Church of the East.

    (Sebastian Brock)

  • ISAIAH, BOOK OF

    one of the books of the Hebrew Bible, traditionally arranged among those of the latter Prophets.

    (Shaul Shaked)

  • ISARDĀS NĀGAR

    (or Išwar Das, 1655-1749), Hindu historian writing in Persian, author of Fotuḥāt-e ʿālamgiri, a contemporary account of the reign of Awrangzēb.

    (Mario Casari)

  • ISFAHAN

    ancient province and old city in central Iran. Isfahan city has served as one of the most important urban centers on the Iranian Plateau since ancient times.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ISFAHAN i. GEOGRAPHY

    The province consists of 52 hydrological units belonging to 9 basins and 27 sub-basins. Rivers are small and temporary, with the exception of the Zāyandarud, which totals 405 km in length, with an average annual discharge of 1,053 mcm, average annual precipitation of 450 mm, and a basin area of 27,100 km.2.

    (EIr, Xavier de Planhol)

  • ISFAHAN ii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    The Isfahan oasis, as a prosperous area of agricultural life, eventually fostered the foundation of a major city—one whose strategic location helped it to dominate the entire area of Iran.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • ISFAHAN iii. POPULATION

    Isfahan’s population size from the Safavid through the Qajar periods, as reported by European travelers and diplomats, remained largely a matter of speculation.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ISFAHAN iii. POPULATION (1) The Qajar Period

    Moḥammad-Mahdi Arbāb, a native of Isfahan, maintained that, at the time of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah’s accession in 1848, there were 200,000 city inhabitants, with that number decreasing to about 80,000 for a period before growing again.

    (Heidi Walcher)

  • ISFAHAN iii. POPULATION (2) Isfahan Province

    In 2001, the sub-provinces of Isfahan (with more than 1.6 million), Kāšān, and Najafabād (with more than 300,000) were the most populated, while the sub-provinces of Naṭanz, Fereydunšahr, and Ardestān were the least populated with populations of less than 50,000 persons.

    (Habibollah Zanjani)

  • ISFAHAN iii. POPULATION (3) Isfahan City

    As the capital of Isfahan Province, the city accounted, in 1996, for about 32.2 percent of the total population of the province and 43.4 percent of its urban population. Isfahan is also the third most populated city in the country, behind Tehran and Mashad.

    (Habibollah Zanjani)

  • ISFAHAN iv. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    The Arab geographers report that the Sasanian city of Isfahan comprised two adjoining towns: Jayy, the fortified town and province center and, two miles (mil) away, Yahudiya, a Jewish settlement.

    (John F. Hansman and EIr)

  • ISFAHAN v. LOCAL HISTORIOGRAPHY

    Isfahan is exceptional in the number and variety of works of local historiography; no other Persian city has attracted nearly as many such works.

    (Jürgen Paul)

  • ISFAHAN vi. MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    The history of Isfahan prior to the city’s efflorescence in the 17th century often traced alternating cycles of urbanization and de-urbanization.

    (Hossein Kamaly)

  • ISFAHAN vii. SAFAVID PERIOD

    Isfahan came under Safavid rule in 1503 following Shah Esmāʿil’s defeat of Solṭān Morād, the Āq Qoyunlu ruler of Erāq-e ʿAjam, near Hamadān.

    (Masashi Haneda and Rudi Matthee)

  • ISFAHAN viii. QAJAR PERIOD

    The historical changes affecting the Isfahan of this period included loss of its status as the royal capital and its transformation into a major provincial city.

    (Heidi Walcher)

  • ISFAHAN ix. THE PAHLAVI PERIOD AND THE POST-REVOLUTION ERA

    In the process of consolidating his power in Isfahan, Reza Shah managed to constrain two powerful social groups: the Shiʿite clergy and the Baḵtiāri tribesmen.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ISFAHAN x. MONUMENTS

    According to the French traveler Jean Chardin, in the late 17th century Isfahan housed some 162 mosques, 48 theological colleges (madrasa), 1,802 caravansaries, and 273 bathhouses.

    (Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug)

  • ISFAHAN x. MONUMENTS (1) A Historical Survey

    Isfahan’s monuments developed in the early medieval period first under the ʿAbbāsid caliphate and Buyid patronage. But many of the extant monuments of Isfahan date to the periods in history when the city served as the capital of the ruling dynasties of the Great Saljuqs (1040-1194) and the Safavids (1501-1722).

    (Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug)

  • ISFAHAN x. Monuments (2) Palaces

    European visitors to Safavid Persia, for example, found themselves increasingly bound by Isfahan, where they were able to gain a royal audience or conduct their business with the court and government bureaucracy without having to follow the itinerant monarchs.

    (Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug)

  • ISFAHAN x. Monuments (3) Mosques

    Isfahan is known historically for its large number of mosques. According to Abu Noʿaym of Isfahan, the first large mosque in Isfahan was built during the Caliphate of Imam ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb (r. 656-61). The French traveler Jean Chardin counted 162 mosques during his travels to Isfahan in the middle of the 17th century.

    (Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug)

  • ISFAHAN x. Monuments (4) Madrasas

    The earliest extant madrasa in Isfahan is the 1325 Emāmi Madrasa, which is also known as the Madrasa-ye Bābā Qāsem after the name of its first teacher, who is buried in a nearby tomb. As in Persian mosque type, this and most other madrasas in Persia follow the four-ayvān courtyard-centered plan.

    (Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug)

  • ISFAHAN x. Monuments (5) Bridges

    On the southern edge of the city of Isfahan lies the Zāyandarud River, the unnavigable river that has been the major source of water in the region since the earliest settlements in its environs. Until the transfer of the Safavid capital to Isfahan in the late 16th century, the river was well outside the city walls.

    (Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug)

  • ISFAHAN x. Monuments (6) Bibliography

    (Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug)

  • ISFAHAN xi. SCHOOL OF PAINTING AND CALLIGRAPHY

    The “Isfahan” school of painting and calligraphy generally refers to works of art associated with the city, when it was chosen as the Safavid capital. The school has two distinct phases of first the followers of Reżā ʿAbbāsi and then the European style.

    (Massumeh Farhad)

  • ISFAHAN xii. BAZAAR: PLAN AND FUNCTION

    It is one of the best-preserved examples of a large, enclosed, and covered bazaar complex that was typical of most cities in the Muslim world prior to the 20th century. The oldest areas of the present-day bazaar date from the early 17th century; its first stone was laid in 1603.

    (Willem Floor)

  • ISFAHAN xiii. CRAFTS

    Isfahan has maintained its position as a major center for traditional crafts in Persia. The crafts of Isfahan encompass textiles, carpets, metalwork, woodwork, ceramics, painting, and inlay works of various kind. The work is carried out in different settings including small industrial and bazaar workshops, in the homes of craftsmen and women, and in rural cottage industries.

    (Habib Borjian and EIr)

  • ISFAHAN xiv. MODERN ECONOMY AND INDUSTRIES

    This sub-section is divided into the following parts: (1) Modern Economy of the Province; (2) Industries of Isfahan City.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ISFAHAN xiv. MODERN ECONOMY AND INDUSTRIES (1) The Province

    The distribution of economic activities within Isfahan, with an urbanism of 76 percent, is highly uneven. The oasis of Isfahan, watered by the Zāyandarud, is responsible for nearly half of rural activities.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ISFAHAN xiv. MODERN ECONOMY AND INDUSTRIES (2) Isfahan City

    The stagnation experienced after the fall of the Safavids was even more marked in the 19th century, owing to European competition that had rendered many local industries practically extinct.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ISFAHAN xv. EDUCATION AND CULTURAL AFFAIRS

    The Lazarists, with the support of the prince-governor, founded in 1875 schools for both boys and girls and an infirmary. These appear to be the predecessors of the boys school L’Etoile du Matin and the girls school Rudāba.

    (Maryam Borjian and Habib Borjian)

  • ISFAHAN xvi. FOLKLORE AND LEGEND

    Systematic collection of the folklore of Isfahan is mostly due to Amirqoli Amini, whose first publication was a collection of Persian dicta entitled hazār o yak soḵan.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • ISFAHAN xvii. ARMENIAN COMMUNITY

    See JULFA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ISFAHAN xviii. JEWISH COMMUNITY

    According to Armenian sources, the Sasanian Šāpūr II transferred many Jews from Armenia and settled them in Isfahan. According to the Middle Persian text Šahristānihā ī Ērān, Yazdegerd I settled Jews in Jay (Gay) at the request of his Jewish wife Šōšan-doḵt.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ISFAHAN xix. JEWISH DIALECT

    The Jewish dialects of Isfahan, Kāshān, Hamadān, Borujerd, Yazd, Kermān and others belong to the Central dialect group of Northwestern Iranian. All of Northwestern Iranian languages, in turn, are descended from Median.

    (Donald Stilo)

  • ISFAHAN xx. GEOGRAPHY OF THE MEDIAN DIALECTS OF ISFAHAN

    The continuum of Central Plateau Dialects appears along a northwest-souteast axis traversing the modern provinces of Hamadān, Markazi, Isfahan, and Yazd, that is, the area of Ancient Media Major.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ISFAHAN xxi. PROVINCIAL DIALECTS

    The Iranian languages of Isfahan Province are of three basic types: Northwest Iranian dialects belonging to the Central Plateau Dialect group, and two different types of Southwest Iranian languages: slightly divergent dialects of Persian and large pockets of Lori.

    (Donald Stilo)

  • ISFAHAN xxii. GAZI DIALECT

    Gazi belongs to the Central Plateau Dialect group of Northwestern Iranian (NWI) languages. Gazi, the Jewish dialect of Isfahan, Sedehi, and probably other uninvestigated dialects of the area are grouped together as one subgroup of CPD.

    (Donald Stilo)

  • ISFAHAN (mode of music)

    a dastgāh in Persian music. See BAYĀT-E EṢFAHĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ISFAHAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY

    term coined to describe a philosophical and mystical movement patronized by the court of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1588-1629), centered in the new Safavid capital of Isfahan.

    (Sajjad H. Rizvi)

  • ISIDORUS OF CHARAX

    author of the Stathmoì Parthikoí; (in Latin Mansiones Parthicae) “Parthian Stations,” which is the only Greek text preserved at all of the genre of the itinerary or route description.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • IŠKATA

    in the Avesta the name of a mountain and of the land (situated in the Hindu Kush region) which is dominated by this mountain.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ISLAM AKHUN

    (Eslām-āḵūn), treasure-seeker and swindler active in Khotan and neighboring areas between 1894 and 1901, best known, however, as an adept forger of manuscripts and block prints. He was eventually unmasked by Sir Aurel Stein (1862-1943) in 1901.

    (Ursula Sims-Williams)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN i - iv

    The following series of articles provide an overview of some historical, contemporary, and especially political aspects of the topic that are of special interest and relevance in the world today.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN v. MESSIANIC ISLAM IN IRAN

    Messianism is one of the most powerful, diverse and enduring expressions of Islam in Iran throughout its long history.

    (Abbas Amanat)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN vi. THE CONCEPT OF THE MAHDI IN SUNNI ISLAM

    The Savior is a descendant of the Prophet whose expected return to rule the world will restore justice, peace, and true religion.

    (Said Amir Arjomand)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN vii. THE CONCEPT OF THE MAHDI IN TWELVER SHIʿISM

    Mahdism in Twelver Shiʿism inherited many of its elements from previous religious trends.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN viii. THE OCCULTATION OF MAHDI

    See ḠAYBA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN ix. THE DEPUTIES OF MAHDI

    according to Twelver Shiʿite tradition, the four intermediaries between the Hidden Imam and the faithful during his “Minor Occultation,” 874-941 CE.

    (Verena Klemm)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN x. THE ROOTS OF POLITICAL SHIʿISMs

    By “political Shiʿism” we mean here the politicization of theological and legal doctrines of Twelver Shiʿism among some thinkers, in order to make of these doctrines an ideology of legitimization of religious authority and power.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN xi. JIHAD IN ISLAM

    The term jihad (Ar. jehād “struggle, striving”) occurs (either in its root or derivatives) about forty times in the Qurʾān with the secondary, but dominant, meaning of “regulated warfare with divine sanction.”

    (David Cook)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN xii. MARTYRDOM IN ISLAM

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN xiii. ISLAMIC POLITICAL MOVEMENTS IN 20TH CENTURY IRAN

    New Islamic political movements first emerged in the Near East, the Indian Subcontinent, and Indonesia in the middle of the 19th century.

    (Ahmad Ashraf)

  • ISLAM IN IRAN xiv - xviii

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ISMAʿILISM

    a major Shiʿite Muslim community. The Ismaʿilis have had a long and eventful history dating back to the middle of the 2nd/8th century when the Emāmi Shiʿis split into several groups.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ISMAʿILISM i. ISMAʿILI STUDIES

    In its modern and scientific form, dating to the 1930s, Ismaʿili studies represents one of the newest fields of Islamic studies.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ISMAʿILISM ii. ISMAʿILI HISTORIOGRAPHY

    The general lack of Ismaʿili interest in historiography is well attested by the fact that only a few works of historical nature have been found in the rich corpus of Ismaʿili literature.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ISMAʿILISM iii. ISMAʿILI HISTORY

    On the death of Imam Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq in 148/765 his followers from among the Imami Shiʿites split into six groups, of which two may be identified as proto-Ismaʿilis or earliest Ismaʿilis.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ISMAʿILISM iv - x

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ISMAʿILISM xi. ISMAʿILI JURISPRUDENCE

    The Ismaʿili system of jurisprudence was founded after the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty in North Africa.

    (Ismail K. Poonawala)

  • ISMAʿILISM xii. ISMAʿILI HADITH

    See HADITH iii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ISMAʿILISM xiii. ISMAʿILI LITERATURE IN PERSIAN AND ARABIC

    Ismaʿili literature (all the written products of scholarly disciplines delineated by learning, religion, and science) refers to the literary production of more than a millennium.

    (Ismail K. Poonawala)

  • ISMAʿILISM xiv. ISMAʿILISM IN GINĀN LITERATURE

    Nezāri Ismaʿili texts from the Indian Subcontinent exhibit an adaptive response to the region’s complex religious, literary, and cultural environment.

    (Ali Sultaan Ali Asani)

  • ISMAʿILISM xv. NEZĀRI ISMAʿILI MONUMENTS

    The principal monuments of the Nezāri Ismaʿili state, which also defined and defended its boundaries, were the exceptionally well-constructed and provisioned castles.

    (Peter Willey)

  • ISMAʿILISM xvi. MODERN ISMAʿILI COMMUNITIES

    The Ismaʿilis consist of two main branches—the Nezāri Ismaʿilis and the Mustaʿlian Ṭayyebi Ismaʿilis. Both have their roots in the Fatimid period of Ismaʿili history.

    (Azim Nanji and Zulfikar Hirji)

  • ISMAʿILISM xvii. THE IMAMATE IN ISMAʿILISM

    in common with all major Shiʿite groups, the Ismaʿilis believe that the Imamate is a divinely sanctioned and guided institution.

    (Azim Nanji)

  • ISRAEL

    relations with Iran. OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Diplomatic and political relations. ii. The Jewish Persian community: forthcoming. iii. Iranian Studies in Israel: forthcoming. iv. Persian art collections in Israel: forthcoming.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ISRAEL i. RELATIONS WITH IRAN

    The relationship between Israel and Iran has, since the very inception of the Jewish state in 1948, been a complex function of Iran’s geo-strategic imperatives as a non-Arab, non-Sunni state.

    (David Menashri, Trita Parsi )

  • ISRAEL ii. JEWISH PERSIAN COMMUNITY

    Jews of Persian origin and their descendants who live in the State of Israel and constitute an integral and active part of its general population.

    (David Yeroushalmi)

  • ISRAEL iii. IRANIAN STUDIES

    A department of Iranian Studies was only formally established in Israel in 1970, but scholars working in Israel have been interested in aspects of Iranian history and culture since long before that date.

    (Shaul Shaked)

  • ISRAEL iv. PERSIAN ART COLLECTIONS

    Iron Age II-III is represented by a few clay rhytons, including one with human face and hands; anthropomorphic and zoomorphic vessels; tiny animals made of baked clay and frit; a metal figurative comb; an Elamite figure of a goddess; a finial of a standard portraying two lions from Luristan; and various kinds of daily objects.

    (Rachel Milstein)

  • ISRĀʾILIYĀT

    See QEṢAṢ AL-ANBIĀʾ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ITALY

    : relations with Iran. Overview of the entry. i. Introduction. ii. Diplomatic and commercial relations. iii. Cultural relations. iv. Travel accounts. v. Iranian Studies, pre-Islamic. vi. Excavations in Iran. vii. Iranian Studies, Islamic period. viii. Persian manuscripts. ix. Persian art collections. x. Lirica Persica. xi. Translations of Persian works into Italian. xii. Translations of Italian works into Persian. xiii. Iranians in Italy. xiv. Current centers of Iranian Studies in Italy. xv. IsMEO

    (Multiple Authors)

  • Italy i. INTRODUCTION

    Direct relations between the Italian peninsula and the Iranian plateau date at least from the Parthian period, when the border between the Arsacids and the Roman Empire was set on the Euphrates.

    (Carlo G. Cereti)

  • Italy ii. DIPLOMATIC AND COMMERCIAL RELATIONS

    A privileged relationship between Iran and Italy dates back to the age of the ancient Roman and Persian empires. Despite their ever-changing internal affairs, the two political centers of Europe and Asia, throughout the entire ancient time, experienced long lasting contacts.

    (Mario Casari)

  • Italy iii. CULTURAL RELATIONS

    during the Middle Ages, when Italy and Persia were not clearly definable cultural entities, the translated works of significant Persian literature had a great influence on Italian and European culture.

    (Mario Casari)

  • Italy iv. TRAVEL ACCOUNTS

    Italian travel accounts represent a major source for the history of Iran, especially that of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

    (Michele Bernardini, Anna Vanzan)

  • Italy v. IRANIAN STUDIES, PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Although Italian contacts with Iran date from ancient times, scientific interest in pre-Islamic Iran cannot be traced earlier than the second half of the eighteenth century.

    (Carlo G. Cereti)

  • Italy vi. ITALIAN EXCAVATIONS IN IRAN

    From the early 20th century on, Italians participated in the scholarly investigation of ancient Iran, but direct involvement in field archeology dates from relatively recent times.

    (Pierfrancesco Callieri, Bruno Genito)

  • Italy vii. IRANIAN STUDIES, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    The earliest known references to Persia by Italian writers are gleaned from numerous notes in the oldest medieval travel accounts, dating from the 13th century onwards.

    (Mario Casari)

  • Italy viii. PERSIAN MANUSCRIPTS

    Italy houses 439 Persian manuscripts in two public archives and thirty public libraries located in fifteen different cities.

    (Paola Orsatti)

  • Italy ix. PERSIAN ART COLLECTIONS

    Since the Middle Ages, Italians have been some of the greatest collectors of Islamic art in Europe. The Islamic market that Italy drew on was very large, and some of the most opulent works were imported from Persia.

    (M. V. Fontana)

  • Italy x. LIRICA PERSICA

    a project set up in 1989 by the School of Persian Literary Studies at Venice University to create a database for Persian lyric verse.

    (Daniela Meneghini)

  • Italy xi. TRANSLATIONS OF PERSIAN WORKS INTO ITALIAN

    The period of Italian translations of Persian literary works from the Islamic era began, and not by accident, in the post-Risorgimento (Italian unification) age (1880s) with epic poetry.

    (Mario Casari)

  • Italy xii. TRANSLATIONS OF ITALIAN WORKS INTO PERSIAN

    Two texts by Italian authors appear to be the first known translations of European literary works into Persian carried out in the modern age.

    (Mario Casari)

  • Italy xiii. IRANIANS IN ITALY

    The presence of Persians in Italy has always been fragmentary and discontinuous, which never led to any extended, cohesive social groups of permanent residents.

    (Mario Casari)

  • Italy xiv. CURRENT CENTERS OF IRANIAN STUDIES IN ITALY

    Studies on subjects related to the Iranian cultural world can boast an ancient tradition in Italy, but not as an independent field of study at academic level. Things have considerably changed in recent times.

    (Carlo G. Cereti)

  • Italy xv. IsMEO

    acronym for the Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente (‘Italian Institute for Middle and Far East’), founded in 1933.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • IVANOV, PAVEL PETROVICH

    (1893-1942), scholar in Central Asian studies at the Institute of Oriental Studies (Institut Vostokovedeniya) of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. His book Arkhiv khivinskikh khanov XIX v. (1940) contains detailed description of 137 documents, mostly tax registers (daftars), written in Čaḡatay.

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • IVANOW, VLADIMIR ALEKSEEVICH

    (1886-1970), Russian orientalist and leading pioneer in modern Ismaʿili studies. In November 1920 Ivanow went to India in the company of an Anglo-Indian force. In 1928 Ivanow went to Persia to collect manuscripts for the Asiatic Society.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • IVORY

    AND ITS USE IN PRE-ISLAMIC IRAN. Prior to the 1st millennium BCE ivories are not commonly documented from excavations in Iran.

    (Oscar White Muscarella)

  • Ilāri

    (music sample)

  • Iranian National March

    (music sample)

  • I~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter I entries.

    (DATA)