List of Articles

  • JĀ-YE ḴĀLI-E SOLUČ

    (Missing Soluch, 2007), a novel by Mahmud Dowlatabadi, details the quotidian drudgery that plagues the Iranian peasantry, as well as the impact of land reform on rural families of meager means.

    (Ehsan Siahpoush)

  • JABA

    (Jebe), 13th-century Mongol general of the Besüt (Bisut) tribe under Čengiz Khan. His original name was Jirḡoʾadai.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • JABAL ʿĀMEL

    SHIʿITE ULAMA OF, in the Safavid Period. The Safavid monarchs sought prominent clerics who would strengthen their rule by promoting a standard urban system of Shiʿite worship.

    (Rula Abisaab)

  • JABAL-E SERĀJ

    a small town in the province of Parvān in Afghanistan, located at the mouth of the Sālang valley in Kabul Kohestān to the north of the city of Charikar (Čārikār).

    (Erwin Grötzbach)

  • JABBĀR ḴĒL

    the leading lineage of the Solaymān Ḵēl Paxtun tribe of the Ḡalzi/Ḡilzi tribal confederation of eastern and southeastern Afghanistan.

    (M. Jamil Hanifi)

  • JABBĀRA

    a group of Shiʿite Arabs in Fārs province who, together with the Šaybāni, form the Arab tribe of the Ḵamsa tribal confederation.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • JĀBER JOʿFI

    ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH, a Kufan traditionist and companion of the fifth and sixth Shiʿite Imams, Moḥammad al-Bāqer and Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq.

    (Maria Dakake)

  • JĀBERI, MIRZĀ SALMĀN

    MIRZĀ SALMĀN, vizier and prominent statesman during the reigns of Shah Esmāʿil II (1576-77) and Shah Moḥammad Ḵodābanda (1577-88).

    (Colin Paul Mitchell)

  • JABḠUYA

    Arabo-Persian form of the Central Asian title yabḡu. Although it is best known as a Turkish title of nobility, it was in use many centuries before the Turks appear in the historical record.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JABḠUYA ii

    origin and early history.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams, Étienne De la Vassiere)

  • JABḠUYA ii

    in Islamic sources.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • JACKAL

    Golden or Asiatic (Canis aureus, MPers. tōrag, NPers. tura, šaḡāl), a medium-size member of the dog family (Canidae) occurring throughout Afghanistan and Iran. Scavenging supplies a small percentage of the diet, especially in habitats away from humans; and carrion consists mainly of road kill and, around villages, garbage.

    (Steven C. Anderson)

  • JACKSON, ABRAHAM VALENTINE WILLIAMS

    (1862-1937), pioneer of Iranian studies in America and prominent Iranist for half a century. The most important book of Jackson perhaps was Zoroaster, the Prophet of Ancient Iran (1898). He was not among those who belittled indigenous traditions. He had an abiding faith in the basic historicity of these sources.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • JACOBS, SAMUEL AIWAZ

    (1890-1971), Assyrian intellectual and publisher. In New York, he created fonts for Syriac typography, designed books for major literary publishers, and at his own press produced artistic and surprising limited-editions, most often of poetry. He is best remembered for his typography of E. E. Cummings’ books of verse.

    (Eden Naby)

  • JADE

    (nephrite; Pers. yašm, yašb, yašf, yaṣb). An extremely small range of pre-Islamic Iranian jades have thus far been published, despite the very ancient employment of jade in eastern Iran. The known material is often of extraordinary refinement, and testifies to an extensive influence on other jadecarving cultures, including the Chinese.

    (Manuel Keene)

  • JADE i. Introduction

    carvings in pre-Islamic Central and Western Asia was largely an east Iranian and Turkic phenomenon, and the same holds true for the Islamic tradition.

    (Manuel Keene)

  • JADE ii. Pre-Islamic Iranian Jades

    Extant scabbard slides of softer and more brittle stones (e.g., lapis lazuli, rock crystal), as well as wood, suggest that the toughness of jade was not an essential requirement for this function. Other types of jade fittings on the warrior and his horse would often accompany the weapon’s mounts.

    (Manuel Keene)

  • JADE iii. Jade Carving, 4th century B.C.E to 15th century C.E.

    The eleven ancient and medieval jades illustrated in the plates are representatives of a very large and expanding corpus of ancient and medieval Iranian jades.

    (Manuel Keene)

  • JADIDISM

    a movement of reform among Muslim intellectuals in Central Asia, mainly among the Uzbeks and the Tajiks, from the first years of the 20th century to the 1920s.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • JAF (JĀF)

    a once large Kurdish nomadic confederation living in south Iraqi Kurdistan and in the Sanandaj area of Iranian Kurdistan.

    (M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee)

  • JAʿFAR B. MOḤAMMAD B. ḤARB

    (d. 850), ABU’L-FAŻL AL-HAMDĀNI, also called al-Ašajj ("scar-face" or "skull-broken"), Muʿtazilite theologian who lived in Baghdad.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • JAʿFAR B. MANṢUR-AL-YAMAN

    a high-ranking Ismaʿili author who flourished in the 10th century, during the reigns of the first four Fatimid caliphs.

    (Hamid Haji)

  • JAʿFAR B. YAḤYĀ BARMAKI

    See BARMAKIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAʿFAR ḴĀN AZ FARANG ĀMADA

    acclaimed satirical drama in one act by ʿAli Nowruz, a pen name of the playwright Ḥasan Moqaddam (1895-1925).

    (Maryam Shariati)

  • JAʿFAR KHAN AZ FARANG ĀMADEH

    See MOQADDAM, ḤASAN. [online under JAʿFAR ḴĀN].

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAʿFAR KHAN BAḴTIĀRI

    See BAḴTIĀRI (1).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ

    ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH (ca. 702-765), the sixth imam of the Imami Shiʿites. He s pent most of his life in Medina, where he built up a circle of followers primarily as a theologian, Ḥadith transmitter, and jurist ( faqih ).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ i. Life

    life spanned the latter half of the Umayyad dynasty ruling from Damascus, which was marked by various rebellions, the rise of the ʿAbbasids, and the establishment of the ʿAbbasid caliphate in Baghdad.

    (Robert Gleave)

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ ii. Teachings

    teaching is hampered by the fact that his views are reported in support of a number of contradictory theological and legal positions.

    (Robert Gleave)

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iii. And Sufism

    all the Sufi orders claim initiatic descent from the Prophet exclusively through ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb, the first imam of the Ahl al-Bayt, and many speak also of a selselat al-ḏahab (golden chain), linking them with all of the first eight of the Twelve Imams.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iv. And Esoteric sciences

    a major figure in Shiʿite esotericism, is purported to be the founder of occult science in Islam. According to Imami-Shiʿite tradition, his knowledge concerned “the exoteric (al-ẓāher), the esoteric (al-bāṭen), and the esoteric of the esoteric (bāṭen al-bāṭen).”

    (Daniel De Smet)

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ v. And herbal medicine

    work on medicine (Ṭebb al-Emām al-Ṣādeq) belongs to a genre of traditional herbal medicine attributed to the Shiʿite imams and known as the Medicine of the imams (ṭebb al-aʾemma), whose salient figure is Imam Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq.

    (Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi)

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ vi. and Shiʿite Jurisprudence

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAʿFARI, ŠAʿBĀN

    (1921-2006), a luṭi of the jāhel variety, athlete, and rightwing political agent from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, who later headed Persia’s traditional sports establishment (zur-ḵāna).

    (Houchang E. Chehabi)

  • JAʿFARQOLI KHAN BAḴTIĀRI

    See BAḴTIĀRI (1).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAFR

    a term of uncertain etymology used to designate the major divinatory art in Islamic mysticism and gnosis—the art of discovering the predestined fate of nations, dynasties, religions, and individuals by a variety of methods.

    (Gernot L. Windfuhr)

  • JAGARḴWIN

    (or Cegerxwin), pseudonym of Şêxmûs Hesen (1903-1984), considered by many the leading Kurdish poet of the 20th century writing in Kurmanji.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • JAḠATU

    an archeological site in Ḡazni province, Afghanistan, situated about 20 km north of Ḡazni on the route between Ḡazni and Wardak.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • JAGHATAY

    See CHAGHATAYID DYNASTY .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAḠMINI, MAḤMUD

    b. Moḥammad b. ʿOmar (d. 1344), an astronomer from Jaḡmin, a village in Ḵᵛārazm. The author of a brief Arabic survey of mathematical astronomy.

    (Lutz Richter-Bernburg)

  • JĀḠORI

    a term of uncertain etymological origin for both a tribal section of the Hazāras and a district (woluswāli) of Ḡazni province in Afghanistan.

    (A. Monsutti)

  • JAHĀN TIMÜR

    recognized briefly as Il-khan in Iraq and Mesopotamia in 1339-40 during the period of the collapse of the Il-khanate.

    (Charles Melville)

  • JAHĀN-E ZANĀN

    (Women’s World), short-lived magazine, 1921. Published first in Mašhad (four issues) and, after a lapse of about five months, in Tehran (one issue only).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • JAHĀNĀRĀ BEGUM

    (1614-81), the eldest surviving daughter of the Mughal Emperor Šāh Jahān and his favorite wife, Momtāz Mahal.

    (Stephen Dale)

  • JAHĀNBEGLU

    (or Jānbeglu), one of several Kurdish tribes transplanted from northwestern Persia to Māzandarān by Āḡā Moḥammad Khan Qajar (r. 1789-97).

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • JAHĀNGAŠT

    See BOḴĀRI, SHAIKH JALĀL-AL-DIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAHĀNGIR

    the fourth Mughal emperor, the first of his dynasty to have been born in India (1569-1627).

    (Lisa Balabanlilar)

  • JAHĀNGIR KHAN ŠIRĀZI

    See ṢUR-E ESRĀFIL "pending".

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAHĀNGOŠĀ-YE JOVAYNI

    TĀRIḴ-E, title of the history of the Mongols composed in 1252-60 by the Il-khanid Persian vizier, ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Abu’l-Moẓaffar ʿAṭā-Malek Jovayni.

    (Charles Melville)

  • JAHĀNGOŠĀ-YE NĀDERI

    TĀRIḴ-E (or Tāriḵ-e nāderi), one of the most important chronicles of the reign of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47) by his court secretary, Mirzā Moḥammad-Mahdi Khan Estrābādi/Astarābādi.

    (Ernest Tucker)

  • JAHĀN-MALEK ḴĀTUN

    (d. after 1382), Injuid princess, poet, and contemporary of Ḥāfeẓ. The style and quality of her poetry suggest that she was acquainted with famous male contemporaries Ḥāfeẓ and ʿObayd Zākāni.

    (Dominic Parviz Brookshaw)

  • JAHĀNŠĀH QARĀ QOYUNLU

    See QARĀ QOYUNLU DYNASTY. Forthcoming.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀḤEẒ

    (b. ca. 776; d. 868-9), ABU ʿOṮMĀN ʿAMR B. BAḤR, the leading Arabic prose writer of the 9th century.

    (Michael Cooperson)

  • JAHM B. ṢAFWĀN

    (d. 746), ABU MOḤREZ, Islamic theologian of the Umayyad period. Documentation about him is scarce and not entirely reliable.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • JAHN, KARL EMIL OSKAR

    (1906-1985), Czech orientalist who specialized in Central Asian history, Persian historiography, and Turcology.

    (J. T. P. DE Bruijn)

  • JAHROM

    city and sub-province (šahrestān) in central Fārs Province, covering an area of 4,517 sq. km.

    (Shiva Jaʿfari)

  • JAIPUR

    city in northwestern India, founded in 1727 by the Kachhwaha prince (raja) and Mughal officer Sawai Jai Singh Kachhwaha (1688-1743). He built an observatory in Jaipur with enormous instruments for observing and calculating celestial phenomena

    (Catherine B. Asher)

  • JĀJARMI

    MOḤAMMAD B. BADR, 14th-century Persian poet and anthologist.

    (Anna Livia Beelaert)

  • JĀJRUD

    a major river of the southern slopes of the central Alborz in the Central Plateau (140 km. long, basin of 1,890 km²), running from the mountains of Šami-rānāt at Rudbār-e Qaṣrān to the plain of Varāmin and eventually joins the salt lake of Qom (Daryāča-ye Qom), at about 89 km to the northwest of the city.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • JĀKI

    a group of Lor tribes in the Kuhgiluya region of eastern Khuzesan. They comprise the tribal confederations of the Čahārboniča (or Čarboniča) and the Lirāvi.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • JAKKADI

    a dance style performed by Persian women, as documented in Sanskrit treatises of the 16th and 17th centuries.

    (Maria Sabaye Moghaddam)

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN DAVĀNI

    See DAVĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN ḤASAN III

    (b. 1166-67; d. 1221), Nezāri Ismaʿili imam and the sixth lord of Alamut. He succeeded to the leadership of the Nezāridaʿwa (‘propaganda’ or ‘mission,’ see DĀʿI) and state on the death of his father, Nur-al-Din Moḥammad II b. Ḥasan II.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN ḴᵛĀRAZMŠĀH(I) MENGÜBIRNI

    the last Ḵᵛārazmšāh of the line of Anuštigin Ḡarčaʾi, reigned in 1220-31 as the eldest son and successor of ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN MIRZĀ

    Qajar historian and freethinker (1827-1872), son of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah (r. 1797-1834). Besides European influences, the intellectual sources of his freethinking are not entirely known. He associated with Mirzā Malkom Khan (1833-1908) and his secret society, the Farāmuš-ḵāna (‘house of oblivion’), which labored to recruit members.

    (Abbas Amanat and Farzin Vejdani)

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD BALḴI, MAWLAWI

    See RUMI. Forthcoming, online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN ABU’L-QĀSEM TABRIZI

    (d. 1244-45), a prominent Sufi of the Sohravardiya Order. Started his education in Tabriz under Badr-al-Din Abu Saʿid Tabrizi.

    (Farhan Nizami)

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN TURĀNŠĀH

    See MOZAFFARIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JALĀL-AL-MOLK

    See IRAJ MIRZĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JALĀLĀBĀD

    a city, a valley, and an administrative unit of fluctuating scope within the Afghan state structure. The city is located in eastern Afghanistan at 1,885 feet above sea level in the north-central portion of an elongated oval valley that stretches approximately 80 miles east to west.

    (Shah Mahmoud Hanifi)

  • JALĀLI

    a Kurdish tribe of eastern Anatolia and northwestern Persia.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • JALĀLZĀDA

    (b. ca. 1490-94; d. 1567), MOṢṬAFĀ ÇELEBI, also known as “Koja Nişancı” (Ḵᵛāja Nešānči), Ottoman historian and administrator.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • JALĀYER

    See KHORASAN i. ETHNIC GROUPS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JALĀYER, ESMĀʿIL KHAN

    a prominent painter of the Qajar era, during the reign of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96). He was noted for his work in the genres of irāni-sāzi (Iranian subjects, relatively unaffected by European influences) and ṭabiʿat-sāzi (fauna and flora in a European naturalistic mode).

    (Manouchehr Broomand)

  • JALAYERIDS

    (sometimes called the Ilakāni by Persian historians), a dynasty of Mongol origin which ruled over Iraq, and for several decades also over north-western Persia, from the collapse of the Il-khanate in the late 1330s until the early 15th century.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • JALĀYER-NĀMA

    See QĀʾEM-MAQĀM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JALIL, RAHIM

    Soviet Tajik writer (1909-1989), a master of the short story.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • JALILAVAND

    a small Laki-speaking tribe inhabiting the Kermānšāh and Lorestān regions, most of whom belong to the Ahl-e Haqq sect.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • JĀLINUS

    (Galen), the Arabic form of Greek Galenos, the name of the illustrious 2nd-century authority on medicine of ancient Greece.

    (Hormoz Ebrahimnejad)

  • JALLĀD

    ?

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JALULĀʾ

    the site of a major battle between the Sasanian and Muslim forces. This locale is a medium-sized town in the Diāla Province of Iraq, situated on the middle course of the Diāla River.

    (Klaus Klier)

  • JAM

    name given to a religious ceremony performed among two important religious communities living traditionally in the same historical region on the Zagros Mountain chain.

    (M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee)

  • JĀM (1)

    a mountainous region on the way from Kabul to Herat, and a historically important village in the province of Ghur (Ḡur) in western Afghanistan.

    (Majdoddin Keyvani)

  • JĀM MINARET

    pre-eminent 12th-century monument of the Šansabāni sultans of Ḡur in central Afghanistan. The minaret stands 65 meters high near the confluence of the Harirud and Jāmrud rivers in a remote mountain valley once protected by a series of defensive towers.

    (F. B. Flood)

  • JĀM (2)

    “cup”: in Persian art and literature. Pending online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAM, MAḤMUD

    (1885-1969), titled Modir-al-Molk, prime minister under Reżā Shah.

    (Ali Sadeghi)

  • JAMĀL-AL-DIN ʿASADĀBĀDI

    See AFGANI, JAMĀL-AL-DIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAMĀL-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD EṢFAHĀNI

    poet and painter of the second half of the 12th century.

    (David Durand-Guédy)

  • JAMĀL-AL-DIN WĀʿEẒ-E EṢFAHĀNI

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAMĀLI ṢUFI

    PIR YAḤYĀ, calligrapher of the mid-8th/14th century who worked in Shiraz in the 740s/1340s.

    (Maryam Ekhtiari)

  • JAMĀLI, ḤĀMED B. FAŻL-ALLĀH

    Persian-speaking Indian poet (b. Delhi, ca. 862/1457; d. Gujarat, 942/1535).

    (A. A. Seyed-Gohrab)

  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI

    prominent Iranian intellectual, a pioneer of modern Persian prose fiction and of the genre of the short story (1892-1997).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI i. Life

    (b. Isfahan, 1892; d. Geneva, 1997) Mohammad-Ali, was a writer, researcher, and translator. Influenced by his father as a defender of freedom and social justice, Jamalzadeh was among the youngest members of the opposition group against the British and Russian interference in Iran. He established the Persian journal Kāveh.

    (Nahid Mozaffari)

  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI ii. Work

    Jamalzadeh, an innovator of the modern literary language, was the first to introduce the techniques of European short-story writing in Persian literature.

    (Hassan Kamshad and Nahid Mozaffari)

  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI iii. Bibliography

    a bibliography of Jamalzadeh’s work.

    (Nahid Mozaffari)

  • JĀMĀSP

    Sasanian king. He ascended to the throne in 496 (or possibly early 497) when his brother, the king of kings Kawād I, was deposed. Jāmāsp, like Kawād, was a son of the Sasanian ruler Pērōz (r. 459-84).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • Jāmāsp i. REIGN

    Jāmāsp or Zāmāsp (Middle Persian yʾmʾsp, zʾmʾsp; Greek Zamá;sphēs; Arabic Jāmāsb, Zāmāsb, Zāmāsf; New Persian Jāmāsp, Zāmāsp) ascended to the Sasanian throne in 496.

    (Jamsheed K. Choksy)

  • Jāmāsp ii. Coinage

    No gold coins are attested so far for Jāmāsp. Apart from the silver drachms, sixths of a drachm, or obols, are known from the mints DA and LD. All the DA specimens are dated to regnal year one, and perhaps are connected with the king’s coronation, which thus may have taken place in Dārābḡerd.

    (Nikolaus Schindel)

  • JĀMĀSPA

    an official at the court of Vīštāspa and an early convert of Zarathushtra, who, in the tradition became widely known for his wisdom.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • JĀMĀSPASA, Dastur JAMASPJI MINOCHERJI

    (1830-1898), Parsi priest and Iranologist. As a high priest he guided and supervised the consecration of several fire temples. He possessed a collection of important Zoroastrian manuscripts, and his publication Pahlavi texts (1897-1913) made these available to a larger audience.

    (Ramiyar P. Karanjia and Michael Stausberg)

  • JĀMĀSPI

    See AYĀDGĀR I JĀMĀSPIG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀMĀSP-NĀMA

    See AYĀDGĀR I JĀMĀSPIG.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀMEʿ-E ʿABBĀSI

    a Persian manual on foruʿ al-feqh (positive rules derived from the sources of legal knowledge) in Shiʿism.

    (Sajjad Rizvi)

  • JĀMEʿ AL-ḤEKĀYĀT

    (lit. Compiler of stories), one of the oldest and most common titles of mostly anonymous Persian story collections, dating from the 13th to the 19th century.

    (Dariush Kargar)

  • JĀMEʿ AL-ḤEKMATAYN

    See NĀṢER-E ḴOSROW.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀMEʿ-E MOFIDI

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀMEʿ AL-ʿOLUM

    See ENCYCLOPAEDIAS, PERSIAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAMṮIL

    a collection of Persian proverbs and their stories compiled in 1045/1644 by Moḥammad-ʿAli Ḥablarudi.

    (Ulrich Marzolph)

  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAWĀRIḴ

    (The Compendium of chronicles), historical work composed in 1300-10 by Ḵᵛāja Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh Ṭabib Hamadāni, vizier to the Mongol Il-khans Ḡāzān and Öljeitü.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAWĀRIḴ i. The work

    (The Compendium of chronicles), historical work composed in 1300-10 by Ḵᵛāja Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh Ṭabib Hamadāni, vizier to the Mongol Il-khans Ḡāzān and Öljeitü.

    (Charles Melville)

  • JĀMEʿ al-TAWĀRIḴ ii. Illustrations

    Just as the text of Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh’s Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ can be regarded as groundbreaking historically, so too the illustrations to it are seminal for the study of art history.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAWĀRIḴ-E ḤASANI

    a Timurid universal chronicle up to December 1451-January 1452, with a valuable final section on events in Kerman up to 1453.

    (İlker Evrim Binbaş)

  • JĀMEʿA

    See ZIĀRAT-E JĀMEʿA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀMEʿA-YE LISĀNSIAHĀ-YE DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE ʿĀLI

    the Association of graduates of the Teacher Training College, founded in 1932 by its first two graduating classes.

    (Ahmad Birashk)

  • JĀMI

    ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN NUR-AL-DIN b. Neẓām-al-Din Aḥmad-e Dašti, Persian poet, scholar, and Sufi (1414-1492).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JĀMI i. Life and Works

    though born in the hamlet of Ḵarjerd, Jāmi would take his penname from the nearby village of Jām (lying about midway between Mashad and Herat), where he spent his childhood.

    (Paul Losensky)

  • JĀMI ii. And Sufism

    among the several facets of Jāmi’s persona and career—Sufi, scholar, poet, associate of rulers—it may be permissible to award primacy to the first mentioned.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • JĀMI iii. And Persian Art

    Jāmi’s writings are among the most frequently illustrated in the history of Persian manuscript painting.

    (Chad Kia)

  • JĀMI RUMI AḤMAD

    (or Jāmi Meṣri), AḤMAD, Ottoman official, poet, and translator (fl. 10th/16th century).

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • JAMʿIYAT-E HELĀL-E AḤMAR-E IRĀN

    a non-governmental humanitarian organization affiliated with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC); founded in 1919 to promote health activities.

    (Farid Ghassemlou)

  • JAMʿIYAT-E MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI

    (Society of Islamic Coalition), a religious-political organization founded in 1963 to propagate Ayatollah Khomeini’s vision of an Islamic-Iranian state and society and to mobilize the population to implement that vision.

    (Ali Rahnema)

  • JAMʿIYAT-E MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI i. Hayʾathā-ye Moʾtalefa-ye Eslāmi 1963-79

    The Islamic Coalition of Mourning Groups was born almost two years after the death of Ayatollah Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʾi Borujerdi in 1961.

    (Ali Rahnema)

  • JAMʿIYAT-E MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI ii. Jamʿiyat-e Moʾtalefa and the Islamic Revolution

    After the 1979 Revolution, the “Coalition of Islamic Mourning Groups” changed its expressive and meaningful name to the rather awkward appellation of Jamʿiyat-e moʾtalefa-ye eslāmi (the Society of Islamic Coalition).

    (Ali Rahnema)

  • JAMḴĀNA

    See AḤL-E ḤAQQ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAMKARĀN

    village near Qom, located 6 km south of it on the Qom-Kashan highway. It includes the mazraʿas of Gorgābi (Hādi-Mehdi) and Zangābād, the ruins of Gabri castle, and the Jamkarān or Ṣāḥeb-al-Zamān mosque.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • JAMSHEDJI SORAB KUKADARU

    Parsi Zoroastrian priest.

    (Michael Stausberg, Ramiyar P. Karanjia)

  • JAMŠID

    (or Jam), mythical king of Iran; Avestan Yima (Old Indic Yama), with the epithet xšaēta.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JAMŠID i. Myth of Jamšid

    In the Avesta, he ruled the world in a golden age; he saved living beings from a natural catastrophe by preserving specimens in his var- (fortress); he possessed the most Fortune among mortals, but lost it and his kingship as a consequence of lying.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • JAMŠID ii. In Persian Literature

    Sources all agree that he reigned for several hundred years, but they differ on the exact length of his rule.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • JAMŠID B. MASʿUD ḠIĀṮ-AL-DIN KĀŠI

    See KĀŠI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAMŠIDI TRIBE

    (Jamšidi) one of several semi-nomadic, Persian-speaking, Hanafite Sunni groups of northwestern Afghanistan known as aymāq.

    (Christine Noelle-Karimi)

  • JĀN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    (1886-1951), AMIR ʿALĀʾI, brigadier general and commander of Khorasan army during the early Reżā Shah period, noted for his ruthlessness but eventually undone due to a mutiny of unpaid troops.

    (Bāqer ʿĀqeli)

  • JANĀB

    See ALQĀB VA ʿANĀWIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JANĀB DAMĀVANDI

    (1867-1973), popular name of Moḥammad Fallāḥi, a vocalist of the late Qajar period.

    (S. A. Mir ʿAlinaqi)

  • JAND

    a medieval Islamic town on the right bank of the lower Jaxartes in Central Asia some 350 km from where the river enters the Aral Sea.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • JANDAQ

    a town and rural district (dehestān) in the Ḵor and Biābānak district (baḵš) of Nāʾin sub-province in the province of Isfahan.

    (M. Badanj)

  • JANGALI MOVEMENT

    (1915-20), under the leadership of Mirzā Kuček Khan Jangali, in response to the political decay during World War I and the occupation of Iran by Anglo-Russian and Ottoman troops.

    (Pezhmann Dailami)

  • JĀNI BEG KHAN BIGDELI ŠĀMLU

    (d. 1645), išik-āqāsi-bāši (master of ceremony) and qurči-bāši (head of the tribal guards) under the Safavid Shah Ṣafi I (r. 1629-42) and Shah ʿAbbās II (r. 1642-66).

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • JANNĀBA

    term used by early Muslim geographers to refer to the county (šahrestān) and port city on the Persian Gulf in the province of Būšehr. See GANĀVA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JANNĀBI, ABU SAʿID

    11th-century vizier and man of letters. See, ĀBI, ABU SAʿID.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAPAN

    AND ITS RELATIONS WITH IRAN. The subject of contact between the two countries will be discussed in the following sub-entries.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JAPAN i. Introduction

    Direct contact and observation of each other by Persians and Japanese would wait for the establishment of Japan’s relations with the world by the modernizing administration of the Meiji period (1868-1912).

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • JAPAN ii. Diplomatic and Commercial Relations with Iran

    Iranian diplomatic contact with Japan is believed to date from 1873, when Nāṣer-al-Din Shah, on his first trip to Europe, met Naonobu Sameshima of Satsuma, who was the then Japanese ambassador to Paris, France.

    (Nobuaki Kondo)

  • Japan iii. Japanese Travelers to Persia

    It was only in 1854 that relations with foreign countries were resumed. This process gathered pace with the advent of the Meiji period (1868-1912), when the Japanese were allowed to go on official visits abroad.

    (Tadahiko Ohtsu and Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • JAPAN iv. Iranians in Japan

    Among the foreigners in Japan, Iranians total about 5,000 people, constituting a small minority group.

    (Toyoko Morita)

  • JAPAN v. ARCHEOLOGICAL MISSIONS TO PERSIA

    After World War II Japanese archeologists could not continue their work on sites in Korea and China, and their expertise became available for research in the Middle East and Persia.

    (Toh Sugimura)

  • JAPAN vi. IRANIAN STUDIES IN JAPAN, PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Ancient Iranian studies in Japan started at the beginning of the 20th century in Tokyo and Kyoto independently.

    (Takeshi Aoki)

  • JAPAN vii. IRANIAN STUDIES, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAPAN viii. SAFAVID STUDIES IN JAPAN

    The genesis of Safavid studies in Japan was an outgrowth of the interest in the history of the Mongols and the Turkic people, which is a significant point characterizing Safavid studies there.

    (Masashi Haneda)

  • JAPAN ix. Centers for Persian Studies in Japan

    Formal undergraduate and graduate programs of Persian studies in Japan are offered at Osaka University School of Foreign Studies and Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • JAPAN x. COLLECTIONS OF PERSIAN BOOKS IN JAPAN

    Forthcoming, online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAPAN xi. COLLECTIONS OF PERSIAN ART IN JAPAN

    Persian works of art in Japanese collections may be classified into (1) artifacts brought through China and Korea up to early modern times, (2) purchases in art markets since the 19th century.

    (Toh Sugimura)

  • JAPAN xii. TRANSLATIONS OF PERSIAN WORKS INTO JAPANESE

    Japanese readers were introduced to the Persian classics with translations of ʿOmar Ḵayyām’s Robāʿiyāt and Ferdowisi’s Šāh-nāma.

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • JAPAN xiii. TRANSLATIONS OF JAPANESE WORKS INTO PERSIAN

    Introduction of Japan to Persian readers began when Japanese military victories over China (1894-95) and, especially, Russia (1904-05) excited the interest of Iranians.

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • JĀRČI

    a public crier, announcer or herald, derived from the Mongol jar (proclamation, announcement). Criers or heralds naturally have a role in both civilian and military capacities.

    (Charles Melville)

  • JĀRČI-E MELLAT

    a weekly satirical newspaper published in Tehran, 1910-28 (with long interruptions).

    (EIr.)

  • JARI, TALL-E

    a Fars Province site named for its two closely situated prehistoric mounds, Jari A and B. The two mounds are located approximately 12 km southeast of Persepolis.

    (Yoshihiro Nishiaki)

  • JARQUYA

    district located in the eastern region of Isfahan Province. i. The district. ii. The dialect.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • JARQUYA i. The District

    Separated from Isfahan by the Šāhkuh range, Jarquya spreads over 6,500 km², stretching in a northwest-southeast direction to the wasteland that separates it from Abarquh.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • JARQUYA ii. The Dialect

    The dialect of Jarquya, together with those of Rudašt and Kuhpāya to its north, belongs to the Isfahani subgroup of the Central Dialects. Only about half of the villages of the district have retained their idioms, namely Ganjābād, Siān, Yangābād, Peykān, Mazraʿa-ʿArab, and Ḥaydarābād in Lower Jarquya, and Dastgerd, Kamālābād, Ḥasanābād, Ḵārā, and Yaḵčāl in Upper Jarquya.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • JARRĀḤI RIVER

    See KHUZESTAN i. Geography.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀRUDIYA

    See ZAIDIS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀS

    also written Jāšk (‘Jasques’ in English East India Company sources), a small Baluchi port on the Makrān coast with palm gardens.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • JĀSK

    a small Baluchi port on the Makrān coast with palm gardens, considered part of the Hormozgan province.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • JAŠN

    See GĀHANBĀR; FESTIVALS ii.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀSP

    See MAḤALLĀT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JĀT

    a contested and ambiguous label for several non-food-producing peripatetic, itinerant communities in Afghanistan and the surrounding region.

    (M. Jamil Hanifi)

  • JĀTAKASTAVA

    a Khotanese religious poem in praise (Skt. stava-) of the Buddha’s former births (Skt. jātaka-).

    (Mauro Maggi)

  • JAUBERT, PIERRE AMÉDÉE ÉMILIEN-PROBE

    In June 1806 Jaubert was received in audience by the shah in Tehran and presented a letter from Napoleon. Negotiations were carried out, and the court offered him a large portrait of the shah.

    (Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam)

  • JAVĀNMARDI

    also fotowwa, denoting a wide variety of amorphous associations with initiation rituals and codes in the Islamic world, primarily in its eastern regions.

    (Mohsen Zakeri)

  • JAVĀNRUD

    a city and a sub-province (šahrestān) in the northwest of Kermānšāhān Province near the border with Iraq at about 110 km southwest of Sanandaj sub-province.

    (ʿAbd-Allāh Marduḵ and EIr.)

  • JAVĀNŠIR QARĀBĀḠI, JAMĀL

    (1773-1853), a leader of the Javānšir tribe and an office-holder in Qarābāḡ and Dagestan.

    (George A. Bournoutian)

  • JĀVDĀN-NĀMA

    the major work of Fażl-Allāh Astarābādi (d. 1394), the founder of the Ḥorufi movement.

    (Orkhan Mir-Kasimov)

  • JĀVID, ʿABD-AL-AḤMAD

    Following his passion for Persian literature, Jāvid enrolled at the Faculty of Literature at Tehran University and studied alongside a number of students who would later rise to prominence. After compiling the preliminary work for his dissertation, he returned to Kabul with B.A. degrees in literature and law and began to teach and conduct research.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • JĀVID-NĀMA

    (Pers. Jāved-nāma), title of a Persian maṯnawi by Muhammad Iqbal, often rendered into English as “The Song of Eternity,” first published in 1932.

    (David Matthews)

  • JAWĀD, IMAM ABU JAʿFAR

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAWĀHER AL-ʿAJĀYEB

    a short, rare kind of taḏkera in Persian, containing biographies of female poets and specimens of their verses (mostly in Persian, some in Chaghatay Turkish).

    (Maria Szuppe)

  • JAWĀHER-E ḴAMSA

    title of a Persian work on Sufi meditation practices composed by the well-known and controversial Šaṭṭārī saint, Moḥammad Ḡawṯ Gwāleyārī (1500-1563).

    (Carl W. Ernst)

  • JAWĀHER-NĀMA

    the title of several Persian works on precious stones, gems, minerals, and metals, as well as on crafts related to them.

    (Yves Porter)

  • JAWĀLIQI, HEŠĀM

    b. Sālem, an Imami jurist and theologian of the 8th century. He was a close associate of the Imams Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq and Musā al-Kāẓem.

    (Abbas Kadhim)

  • JAWĀMEʿ AL-ḤEKĀYĀT

    the earliest and the most comprehensive collection of stories in the Persian language, compiled by Sadid-al-Din Moḥammad ʿAwfi (d. after 1232).

    (Dariush Kargar)

  • JAWHARI, ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH AḤMAD

    b. Moḥammad b. ʿObayd-Allāh b. Ḥasan b. ʿAyyāš, 10th-century Imami transmitter of Hadith (d. 1010).

    (Abbas Kadhim)

  • JAXARTES

    river in Central Asia. See SYR DARYA, forthcoming online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAXARTES

    See SIR DARYA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAZĀʾERI, NEʿMAT-ALLĀH ŠOŠTARI

    NEʿMAT-ALLĀH ŠOŠTARI JAZĀʾERI will be discussed in a future online entry.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JAZI, ʿABBĀS

    (1847-1905), DARVIŠ, poet in the dialect of Gaz, an oasis north of Isfahan.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • JAZIRI

    SHAIKH AḤMAD, or Malâ-ye Jizrî, early Kurdish poet.

    (Joyce Blau)

  • JAŽN-Ā JAMĀʿIYA

    (Feast of the Assembly), the great communal festival of the Yazidis.

    (Khalil Jindy Rashow)

  • JEBĀL

    in Arabic, the plural of jabal “mountain,” a geographical term used in early Islamic times for the western part of Persia, roughly corresponding to ancient Media (Ar. māh).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • JEBHE-YE MELLI

    See NATIONAL FRONT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JEBRIL B. ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH

    See BOḴTIŠUʿ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JEH

    name of a female demon in a small number of Zoroastrian Middle Persian texts. The name of Jeh is commonly, but with little justification, translated as “whore.”

    (Albert de Jong)

  • JEJEEBHOY, JAMSETJEE

    (1783-1859), Sir, Parsi businessman and philanthropist.

    (Jesse S. Palsetia)

  • JELD

    See BOOKBINDING 1; BOOKBINDING 2.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JELWA, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    b. Moḥammad Ṭabāṭabāʾi (1823-1897), a leading Shiʿite scholar and master teacher of philosophy and mathematics.

    (Mahdi Khalaji)

  • JELWA, KETĀB AL-

    (Kurd. Kitēba jilwe “the Book of splendor”), title of a notional sacred text in Yazidism.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • JEM SOLṬĀN

    (or Šāhzāda Jem, 1459-1495), Ottoman prince and poet.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • JEMĀLI

    Ottoman poet and writer of the 15th century.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • JENJĀN

    coll. Jenjun, “Jinjun,” village in western Fārs, small archeological site of the Achaemenid period.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • JENKINSON, ANTHONY

    (1529-1611), merchant and traveler. On 2 November 1562, he arrived in Qazvin, the seat of Shah Ṭahmāsp (r. 1524-76). But the shah did not wish to jeopardize his recently concluded peace with the Ottoman empire, so that Jenkinson was neither well received at court nor did he obtain the desired documents. In his writings, Jenkinson succinctly described his journeys to regions never before visited by English travelers.

    (Stephan Schmuck)

  • JENN

    See GENIE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JEN-NĀMA

    (The book of jinn, Sweden, 1998), the last novel of Hushang Golshiri, arguably his magnum opus.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • JÉQUIER, GUSTAVE

    During his five year residence in Persia, Jéquier sent home to his family many letters and accounts of his daily life in Persia and these were compiled and published posthumously as a volume entitled En Perse 1897-1902 by his son Michel Jéquier.

    (Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam)

  • JERGA

    an assembly or council of local adult men, among the settled and nomadic Pashtun tribal communities of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

    (M. Jamil Hanifi)

  • JERUSALEM AND IRAN

    Twice Jerusalem came under Persian rule, the first time in the sixth century BCE, the second during the westward expansion of the Sasanian state in the early seventh century CE.

    (Hagith Sivan)

  • JESUITS IN SAFAVID PERSIA

    The Fathers of the Society of Jesus were the first European missionaries to enter the Persian Gulf in the 16th century. Their pioneer was the Dutchman Gaspar Barzaeus (Berze, 1515-53).

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • JEVDET, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    (1869-1932), Ottoman poet, writer, translator, and thinker.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • JEVDET PASHA

    (1823-1895), Ottoman writer, historian, jurist, and statesman.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • JEVRI, AHISKALI

    (1805-1875), Ottoman poet and translator, a professional soldier.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • JEVRI, EBRĀHIM ČELEBI

    (d. 1654), Ottoman poet and calligrapher.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • JEWISH EXILARCHATE

    position of the head of the Jewish community in Babylonia in talmudic and medieval times, recognized in Sasanian times as an ethnarch, ruler of the ethnic group.

    (Jacob Neusner)

  • JEWS OF IRAN

    See JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JEYḤUNĀBĀDI

    (1871-1920), ḤĀJJ NEʿMAT-ALLĀH MOKRI, an influential mystic whose stated mission was to collect and record the previously oral traditions of the Ahl-e Ḥaqq.

    (Mojan Membrado)

  • JEZYA

    the poll or capitation tax levied on members of non-Muslim monotheistic faith communities (Jews, Christians, and, eventually, Zoroastrians), who fell under the protection (ḏemma) of Muslim Arab conquerors.

    (Vera B. Moreen)

  • JIHAD

    "holy war." See ISLAM IN IRAN xi. Jihad in Islam.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JIHOṆIKA

    a ruler in northwestern India known to us from his coins and an inscription (1st cent. CE).

    (O. Bopearachchi)

  • JIROFT

    sub-province (šahrestān), town, and dam in Kerman Province. i. Geography. ii. Human geography and environment. iii. General survey of excavations. iv. Iconography of chlorite artifacts.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JIROFT i. Geography of Jiroft Sub-Province

    Located in the south of Kerman Province, the sub-province of Jiroft is bound by those of Kermān (north), Bam (east), ʿAnbarābād and Kahnuj (south), and Bāft (west).

    (M. Badanj and EIr.)

  • JIROFT ii. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT

    Jiroft is the regional capital of the middle section of the Halil Rud valley, southern Kerman Province. The valley, oriented northwest to southeast, 400 km long, takes its source in the Zagros mountain range north of Jiroft and ends in the endorheic Jaz-murian basin.

    (Eric Fouache)

  • JIROFT iii. GENERAL SURVEY OF EXCAVATIONS

    All the artifacts known to date that are accorded the Jiroft label have not been excavated; they have in fact been plundered.

    (Oscar White Muscarella)

  • JIROFT iv. ICONOGRAPHY OF CHLORITE ARTIFACTS

    Technical variations, notably in the inlaying method of colored stones, point to the existence of several workshops. Considering style, the aesthetic ratio of the whole is comparatively high.

    (Jean Perrot)

  • JĪVAKAPUSTAKA

    a medical text in Sanskrit and Khotanese belonging to the Indian Ayurvedic tradition.

    (Mauro Maggi)

  • JIWĀM

    “(consecrated) milk,” the designation for one of the organic items—now a mixture of milk and consecrated water—used in the high or inner liturgical rituals of the Zoroastrians.

    (Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy)

  • JÑĀNOLKADHĀRAṆĪ

    “Spell of [the Buddha] Jñānolka,” the name of a short Buddhist text of the Mahayanist tradition containing two magic spells (dhāraṇī) aimed at the protection and deliverance of beings.

    (Mauro Maggi)

  • JOBBĀʾI

    the name of two Muʿtazilite theologians, Abu ʿAli Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb (849-915) and his son Abu Hāšem ʿAbd-al-Salām (890-933).

    (Sabine Schmidtke)

  • JOČI

    (in Persian and Turkic also Tuši, Duši, ca. 1184-1227), the eldest son of Čengiz Khan (d. 1227) and the ancestor of the khans of the Golden Horde, the westernmost Mongolian khanate.

    (Michal Biran)

  • JOFT-E GĀV

    "pair of oxen," term used in traditional farming system of Iran. See GĀVBAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JOḠD

    See BUF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JOLLĀBI, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    See HOJVIRI, ABU’L-ḤASAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JOMUR

    (also angl. Jumur), a small Sunnite Kurdish tribe of northern Lorestān.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • JONAS, HANS

    In 1958 Jonas published The Gnostic Religion, which is a revised English version of his German study of gnosticism. He was a prolific author who wrote many books, essays, and articles on the philosophical problems of nature, organism, and technology.

    (Kurt Rudolph)

  • JONAYD

    B. EBRĀHIM, a patrilineal descendant of Shaikh Ṣafi-al-Din (d. 1334), the founder of the Ṣafaviya order in Ardabil. Jonayd played the central role in expanding the membership of the order.

    (Kathryn Babayan)

  • JONAYD-E NAQQĀŠ

    a painter of the 14th century, known from one reference and one picture.

    (Barbara Brend)

  • JONDIŠĀBUR

    See GONDĒŠĀPUR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JONES, WILLIAM

    (1746-1794), Sir, orientalist and judge, noted for his enduring commitment to a syncretic East-West synthesis and unshakeable belief in cultural pluralism.

    (Michael J. Franklin)

  • JONG i. Persian Jongs

    See SAFINA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JONG ii. Ilustrations of Persian jongs.

    literary miscellany of Persian prose and poetry, and album of pictures and illustrations. Inventiveness in the production of jongs peaked in Persia in the 1400s and continued into the 1500s, when techniques such as découpage, gold-sprinkled, stenciled, and/or painted borders, and colored inks or outline for calligraphy were introduced.

    (David J. Roxburgh)

  • JONG-E ESFAHĀN

    (Isfahan anthology), an independent, avant-garde literary periodical, established in Isfahan in 1965 by a circle of literary men, irregularly producing 11 issues from 1965 to 1973.

    (Jalil Doostkhah)

  • JORBĀDAQĀN

    See GOLPĀYAGĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JORBĀDAQĀNI, ABU’L-ŠARAF

    See ABU’L-ŠARAF JORBĀDAQĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JORDAN, SAMUEL MARTIN

    In Jordan’s time, Iran was beset by Russian and British imperial aspirations, and many Iranians sought to buttress their country’s independence by drawing a third power into the balance. These Iranians saw the US as well-suited for this role because it then had no obvious imperial designs in the region.

    (Michael Zirinsky)

  • JORJĀN

    See GORGĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JORJĀNI, ZAYN-AL-DIN ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALI

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿALI AL-ḤOSAYNI (1340-1413), prolific author and scholar of the early Timurid period.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • JORJĀNI, ZAYN-AL-DIN ESMĀʿIL

    better known as Sayyed Esmāʿil Jorjāni (b. Gorgān, 1043-44?; d. Marv, 1136-37), physician and author of Ḏaḵira-ye ḵᵛārazamšāhi , the largest encyclopedia of Galenic medicine in Persian.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • JOSEPH

    (Ar. Yusof), son of the biblical patriarch Jacob. The story of Joseph has always been a source of attractive subject matters for the exegetists of the Qurʾān, poets, miniaturists, and popular tales.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JOSEPH i. IN PERSIAN LITERATURE

    As a love story with religious overtones, the romance of Yusof and Zolayḵā has always been among the very favorite themes of Persian poets.

    (Asghar Dadbeh)

  • JOSEPH ii. In Qurʾānic Exegesis

    In the Qurʾān, the story of the prophet Joseph is unique in being related as one continuous narrative, making up almost the entirety of chapter (sura) 12.

    (Annabel Keeler)

  • JOSEPH iii. IN PERSIAN ART

    The most appealing subject from the Joseph story has been the episode involving Potiphar’s wife, called Zolayḵā in Islamic lore. The popularity of the stories as a subject for lyrical and narrative poetry dates back to the Ghaznavid period.

    (Chad Kia)

  • JOSTANIDS

    also referred to as Āl-e Jostān and Āl-e Vahsudān, a local dynasty that ruled from Rudbār in Deylam, the mountainous district of Gilān during the late 8th and early 9th centuries.

    (Manouchehr Pezeshk)

  • JOURNALISM IN IRAN

    the collection and editing of news for presentation through the public press during the Qajar, Pahlavi, and Post-Revolutionary periods.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JOURNALISM i. Qajar Period

    For much of the Qajar period, journalism was a state-run domain. In the second half of the period, newspapers began to appear increasingly.

    (Negin Nabavi)

  • JOURNALISM ii. Pahlavi Period

    See forthcoming online.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JOURNALISM iii. Post-Revolution Era

    At the time of the 1978-79 Revolution, there were about 100 newspapers in Iran, of which twenty-three were dailies. Within two years of the revolution, 700 new titles had appeared.

    (Hossein Shahidi)

  • JOVAYN

    name of three historical localities: a village in Fārs, a fortress o the northeast of Lake Zereh in Sistān, and especially the district of that name in Khorasan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • JOVAYNI FAMILY

    a family of men of the pen and statesmen of the 13th and 14th centuries in Iran. Men of this family held high positions in the government under the Saljuq, Ḵᵛārazmšāh, and Il-khanid dynasties.

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • JOVAYNI, ʿALĀʾ-AL-DIN

    (1226-1283), ʿAṬĀ-MALEK b. Moḥammad, governor of Iraq under the Il-khanids, author of Tāriḵ-e jahān-gošāy, a major primary source for the history of Central Asia and the Mongol conquests.

    (George Lane)

  • JOVAYNI, EMĀM-AL-ḤARAMAYN

    (1028-1085), Abu’l-Maʿāli ʿAbd-al-Malek b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Yusof, a noted Shafiʿite scholar.

    (Paul L. Heck)

  • JOVAYNI, ṢĀḤEB DIVĀN

    ŠAMS-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad (d. 1284), Persian statesman of the early Il-khanid period, the younger brother of the historian ʿAlāʾ-al-Din ʿAṭā-Malek Jovayni.

    (Michal Biran)

  • JOVIAN

    (Flavius Iovianus; 331-364), Roman emperor, r. 363-64. The present article confines discussion to the events related to the Persian campaign of 363.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • JOWŠAQĀN

    district in Isfahan Province in central Persia, best known for its carpets and for its dialect.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • JOWŠAQĀN i. The District

    Jowšaqān is located at 65 miles northwest of Isfahan, where the western foothills of the Karkas Mountain range break down into plain.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • JOWŠAQĀN ii. The Dialect

    Jowšaqāni, spoken in the township of Jowšaqān, is a variety of the local dialects of Kāšān, a subgroup of the Central Dialects. Published materials on the dialect include Ann Lambton’s brief grammar and texts and glossary, and R. Zargari’s verb forms, glossary, and idioms.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • JOWZJĀN

    Arabicized form of Persian Gowzgān(ān), a district of eastern Khorasan in early Islamic times, now roughly corresponding to the northwest of modern Afghanistan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • JOWZJĀNI, ABU ʿOBAYD

    (Juzjāni), ABU ʿOBAYD ʿABD-AL-WĀḤED b. Moḥammad, companion, literary secretary, and biographer of Avicenna.

    (Robert Wisnovsky)

  • JOWZJĀNI, MIR JUJOK

    a late 16th-century literary figure given the title malek al-šoʿarāʾ at Balkh by the Shibanid (Šaybānid) ruler there, ʿAbd-al-Moʾmen Khan (r. at Balkh 1583-98).

    (R. D. McChesney)

  • JUB-E GOWHAR

    an archeological site in the Eyvān plain, Ilām province (Poštkuh, Lorestān). A total of sixty-six tombs of a partially plundered graveyard were excavated in 1977 by the Belgian Archeological Mission in Iran, directed by Louis Vanden Berghe.

    (Bruno Overlaet)

  • JUBAN

    excavation site in Gilan Province, 54 km south of Rasht, 4 km south of Kalvarz, and 12 km from Rudbār. In 1966, after three months of excavations (mid-spring to mid-summer), the archeological association of Rudbār discovered here the remains of a civilization dating from the beginning to the middle of the first millennium BCE.

    (Ali Hakemi)

  • JUBĀRA

    See ISFAHAN xviii. JEWISH COMMUNITY

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JUDAKI

    a small Lor tribe of the Ḵorramābād region in western Persia.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES

    OF IRAN, one of the oldest Jewish populations in the Diaspora.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES i. INTRODUCTION

    Jewish communities have been living upon the Persian plateau since ca. 721 BCE, when King Sargon II (r. 721-705 BCE) relocated large communities of conquered Israelites.

    (Houman Sarshar)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES ii. ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    The most significant chapter in the story of Jews and Judaism in Persia began 15 March 597 BCE, when King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia conquered Jerusalem and carried away as captives 10,000 Jews from Jerusalem and Judah.

    (Mayer I. Gruber)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES iii. PARTHIAN AND SASANIAN PERIODS

    By the time the Parthians reached Babylonia, Jews had lived there, under Babylonian, Achaemenid, and Seleucid rule for more than four and a half centuries.

    (Jacob Neusner)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES iv. MEDIEVAL TO LATE 18TH CENTURY

    From ancient times Iranian Jews formed communities in most of the major towns, villages, and regions of the Persianate world. Between the 8th and 10th centuries, Iraq and Iran contained very large and prosperous Jewish populations.

    (Vera B. Moreen)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES v. QAJAR PERIOD (1)

    The socio-economic and legal status of the Jews of Iran in early Qajar times was, to an extent, a continuation of the legacy of Safavid times. With the passage of time, however, certain changes started to be seen.

    (Daniel Tsadik)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES v. QAJAR PERIOD (2)

    In the latter part of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries there occurred a relatively widespread mass movement of Persian Jews to the Bahai community.

    (Mehrdad Amanat)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES vi. THE PAHLAVI ERA (1925-1979)

    Zionist institutions in London and the Iranian Foreign Ministry engaged in heated arguments over the total ban on emigration to Palestine and on the use of Iranian soil by Russian Jews as a transit station on their way to Palestine.

    (Orly R. Rahimiyan)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES vii. THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES viii. JUDEO-PERSIAN LANGUAGE

    a group of very similar, usually mutually comprehensible, dialects of Persian, spoken or written by Jews in greater Iran over a period of more than a millennium.

    (Thamar E. Gindin)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES ix. JUDEO-PERSIAN LITERATURE

    Most of the inscriptions and documents written in Judeo-Persian at the beginning of the Islamic period were discovered in the 19th century. They are important for the study of the development of early New Persian, and their existence proves that Jews lived and were active in all areas within and beyond the borders of historical Persia.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES x. JUDEO-PERSIAN JARGON (LOTERĀʾI)

    Loterāʾi is the secret jargon used by the Jewish communities of Iran and Afghanistan when they do not want the content of their talk to be understood by non-Jews.

    (Ehsan Yarshater)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES xi. MUSIC (1)

    This section is divided into four sub-sections: introduction, religious music, para-liturgical music, and secular Persian Jewish music.

    (Houman Sarshar)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES xi. MUSIC (2)

    This section is divided into: moṭreb s (hired popular musicians), Persian classical music, instrument makers, and popular music. Existing scholarship and historical documents suggest that Jews were the most prevalent minority engaged as moṭrebs.

    (Houman Sarshar)

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES xii. PERSIAN CONTRIBUTION TO JUDAISM

    While the Jews of the Parthian and Sasanian empires spoke (eastern) Aramaic, not Middle Persian, Persian influence on Judaism through the Babylonian Talmud (Bavli) is by no means negligible.

    (Jacob Neusner)

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS

    i. Achaemenid systems. ii. Parthian and Sasanian judicial system. iii. Sasanian legal system. iv. Judicial system, advent of Islam through the 19th century. v. Judicial system, 20th century. vi. Legal system, Islamic period.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS i. ACHAEMENID JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS

    This article will address principally the sources of our knowledge of the judicial and legal system in the Achaemenid period, as well as the nature of the court system, which persons had standing to sue, and legal procedure.

    (F. Rachel Magdalene)

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS ii. PARTHIAN AND SASANIAN JUDICIAL SYSTEMS

    In Sasanian times, and by extrapolation in previous periods, there were courts of justice at various levels all over the empire, in every rural area, district, and city.

    (Mansour Shaki)

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS iii. SASANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

    A great number of treatises on jurisprudence must have existed in the Sasanian age, called dādestān-nāmag “Lawbooks,” but only one text from this period has survived.

    (Maria Macuch)

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS iv. JUDICIAL SYSTEM FROM THE ADVENT OF ISLAM THROUGH THE 19TH CENTURY

    From the beginning of Islamic rule in Persia, a secular and a religious judiciary co-existed: the ʿorfi court applying the common law, the tribunal of religious judge (qāẓi ) applying the sacred law (šariʿa ).

    (Willem Floor)

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Twentieth-century Iran experienced dramatic changes to its judicial system during the following periods: (1) Constitutional Period, (2) Pahlavi Period, (3) Post-revolution Period.

    (Willem Floor)

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS vi. LEGAL SYSTEM, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    See Supplement. See also AḴBĀRIYA; CIVIL CODE; CONSTITUTION; CONTRACT; FEQH; HADITH .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • JUJUBE

    (ʿonnāb), the edible drupe of the jujube tree Ziziphus jujuba Miller.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • JUKES, ANDREW

    British East India Company surgeon and political agent (1774-1821).

    (Shireen Mahdavi)

  • JULFA

    short for New Julfa, a large settlement on the southwestern edge of Isfahan, established by Armenian refugees in 1605. The modern town is still mostly populated by Armenians.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • JULFA i. SAFAVID PERIOD

    The original Julfa is a very old village in the province of Nakhijevan (Naḵjavān), in historical Armenia. In early summer of 1605, the Julfa deportees to Iran were given temporary shelter in Isfahan, and they began with the building of New Julfa on the right bank of the Zāyandarud. For the first decades after its foundation, New Julfa was exclusively populated by Armenians from Old Julfa.

    (Vazken S. Ghougassian)

  • JULFA ii. THE 18TH AND THE 19TH CENTURY

    The Afghan occupation of Isfahan between 1722 and 1729 struck a most devastating blow to the Armenians of New Julfa, although the city was spared total destruction and massive killings of its population.Nāder Shah Afšār (d. 1747) was even more brutal. Karim Khan Zand (d. 1779) treated the Armenian community fairly well and tried to encourage the return of expatriate Julfan merchants.

    (Vazken S. Ghougassian)

  • JULFA iii. THE 20TH CENTURY

    The Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11 had a profound impact on Persian society as a whole. Armenians were actively involved in the constitutional movement.

    (Vazken S. Ghougassian)

  • JULFA iv. ARCHITECTURE AND PAINTING

    By 1640 New Julfa had grown into an important cultural center with many public buildings, including churches, markets, and bath houses.

    (Armen Haghnazarian)

  • JULFA v. ARMENIANS IN INDIA

    In the 17th century, Julfan merchants expanded their trade network in South Asia, and at the beginning of the 18th century the Primate of New Julfa had jurisdiction over the Armenian congregations in India and Java.

    (Sebouh Aslanian)

  • JULIAN

    (Flavius Claudius Iulianus), Roman emperor (r. 361-63). The present article deals only with Julian’s military campaign against the Sasanians up to his death.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • JUNGE, PETER JULIUS

    German ancient historian and Iranologist (1913-1943).

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • JUNKER, HEINRICH FRANZ JOSEF

    Junker chose as the subject of his thesis one of the most difficult and linguistically important Pahlavi texts, the Middle Persian dictionary of heterograms (a most appropriate term applied by Junker to Middle Iranian Aramaic spellings) and their eteographic explanations.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • JURĀBČI, ḤĀJJ MOḤAMMAD-TAQI

    (b. Tabriz 5 June 1868; d. Tehran c. 1920), a Tabriz merchant, constitutionalist, and author of an interesting and informative memoir written during the Constitutional Revolution (q.v.).

    (Ali Gheissari)

  • JUSTI, FERDINAND (WILHELM JAKOB)

    German scholar of Oriental, particularly Iranian, studies, comparative philologist, and folklorist (1837-1907).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • JUSTINIAN I

    (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus), Eastern Roman emperor, 527-65; his rule was marked by several military conflicts with the Sasanian empire under Kawād I and Chosroes (Ḵosrow) I. When Justinian assumed autarchy on 1 August 527, Byzantium and the Sasanian empire were already at war.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • JUYBĀRIS

    prominent Bukharan family dynasty, whose leading social position lasted more than 500 years. One of the foundations of the family’s status was spiritual.

    (R. D. McChesney)

  • Jangnāme

    (music sample)

  • J~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter J entries.

    (DATA)