List of Articles

  • KAʿBA

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAʿBA-YE ZARDOŠT

    “Kaʿba of Zoroaster,” an ancient building at Naqš-e Rostam near Persepolis.

    (Gerd Gropp)

  • KABĀB

    popular dish which traditionally consists of meat cut in cubes, or ground and shaped into balls; these are threaded onto a skewer and broiled over a brazier of charcoal embers.

    (Etrat Elahi)

  • KABIR-KUH

    one of the long ranges of the Zagros mountains, lying between Iran’s two western provinces of Loristan and Ilām.

    (Majdoddin Keyvani)

  • ḴABIṢ

    See ŠĀHDĀD, a town in Kerman.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KABISA

    Arabic term used in calendrical context; “intercalary,” “embolismal.” It is applied to several readjustments that occurred in the Iranian solar calendar.

    (Simone Cristoforetti)

  • KABK

    See PARTRIDGE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀBOL MAGAZINE

    a monthly magazine with the full title Kābol:ʿElmi, adabi, ejtemāʿi, tariḵi. The periodical was founded by the Kabul Literary Society (Anjoman-e Adabi-e Kābol), 1931-40.

    (Wali Ahmadi)

  • KĀBOLI

    the colloquial Persian spoken in the capital of Afghanistan, Kabul, and its environs. It has been a common and prestigious vernacular for several centuries, since Kabul was long ruled by dynasts of Iran (the Safavids) or India (the Mughals) for whom Persian was the language of culture and administration.

    (Rawan Farhadi and John R. Perry)

  • KĀBOLI, ʿAbdallāh Ḵᵛāja

    (also known as Kāboli Naqšbandi and Heravi), historiographer and poet of the late 16th and early 17th centuries.

    (Maria Szuppe)

  • KABUL

    (Kābol), capital of Afghanistan, also the name of its province and a river.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KABUL i. GEOGRAPHY OF THE PROVINCE

    Kabul is part of a system of high level basins, the elevation of which varies from 1,500 to 3,600 meters, extends—geographically speaking—beyond the administrative borders of the present-day province.

    (Andreas Wilde)

  • KABUL ii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    Before the period of war and unrest in Afghanistan that started in 1978, almost all the functions concerned with governing the country and directing its international relations were concentrated in Kabul. This primacy among Afghan cities is due to an exceptionally favorable geographical site.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KABUL iii. HISTORY FROM THE 16TH CENTURY TO THE ACCESSION OF MOḤAMMAD ẒĀHER SHAH

    Kabul was a small town until the 16th century, when Ẓahir-al-Din Bābor (1483-1530), the first of the Great Mughals, made it his capital.

    (May Schinasi)

  • KABUL iv. URBAN POLITICS SINCE ẒĀHER SHAH

    The first master plan marked an important attempt to reorganize the spatial structure of the city. A first revision was authorized in 1971.

    (Daniel E. Esser)

  • KABUL v. MONUMENTS OF KABUL CITY

    This article focuses on the major monuments in and around the Old City of Kabul and the most significant Dorrāni dynastic monuments and mausolea.

    (Jonathan Lee)

  • KABUL LITERARY SOCIETY

    (Anjoman-e adabi-e Kābol), the first official academic and cultural association of Afghanistan, 1930-40.

    (Wali Ahmadi)

  • KABUL MUSEUM

    popular name of the National Museum of Afghanistan. A modest collection of artifacts and manuscripts already existed in the time of King Ḥabib-Allāh (r. 1901–19). In 1931 the collection was finally installed in a building in rural Darulaman (Dār-al-amān), eight kilometers south of Kabul City.

    (Carla Grissmann)

  • KABUL RIVER

    in eastern Afghanistan. It forms one of Afghanistan’s four major river systems and is the only Afghan river that flows, as tributary of the Indus, into the sea.

    (Andreas Wilde)

  • KABUTAR

    See PIGEON.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀČI

    a traditional Persian dish generally made of rice flour, cooking oil, sugar diluted in water, and turmeric or saffron with a sprinkling of golāb (rosewater) to give it a pleasant scent.

    (Etrat Elahi and Majdodin Keyvani)

  • KADAGISTĀN

    an eastern province of the Sasanian empire. The clearest evidence for the existence of such a province is provided by a bulla bearing the impression of a seal.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • ḴĀDEM-E BESṬĀMI

    Moḥammad Ṭāher b. Ḥasan, local historian, calligrapher, and poet of the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ḴĀDEM MIṮĀQ

    (1907-1958), musician, teacher, conductor, and composer.

    (Amir Hossein Pourjavady)

  • KADIMI

    a Zoroastrian sect (Ar. qadim “old, ancient”). The movement emerged in 18th-century India.

    (Ramiyar P. Karanjia)

  • KADḴODĀ

    principal meaning “headman,” from Middle Persian kadag-xwadāy , lit. “head of a household."

    (Willem Floor and EIr.)

  • KADOUSIOI

    See CADUSII.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KADPHISES, KUJULA

    (1st cent. CE), first Kuṣān king, founder of the Kuṣāna dynasty in Central Asia and India, as indicated by the legend written in Gāndhāri and Kharoṣṭhī.

    (Osmund Bopearachchi)

  • KADPHISES, VIMA

    See KUSHAN DYNASTY, VIMA KADPHISES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KADU

    See PUMPKIN, SQUASH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAEMPFER, ENGELBERT

    German physician and traveler to Russia, the Orient, and the Far East (1651-1716).

    (Detlef Haberland)

  • KAĒTA

    an Avestan word whose approximate meaning is ‘soothsayer.’

    (William W. Malandra)

  • KAFIR KALA

    (Kāfer Qalʿa), ancient settlement and one of the largest archeological monuments of the Vakhsh river valley, on the western outskirts of Kolkhozabad, Tajikistan. The city (šahrestān ) together with the citadel form a square, each side 360 m long, oriented approximately to the cardinal points.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • ḴAFRI, ŠAMS-AL-DIN

    ŠAMS-AL-DIN, Moḥammad b. Aḥmad-e Kāši, one of the most competent of all the mathematical astronomers and planetary theorists of medieval Islam (d. 956/1550), and perhaps the most competent of all of them.

    (George Saliba)

  • KAFTARI WARE

    distinctive ceramic vessels dated to the late 3rd and early 2nd millennia BCE, primarily found in Fārs.

    (Carl A. Petrie)

  • KĀFUR

    See CAMPHOR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴĀGINA

    a traditional Persian dish; most of the recipes are very similar to those for making a plain omelet.

    (Etrat Elahi)

  • KAHAK

    Markazi Province, a village located about 35 km northeast of Anjedān and northwest of Maḥallāt in central Iran, with ruins of a fairly large caravanserai.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • KAHAKI

    See CENTRAL DIALECTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAḤḤĀLI

    See ČAŠMPEZEŠKI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀHI KĀBOLI

    (d. 1580), poet at the courts of the Mughal sultans Homāyun and Akbar.

    (Majdoddin Keyvani)

  • KAHROBA

    See YELLOW AMBER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀHU

    See LETTUCE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAIFENG

    medieval capital of the Northern Song dynasty (960-1127) and home of a Judeo-Persian community.

    (Donald D. Leslie)

  • KĀJ

    See PINE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAJAKAY DAM

    dam built on the Helmand River as a part of the multi-faceted projects aimed at the development of the Helmand Valley.

    (Siddieq Noorzoy)

  • ḴᵛĀJANURI, EBRĀHIM B. ḤABIB-ALLĀH

    lawyer, politician, author, translator, journalist, psychologist, and founder of the popular psychoanalytical center of Panā[h] in Tehran.

    (Majdoddin Keyvani)

  • ḴᵛĀJAVAND

    a Kurdish tribe in the Caspian province of Māzandarān. According to L. S. Fortescue, the tribe “was originally brought from Garrūs and Kurdistān by Nādir Shāh.”

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ḴᵛĀJAZĀDA ASʿAD EFENDI

    MOḤAMMAD (MEḤMED) (b. Istanbul, 10 Moḥarram 978/14 June 1570, d. Istanbul 14 Šaʿbān 1034/22 May 1625), Ottoman šayḵ-al-Eslām, poet, and translator of Saʿdi’s Golestān.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • ḴᵛĀJU KERMĀNI

    (1290-ca. 1349), Persian poet and mystic. Ḵᵛāju was undoubtedly a versatile poet of great inventiveness and originality.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • KĀK

    a general term applied to several kinds of flat bread or small, often thin, dry cakes variously shaped and made.

    (Etrat Elahi and Eir.)

  • KĀḴ-E GOLESTĀN

    See ?

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀKAGI

    the customs and characteristics of a kāka—a vagabond or vigilante characterized by the ideals of chivalry, courage, generosity, and loyalty.

    (Arley Loewen)

  • KĀKĀʾI

    a term used both for a tribal federation and for a religious group in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • KĀKĀVAND

    a Lor tribe of the Delfān group, settled in the Piškuh region of Luristan (Lorestān), as well as west of Qazvin and in the Ṭārom region.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KAKHETI

    a region in eastern Georgia. Historically the region represented part of Iberia (see KARTLI) Kingdom. ** UNPUBLISHED 2012-03-19 pending revision or replacement (see KG for details). **

    (George Sanikidze)

  • ḴĀKI ḴORĀSĀNI, EMĀMQOLI

    Ismaʿili poet and preacher of 17th-century Persia (d. after 1646). He was born in Dizbād, a village in the hills half way between Mashhad and Nišāpur.

    (S. J. Badakhchani)

  • ḴĀKI ŠIRĀZI, ḤASAN BEG

    (d. 1612), Persian historian and bureaucrat, whose chronicle, titled Aḥsan al-tavāriḵ, is a general history of pre-Islamic and Islamic dynasties of Iran, the Indian Subcontinent, and Central Asia.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • KAKRAK

    a Buddhist site comprised of a group of caves, in Bāmyān Province, Afghanistan, discovered at the end of the 19th century.

    (Matteo Compareti)

  • ḴĀKSĀR

    a strictly popular order of Persian dervishes, favored by artisans and shopkeepers. The name “Ḵāksār” (lit. ‘dust-like’) was probably chosen to figuratively denote a lowly, humble, and modest person.

    (Zahra Taheri)

  • ḴĀKŠI(R)

    a medicinal plant from the mustard family. Two kinds have been identified, the common and the bitter one which is considered weed. The effects are believed to be on heart, voice, throat, and diarrhea.

    (Bahram Grami)

  • KĀKUYIDS

    [KAKWAYHIDS], a dynasty of Deylamite origin that ruled in western Persia, Jebāl, and Kurdistan about 1008-51 as independent princes.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • KAKZU

    See KILIZU.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KALĀBĀḎI, ABU BAKR

    See ABU BAKR MOḤAMMAD KALĀBĀḎI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴALAF B. AḤMAD

    b. Moḥammad, Abu Aḥmad (d. 399/1009), Amir in Sistān of the “second line” of Saffarids, who ruled between 352/963 and 393/1003 and may be termed “the Khalafids” after an ancestor (the grandfather of the restored Amir Abu Jaʿfar Aḥmad).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ḴALAJ

    a tribe which originated in Turkistan and settled approximately 250 km to the southwest of Tehran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ḴALAJ i. TRIBE

    tribe originating from Turkistan, generally referred to as Turks but possibly Indo-Iranian.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ḴALAJ ii. Ḵalaji Language

    spoken by the Ḵalaj tribe, in the 1960s and 1970s numbering approximately 20,000 people.

    (Michael Knüppel)

  • KALAM

    See CABBAGE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KALĀNTAR

    “chief, leader,” from the late 15th century onwards, particularly the local official (mayor) in charge of the administration of a town.

    (Willem Floor)

  • KALĀNTARI, PARVIZ

    (b. Zanjān, 22 March 1931; d. Tehran, 20 May 2016), painter, graphic designer, writer, and a pioneering illustrator of Iranian children’s books.

    (Nojan Madinei)

  • KALĀRESTĀQ

    (or Kalār-rostāq), and Kalārdašt, historical district in western Māzandarān. i. The District and Sub-District. ii. The Dialect.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KALĀRESTĀQ i. The District and Sub-District

    This predominantly mountainous district extends along the Caspian coast from the Namakābrud (Namakāvarud) river on the west to the Čālus river on the east.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KALĀRESTĀQ ii. The Dialect

    The Caspian vernaculars spoken in Kalārestāq, together with those of Tonekābon district, may not be properly classified as either Māzandarāni or Gilaki but serve as a transition between these two language groups.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KALĀT-E NĀDERI

    Several references to kalāt in the tragic episode of the young Forud in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma are thought to refer to this. Its earliest mention in historical accounts comes from the Mongol period, when the fourth Il-khan of Iran, Arḡun Khan built a defensive work at the south approach that still bears his name (“Gate of Arḡun”).

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KALBĀSI

    Ḥāj Moḥammad Ebrāhim (b. Isfahan, 1766; d. Isfahan, 1845), prominent Oṣuli jurist, influential in the affairs of Isfahan during the reigns of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah and Moḥammad Shah.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ḴĀLEDI, Mehdi

    Persian violinist and songwriter (1919-1990). As a violinist, Ḵāledi was known for his command of traditional Persian music and its innovative interpretation. As a composer, he was admired for the range of his rhythmically varied and elegiac songs.

    (E. Naḵjavāni)

  • KALEMĀT-E MAKNUNA

    (The Hidden Words), a collection of aphorisms (71 in Arabic and 82 in Persian) by Bahāʾ-Allāh on spiritual and moral themes, dating from 1274/1857-58 and considered one of his most important writings.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • ḴĀLEQI, RUḤ-ALLĀH

    (1906-1965), Persian music educator, composer, and music scholar. Through his teaching, admiration for the polyphonic richness of Western music was transmitted to some of his pupils.

    (Hormoz Farhat)

  • ḴĀLEṢIZĀDA, MOḤAMMAD B. MOḤAMMAD-MAHDI

    (1890-1963), a contemporary Iraqi-Iranian reformist cleric and political activist in anti-British protests and proponent of political power for the Shiʿite jurists in 20th-century Iran, who probably influenced Ayatollah Khomeini and his followers.

    (Mina Yazdani)

  • KALHOR

    a Kurdish tribe in the southernmost part of Persian Kurdistan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KALHOR, Mirzā Mohammad-Reżā

    (1829-1892), one of the most prominent 19th-century Persian calligraphers, often compared to such great masters of nastaʿliq as Mir ʿAli Heravi and Mir ʿEmād Sayfi Qazvini.

    (Maryam Ekhtiar)

  • ḴALIFA SOLṬĀN

    (1592/93-1654), grand vizier under Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1588-1629) and then again under Shah ʿAbbās II (r. 1642-66).

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • ḴALIJ-E FĀRS

    See PERSIAN GULF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴALIL, MOḤAMMAD EBRĀHIM

    Afghan scribe, calligrapher, poet and historian. Ḵalil studied privately with his parents and excelled in the art of calligraphy, especially the nastaʿliq and šekasta styles.

    (Wali Ahmadi)

  • ḴALIL-ALLĀH ŠAH

    (or Sayyed) BORHĀN-AL-DIN (b. 1373-74, d. 1455-56), the only son of the Sufi master, Šāh Neʿmat-Allāh Wali of Kermān.

    (Nasrollah Pourjavady)

  • ḴALIL SOLṬĀN b. MIRĀNŠĀH b. TIMUR

    Timurid ruler (1405-09). He became active in the military on the Indian campaign in 1398-99 and played a prominent part in the seven-year campaign of 1399-1404.

    (Beatrice Forbes Manz)

  • KALILA WA DEMNA

    a collection of didactic animal fables, with the jackals Kalila and Demna as two of the principal characters. The story cycle originated in India between 500 BCE and 100 BC, and circulated widely in the Near East.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KALILA WA DEMNA i. Redactions and circulation

    The oldest extant versions of the story cycle are preserved in Syriac and Arabic, and originate from the 6th and 8th century, respectively, as translations of a lost Middle Persian version.

    (Dagmar Riedel)

  • KALILA WA DEMNA ii. The translation by Abu’l-Maʿāli Naṣr-Allāh Monši

    Naṣr-Allāh’s Persian version of the Kalila wa Dimna is not a translation in the strict sense of the term, but a literary creation in its own right.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • KALILA WA DEMNA iii. ILLUSTRATIONS

    a collection of didactic animal fables, with the jackals Kalila and Demna as two of the principal characters.

    (Bernard O’Kane)

  • ḴALILI, ʿABBĀS

    (1895-1971), political activist, journalist, translator, poet and novelist.

    (Ḥasan Mirʿābedini)

  • ḴALILI, ḴALIL-ALLĀH

    Ḵalili was born to Moḥammad Ḥosayn Khan Ḵalili, a state treasurer affiliated with the court of Amir Ḥabib-Allāh Khan. He was greatly interested in scholarship, an interest which he inculcated in his son. Upon the murder of the Amir on 19 February 1919, Mostawfi-al-Mamālek was arrested and swiftly executed.

    (Wali Ahmadi)

  • KALIM KĀŠĀNI

    (b. ca. 1581-85, d. 1651), Persian poet and one of the leading exponents of the “Indian style” (sabk-e hendi).

    (Daniela Meneghini)

  • KALIMI

    the word used to refer to the Jews of Iran in modern Persian usage. The word “kalimi” derives from the Arabic root KLM meaning to address, to speak, but the appellation in this context is derived directly from the specific epithet given to the prophet Moses as Kalim-Allāh.

    (Amnon Netzer)

  • ḴALIQ LĀHURI

    Indo-Persian poet of the 18th-century, probably a Sikh.

    (Stefano Pello)

  • ḴALḴĀL

    city and subprovince in Azerbaijan. See KHALKHAL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴALḴĀLI, Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Raḥim

    Ḵalḵāli remained, to the end of his life, a loyal member of the democratic current and a close confidant of Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizādeh, the leader of the Social Democratic Party (Ferqa-ye ejtemāʿiyun-e ʿāmmiyun) in the First Majles (1906-08), and later of Iran’s Democrat Party (Ferqa-ye demokrāt-e Irān) in the Second Majles.

    (Hūšang Etteḥād and EIr)

  • ḴĀLKUBI

    (or ḵāl kubidan, kabud zadan “tattooing”), that is, making a permanent mark on the skin by inserting a pigment, is one of the oldest methods of body ornamentation. The earliest evidence of tattoos in the Iranian culture area is the almost completely tattooed body of a Scythian chief in Pazyryk Mound

    (Willem Floor)

  • KALLA-PĀČA

    a traditional dish made of sheep’s head and trotters and cooked over low heat, usually overnight. The combination of one sheep’s head and four trotters is called a set of kalla-pāča .

    (Etrat Elahi)

  • KALLAJUŠ

    an old Iranian dish, also pronounced kālajuš , kālājuš , kaljuš in different parts of Iran. The compound term kāljuš is composed of kāl meaning unripe, connoting cooked rare, and juš (boiling).

    (Etrat Elahi & EIr.)

  • ḴĀLU

    a small Turkic tribe of Kermān province. According to the Iranian Army files (1957), this tribe once lived in the vicinity of Bardsir and Māšiz, southwest of Kermān.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KALURAZ

    Almost all the objects excavated by Hakemi are now kept in Iran National Museum (Tehran). They are exhibited and open to the public. Since they had been archeologically reported only with photographs, in 2005 Japan-Iran joint researchers carried out new archeological studies for about 50 objects from the Kaluraz site.

    (Tadahiko Ohtsu)

  • KAMĀL ḴOJANDI

    (ca. 1320-1401), Persian poet and Sufi also known as Shaikh Kamāl.

    (Paul Losensky)

  • KAMĀL PĀŠĀ-ZĀDA, ŠAMS-AL-DIN AḤMAD

    ŠAMS-AL-DIN AḤMAD, also known as Kamālpāšā-Oḡlu and Ebn-e Kamāl (873-940/1468-1534), prolific Ottoman scholar, author of several works in and on Persian.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı)

  • KAMAL, REZA

    (better known as Sharzad) , dramatist and translator. See SHARZAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAMĀL-AL-DIN EṢFAHĀNI

    poet from Isfahan, noted for his mastery of the panegyric. His full name is given by Ebn al-Fowaṭi as Kamāl-al-Din Abu’l-Fażl Esmāʿil b. Abi Moḥammad ʿAbd-Allāh b. ʿAbd-al-Razzāq al-Eṣfahāni.

    (David Durand-Guédy)

  • KAMĀL-AL-DIN ḤOSAYN

    ḤĀFEŻ-E HARAVI, a prominent Safavid calligrapher during the reign of Shah Tˈahmāsp I (r. 1524-76).

    (Colin Paul Mitchell)

  • KAMĀL-AL-MOLK, MOḤAMMAD ḠAFFĀRI

    (ca. 1859–1940), Iranian painter of the European academic style during the late Qajar and early Pahlavi periods. He descended from a family that had produced a number of artists since the Afsharid period.

    (Ahmad Ashraf with Layla Diba)

  • KAMĀLI BOḴĀRĀʾI

    ʿAmid Kamāl-al-Din, a court poet, musician, and calligrapher at the court of Sultan Sanjar, the Saljuqid king (r. 1097-1118), during his rule in Khorasan.

    (Nasrollah Pourjavady)

  • KAMĀNČA

    The kamānča has a spherical sound cavity of mulberry or walnut wood, covered with sheepskin. Most instruments have four steel strings and are played with a horsehair bow. As the name of the Iraqi joza suggests, its sound cavity is made of coconut, covered with sheepskin or fish skin.

    (Stephen Blum)

  • KAMBOJA

    name of a southeastern Iranian people found in Indo-Aryan epigraphic and literary sources.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • KĀMI AḤMED ÇELEBI

    Ottoman scholar, judge, writer, and translator. He was born in Edirne (his birth date is unknown) and known as Mesnevi-hānzāde (Maṯnawi-ḵvānzāda).

    (Osman G. Özgüdenlī)

  • KĀMI MEHMED-I KARAMĀNI

    Ottoman scholar, judge, poet, and translator. He was born in Karaman (Qaramān) in central Anatolia.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenlī)

  • ḴAMĪS DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E ḴAMĪS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀMRĀN B. SHAH MAḤMUD

    Sadōzāy ruler of Herat (r. 1826-42). His career coincided with the waning of Sadōzāy power and the rise of the Moḥammadzāy dynasty in the 1820s.

    (Christine Nöelle-Karimi)

  • KĀMRĀN MIRZĀ

    In his Haft eqlim, Aḥmad Amin-Rāzi devotes a long section to Kāmrān Mirzā in which he extols the prince’s bravery, generosity, and piety. The historian Badāʾuni also praises him as a courageous and learned man, renowned as a poet, but who was led to ruin by excessive drinking, while Abu’l-Fażl portrays him as a treacherous ingrate.

    (Sunil Sharma)

  • KĀMRĀN MIRZĀ NĀYEB-AL-SALṬANA

    (1856-1929), the third surviving son of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah, he was the minister of war and commander of the armed forces, and intermittently governor of Tehran and a number of provinces.

    (Heidi Walcher)

  • ḴAMRIYA

    (pl. ḵamriyāt), poems with thematic contents chiefly about wine.

    (Majdoddin Keyvani)

  • ḴAMSA OF AMIR ḴOSROW

    a quintet of poems in the mathnawi form written by Amir Ḵosrow between 1298 and 1302, as a response to Neẓāmi’s immensely popular Panj ganj (Five Treasures).

    (Sunil Sharma)

  • ḴAMSA OF JAMĀLI

    a suite of five mathnawis, composed in response to the Ḵamsa by Neẓāmi (1141-1209). This Ḵamsa exists in a unique manuscript in the India Office Library, London.

    (Paola Orsatti)

  • ḴAMSA OF NEẒĀMI

    the quintet of narrative poems for which Neẓāmi Ganjavi (1141-1209) is universally acclaimed.

    (Domenico Parrello)

  • ḴAMSA TRIBE

    a tribal confederacy formed in the 19th century comprising five large tribes in Fārs province.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KAMSARAKAN

    Armenian noble family that was an offshoot of the Kāren Pahlav, one of the seven great houses of Iran claiming Arsacid origin. The Kamsarakans reigned in two princely states, both situated in the region of Ayrarat (Ararat)-Aršarunikʿ, with the old Armenian capital of Eruandašat as their capital and with the fortresses of Bagaran (presend-day Pakran) and Artagers (Artogerassa), and Širak (Sirakenē) with the fortress (and later city) of Ani.

    (C. Toumanoff)

  • ḴĀN-E ĀREZU, Serāj-al-din ʿAli (Article 1)

    See ĀRZU.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • Ḵān-e Ārezu, Serāj-al-din ʿAli (ARTICLE 2)

    (1688-1756), a Persian-language philologist, lexicographer, literary critic and poet from North India.

    (Prashant Keshavmurthy)

  • ḴĀN-E ḴĀNĀN

    (d. 1627), Mughal general and statesman. See ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ḴĀN ḴĀNĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴĀNĀ QOBĀDI

    (fl. ca.1700-1759 or 1778), Gurāni poet and one of the major members of the school of Gurāni poetry that is said to have been founded by Yusof Yaskā.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek and Parwin Mahmoudweyssi)

  • ḴĀNA-YE EDRISIHĀ

    Ḵāna-ye Edrisihā is told from the alternating perspectives of four people: Mrs. Edrisi, symbol of a lost aristocracy; her daughter Laqā, trapped in a tangled web of old beliefs, traditions, and customs; her intellectual grandson Vahhāb, living a miserable life in an ocean of books; and Yāvar, the faithful servant, living in past memories.

    (Soheila Saremi)

  • KANAF

    (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), an annual herbaceous plant of the Malvaceae family, yielding a soft fiber from the stem bark. Its fiber is used primarily for making gunnysacks and burlap. The first gunny mill (guni bāfi) in Persia was established in 1933 in Rašt by the private sector.

    (Bahram Grami)

  • ḴĀNAQĀH

    an Islamic institution and physical establishment, principally reserved for Sufi dervishes to meet, reside, study, and assemble and pray together as a group in the presence of a Sufi master (Arabic, šayḵ, Persian, pir), who is teacher, educator, and leader of the group.

    (Gerhard Böwering and Matthew Melvin-Koushki)

  • KANDAHAR

    the second most important city in the country and the capital of Kandahar province. This entry is divided into seven parts: i. Historical geography to 1979. ii. Pre-Islamic monuments and remains. iii. Early Islamic period. iv. From the Mongol invasion through the Safavid era. v. In the 19th century. vi. 20th century, 1901-73. vii. From 1973 to the present.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KANDAHAR i. Historical Geography to 1979

    The oasis clearly was destined to give rise to a major city that would control these rich lands with their grain fields, orchards, and gardens and manage the irrigation system they required. This urban center was situated near the top of the alluvial cone, where the Arḡandāb river runs from the mountains.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KANDAHAR ii. Pre-Islamic Monuments and Remains

    The ancient city of Kandahar lay along the Qaytul ridge, west of the modern city and was emptied of its population by Nāder Shah in 1738.

    (Gérard Fussman)

  • KANDAHAR iii. Early Islamic Period

    Kandahar and its surroundings have been an important junction connecting Iran and India since ancient times.

    (Minoru Inaba)

  • KANDAHAR iv. From The Mongol Invasion Through the Safavid Era

    There are various reasons why, despite the manifest weaknesses of the Safavid army, Kandahar surrendered to the Safavids.

    (Rudi Matthee and Hiroyuki Mashita)

  • KANDAHAR v. In the 19th Century

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E), the second most important in the country and the capital of Kandahar province.

    (Shah Mahmoud Hanifi)

  • KANDAHAR vi. 20th Century, 1901-73

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E). Kandahar expanded substantially during the second half of the 20th century by attracting rural labor and by developing new residential quarters (šahr-e naw) and public buildings.

    (M. Jamil Hanifi)

  • KANDAHAR vii. From 1973 to the Present

    Mohammad Daoud Khan took power in July 1973, his ban on party political activities hit Kandahar too.

    (Antonio Giustozzi)

  • ḴANDAQ

    a Persian loanword in Arabic meaning a trench or a moat (lit. “dug”), possibly also a wall or an enclosure.

    (Michael G. Morony)

  • KANGA, MANECK FARDOONJI

    (1908-1988), Parsi scholar of Zoroastrianism and Iranian languages. He held the position of Secretary of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute in Bombay for 15 years and edited its Journal. He served as Professor of Avestan Studies at the University of Bombay.

    (Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy)

  • KANGARLU

    a Turkic tribe of Azerbaijan and the Qom-Verāmin region of central Persia.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KANGAVAR

    town in eastern Kermanshah Province, on the modern road from Hamadan to Kermanshah, identical with a trace of the silk road. Isidorus of Charax (1st century CE) referred to it as Congobar and mentioned a temple of Anāhitā (Anaitis) there. The site has ruins of debated date and nature.

    (Wolfram Kleiss)

  • KANGDEZ

    (lit. “Fortress of Kang,”), a mythical, paradise-like fortress in Iranian folklore. There are different and often contradictory descriptions of Kang, Kangdež and several similar place names in Pahlavi literature and the epics of the Islamic period.

    (Pavel Lurje)

  • KANI, ḤĀJ MOLLĀ ʿALI

    Shiʿi scholar whose power and prominence in the affairs of Tehran for more than four decades earned him the semi-official title of raʾis al-mojtahedin (“chief of the mojtaheds”), as well as accusations of inordinate greed.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • KANJAKI

    language mentioned in the 11th-century Turkish lexicon of Maḥmud al-Kāšḡari as being spoken in the villages near Kāšḡar.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • ḴANJAR BEG, Mirzā

    (d. 1567), a poet and scholar of sixteenth-century Mughal India, who attained a significant place in the history of Indo-Persian poetry due to his famous maṯnawi.

    (Zeyaul Haque)

  • ḴĀNLARI, PARVIZ NĀTEL

    See KHANLARI, PARVIZ NATEL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴĀNOM

    a title for highborn women in the pre-modern Turkish and Persian worlds. In early Islamic Turkish, it was used for a khan’s wife or a princess, hence as a higher title than begüm.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ḴᵛĀNSĀLĀR

    title by which the supervisor and other workers of the kitchen department of the royal palace were known in the Ghaznavid and Saljuq periods.

    (Willem Floor)

  • ḴᵛĀNSĀR

    historical district and town in Isfahan province.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ḴᵛĀNSĀR i. Historical Geography

    historical district and town in Isfahan province.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN

    an institute with a wide range of cultural, artistic, and educational activities for children and adolescents, founded in December 1965.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN i. Establishment of Kanun

    Kanun’s goal was to produce and offer support and services for children in better settings than the grim and austere school classrooms.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN ii. Libraries

    A children’s library, conceived by the founders of Kanun as a pilot project for future libraries, was approved, and construction began in 1965.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN ii. Libraries

    an institute with a wide range of cultural, artistic, and educational activities for children and adolescents, founded under the patronage of Queen (Shahbanou) Farah Pahlavi in December 1965.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN iii. Book Publishing

    Shirvanlu, rightly convinced that the few already known children’s writers were not the sole answer to Kanun’s children’s book project, approached many writers of adult literature—novelists, translators, dramatists, essayists in social sciences, and scholars in humanities—and invited them to try their hand in this new field.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN iv. International Film Festivals

    Many world-renowned artists and masters were invited to to participate as International Jury members for the festivals.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN v. Film Production: 1970-77

    Kanun productions were the first experience of film direction for a number of today’s best-known Iranian directors. All internationally recognized Iranian animation film directors started their work at Kanun, and many have continued to cooperate with it.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN vi. Music and Sound Production

    In less than eight years, the Center for the Production of Records and Cassettes for Children and Young Adults produced five collections of quality recordings.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN vii. Visual Arts Training Center

    The Visual Arts Training Center became a real entity long after each artistic training program was created and was in operation.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN viii. The Pioneers and Promoters

    Aḥmad-Reżā Aḥmadi, avant-garde poet, started as a writer for Kanun. He was appointed as manager of the sound recording production section at the behest of Kanun’s managing director in 1970.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN ix. From 1979 to 2009: An Overview

    Due to Iran’s rapid urbanization and in order to cope with the increasing demands for cultural centers, Kanun needed to develop and to expand its centers.

    (Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam)

  • KAPADIA, DINSHAH DORABJI

    Parsi scholar and educator. He was promoted in 1919 as a commissioner of the Indian Educational Service and taught mathematics in Poona and Bombay.

    (Burzine K. Waghmar)

  • KAPISA

    (Kāpiśa), the ancient region of Kabul. See BEGRAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI

    a major Persian poet and prose writer (b. Šervān, ca. 521/1127; d. Tabriz, between 582/1186-87 and 595/1199).

    (Anna Livia Beelaert)

  • ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI i. Life

    (1127-1186/1199), major Persian poet and prose writer.

    (Anna Livia Beelaert)

  • ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI ii. Works

    a major Persian poet and prose writer (b. Šervān, ca. 521/1127; d. Tabriz, between 582/1186-87 and 595/1199). Ḵāqāni’s fame rests on his qaṣidas, of which, in Żiāʾ-al-Din Sajjādi’s edition, there are one hundred and thirty-two.

    (Anna Livia Beelaert)

  • KARABALGASUN

    or Khar Balgas “Black ruined city” in Mongolian. This entry consists of two sections: i. The site ii. The inscription.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KARABALGASUN i. The Site

    archeological site of a capital of the Uighur Khaghanate (second half of the 8th century to first half of the 9th century). Karabalgasun is located in the Orkhon valley, 320 km west of Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar), 30 km north of Karakorum.

    (Toshio Hayashi)

  • KARABALGASUN ii. The Inscription

    The trilingual inscription at Karabalgasun, in Old Turkic, Sogdian, and Chinese, of the eighth Uighur qaghan in Mongolia commemorates the qaghan’s (Old Turkic ḵaḡan, qaḡan) own military achievements and those of his predecessors.

    (Y. Yoshida)

  • KARAFTO CAVES

    an ensemble of artificially cut rock chambers dated to the 4th or 3rd century BCE, in Kordestān Province, 20 km west of Takab. The site is of considerable importance because of its Greek inscription, one of the very few examples preserved in situ in Persia.

    (Hubertus von Gall)

  • KARĀʾI

    a Turkic-speaking tribe of Azerbaijan, Khorasan, Kermān, and Fārs.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KARAJ

    a town in Tehran province, located 36 km west of the city of Tehran on the western bank of the Karaj River (lat 35° 46ʹ N, long 50° 49ʹ E; elev., 1,360 m).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KARAJ i. Modern City

    The area of Karaj has been inhabited since the Bronze Age at Tepe Khurvin, and the Iron Age at Kalāk on the left bank of the Karaj River.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • KARAJ ii. Population

    Since the 1976 census, when Tehran was no longer counted within the boundaries of Central (Markazi) province and formed its own province, Karaj has been one of its sub-provinces.

    (Habibollah Zanjani)

  • KARAJ DAM

    See AMIR KABIR DAM (forthcoming online).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KARAJ RIVER

    the second major permanent river of the central Iranian plateau after the Zāyandarud river.

    (Bernard Hourcade)

  • KARAKI

    Nur-al-Din Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. Ḥosayn b. ʿAbd-al-ʿĀli, known as Moḥaqqeq al-Ṯāni or Moḥaqqeq ʿAli (1464-1533), a major Imamite jurist.

    (Rula Jurdi Abisaab)

  • KARĀMA

    “(saintly) marvel, wonder, or miracle” in Arabic (pl. karāmāt).

    (Erik S. Ohlander)

  • KARAPAN

    (or Karpan), designation of members of a class of daivic priests opposed to the religion of Zarathustra.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • ḴᵛĀRAZMŠĀH

    title assumed by various rulers of Ḵᵛārazm (Chorasmia). See CHORASMIA ii. In Islamic times and ĀL-E AFRĪḠ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KARBALA

    a city in Iraq, situated about 90 km southwest of Baghdad. It is one of the four Shiʿite shrine cities (with Najaf, Kāẓemayn, and Sāmarrāʾ) in Iraq known in Shʿite Islam as ʿatabāt-e ʿaliāt or ʿatabāt-e moqaddasa.

    (Meir Litvak)

  • KÁRDAKES

    the name of a Persian military unit mentioned several times by Greek and Roman authors, nearly always in relation to the Achaemenid period (cf. Huyse, p. 199, n. 6).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • KĀRGĀNRUD

    the northernmost and largest of the five traditional Ṭāleš khanates (Ḵamsa-ye Ṭavāleš) in western Gilān.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KARGAR, DARIUSH

    (1953-2012), Iranist, fiction writer, and journalist. Kargar’s later works of fiction, written in Sweden, participate in the more modern spectrum of writing in the twentieth century and are characterized by his experimentations with disrupted chronology, non-linear plots, and interrupted language reminiscent of stream of consciousness.

    (Forogh Hashabeiky and Behrooz Sheyda)

  • KĀRGOZĀR

    a term used from the early 19th century until the abolishment of capitulation (kāpitulāsion) in 1927 to refer specifically to an agent of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who was charged with regulating relations between Iranian subjects and foreigners.

    (Morteza Nouraei)

  • KARIM DEVONA

    pen-name of Abdul-Karim Qurbon, Tajik folk poet (1878-1918).

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • KARIM KHAN ZAND

    (ca. 1705-1779), “The Wakil,” ruler of Persia (except Khorasan) from Shiraz during 1751-79. The Zand were a pastoral tribe of the Lak branch of the northern Lors, ranging between the inner Zagros and the Hamadān plains, centered on the villages of Pari and Kamāzān in the vicinity of Malāyer.

    (John R. Perry)

  • KĀRIN

    one of the seven great families of the Parthian and Sasanian periods.

    (Parvaneh Pourshariati)

  • KĀRIZ

    underground irrigation canals, also called qanāt. The kārēz conducts water from the level of an aquifer to the open air by means of simple gravity in order to distribute it to lower areas.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KĀRIZ

    underground irrigation canals, also called qanāt. The kārēz conducts water from the level of an aquifer to the open air by means of simple gravity in order to distribute it to lower areas.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KĀRIZ i. Terminology

    underground irrigation canals, also called qanāt.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KĀRIZ ii. TECHNOLOGY

    The technology of kārēz exploits a difference in grade between a tunnel and the groundwater table, so it ends at an elevation higher than that of the water table. In Iran the average grade may be around 0.5 percent.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KĀRIZ iii. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTEXTS

    The major significance of the kārēz lies in its continuous discharge throughout the year. In contrast, irrigation systems that rely on surface water runoff can completely cease to discharge water during the dry season.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KĀRIZ iv. ORIGIN AND DISSEMINATION

    One very common technique is an underflow channel in a river valley, which captures water from the shallow aquifer formed by seepage from the watercourse.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KĀRIZ v. KĀRĒZ IN THE LATE 20TH CENTURY AND THEIR PROSPECTS

    In 1990 it was estimated that the kārēz technique supplied water to around 1.5 million hectares of the planet’s total irrigated surface area, which constituted only the minor portion of approximately 0.6 percent.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KARḴEH RIVER

    the third longest river in Iran after the rivers Karun and Safidrud, flowing in the western provinces of the country. It rises from the Zagros mountain range.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • KARNĀ

    designation of three types of musical instrument, the most prestigious being long trumpets made of brass, gold, silver, or other metals. Two regional instruments of Iran are also called karnā. Like the metal karnā, the long reed trumpet of Gilān and Māzandarān lacks fingerholes.

    (Stephen Blum)

  • KĀR-NĀMA-YE BALḴ

    a short maṯnavi by Sanāʾi of Ghazna (d. 1131), containing panegyric as well as satirical verses addressed to, or describing, people from various layers of Ghaznavid society.

    (J. T . P. de Bruijn)

  • KĀR-NĀMAG Ī ARDAŠĪR Ī PĀBAGĀN

    short prose work written in Middle Persian. It narrates the Sasanian king Ardašīr I’s life story—his rise to the throne, battle against the Parthian king Ardawān, and conquest of the empire.

    (Carlo G. Cereti)

  • KARRĀMIYA

    the adherents to a theological and legal movement with a broad following in Khorasan and Afghanistan from the 10th to the 13th centuries, with its intellectual center in Nishapur (Nišāpur).

    (Aron Zysow)

  • KARSĀSP

    Avestan dragon-slayer, son of Sāma, and eschatological hero. In the Pahlavi and Zoroastrian Persian traditions, several heroic feats are connected with him.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KARŠIFT

    a mythical bird mentioned in the Avesta and other Zoroastrian texts.

    (Céline Redard)

  • KARSĪVAZ

    in the old Iranian epic tradition the brother of the Turanian king, Afrāsiāb, and the man most responsible for the murder of the Iranian prince Siāvaš.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø, Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • KART DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E KART.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KARTIR

    a prominent Zoroastrian priest in the second half of the 3rd century CE, known from his inscriptions and mentioned in Middle Persian, Parthian, and Coptic Manichean texts.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KARTLI

    region occupying most of eastern Georgia. The original name of Georgia (Sakartvelo) and the Georgian people (Kartvelebi) derive from Kartli.

    (George Sanikidze)

  • KARUN RIVER

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KARUN RIVER i. Geography and Hydrology

    the largest river and the only navigable waterway in Iran. It rises in the Baḵtiāri Zagros mountains west of Isfahan, flows out of the central Zagros range, traverses the Khuzestan plain, and joins the Shatt al-Arab.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KARUN RIVER ii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    See SUPPLEMENT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KARUN RIVER iii. The Opening of the Karun

    With the intensification of the Anglo-Russian rivalry in the late 1800s over Iran’s geopolitical position and commercial resources, Great Britain began to exert immense pressure on the shah’s government to provide it with access to the Karun trade route.

    (Shabaz Shahnavaz)

  • KĀŠĀNI, ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ KHAN

    18th-century governor of Kashan under the Zand dynasty.

    (Mangol Bayat)

  • KĀŠĀNI, ABU'L-QĀSEM ʿABD-ALLĀH

    See ABU'L-QĀSEM ʿABD-ALLĀH KĀŠĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀŠĀNI, MIRZĀ JĀNI

    See SUPPLEMENT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀŠĀNI, MOLLĀ MOḤSEN FAYŻ

    See FAYŻ-E KĀŠĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀŠĀNI, SAYYED ABU’L-QĀSEM

    (1877-1962), the leading political cleric during the critical period of 1941-53. Until the departure of Reza Shah in 1941, Kāšāni stayed on the sidelines of domestic Iranian politics. Mohammad Reza Shah ascended to his father’s throne on 16 September.

    (Ali Rahnema)

  • KĀŠEF-AL-ḠEṬĀʾ, JAʿFAR

    (1743-1812), Shiʿi scholar and jurist, broadly influential in both Iraq and Persia. His cognomen, meaning “remover of the veil,” alludes to one of his best known works.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • KĀŠEF-AL-ḠEṬĀʾ, MOḤAMMAD ḤOSAYN

    (1877-1954), descendant of the great Shiʿite jurist of the early Qajar period, Sheikh Jaʿfar Kāšef-al-Ḡeṭāʾ, prodigious and versatile author, teacher, and lecturer.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • KĀŠEF-AL-SALṬANA

    also known as Čāykār (tea planter), Qajar diplomat, reformer, author, constitutionalist, and promoter of tea cultivation (1865-1929)

    (Ranin Kazemi)

  • KĀŠEF-AL-SALṬANA [2011]

    (ARCHIVED VERSION)

    by Ranin Kazemi

    As printed in EIr. Vol. XV, Fasc. 6, pp. 653-656.

    (Ranin Kazemi)

  • KĀŠEF ŠIRĀZI

    Persian writer on ethics and poet of the Safavid period (b. Karbalā, ca. 1592; d. Ray, ca. 1653).

    (J. T . P. de Bruijn)

  • KĀŠEFI

    (d. 15th century), author of the epic poem Ḡazā-nāma-ye Rum on the lives of the Ottoman sultans Morād II (r. 1421-44 and 1446-51) and Moḥammad II (r. 1444-46 and 1451-81).

    (Osman G. Özgüdenlı)

  • KĀŠEFI, KAMĀL-AL-DIN ḤOSAYN WĀʿEẒ

    prolific prose-stylist of the Timurid era, religious scholar, Sufi figure, and influential preacher (b. Sabzavār, ca. 1436-37; d. Herat, 1504-5).

    (Maria Eva Subtelny)

  • KĀSEMI, NOṢRAT-ALLĀH

    (1908-1996), physician, poet, writer, orator, and politician.

    (Mostafa Alamouti and EIr.)

  • KAŠF AL-ASRĀR

    wa ʿoddat al-abrār of Abu’l-Fażl Rašid-al-Dīn Meybodi. See MEYBODI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAŠF-E ḤEJĀB

    See VEILING AND UNVEILING. Forthcoming.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAŠF AL-LOḠĀT WA’L-EṢṬELĀḤĀT

    (Revealing [of the meaning] of words and terminology), title of a Persian dictionary compiled in India before 1608.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • KAŠF AL-MAḤJUB of Hojviri

    the only surviving work of Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. ʿOṯmān Hojviri (d. between 1073 and 1077) and the oldest surviving independent manual of Sufism written in Persian.

    (Jawid Mojaddedi)

  • KAŠF AL-MAḤJUB of Sejzi

    (“Unveiling the hidden”), the Persian version of an Ismaʿili treatise originally written in Arabic by the 10th century dāʾi.

    (Hermann Landolt)

  • KAŠF O ŠOHUD

    (“unveiling and witnessing”), terms commonly used by Muslim mystics to describe the acquisition of esoteric knowledge and the constant first-hand encountering of the divine presence.

    (Cyrus Ali Zargar)

  • KAŠF AL-ẒONUN

    (“Unveiling of suppositions”), a major bibliographical dictionary in Arabic, composed by Kāteb Čelebi Moṣṭafā b. ʿAbd-Allāh, also known as Ḥāji Ḵalifa (1609-57).

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • KAŠFI, MIR MOḤAMMAD ṢĀLEḤ ḤOSAYNI

    (d. 1651), calligrapher and poet in Mughal India. Authored several works in verse and prose.

    (Sunil Sharma)

  • KĀŠḠARI, SAʿD-AL-DIN

    (d. 1456), propagator of the Naqšbandi order in Timurid Herat, noteworthy primarily as the initiator of ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmi into the path.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • KASHAN

    historical city and a sub-province of the province of Isfahan on the north-south axial route of central Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KASHAN i. GEOGRAPHY

    Kashan is poor in flora and fauna. The most typical plants are bushes and shrubs spreading over the steppes, but the landscape becomes richer with increased elevation; Characteristic trees are pine, cypress, black poplar, elm, and ash.

    (Habibollah Zanjani and EIr.)

  • KASHAN ii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    To the northeast of the well-watered mountain ranges of western and southern Iran, a line of bountiful oases which have given rise to important urban areas stretches along the piedmont bordering the desert basins of central and southeastern Iran.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • KASHAN iii. HISTORY

    History to the Pahlavi period.

    (Mehrdad Amanat)

  • KASHAN iv. POPULATION

    In line with the general trends in Iran’s demography, the urban population in Kashan has continued to increase, while the rural population has steadily decreased. Such trends have been more significantly felt in Kashan Sub-province than the rest of the country.

    (Habibollah Zanjani)

  • KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (1) URBAN DESIGN

    The city of Kashan, similar to other older Iranian cities, preserved its traditional architectural features and urban design into the early 20th century.

    (Mohammad- Reza Haeri and EIr. )

  • KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (2) HISTORICAL MONUMENTS

    The Zayn-al-Din Minaret is a rare Kashan landmark surviving from the Saljuqid period. Its height, which is recorded at one time to have reached 47 meters, is now only about 22 meters.

    (Mohammad- Reza Haeri and EIr. )

  • KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (3) TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE

    In line with the trend towards modernization in Iran’s recent history, most residential houses built by the middle classes in Kashan since 1950 comprise all or some of the following units: entrance, courtyard, living room, reception room, kitchen, lavatory, bath, bedroom, storage, staircase, and hall.

    (Mohammad- Reza Haeri and EIr. )

  • KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (4) HISTORIC MANSIONS

    The design and major components of the historic mansions follow the general pattern of traditional architecture, but with larger spaces and more detailed architectural craftsmanship and luxurious elements.

    (EIr.)

  • KASHAN vi. THE ESBANDI FESTIVAL

    An elaborate festival held in the Kashan region on the eve of the month Esfand.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KASHAN vii. KASHAN WARE

    Kashan, with its high-quality ceramic production in the medieval period, appears to have been a major site for the manufacture of fine wares between the 1170s and 1220s as well as later 13th and early 14th centuries.

    (Margaret S. Graves)

  • KASHAN viii. RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES (1) JEWISH COMMUNITY

    Kashan was home to an important Jewish community and cultural center starting at least in the Safavid period.

    (Mehrdad Amanat)

  • KASHAN viii. RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES (2) BAHAI COMMUNITY

    Like many Bahai communities in Iran, Kashan Bahais can trace their roots to the early years of the Babi movement.

    (Mehrdad Amanat)

  • KASHAN ix. THE MEDIAN DIALECTS OF KASHAN

    In the past few decades, rural Kashan has rapidly been shifting to Persian; most villages have already been partly or entirely persianized, and practically all Rāji speakers are bilingual.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KASHAN ix. THE MEDIAN DIALECTS OF KASHAN (2) URBAN JEWISH DIALECT

    Kashan may be characterized as exclusively Persian speaking and Muslim from the time when the city was abandoned by its Jewry, who spoke a variety of Central dialects.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KASHGAR

    (Kāšḡar), town in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in northwestern China, in the westernmost extremity of the Tarim Basin.

    (Pavel Lurje)

  • KASHMIR

    This entry is divided into five articles: i. Introduction. ii. Persian language in Kashmir. iii. Persian language in the state administration. iv. Persian elements in Kashmiri. v. Persian influence on Kashmiri art.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KASHMIR i. INTRODUCTION

    Iranian influence in and beyond the region of Kashmir is a long-term phenomenon. Inscriptions in Sogdian, Parthian, and Middle Persian demonstrate pre-Islamic contacts there with Iranian-speakers.

    (Siegfried Weber)

  • KASHMIR ii. PERSIAN LANGUAGE IN KASHMIR

    Persian was the basis of administrations all over western Asia and the highly prestigious language at the courts. Hence, Persian learning radiated into Kashmir and found a fertile soil after the initial impulse.

    (Siegfried Weber)

  • KASHMIR iii. PERSIAN LANGUAGE IN THE STATE ADMINISTRATION

    Officially Persian became the court language in Kashmir during the 14th and 15th centuries.

    (Siegfried Weber)

  • KASHMIR iv. Persian Elements in Kashmiri

    Kashmir may have had cultural and trade relations with Persia from ancient times, but the influence of Persian language and culture did not dominate until the introduction of Islam during the 14th century.

    (Omkar N. Koul)

  • KASHMIR v. PERSIAN INFLUENCE ON KASHMIRI ART

    The Iranian influence on the art and architecture of Kashmir is indirect, appearing in ancient times via Hellenistic and Kushan culture and later through Muslim India.

    (Mehrdad Shokoohy)

  • KASHTARITI

    (kaš-ta-ri-ti, Old Iranian Khshathrita), a city lord of Karkashshi in the Central Zagros mountains. during the reign of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon (680–669 BCE).

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • KĀŠI, KĀŠISĀZI

    and Kāšisāzi. See CERAMICS xiv. THE ISLAMIC PERIOD, 11TH-15TH CENTURIES.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀŠI, ḠIĀṮ-AL-DIN

    [or Kāšāni], ḠIĀṮ-AL-DIN JAMŠID b. MASʿUD b. MOḤAMMAD (b. ca. 787/1386, d. ca. 832/1429), mathematician, astronomer and scientific instrument-maker of the highest rank. He was also known as a practitioner of medicine, being sometimes referred to as “al-Ṭabib” (the physician), and he mentioned in one of his letters to his father (see below) that he dabbled also in music.

    (George Saliba)

  • KĀŠI, MUSĀ KHAN

    Jewish master of Persian classical music, teacher, and innovative kamānča player also known for his mellow singing voice.

    (Houman Sarshar)

  • ḴAṢIBI

    (d. 969), founder of Noṣayrism. The mystical Shiʿite sect whose present-day followers in Syria and southern Turkey call themselves ʿAlawis.

    (Yaron Friedman)

  • KAŠK

    (Ar. kešk, Turk. keşk), Persian term used primarily for a popular processed dairy food but also applied to various grain products, both in Iran and widely in the Middle East.

    (Francoise Aubaile-Sallenave)

  • KAŠKUL-E ŠAYḴ BAHĀʾI

    the title of a large literary anthology compiled by Shaikh Bahāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad ʿĀmeli, commonly known as Shaikh Bahāʾi, the gifted polymath and leading jurist of the Safavid empire during most of the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1587-1629).

    (Devin J. Stewart)

  • KAŠKULI BOZORG

    one of the five major tribes of the Qashqāʾi (Qašqāʾi) tribal confederacy of Fārs province.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KASMĀʾI, MIRZĀ ḤOSAYN

    (1862-1921), a constitutionalist active in the revolutionary movement in Gilan (1915-20), led by Mirzā Kuček Khan Jangali.

    (Pezhmann Dailami)

  • KAŠMIRI, BADR-AL-DIN

    a prolific writer active in Central Asia during the second half of the 16th century; he was closely linked with the eminent Juybāri shaikhs of Boḵārā.

    (Devin DeWeese)

  • KASRA’I, HOSAYN SIAVASH

    (1939-2003), a prolific, creative artist who produced many original works and never fell under the influence of other painters.

    (Hušang Ettehād)

  • KASRA’I, Siavash

    While still in high school, Kasra’i made friends with such political figures as Moḥsen Pezeškpur and Dāriuš Foruhar, and was influenced by their nationalistic sentiments. As a college student, however, he became enthralled by the ideals of a just and classless society based on Marxist doctrines, and became a loyal member of the Tudeh Party.

    (Kāmyār ʿĀbedi)

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD

    influential social thinker, prominent historian, a pioneer of Iran’s linguistic studies, well-known social and religious reformer with a sense of prophetic mission, and prolific author.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD i. LIFE AND WORK

    born in Ḥokmāvār, a poor rural quarter in the suburbs of Tabriz, to Ḥāji Mir Qāsem, a small merchant in a family of religious functionaries.

    (Ali Reżā Manafzadeh)

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD ii. ASSASSINATION

    The surge in activities of Islamic groups and the intensification of the rhetoric of mullahs at mosques coincided with the escalation and sharpening of Kasravi’s criticism of the foundation of Shiʿite concepts and values.

    (Moḥammad Amini)

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD iii. AS HISTORIAN

    At the time when Kasravi began to write history, most historical research in Iran was carried out within the framework of political historiography with a nationalist purpose.

    (Alireza Manafzadeh)

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD iv. AS LINGUIST

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD v. AS SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS REFORMER

    Kasravi founded the “Society of Free Men” (Bāhamād-e āzādegān), announced his call for pākdini (pure faith)—born out of his sense of prophetic mission—and became the most outspoken intellectual against religious superstition and illusion.

    (Mohammad Amini)

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD vi. ON MYSTICISM AND PERSIAN SUFI POETRY

    By the turn of the 20th century the Sufi tradition in Iran no longer enjoyed the popularity and following that it attracted in previous centuries.

    (Lloyd Ridgeon)

  • KASRAVI, AḤMAD vii. A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SURVEY

    Aḥmad Kasravi was a prolific writer. From the age of 25, when he began to write in Tabriz in 1915, until his assassination 30 years later in 1946.

    (EIr. and M. Amini)

  • ḴĀṢṢ BEG

    ARSLĀN B. PALANG-ERI, Turkish ḡolām who became the ḥājeb “chamberlain” and court favorite of the Great Saljuq Sultan Masʿud b. Moḥammad b. Malek Šāh (r. 1134-52).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ḴĀṢṢ O ʿĀM

    See CLASS SYSTEM iv. MEDIEVAL PERIOD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴĀṢṢA

    The so-called ḵāleṣa or public crown lands (confiscated or abandoned land) was part of the ḵāṣṣa holdings, and often the dividing line between the two was blurred. Both stood in contrast to amlāk-e divāni or mamālek, which referred to state lands. During the 18th century the term ḵāṣṣa, as well as divāni and mamālek, fell into disuse.

    (Willem Floor)

  • KAŠŠI, ABU ʿAMR MOḤAMMAD

    an Imami traditionist and an important figure in Shiʿite biographical literature (rejāl).

    (Liyakat Takim)

  • KASSITES

    a people who probably originated in the Zagros and who ruled Babylonia in the 16th-12th centuries BCE.

    (Ran Zadok)

  • KAŠVĀD

    the name of the ancestor of the Gōdarziān clan of heroes in the Šāh-nāma.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • KĀṮ

    the old capital of Chorasmia, situated by the Oxus/Āmu Daryā river. Kāṯ owes both its glory and demise to the Oxus, an unending source of sustenance as well as destruction in human history.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KATA

    a simple, everyday rice dish characteristic for the Caspian provinces, Gilan and Mazanderan.

    (Etrat Elahi and EIr)

  • KATĀYUN

    a mythological figure in the Šāh-nāma and in the Bundahišn. In the Šāh-nāma, Katāyun is the daughter of the emperor of Rum who marries Goštāsp while he is in exile.

    (Mahnaz Moazami)

  • KĀTEB

    "secretary, scribe." See DABIR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴAṬIB

    See ḴOṬBA, EMĀM-E JOMʿA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴAṬIB ROSTAM DEDE

    Ottoman Sufi, writer, and poet, author of the Wasila al-maqāṣed elā aḥsan al-marāṣed, a Persian-Turkish dictionary.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • KATIBA

    "inscription." See CALLIGRAPHY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAṮĪR DYNASTY

    See ĀL-E KAṮĪR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KATIRĀ

    (gum tragacanth), a plant exudate widely used as a natural emulsifier and thickener by the food, drug, and other industries. It is also called ṣamḡ-e qannād.

    (Amir Kiumarsi and Bahram Grami)

  • ḴATM AL-ḠARĀʾEB

    the only maṯnawi written by the poet Ḵāqāni Šervāni; its final version dates from 552/1157.

    (Anna Livia Beelaert)

  • ḴAṬMI

    (or ḵeṭmi), “marshmallow,” Althaea officinalis L. of the family Malvaceae (the mallow family), an important pharmaceutical plant.

    (Ahmad Aryavand and Bahram Grami)

  • ḴATNA

    See CIRCUMCISION.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KATPATUKA

    See CAPPADOCIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴAṬṬ-E FĀRSI

    See IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS. (3) WRITING SYSTEMS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴAṬṬ-E MIḴI

    See CUNEIFORM SCRIPT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴAṬṬĀBIYA

    an extremist Shiʿite sect named after Abu’l-Ḵaṭṭāb al-Asadi (killed ca. 755) who for some time was an authorized representative of Imam Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq (d. ca. 765) in Kufa.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • ḴATTĀʾI, ʿALI-AKBAR

    See ḴETTĀʾI, ʿALI-AKBAR (pending).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KATTĀN

    See LINEN (pending).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴAṬṬĀTI

    See CALLIGRAPHY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴĀTUN

    a title of high-born women in the pre-modern Turkish and Persian worlds.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ḴĀTUNĀBĀDI, MIR ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN

    (1630-94), Persian historian and author of the chronicle Waqāyeʿ al-senin wa’l-aʿwām.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ḴĀTUNI, ABU ṬĀHER

    See ABU ṬĀHER ḴĀTUNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀVA

    the name of a heroic blacksmith in the Šāhnāma who rebels against the tyrant Żaḥḥāk and helps Ferēdun wrest the kingdom from him.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • KĀVA NEWSPAPER

    In this period, Germany, with no apparent interests in Iran, was favored by nationalist Iranians, who believed that it was the one that could free Iran from the political and economic domination of Great Britain and Russia. The name of the paper recalled Kāva, the legendary hero who rose against Żaḥḥāk, the bloodthirsty tyrant.

    (Iraj Afšār)

  • ḴĀVARĀN-NĀMA

    See KHAVARAN-NAMA (pending).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴĀVARĀN-NĀMA

    a Persian religious epic poem composed by Ebn Ḥosām Ḵᵛāfi or Ḵusfi.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ḴĀVARĀN-NĀMA i. The Epic Poem

    (ḴĀVAR-NĀMA) a Persian religious epic poem composed by Ebn Ḥosām Ḵᵛāfi or Ḵusfi.

    (Julia Rubanovich)

  • ḴĀVARĀN-NĀMA ii. The Illustrated Manuscripts

    illustrated manuscripts of Ḵāvarān-nāma from Iran, Turkey, and India

    (Raya Shani)

  • ḴĀVARI KĀŠĀNI

    preacher, poet, journalist, and constitutional activist. Ḵāvari learned the fundamentals of traditional learning from his preacher father, Sayyed Hāšem Wāʿeẓ.

    (Mehrdad Amanat)

  • KAVI

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴĀVIĀR

    See CAVIAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAVIR

    Persian word meaning "desert." See DESERT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀVUS

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAWĀD I

    Sasanian king, son of Pērōz I. This entry is divided into two sections: i. Reign. ii. Coinage.

    (Nikolaus Schindel)

  • KAWĀD I i. Reign

    The reign of Kawād I, lasting with an interruption of some three years from 488 to 531, is a turning point in Sasanian history.

    (Nikolaus Schindel)

  • KAWĀD I ii. Coinage

    Since the reign of Jāmāsp interrupts the two regnal periods of Kawād I, and because of marked differences between the two, they should be treated separately. Kawād employs only one obverse and one reverse type during his first reign. The obverse shows the king’s bust to the right wearing a crown consisting of a crescent and two mural elements.

    (Nikolaus Schindel)

  • KAWĀD II

    Sasanian king (r. 628), son of ḴOSROW II. See ŠIRUYA (entry pending).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴAWARNAQ

    a medieval castle built in the vicinity of the ancient city of al-Ḥ ira by La ḵ mid rulers of Iraq to whose name frequent references has been made in pre-modern Persian literary works.

    (Renate Würsch)

  • KAY

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAY KĀVUS

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAY ḴOSROW

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAY-ḴOSROW KHAN

    (1674-1711), Georgian royal prince of the Kartlian branch, also known as Ḵosrow Khan.

    (Hirotake Maeda)

  • KAY QOBĀD

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴAYĀL, Mir Moḥammad-Taqi

    (d. 1759), Indian author of a collection of historical and fictitious stories composed in Persian in fifteen volumes over fourteen years and titled Bustān-e ḵayāl.

    (Mohammad Sohayb Arshad)

  • KAYĀNIĀN

    (Kayanids), in the early Persian epic tradition a dynasty that ruled Iran before the Achaemenids, all of whom bore names prefixed by Kay from Avestan kauui.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN i. Kavi: Avestan kauui, Pahlavi kay

    Kavi is the Indo-Iranian term for “(visionary) poet.” The term may be older than Indo-Iranian, if Lydian kaveś and the Samothracean title cited by Hesychius as koí;ēs or kó;ēs are related.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN ii. The Kayanids as a Group

    References to the kauuis in the Avesta are found in the yašts in the lists of heroes who sacrificed to various deities for certain rewards.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN iii. Kauui Kauuāta, Kay Kawād, Kay Kobād (Qobād)

    Kauui Kauuāta has no epithets in the Avesta to describe him, and the descriptions in the Pahlavi sources are mostly vague. His seed is from the xwarrah; he was the first to establish kingship in Iran; he was godfearing and a good ruler. According to a notice in the Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr, he may have married Wan, daughter of Gulaxš.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN iv. “Minor” Kayanids

    The Avesta contains no information on Aipi.vahu, Aršan, Pisinah, and Biiaršan, but, according to the Pahlavi tradition, Abīweh was the son of Kawād and the father of Arš, Biyarš (spelled <byʾlš>), Pisīn, and Kāyus.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN v. Kauui Usan, Kay-Us, Kay Kāvus

    The story of Kay Us’s madness is found in two versions. According to the Bundahišn, his mind was disturbed so that he tried to go up and do battle with the sky, but he fell down and the xwarrah was stolen from him; he devastated the world with his army, until they caught and bound him by deception in the land of Šambarān.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN vi. Siiāuuaršan, Siyāwaxš, Siāvaš

    Siiāuuaršan, “the one with black stallions,” is listed in the Avesta in Yašt 13.132 as a kauui and the third with a name containing aršan “male.”

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN vii. Kauui Haosrauuah, Kay Husrōy, Kay Ḵosrow

    According to Ṯaʿālebi, having brought order to the earth, worrying that he might be subjected to hubris like several of his predecessors, Kay Ḵosrow left to wander, and no one heard any more from him.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN viii. Kay Luhrāsp, Kay Lohrāsb

    In the Avesta, Vištāspa’s father is Auruuaṯ.aspa, who is mentioned only once, when Zarathustra asks Anāhitā for the ability to make Vištāspa, son of Auruuaṯ.aspa, help the daēnā along with thoughts, words, and deeds, a wish he is granted.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN ix. Kauui Vištāspa, Kay Wištāsp, Kay Beštāsb/Goštāsb

    The name Vištāspa presumably means “he who gives the horses free rein” (ví;ṣitāso á;śvāḥ “horses let loose or given free rein”), which agrees with the description of Vištāspa as the prototypical winner of the chariot race in Yašt 5.132.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN x. The End of the Kayanids

    In the Pahlavi texts. The Bundahišn only records that, when Wahman, son of Spandyād, came to the throne, Iran was a wasteland, and the Iranians were quarreling with one another.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN xi. The Kayanids and the Kang-dez

    According to the Pahlavi texts, Kay Siāwaxš built the Kang castle (Kang-diz) by miraculous power (Pahlavi Rivāyat: with his own hands, by means of the [Kavian] xwarrah and the might of Ohrmazd and the Amahrspands).

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN xii. The Kavian XˇARƎNAH

    The nature of the Avestan xᵛarənah and its three subtypes, the Aryan (airiiana), the “unseizable” (? axᵛarəta), and the Kavian (kāuuaiia).

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN xiii. Synchronism of the Kayanids and Near Eastern History

    The desire of the medieval historians to fit all the ancient narratives into one and the same chronological description of world history from the creation led them to coordinate the Biblical, Classical, and Iranian sources.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNIĀN xiv. The Kayanids in Western Historiography

    Henry C. Rawlinson contrasted the “distorted and incomplete allusions to Jemshí;d and the Kayanian monarchs” with “authentic history,” and Friedrich Spiegel called the Kayanids partly purely mythical, partly legendary.

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

  • KAYĀNSĪH

    Pahlavi form of the name of a mythical sea, Av. Kąsaoiia-, connected in tradition with the Hāmun lake. According to Later Av. sources it is from the Kąsaoiia that the Saošiiaṇt Astuuat̰. ərəta- will rise.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • KAYFI SABZAVĀRI

    Persian poet, also known as Kayfi Sistāni and Kayfi Now-Mosalmān.

    (Sunil Sharma)

  • KAYHAN

    a leading daily newspaper published in Tehran from 1942 until the 1979 Revolution. Since then, it has been published under the patronage of the Islamic Republic’s supreme leader. Kayhan of London was foundedin 1984 as a weekly newspaper; it has continued to be published as a monarchist newspaper for Iranians in Diaspora.

    (EIr.)

  • KAYKĀVUS B. ESKANDAR

    author of a famous Mirror for Princes, best known as the Qābus-nāma, although other, more general titles such as Naṣiḥat-nāma, or Pand-nāma, also occur in the sources.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • KAYKĀVUS B. HAZĀRASP

    See BADUSPANIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴAYMA

    See TENTS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KAYOMARṮ

    See GAYŌMART.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴAYRḴᵛĀH HERĀTI

    Nezāri Ismaʿili dāʿi, author, and poet (15th-16th centuries).

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • KAYSĀNIYA

    occasionally referred to also as Moḵtāriya, the Shiʿite sectarian movement(s) emerging from the Kufan revolt of Moḵtār b. Abi ʿObayd Ṯaqafi in 66-67/685-87.

    (Sean W. Anthony)

  • ḴAZʿAL KHAN

    (Shaikh Ḵazʿal, also known as Moʿez-al-Salṭana, Sardār Aqdas), chieftain of the Banu Kaʿb tribe of Khuzestan (1861-1936).

    (Shahbaz Shahnavaz)

  • KĀZARUNIYA

    a Sufi order (ṭariqat) so named after Abu Esḥāq Kāzaruni, alternatively designated as Esḥāqiya, especially in Turkey, or more rarely as Moršediya.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • KĀẒEM, MUSĀ

    Imam. See MUSĀ B. JAʿFAR (pending).

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KĀẒEM RAŠTI

    (d. 1844), student and successor of Shaikh Aḥmad b. Zayn-al-Din Aḥsāʾi and head of the Šayḵi movement. The main sources for Rašti’s biography are some of his own works which contain autobiographical information.

    (Armin Eschraghi)

  • KĀẒEM RAŠTI, MALEK-AL-AṬEBBĀʾ

    one of the high-ranking traditional physicians in 19th-century Iran.

    (Hormoz Ebrahimnejad)

  • KAZEMAYN

    a suburban town in the northwest of Baghdad and one of the four Shiʿite shrine cities in Iraq, known in Shiʿi Islam as ʿatabāt-e ʿāliāt.

    (Meir Litvak)

  • KĀẒEMI, ḤOSAYN

    (b. Tehran, Oct.26/1924; d. Paris, 1996) painter and graduate of the Faculty of Fine Arts (q.v.) of Tehran University in 1945.

    (Vida Nassehi-Behnam)

  • ḴĀZENI, ABU’L-FATḤ

    astronomer, mathematician, and mechanist originally from the city of Marv in Khorasan.

    (Faiza Bancel)

  • KAZERUN

    city and sub-province in the province of Fars, west of Shiraz. This entry is divided into the following three sections: i. Geography. ii. History. iii. Old Kazerun dialect.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KAZERUN i. Geography

    Kazerun is located in the southwestern Zagros range, which is oriented northwest-southeast in the normal folding zone and is seismically active. Kazerun comprises contrasting climates; there is a cold zone in the mountainous north, with summits up to 3,000 m, and a warm zone in the south, with elevations less than 2,000 m.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • KAZERUN ii. History

    From late Safavid times, European travelers provided valuable information on Kazerun (variously spelled) and its region.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • KAZERUN iii. Old Kazerun Dialect

    The old dialect of the city of Kazerun was commonly used by the local people up to around the 14th-15th centuries.

    (ʿAlī Ašraf Ṣādeqī)

  • KĀZERUNI FAMILY

    Kāzeruni’s fortune was made through his investments in the textile industry, which had long been a major industry in Isfahan but had lost ground to British and Russian cotton imports. Kāzeruni stood out among the nationalist merchants and landowners who launched new campaigns to revive Isfahan’s cotton production and textile industry.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ḴAZINADĀR

    title of the royal treasurer since the early Islamic period.

    (Willem Floor)

  • KAŠKUL

    an oval-shaped bowl carried by dervishes. Forthcoming online.

    (Pending)

  • KĒD

    Pahlavi and Bactrian word with meanings ranging from “soothsayer” to “priest,” probably derived from OIran.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams)

  • KÉGL, SÁNDOR [2013]

    Kegl was encouraged and supported by Vá;mbéry’s letters of recommendation, including one addressed to Nāṣer-al-Din Shah. Kégl traveled on a study trip to Iran in October 1889 in order to collect books and to enhance his practical knowledge of Persian and thus prepare for the teaching career of his choice.

    (ARCHIVED VERSION)

    by: Miklos Sarkozy

    As printed in EIr. Vol. XVI, Fasc. 2, pp. 223-225.

    (Miklos Sarkozy)

  • KÉGL, SÁNDOR

    (b. Szúnyog, Hungary, 1 December 1862; d. &Áporka, Hungary, 28 December 1920), Hungarian orientalist, polymath, and bibliophile who devoted a major part of his studies to Persian literature.

    (Miklos Sarkozy)

  • KELĀRDAŠT

    (or Kalārdašt), see KALĀRESTĀQ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴELʿAT

    (Ar. ḵelʿa, pl. ḵelaʿ), term used in Iran, India, Central Asia for gifts, but in particular a robe of honor.

    (Willem Floor)

  • ḴELʿAT [2013]

    (Ar. ḵelʿa, pl. ḵelaʿ), term used in Iran, India, Central Asia for gifts, but in particular a robe of honor. (ARCHIVED VERSION)

    by Willem Floor

    As printed in EIr. Vol. XVI, Fasc. 2, pp. 226-229

    (Willem Floor)

  • KELERMES

    a Scythian archeological site. See SCYTHIANS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KELIDAR

    a monumental novel of nearly three thousand pages in five volumes consisting of ten books published over the period 1978-84 by Maḥmud Dawlatābādi, the noted Iranian novelist and ardent social realist.

    (Mohammad R. Ghanoonparvar)

  • KELIM (GELIM)

    a kind of flat-woven carpet employed by settled and nomadic families for a host of uses, primarily but not exclusively for covering household items and furnishing the interior of dwellings.

    (Sumru Belger Krody)

  • KEMĀḴ

    town in eastern Anatolia, located on the southern bank of the Western Euphrates (Turk. Karasu) and well known in medieval times for its formidable fortress.

    (Hurivash Ahmadi Dastgerdi and EIr.)

  • KENT, ROLAND GRUBB

    American scholar of Indo-European studies, who specialized also in Old Persian studies. He went to Berlin and Munich universities to continue for two years his classical studies, including (apart from the languages) Greek epigraphy, history, and archeology.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • KÉPES, GÉZA

    (1909-1989), Hungarian poet and translator of Persian poetry. He was the son of a blacksmith and proud of his origins, claiming that the legacy of his father’s craftsmanship as a skilled artisan.

    (András Bodrogligeti)

  • KEPHALAIA

    genre of literature developed by the Manichean communities in the early Sasanian empire that spread with the church across Eurasia and North Africa

    (Iain Gardner)

  • ḴERAD-NĀMA

    (Dariush Kargar and EIr.)

  • KƎRƎSĀSPA

    See KARSĀSP.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KEREŠMA

    a musical term denoting a guša , or a metric section within a guša, based on any dastgāh .

    (Gen'ichi Tsuge)

  • KERIYA

    Because of the Chinese government program for urban development, Uighur neighborhoods are consistently demolished to make way for straight avenues and banal, modern buildings. Moreover, the Chinese government is promoting the migration of Han Chinese.

    (Alain Cariou)

  • KERIYA

    (Alain Cariou)

  • KERMAN

    province of Iran located between Fars and Sistan va Balučestān; also the name of its principal city and capital.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KERMAN i. Geography

    Kerman Province is situated in southeast Iran. It is divided into two distinct macroclimates, sardsir (cold) in the upland north and garmsir (warm) in the lowland south, generally speaking.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KERMAN ii. Historical Geography

    The Kerman basin, in which Kerman City is situated, is located at an elevation of about 1,700 m with land sloping very gently from northwest to southeast. It is entirely surrounded by a series of high massifs.

    (Xavier de Planhol and Bernard Hourcade)

  • KERMAN iii. Population of the province, sub-province, and city

    In 1956, the total population of the province was around 789,000 persons (of whom, 127,624 then belonged to Bandar Abbas), while in the 2011 population and housing census, it had increased to nearly 2,939,000.

    (Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni and Moḥammad-Ḥosayn Nejātiān)

  • KERMAN iv. HISTORY IN THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    See ii. above. See also CARMANIA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMAN v. From the Islamic Conquest to the Coming of the Mongols

    The Armenian geography written in the second half of the 8th century and traditionally attributed to Moses of Khoren places Kerman in the southern quarter of the Sasanian empire.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • KERMAN vi. HISTORY FROM MONGOL CONQUEST TO SAFAVIDS

    See Supplement. See also MOZAFFARIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMAN vii. In the Safavid Period

    Kerman is one of the few places in Iran that had long generated local Persian-language chronicles, and the 17th century was no exception.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • KERMAN viii. Afsharid and Zand Period

    Between the fall of the Safavids and the rise of the Qajar dynasty (ca. 1722-94), Kerman maintained a measure of stability and security under local rulers despite the rise and fall of dynastic states across the Iranian plateau.

    (James M. Gustafson)

  • KERMAN ix. Qajar Period

    Kerman's geographical position on the periphery of the Qajar empire (1795-1925), was at the center of numerous significant developments in this important transitional period in Iran's history.

    (James M. Gustafson)

  • KERMAN x. HISTORY IN THE PAHLAVI PERIOD

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMAN xi. HISTORY IN THE ISLAMIC REPUBIC

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMAN xii. MONUMENTS

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMAN xiii. ZOROASTRIANS

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMAN xiv. Jewish Community Of Kerman City

    In the late 18th century, according to the account of the Jewish community of Yazd compiled by Molla Aqābābā Damāvandi a century later, severe drought caused its members to move to Rafsanjān and Sirjān and the villages around Kerman. Thus the Jewish Quarter of nineteenth-century Kerman became mainly an offshoot of the community in Yazd.

    (Nahid Pirnazar and EIr)

  • KERMAN xv. Carpet Industry

    Since the late 19th century, Kerman’s hand-woven, knotted pile carpets are widely regarded as among the finest in the world by art historians and collectors for the quality of their materials and workmanship.

    (James M. Gustafson)

  • KERMAN xvi. Languages

    The province of Kerman is characterized by two indigenous languages, Persian in the mountainous north and Garmsiri in the lowland south, supplemented by the Median-type dialects spoken by the Zoroastrian, Jewish, and possibly Turkish residence of the city of Kerman.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KERMAN xvi. Languages

    The province of Kerman is characterized by two indigenous languages, Persian in the mountainous north and Garmsiri in the lowland south, supplemented by the Median-type dialects spoken by the Zoroastrian, Jewish, and possibly Turkish residence of the city of Kerman.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KERMAN xiii. Zoroastrians of 19th-Century Yazd and Kerman

    The main focus of this entry is on the nature of pressures exerted on the Zoroastrians of Yazd and Kerman to convert away from their religion, and the Zoroastrian responses of both conversion and persistence during the 19th century. It will cover four themes: Muslim treatment of Zoroastrians and pressures to convert, Zoroastrian modes of resistance and submission, the Parsi contribution to Zoroastrian revivalism, and a comparison of Zoroastrian responses to Muslim pressures to convert versus responses to Bahai forms of proselytization.

    (Janet Kestenberg Amighi)

  • KERMĀNI, ABU'L-QĀSEM

    See ABU'L-QĀSEM KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, AFŻAL-AL-DIN

    See AFŻAL-AL-DIN KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, AFŻAL-AL-MOLK

    See AFŻAL-AL-MOLK KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, AWḤAD-AL-DIN

    See AWḤAD-AL-DIN KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, ʿEMĀD-AL-DIN

    See ʿEMĀD-AL-DIN KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, ḤAMID-AL-DIN

    See ḤAMID-AL-DIN KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, KAMĀL-AL-DIN

    See ḴᵛĀJU KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, MAJD-AL-ESLĀM

    See MAJD-AL-ESLĀM KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, MIRZĀ ĀQĀ KHAN

    See ĀQĀ KHAN KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, MIRZĀ REŻĀ

    assassin of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah. See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, ṢANʿATIZĀDA

    See ṢANʿATIZĀDA KERMĀNI, HOMĀYUN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMĀNI, SHAIKH AḤMAD RUḤI

    See RUḤI KERMĀNI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMANSHAH

    a province in western Iran; also the name of its principal city and capital.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KERMANSHAH i. Geography

    Kermanshah Province, situated in western Iran, spreads over an area of 25,000 km² (9,560 square miles, roughly the size of Vermont), or 1.5 percent of the total area of the country.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KERMANSHAH ii. POPULATION

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMANSHAH iii. ARCHEOLOGY

    See BISOTUN ii; GODIN TEPE; KANGAVAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMANSHAH iv. History to 1953

    The town and province of Kermanshah are located on the strategic travel route, later known as the “Khorasan Highway,” linking Mesopotamia to the Iranian plateau. This route was militarily and commercially important even in antiquity.

    (Jean Calmard)

  • KERMANSHAH v. HISTORY SINCE 1953

    See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMANSHAH vi. TRIBES

    See KURDISH TRIBES; BĀJALĀN; GURĀN; KALHOR; SANJĀB; and ZANGANA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KERMANSHAH vii. Languages and Dialects

    Kermanshah is linguistically characterized by a triad of Kurdish, Gurāni , and Persian within a multifaceted, areal-tribal-social setting; supplemented by Neo-Aramaic spoken in pockets by area Jewry, as well as an isolated Turkic dialect spoken in the Sonqor valley.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KERMANSHAH vii. Languages and Dialects

    Kermanshah is linguistically characterized by a triad of Kurdish, Gurāni , and Persian within a multifaceted, areal-tribal-social setting; supplemented by Neo-Aramaic spoken in pockets by area Jewry, as well as an isolated Turkic dialect spoken in the Sonqor valley.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KERMANSHAH viii. The Jewish Community

    Surviving the obscure period of the Middle Ages, the Jews of Kermanshah were not affected by the forced conversions under the Safavids.

    (Nahid Pirnazar)

  • ḴERQA

    term for the tattered cloak, robe, or overshirt traditionally worn by the Sufis as a symbol of wayfaring on the mystical path.

    (Erik S. Ohlander)

  • ḴERQA

    term for the tattered cloak, robe, or overshirt traditionally worn by the Sufis as a symbol of wayfaring on the mystical path.

    (Erik S. Ohlander)

  • ḴERS

    See BEAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KEŠ

    (Kešš, Kašš), an important ancient and medieval city, located in the upper Kaškā-daryā valley, now Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan.

    (Pavel Lurje)

  • KEŠ

    (Pavel Lurje)

  • KEŠAʾI DIALECT

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KEŠAʾI DIALECT

    the dialect spoken in the village of Keša, near Naṭanz, in Isfahan Province.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KESĀʾI MARVAZI

    (also vocalized Kasāʾi), 10th-century Persian poet.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • ḴEṢĀLI

    Ḥosayn, Ottoman poet and writer born in Budapest at an unknown date. His divān is the only source of information about his life.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • KEŠĀVARZ, FEREYDUN

    Iranian parliamentarian and member of the Tudeh party. See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KEŠĀVARZ, KARIM

    Iranian lawyer, novelist, and translator of Russian literature. See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KEŠĀVARZ ṢADR, AMIR HUŠANG

    sociologist and expert on rural and tribal society in Iran

    (Sharam Ghanbari)

  • KEŠĀVARZI

    See AGRICULTURE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KESRĀ

    the Arabic equivalent of Ḵosrow.

    (Michael Cooperson)

  • KESRAVI

    historian and man of letters.

    (Jaako Hameen-Anttlia)

  • KEŠVAR

    See CLIME; HAFT KEŠVAR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KETĀB-E AḤMAD

    See ṬĀLEBUF, ʿABD-AL-RAḤIM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KETĀB AL-ʿĀLEM WA’L-ḠOLĀM

    (The Book of the sage and the youth), a work attributed to the Ismaʿili missionary Jaʿfar b. Manṣur-al-Yaman (d. ca. 960).

    (David Hollenberg)

  • KETĀB AL-ENSĀN AL-KĀMEL

    important treatise on Sufism by ʿAziz-al-Din Nasafi (7th/13th century). See Supplement; see also NASAFI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KETĀB AL-EṢLĀḤ

    an early Ismaʿili work in Arabic by Abu Ḥātem Rāzi (d. 933-34).

    (Shin Nomoto)

  • KETĀB AL-FAḴRI

    See EBN AL-ṬEQṬAQĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KETĀB AL-FOTUḤ

    an important early Arabic historical text by Ebn Aʿṯam Kufi (d. 314/926?), which was translated, at least in part, into Persian towards the end of the 6th/12th century.

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • KETĀB-E IQĀN

    a major work of Mirzā Ḥosayn-ʿAli Nuri Bahāʾ-Allāh (d. 1892) in defense of the religious claims of Sayyed ʿAli-Moḥammad the Bāb.

    (Sholeh Quinn and Stephen N. Lambden)

  • KETĀB AL-NAQŻ

    a Twelver Shiʿite polemical work in Persian produced in Ray in the third quarter of the twelfth century by Qazvini Rāzi.

    (Kazuo Morimoto)

  • KETĀB AL-RIĀŻ

    a book by Ḥamid-al-Din Kermāni (d. after 411/1020), an Ismaʿili missionary, analyzing two other Ismaʿili texts, the Eṣlāḥ of Abu Ḥātem Rāzi (d. after 322/933-4) and the Noṣra of Abu Yaʿqub Sejestāni (d. after 360/970).

    (Faquir M. Hunzai)

  • KETĀB AL-TADWIN

    a biographical dictionary of Qazvin

    (Kazuo Morimoto)

  • KETĀB AL-TAFHIM

    book on the astral sciences by Abu Rayḥān Biruni (q.v.).

    (Sonja Brentjes)

  • KETĀBČI KHAN

    businessman who served in the Persian government as as Director of Customs.

    (Leonardo Davoudi)

  • KETĀB-ḴĀNA

    library or place where books are produced.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KETĀBḴĀNA-YE MELLI-E TĀJIKESTĀN

    the National Library of Tajikistan. With its 28-stack rooms, the library has a capacity for ten million books. Manuscript holdings span seven centuries (13th-19th centuries) and include the works of outstanding Persian classical authors.

    (Evelin Grassi)

  • ḴEṬĀY-NĀMA

    “Book on China,” written by Seyyed ʿAlī Akbar Ḵeṭāʾī in Istanbul.

    (Ralph Kauz)

  • KETEVAN THE MARTYR

    Georgian saint and martyr in the Safavid period. See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KEVORKIAN, GABRIEL

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KEVORKIAN, HAGOP

    Armenian art collector and dealer specializing in the arts of the pre-Islamic and Islamic Near East.

    (Yelena Rakic)

  • KEYHĀN

    (newspaper). See KAYHĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KEYHĀN, MASʿUD

    army officer and professor of geography. See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KEYVĀN, MORTEŻĀ

    poet, writer, and member of the Tudeh party. See Supplement.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KEYVĀNLU TRIBE

    a Kudish tribe of Khorasan. It was one of those Kurdish tribes that Shah ʿAbbās I forced to migrate from western Persia around 1600 for the purpose of fighting off the incursions of the Uzbeks.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ḴEZEL

    Kurdish tribe in Ilām. See ʿAŠĀYER, ILĀM i. GEOGRAPHY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴEŻR

    a prophet known to Islamic written tradition and folklore, whose worship in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia is connected with local calendar beliefs and fertility cults.

    (Anna Krasnowolska)

  • KHACHIKIAN, Samuel

    Khachikian’s first film was Bāzgašt (The Return), a romantic melodrama that pitted a hardworking village boy serving an affluent family in the city against the family’s spoiled son in a rivalry over a young woman. The mawkish story shared formula of Iranian films of the period, but was technically more polished and fast-paced.

    (Jamsheed Akrami)

  • KHADEMI, Ali Mohammad

    Khademi joined the Air Force in 1938, and continued pilot training. He was the first Iranian to receive a commercial pilot license from the British Civil Aviation Authority in 1948, and in 1957 he completed a training course at the U.S. Air Force University in Montgomery, Alabama.

    (Chapour Rassekh)

  • KHADIV-JAM, HOSSEIN

    (1927-1986), Iranian translator and scholar of Persian and Arabic. His major publications range from translation of contemporary Arabic scholarship on Islamic philosophy to the critical edition of a number of major works in the fields of medieval philosophy and pre-modern history of Iran.

    (EIr)

  • KHAGAN

    a title that entered Persian and was used by medieval Muslim historians in reference to various rulers.

    (Étienne de la Vaissière)

  • KHAKSAR, Mansur

    poet, writer, editor and political activist. Khaksar had two eminent Persian poets, Maḥmud Mošref Tehrāni and Ḥassan Pastā , as his teachers in the last two years of high school. In 1959, his first poem was published in Omid-e Irān, a noted weekly journal published by Moḥammad Āṣemi in Tehran.

    (Khosrow Davami)

  • KHALAJ

    tribe and language. See ḴALAJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KHALCHAYAN

    in Surxondaryo prov., southern Uzbekistan, site of a settlement and palace of the nomad Yuezhi, with paintings and sculptures of the mid-1st century BCE. The Yuezhi, and perhaps other nomad groups, overthrew the Hellenistic Greek dynasty which had ruled there since the mid-3rd century as successor to the post-Achaemenid governments of Alexander and the Seleucids.

    (Lolita Nehru)

  • KHALESI, MAHDI

    (1860-1925), a leading, outspoken, Kāẓemayn-based Shiʿite jurist from Iraq, whose close involvement in anti-British politics and opposition to British occupation in Iraq resulted in his exile to Iran.

    (Omid Ghaemmaghami, and Mina Yazdani)

  • KHALILI, Abbas

    (1895-1971), political activist, journalist, translator, poet and novelist. See ḴALILI, ʿABBĀS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KHALILI, KHALIL-ALLAH

    See ḴALILI, ḴALIL-ALLĀH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KHALKHAL

    southeasternmost district of Azerbaijan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KHALKHAL i. The Town and District

    Mentions of Khalkhal and of some of its subdistricts and localities appeared relatively late in medieval geographical and historical chronicles.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • KHALKHAL ii. Basic Population Data, 1956-2011

    Khalkhal has experienced a high rate of population growth, increasing more than sevenfold from a population of 5,422 in 1956 to 41,165 in 2011.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • KHAN

    (ḵān), a Turkish high title indicating nobility.

    (Gene R. Garthwaite)

  • KHAN-E KHANAN

    See ʿABD-AL-RAḤIM ḴĀN(-E) ḴĀNĀN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KHANLARI, PARVIZ

    scholar of Persian language and literature, poet, essayist, translator, literary critic, university professor, and founding editor of the periodical Soḵan.

    (ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āḏarang and EIr)

  • KHANLARI, ZAHRA

    (1913-1990), author, translator, literary scholar, and university professor. She was among the first women in Iran to receive a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1939.

    (Zahra Khanloo)

  • KHANSARI DEHKORDI, MOHAMMAD

    (1922-2010), Persian logician and scholar and a permanent member of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature; his works range from Manṭeq-e ṣuri to translations of Porphyry’s Isagoge and Aristotle’s Categories and a critical edition of Mollā Ṣadrā’s Iqāẓ-al-nāʾemin.

    (Alvand Bahari)

  • KHANYKOV, NIKOLAI

    a leading figure in Russia's nascent 19th century Oriental studies.

    (Denis V. Volkov)

  • KHARG ISLAND

    an island and a district of Bušehr Province in the Persian Gulf.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KHARG ISLAND i. Geography

    situated in Persian Gulf at about 30 miles northwest of the port of Bušehr and 20 miles west of the port of Ganāva, stretches about 5 miles longitudinally and half of that at its widest point .

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KHARG ISLAND ii. History and archeology

    island in the Persian Gulf, situated at about 30 km northwest of Bandar-e Rig and 52 km northwest of Bušehr.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • KHARG ISLAND iii. Developments since the 1950s

    In the years following World War II, Kharg was sparsely populated and Ḵārgu was uninhabited. Its preeminence as Iran’s principal oil export terminal began in the early 1950s when the island was connected to the Gačsārān oilfield on the mainland by way of the coastal town of Ganāva .

    (G. Mirfendereski)

  • KHARGA OASIS

    (Ar. Ḵārja), largest oasis in the Egyptian Western Desert, under Persian control during the Achaemenid Period.

    (Henry P. Colburn)

  • KHARIJITES IN PERSIA

    sect of early Islam which arose out of the conflict between ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb (r. 656-61) and Moʿāwiya b. Abi Sufyān (r. 661-80).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • KHATIBI NURI, HOSAYN

    Iranian scholar and administrator (196-2001).

    (Majdoddin Keyvani)

  • KHATLON

    one of the three provinces of Tajikistan, located in the southwestern part of the country. It was created in 1988 and consolidates the former provinces of Kulāb and Kurgan Tepe.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KHAVARAN-NAMA

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KHAVARAN-NAMA i. THE EPIC POEM

    (Julia Rubanovich)

  • KHAVARAN-NAMA ii. THE ILLUSTRATED MANUSCRIPTS

    (Raya Shani)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR

    (ʿOMAR ḴAYYĀM, 1048-1131), celebrated polymath and poet, author of the Rubaiyat (Robāʿiāt).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR i. LIFE

    (Ḥosayn Maʿṣumi Hamadāni and EIr.)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR ii. POETRY

    (Sayyed ʿAli Mirafżali)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR iii. Impact On Literature And Society In The West

    The first scholar outside Persia to study Omar Khayyam was the English orientalist, Thomas Hyde (1636-1703).

    (Jos Biegstraaten)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR iv. ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS

    (Austin O'Malley)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR v. Illustrations Of English Translations Of The Rubaiyat

    The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam contain some of the best-known verses in the world. The book is also one of the most frequently and widely illustrated of all literary works. The stimulus to illustrate Khayyam’s Rubaiyat came initially from outside Persia, in response to translations in the West.

    (William H. Martin and Sandra Mason)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR vi. FRENCH TRANSLATIONS

    (Agnès Lenepveu-Hotz)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR vii. GERMAN TRANSLATIONS

    (Hamid Tafazoli)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR viii. ITALIAN TRANSLATIONS

    The reception of Khayyam’s poetic work in Italy, as in the rest of Europe, was the result of the translation and rewriting of the English poet Edward FitzGerald (d. 1883) in the years 1859-79. In Italy the more scholarly approach to Khayyam’s work by a few dedicated Iranists proceeded at a fitful pace over many decades.

    (Mario Casari)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR ix. RUSSIAN TRANSLATIONS

    (Natalia Chalisova, Firuza Melville)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR x. ARABIC TRANSLATIONS

    (Huda Fakhreddine)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xi. TURKISH TRANSLATIONS

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xii. OTHER TRANSLATIONS

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xiii. Musical Works Based On The Rubaiyat

    The enduring popularity of the verses in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam is reflected in the large number of musical works they have inspired.

    (William H. Martin and Sandra Mason)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xiv. As Mathematician

    Three mathematical treatises of Omar Khayyam have come down to us: (1) a commentary on Euclid’s Elements; (2) an essay on the division of the quadrant of a circle; (3) a treatise on algebra; he also wrote (4) the treatise on the extraction of the nth root of the numbers, which is not extant.

    (Bijan Vahabzadeh)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xv. AS ASTRONOMER

    (Younes Karamati)

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xvi. AS PHILOSOPHER

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KHAZARS

    (Dan Shapira)

  • KHAZARVĀN

    (EIr.)

  • KHEYRKHAH, HOSEYN

    (Ali Pour Issa)

  • KHIVA

    (Yuri Bregel and Paolo Sartori)

  • KHOJA

    (Ali Asani)

  • KHOLOSI

    (Erik Anonby, Hassan Mohebbi Bahmani, Maryam Nourzaei, and Mortaza Taheri-Ardali)

  • KHOMEINI

    (Hamid Algar)

  • KHOMEINI i. LIFE

    (Hamid Algar)

  • KHORASAN i. ETHNIC GROUPS

    The population of Khorasan is extremely varied, consisting principally of Persians, Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Mongols, Baluch, and smaller groups of Jews, Gypsies, and Lors.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KHORASANI

    See AḴŪND MOLLĀ MOḤAMMAD-KĀẒEM ḴORĀSĀNĪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • KHORDEH AVESTĀ

    “The Little Avesta,” the name given to a collection of texts used primarily by the laity for everyday devotions.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • KHORESH

    (ḵoreš or ḵorešt), common dish consisting of pieces of meat fried with chopped onion, herbs or vegetables, and other ingredients.

    (Etrat Elahi)

  • KHORRAMABAD

    sub-province and capital city of Lorestan Province.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KHORRAMABAD ii. Population, 1956-2011

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Khorramabad: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • KHORRAMSHAHR

    (ḴORRAMŠAHR), a port city at the confluence of the Karun river and the Shatt al-Arab.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KHORRAMSHAHR i. PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

    (ḴORRAMŠAHR), a port city at the confluence of the Karun river and the Shatt al-Arab.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • KHORRAMSHAHR ii. POPULATION, 1956-2011

    This article deals with the population growth of Khorramshahr from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    (Mohammad Hossein Nejatian)

  • KHOTAN

    town (lat 37°06′ N, long 79°56′ E) and major oasis of the southern Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, historically an important kingdom with an Iranian-speaking population.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KHOTAN i. Geography

    Located between the Kunlun mountains and the edge of the Taklamakan desert, the city of Khotan is today a major administrative center of the Khotan Prefecture, a vast area mostly concentrated in the piedmont oasis.

    (Alain Cariou)

  • KHOTAN ii. HISTORY IN THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    ancient Buddhist oasis/kingdom on the branch of the Silk Road along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim basin, in present-day Xinjiang, China.

    (Hiroshi Kumamoto)

  • KHOTAN iv. KHOTANESE LITERATURE

    the body of writings contained in a large number of manuscripts and manuscript folios and fragments written from the 5th to the 10th century in the Khotanese language, the Eastern Middle Iranian language of the Buddhist Saka kingdom of Khotan on the southern branch of the Silk Route (in the present-day Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China).

    (Mauro Maggi)

  • KHUJAND

    (Ḵojand), city in northwestern Tajikistan on the middle course of the Syr Daryā River, about 150 km south of Tashkent and near the entrance to the Farḡāna valley.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • KHUZESTAN viii. Dialects

    The dialects spoken by the Iranian folk of the province appear to be of two basic types: Dezfuli-Šuštari, spoken in those two cities, and Baḵtiāri.

    (Colin MacKinnon)

  • KHWARAZMSHAHS i. Descendants of the line of Anuštigin

    After the Saljuq takeover in Khwarazm in the early 1040s, the Saljuq Sultans appointed various governors in the province, including several Turkish ḡolām commanders.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • KIĀ, KĀR KIA

    or Kiā, a Zaydi family from the eastern flank (Bia-piš) of Gilān, as well as the local dynasty founded by this family that dominated East Gilān and Deylamestān from the 770s/1370s to 1000/1592.

    (Yukako Goto)

  • KIĀ, ṢĀDEQ

    Kiā’s primary achievement was promotion and publicizing of a Persian national identity that embraced the pre-Islamic heritage—not atypical of his contemporaries who had received their formal education during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi. He taught and published, winning him reputation in society and eventually an appointment as the language academy’s president.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KIĀNI, Sayyed NĀDERŠĀH

    (d. 1970), 20th century Ismaʿili poet and writer of Afghanistan, born in Kulāb, southwestern Tajikistan.

    (S. J. Badakhchani)

  • KIDARITES

    a dynasty which ruled Tukharistan and later Gandhāra, probably also part of Sogdiana; the initial date is disputed (ca 390 CE for some modern authors, ca. 420-430 for others).

    (Frantz Grenet)

  • KIEFFER, CHARLES MARTIN

    (1923-2015), French linguist and ethnographer of Afghanistan.

    (Daniel Septfonds)

  • KILIZU

    capital of the Assyrian province of the same name, near the mound Qaṣr Šemāmok in northern Mesopotamia, where a Parthian necropolis was brought to light.

    (Antonio Invernizzi)

  • KIMIĀ

    “Alchemy.” Externally, the purpose of alchemy was the conversion of base metals like lead into silver or gold by means of long and complicated operations leading to the production of a mysterious substance, the ‘philosopher’s stone,’ able to operate the transmutation.

    (Pierre Lory)

  • KING OF THE BENIGHTED

    As Milani describes in his afterword to the English translation, Golshiri incrementally sent handwritten pages of the manuscript to Milani in California in the guise of personal letters, “to avoid the ever-watchful gaze of the Islamic censors.”

    (Nasrin Rahimieh & Daniel Rafinejad)

  • Kingship ii. Parthian Period

    Parthian kingship started with the Arsacids monarchy and was an original form of Oriental kingship. The royal ideology was created by combining elements of different provenance; Greek elements were systematically removed or relegated to be replaced by Iranian traditions.

    (Edward Dąbrowa)

  • ḴIRI

    wallflower, a widely cultivated, sweet-smelling, ornamental plant of the mustard family, which often grows on old walls, rocks, and quarries, particularly limestone.

    (Ahmad Aryavand and Bahram Grami)

  • KIRSTE, Johann Ferdinand Otto

    Johann Kirste received his primary and secondary education in Graz, and after graduating from high school (Gymnasium) in 1870, he enrolled at the University of Graz to study Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit with Karl Schenkl. From 1872 until 1874, in the traditional manner of the time, Kirste studied at several German universities to broaden his training.

    (Michaela Zinko)

  • KISH ISLAND

    (Ar. Qeys), small island in the lower Persian Gulf, noted for its palm gardens.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • KOBRAWIYA i. THE EPONYM

    Abu’l-Jannāb Aḥmad b.ʿOmar Najm-al-Din Kobrā, eponym of the Kobrawiya, was born in Ḵᵛārazm in 1145 or possibly a decade later.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • KOBRAWIYA ii. THE ORDER

    The crystallization of a given line of Sufi tradition as an “order” should not be understood as imposing on all the spiritual descendants of the eponym a definitive and permanently binding choice of methods and emphases.

    (Hamid Algar)

  • ḴODĀYDĀDZĀDA, BĀBĀ-YUNOS

    (b. ca. 1870-75, d. 1945), Tajik folk poet and singer. His exceptional skill in singing the Guruḡli stories on the dotār (a long-neck lute) won him great reputation throughout Tajikistan. According to his biographer, his performance would take hours from evening to dawn, with only short breaks to relax and eat, for several nights in a row.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KOFRI

    pen name of the poet-calligrapher MAWLĀNĀ AMIR-ḤOSAYN TORBATI (d. 1607).

    (Aḥmad Golčin Maʿāni)

  • KOFRI, Moḥammad Kermānšāhi

    (1829-1908), physician and surgeon, the son of Pir Moḥammad Zāreʿ, a merchant.

    (Shireen Mahdavi)

  • KOH-I-NOOR

    (Kuh-e Nur; lit. “Mountain of Light”), the most celebrated diamond in the world, with rich legendary and historical associations. The origins of the Koh-i-Noor and its history before the conquest of Delhi in 1739 by Nāder Shah Afšār remain unclear. According to legend, it was discovered in the bed of the river Godavery in 3200 B.C.E., and was worn by Carna, Rajah of Anga, who figures in the legendary wars of the Mahabharata (Streeter, p. 119).

    (Iradj Amini)

  • ḴOʾI, MIRZĀ ʿALIQOLI

    (1815-ca. 1856), the most prolific illustrator of Persian lithographed books in the Qajar period. Educated in Tabriz, he published an edition of the Ḵamsa‑ye Neẓāmi.

    (Ulrich Marzolph)

  • ḴOJANDIS OF ISFAHAN

    a prominent family of Šāfeʿi ulema, who were settled in Isfahan by the Saljuq grand vizier Neẓām-al-Molk. They turned into the most important family and political actor in that city during the Saljuq period and continued to play a significant role up to the Mongol invasion.

    (David Durand-Guédy)

  • ḴOJESTĀNI, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd-Allāh

    (d. 882), commander of the Taherids in Khorasan, and after the Ṣaffarid occupation of Nishapur in 873, a contender for power.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • KOJUR

    historical district in the central Alborz, northwestern Māzandarān. i. Historical geography. ii. Language and culture.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KOJUR i. Historical Geography

    The historical district of Kojur covers roughly a quadrangle bounded by the Caspian Sea on the north, the Čālus River on the west, Nur valley on the south, and Suledeh valley on the east.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KOJUR ii. Language

    Two major languages of native Caspian and Kurdish dialects are spoken in Kojur. The Caspian dialect is structurally Mazandarani with some divergence. The Kurdish dialect is spoken by the Kurdish immigrants and remains unstudied.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KOJUR iii. The Calendar

    The Ṭabari or Deylami year observed in Kojur consists of twelve months, thirty days each, plus five intercalary days called petak, concluding the year.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KOLAYNI

    (d. 941), Abu Jaʿfar Moḥammad b. Yaʿqub b. Esḥāq Rāzi, prominent Imami traditionist.

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • KOLUKJĀNLU

    a Kurdish tribe in the Ḵalḵāl region of eastern Azerbaijan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KONDORI, MOḤAMMAD B. MANṢUR

    (b. ca. 1024, d. 1064), vizier to Ṭoḡrel Beg (r. 1040-63), the first sultan of the Great Saljuqs, and, briefly, to Ṭoḡrel’s successor Alp Arslān (r. 1063-72).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • KONOW, STEN

    (17 April 1867 – 29 June 1948), Norwegian orientalist) In close relation with his work on North-West Indian epigraphy was his interest in the manuscript discoveries in Central Asia, that revealed the expansion of Indian culture in this area. Apart from documents in Indian languages from Sinkiang, his main contribution in this field were his pioneering studies of Khotanese Saka.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • KORA-SONNI

    a tribe in western Persian Azerbaijan.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • ḴORĀSĀNI, MOLLĀ ṢĀDEQ

    (d. 1874), teacher, defender and promulgator of the Babi -Bahai faiths.

    (Vahid Rafati)

  • KORK

    soft wool, also called Kermān wool, used for the manufacture of fine clothing and felt hats.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • ḴᵛORMUJ

    town and administrative center of Dašti Sub-province in Bušehr Province on the Persian Gulf.

    (Dénes Gazsi)

  • KÖROĞLU

    also Göroḡly, name of an early-17th-century folk hero and poet, whose stories are mainly known among the Turkic peoples; passed into the folk literature of the Armenians, Georgians, Kurds and Bulghars, and the Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan and Khorasan.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KÖROĞLU i. LITERARY TRADITION

    There are at least 17 versions of the Köroǧlu/Göroḡly tradition about a heroic bandit minstrel, but the Turkic versions of the story among the Azerbaijanis, the Turks of Anatolia, and the Turkmen, are most similar to each other regarding language and plot.

    (Hasan Javadi)

  • KÖROĞLU ii. PERFORMANCE ASPECTS

    The traditional venues for the performance of the Köroǧlu/Goroḡli epic are life-cycle celebrations, private gatherings, and teahouses. In Azerbaijan and northern Khorasan, from the 17th century up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978, teahouses played a pivotal role in the diffusion and the preservation of the epic.

    (Ameneh Youssefzadeh)

  • KOROSH

    the name of a tribe scattered across southwestern Iran, whose language is closely related to southern varieties of Balochi.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KOROSH i. The Korosh people

    Korosh communities are found in villages near large towns and cities, and in the suburbs of these cities, across southwestern Iran. Their traditional livelihood is based on camel and goat husbandry.

    (Maryam Nourzaei, Erik Anonby, and Carina Jahani)

  • KOROSH ii. Linguistic Overview of Koroshi

    Koroshi can be described as a distinct subgroup within the Balochi macro-language, although it shares many features with southern dialects of Balochi. The Koroshi spoken in Fars Province (the ‘northern’ dialect) differs to some extent from varieties of the southern dialect.

    (Maryam Nourzaei, Carina Jahani, and Erik Anonby)

  • ḴORRAMIS

    adherents of a form of Iranian religion often identified as a survival or revival of the Zoroastrian heresy, Mazdakism.

    (Patricia Crone)

  • ḴORRAMIS IN BYZANTIUM

    Iranians who fought the ʿAbbasid caliph Moʿtaṣem be’llāh (r. 833-41) and enrolled in the Byzantine army of the iconoclast emperor Theophilos I (r. 829-42).

    (Evangelos Venetis)

  • ḴORŠĀH B. QOBĀD ḤOSEYNI, NEẒĀM-AL-DIN

    a Hyderabad-based diplomat and historian of Iranian descent best known for his composition of a universal chronicle in Persian in the name of the Qoṭbšāhi ruler, Ebrāhim (r. 1550-80).

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ḴORŠĀH, ROKN-AL-DIN

    (1230-1257), Nezāri Ismaʿili imam and the last lord of Alamut.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ḴOŠ MAḤAL

    Tughluqid audience hall in the Deccan.

    (Phillip B. Wagoner)

  • KOŠĀNIYA

    a medieval Sogdian town to the west of Samarkand. Its name is most probably related to the Yuezhi Kušān dynasty and its claimed heirs, such as the Kidarites.

    (Pavel Lurje)

  • ḴOSROW I

    Sasanian king (r. 531-79), son of Kawād I.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ḴOSROW I i. LIFE AND TIMES

    Sasanian king (r. 531-579). i. Life and Times (forthcoming).

    (Multiple Authors)

  • ḴOSROW I ii. REFORMS

    a series of reforms in Sasanian taxation and military organization, probably initiated already under Kawāḏ I.

    (Zeev Rubin)

  • ḴOSROW I iii. COINAGE

    The reign of Ḵosrow I (531-79) is generally regarded as the heyday of the Sasanian empire, but his coinage marks the nadir of Sasanian coin art. The most noteworthy features are innovations in reverse typology. In the first type, the assistant figures are shown frontally, a totally new depiction; and they hold what appears to be a spear.

    (Nikolaus Schindel)

  • ḴOSROW II

    the last great king of the Sasanian dynasty (590-628 CE). The principal extant history of the period, written in Armenia in the early 650s, was appropriately entitled The History of Khosrow. He is rightly accorded a great deal of space in the Šāh-nāma of Ferdowsi.

    (James Howard-Johnston)

  • ḴOSROW KHAN GORJI QĀJĀR

    (1785/86-1857), an influential eunuch (Ḵᵛāja) of the Qajar era, who lived in the period spanning the reigns Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah (r. 1797-1834) to Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96).

    (Hirotake Maeda)

  • ḴOSROW MALEK

    the last sultan of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in northwestern India, essentially in the Panjab, with his capital at Lahore. Various honorifics are attributed to him in the historical sources, in the verses of poets eulogizing him, and in the legends of his coins in the collections of the British Museum and Lahore

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ḴOSROW MIRZĀ QĀJĀR

    (1813-1875), the seventh son of Crown Prince ʿAbbās Mirzā, who led an official Iranian delegation to the Tsarist court in St. Petersburg.

    (George A. Bournoutian)

  • ḴOSROW O ŠIRIN

    the second poem of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa, recounting the amorous relationship between the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parviz (r. 590-628 CE), and the beautiful princess Širin.

    (Paola Orsatti)

  • ḴOSROWŠĀH B. BAHRĀMŠĀH

    penultimate ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty, apparently still in Ghazna until the dynasty found its last home at Lahore in northwestern India at a date around or soon after the time of his death.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ḴOTBA

    See KHATIB AND KHOTBA (pending); FRIDAY PRAYER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ḴOṬBA

    (oration, speech, sermon), a formal public address performed in a broad range of contexts by Muslims across the globe, rooted in the extemporaneously composed discourses of pre-Islamic and early Islamic Arabia.

    (Tahera Qutbuddin)

  • ḴOTTAL

    a province of medieval Islamic times on the right bank of the upper Oxus river in modern Tajikistan. A region of lush pastures, Ḵottal was famed for horse-breeding.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • KRÁMSKÝ, JIRÍ

    (1913-1991), Czech general linguist who specialized in Persian language studies. He then studied English and Persian (the latter under Professor J. Rypka) at the Charles University, Prague.

    (Jiri Bečka)

  • Křikavová, Adéla

    (1938-2002), Czech scholar of Iranian and particularly Kurdish studies.

    (Jiri Bečka)

  • KRYMSKIĬ, Agfangel Efimovich

    (1871-1942) Ukrainian orientalist, author of over 1,000 works on the history and culture of Iran, Arab countries, Turkey, the Khanate of the Crimea, and Azerbaijan.

    (Natalia Chalisova)

  • KUFA

    a city south of Baghdad.

    (Meir Litvak)

  • KUFTA

    popular Persian dish usually made of ground lamb or beef, and more recently, ground chicken or turkey in a mixture of herbs, spices, or other ingredients. There are two kinds of kufta: with rice and without.

    (Etrat Elahi)

  • KUH-E ḴᵛĀJA

    a well preserved archeological site of chiefly Sasanian date, in the delta of the Helmand River , in the Iranian province of Sistān, near Zābol. The sacred precinct is located on the monumental upper part of the site and has inevitably attracted most attention.

    (Soroor Ghanimati)

  • KUHPĀYA

    piedmont district east of Isfahan province, historically known as Vir.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KUHPĀYA i. The District

    Kuhpāya is a large piedmont boluk (3,000 km2) separated from Ardestān on the north and Nāʾin on the east respectively by the Fešārk and Kuhestān chains, extensions of the Karkas range.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KUHPĀYA ii. The Dialect

    The dialects spoken in the Kuhpāya district belong to the Central Dialects, but in a narrower sense they are grouped together with the welāyati “provincial” idioms around the city of Isfahan.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KUKADARU, JAMSHEDJI SORAB

    (1831-1900), Parsi Zoroastrian priest. He was renowned for his spiritual powers, in particular with respect to healing and divination.

    (Michael Stausberg and Ramiyar P. Karanjia)

  • KULĀB

    or Kōlāb, city and former province (the greater part of medieval Ḵottal[ān]) of Tajikistan.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KULĀBI DIALECT

    a distinct variant of Tajik spoken in Kulāb and adjoining districts.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KUNDA(G)

    a demon in Zoroastrian literature; in the Avesta, Sraoša or Ātar is implored to cast it into hell; in Middle Persian books, it is the steed of the sorcerers.

    (Mahnaz Moazami)

  • ḴUR

    oasis on the southern border of the Great Desert in central Persia; the administrative center of the sub-province of Ḵur and Biābānak .

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KURDISH LANGUAGE i. HISTORY OF THE KURDISH LANGUAGE

    from Old and Middle Iranian times, no predecessors of the Kurdish language are yet known; the extant Kurdish texts may be traced back to no earlier than the 16th century CE.

    (Ludwig Paul)

  • KURDISH LANGUAGE ii. HISTORY OF KURDISH STUDIES

    The article provides a brief account of Kurdish studies, which is a relatively recent academic field. The earliest studies of the Kurdish language and civilization were carried out by missionaries.

    (Joyce Blau)

  • KURDISH TRIBES

    Kurdish tribes are found throughout Persia, eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq, but very few comprehensive lists of them have been published.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KURDISH WRITTEN LITERATURE

    Written, “elevated” poetry traditionally played a less prominent role in Kurdish society than folk poetry (q.v.) did. The number of written literary works in Kurdish is far smaller than in the surrounding cultures.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • KURDOEV, QENĀTĒ

    (1909-1985), Kurdish philologist and university professor.

    (Joyce Blau)

  • KURGAN TEPE

    (Qūrḡonteppa in Tajik orthography; Kurgan-Tyube in Russian), provincial capital and former province of Tajikistan.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • KURUNI

    a Kurdish tribe of Kurdistan and Fārs. Most of the tribe was transplanted from Kurdistan to Fārs by Karim Khan Zand during the 1760s.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • KUŠ-NĀMA

    part of a mythical history of Iran written between 1108 and 1111, dealing with the eventful life of Kuš the Tusked.

    (Jalal Matini)

  • KUSA

    a carnival character known to the medieval and modern folklore of central and western Persia.

    (Anna Krasnowolska)

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY

    the line of rulers in Bactria, Central Asia and northern India from the first century CE.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY i. Dynastic History

    During the first to mid-third centuries CE, the empire of the Kushans (Mid. Pers. Kušān-šahr) represented a major world power in Central Asia and northern India.

    (A. D. H. Bivar)

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY ii. Inscriptions of the Kushans

    The inscriptions issued by the Kushan rulers or in areas under their rule include texts in Bactrian, written in Greek script, and in Prakrit written in Brāhmī or Kharoṣṭhī script. Naturally enough, the Bactrian inscriptions are mostly found in Bactria and the Indian inscriptions in the Kushan territories to the south and east of the Hindu Kush.

    (Nicholas Sims-Williams and H. Falk)

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY iii. Chronology of the Kushans

    Dates in South Asia usually lack precision. Only in post-Kushan times do we meet with dates which are verifiably precise up to the day. The reason is that years can start in spring, the Indian way, or in the autumn, the Macedonian way. Years start with a certain month, but months can start with the full moon or with the new moon.

    (H. Falk)

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY iv. Coinage of the Kushans

    The coins issued under these kings are presented in chronological order. The gradual visual evolution of the designs should make the numismatic connection apparent.

    (Robert Bracey)

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY vi. Archeology of the Kushans: in India

    The history of Kushan archeology south of the Hindu Kush probably begins in 1830 with the exploration of Maṇikiāla by G.-B. Ventura.

    (J. Pons)

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY ix. Art of the Kushans

    Artistic productions fall mainly into: works in the service of the dynasty and works in the service of religion—Buddhism , but also Brahmanism and Jainism. There exist few if any common features between statues of rulers from Khalchayan and a Buddhist relief from Gandhara.

    (Jessie Pons)

  • KUSHANSHAHS

    the title of rulers, known between the 3rd-century Sasanian conquests and the 4th/5th-century Hun nic invasions, in parts of eastern Iran, Afghanistan, and Gandhāra .

    (Multiple Authors)

  • KUSHANSHAHS i. History

    The very first surely dated occurrence of the title Kushanshah seems to be in the Paikuli inscription of the Sasanian Narseh ca. 293 CE. It would show a reduction in status of the kings of the former Kushan territory from “king of kings” to “king,” itself linked with a Sasanian overlordship.

    (Étienne de la Vaissière)

  • KUSHANSHAHS ii. Kushano-Sasanian Coinage

    The name Kušāno-Sasanian is applied to coin issues in gold, silver, and bronze struck by rulers bearing Sasanian dynastic names who call themselves Kušānšāhs.

    (Nikolaus Schindel)

  • ḴUŠNAWĀR/ḴUŠNAWĀZ

    name given in some sources for the Hephthalite ruler who defeated the Sasanian king Pērōz.

    (EIr.)

  • ḴUSRAW Ī KAWĀDĀN UD RĒDAK-ĒW

    a Pahlavi treatise of wisdom-literature genre; the story of an orphan of a priestly family who presents himself to the king of kings, Ḵosrow I or Ḵosrow II.

    (Mahnaz Moazami)

  • KUSTĪG

    the Pahlavi term used to designate the “holy cord or girdle” worn around the waist by both male and female Zoroastrians after they have been initiated into the faith.

    (J. K. Choksy and F. M. Kotwal)

  • KUŠK

    name of several places and a river in Afghanistan.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • Ḵādem Misāq, Hymn of Motherland (sorud-e mihan)

    (music sample)

  • Ḵāleqi, Ey Irān

    (music sample)

  • Kāleqi, Mey-e nāb

    (music sample)

  • Kara Bašimuna Nana

    (music sample)

  • Ḵorasan - Dekr Hāji Majnun Šāh

    (music sample)

  • Köroğlu (1)

    (music sample)

  • Köroğlu (2)

    (music sample)

  • Köroğlu Story, The: an Excerpt

    (music sample)

  • K~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter K entries.

    (DATA)