List of Articles

  • NABIL-AL-DAWLA

    ʿAliqoli Khan learned English and French at the Dār al-Fonun School and, with his older brother, Ḥosaynqoli Khan Kalāntar, frequented traditional Persian gymnasia, where the latter was converted to the Bahai faith by a wrestler called Ostād Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Kāši, and he in turn led ʿAliqoli Khan into the new faith in about 1895.

    (Guity Etemad)

  • NABIL-E AKBAR

    title of Āqā Moḥammad Qāʾeni, a prominent Bahai author and apologist (1829-92).

    (Minou Foadi)

  • NABIL-E AʿẒAM ZARANDI, MOLLĀ MOḤAMMAD

    (1831-1892), Persian Bahai poet, teacher, and chronicler of Babi history.

    (Vahid Rafati)

  • NĀDER SHAH

    ruler of Iran, 1736-47. He rose from obscurity to control an empire that briefly stretched across Iran, northern India, and parts of Central Asia, with a reputation as a skilled military commander and with success in battle against numerous opponents, including the Ottomans and the Mughals.

    (Ernest Tucker)

  • NĀDERA

    (1792-1842), Transoxianan poetess of Ḵᵛoqand, who wrote in both Persian–with the pen name Maknuna–and Čaḡatāy under the pseudonyms of Nādera and Kāmela.

    (Evelin Grassi)

  • NADERPOUR, NADER

    Naderpour received his primary education in Tehran and in 1942 was enrolled at Irānšahr high school. As was the case with a good number of his peers, he developed an interest in politics, and joined the nationalist Pan-Iranist Party for a short period of time. He later joined the Youth Organization of the Tudeh Party.

    (Houra Yavari)

  • NAFAR

    a tribe of Fārs and the Tehran region. Although of Turkic origin, the Nafar of Fārs have become a mixture of Turkic, Arab, and Lor elements.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • NAJAF

    also known as al-Najaf al-Ašraf, a town in southern Iraq and one of the most important pilgrimage destinations for the Shiʿites. The city is tied to the death of ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb and his burial site, and has been home to many illustrious religious scholars over the past thousand years, rivaling Qom as a center of Shiʿite scholarship.

    (Rose Aslan)

  • NAJM-AL-SALṬANA

    a Qajar princess whose life spanned the late Qajar and early Pahlavi eras (b. 1231-32 Š./1853; d. 1311 Š./1932).

    (Mansoureh Ettehadieh)

  • NAJM-E ṮĀNI

    Amir Yār-Aḥmad Eṣfahāni (d. 918/1512), the third holder of the office of wakil-e nafs-e nafis-e Homāyun under Shah Esmāʿil Ṣafawi, the representative of the Shah both in his religious and in his political capacity; as Roger Savory has put it, the holder of this office “was, in fact, the alter ego of the Shah” (Savory, 1960, p. 94).

    (Michel M. Mazzaoui)

  • NAḴJAVĀN

    the administrative center of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (NAR) with its own elected representative assembly, within the Republic of Azerbaijan but separated from it by Armenia.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • NAḴJAVĀNI, ḤĀJJ MOḤAMMAD

    (1880-1962), businessman, scholar, and collector of manuscripts.

    (Hūšang Etteḥād and EIr)

  • NAḴL

    As ritual objects for the ʿĀšurāʾ, naḵls are built from wood in various sizes, from simple constructions that can be carried by two persons to colossal structures about three stories high that have to be supported by hundreds of men.

    (Peter Chelkowski)

  • NAḴŠABI, ŻIĀʾ-AL-DIN

    14th-century Češti mystic and author. Though originally from Naḵšab (or Nasaf, in Transoxiana), his family emigrated to India at the time of Mongol incursions.

    (Mohammad Karimi Zanjani Asl)

  • NALÎ

    Through his extensive travels and continuous studies Nali acquired a solid knowledge of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, which allowed him to draw on three rich literary traditions for his own work. His work, and his patriotic sentiments, were much affected, too, by the Ottoman government’s campaign to eliminate the autonomous Kurdish principalities.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • NĀMA-YE BĀNOVĀN

    (Women’s journal), a biweekly paper published in Tehran between 1 Mordād 1299 and 24 Khordād 1300 Š. (23 July 1920-14 June 1921).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • NĀMA-YE BĀNOVĀN-E IRĀN

    (The journal of the women of Iran), a weekly paper published in Tehran from Farvard in 1317 until Tir 1319 Š. (March 1938-June 1940).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • NAQŠ-E ROSTAM

    a perpendicular cliff wall in Fārs, about 6 km northwest of Persepolis, a site unusually rich in Achaemenid and Sasanian monuments.

    (Hubertus von Gall)

  • NARSEH

    king (r. 293-302 CE), who was crowned only at the advanced age of approximately 60-65 after the short reign of his grandnephew, Bahrām III.

    (Ursula Weber)

  • NASAFI, ʿAZIZ

    ʿAZIZ b. Moḥammad, 7th/13th century mystical thinker and scholar from Nasaf (Naḵšab) in Transoxania (present Qarshi or Karshi in Uzbekistan), author of many works in Persian written in an easy, didactic style for anonymous dervish groups. The spread of his fame soon after his death was mainly through the popularity of his writings. These must have been circulated from early on, as references to them are found in works of various provenances from the middle of the 14th century onwards.

    (Hermann Landolt)

  • NĀṢER-AL-MOLK, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    (1856-1927), Qajar era courtier and statesman, prime minister during the early constitutional period, and the regent during the minority of Aḥmad Shah.

    (Shaul Bakhash)

  • NASIM-E ŠEMĀL

    (in popular parlance, Nasim-e šomāl; Breeze of the North), one of the best-known and most popular periodicals in the history of Iranian journalism.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • NAṢIR-AL-DIN ṬUSI

    See ṬUSI, NAṢIR-AL-DIN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • NAṢR (I) B. AḤMAD (I) B. ESMĀʿIL

    B. AḤMAD (I) B. ESMĀʿIL, Amir-e Saʿid “The Fortunate Amir,” a title he was given after his death, ruler of the Samanid dynasty (q.v.) in Transoxiana and Khorasan between 301/914 and 331/943.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • NASU

    the demon of carrion, the greatest polluter of Ahura Mazdā’s world.

    (Mahnaz Moazami)

  • NATEL-KHANLARI, Parviz

    See KHANLARI, Parviz.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • NATIONAL PARKS OF IRAN

    including national nature monuments, wildlife refuges, and protected areas.

    (Eskandar Firouz)

  • NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY IN IRAN

    a brief history from the outset to the Islamic Revolution of 1978-79.

    (Pirooz Ashraf)

  • NAVSARI

    city and district of Gujarat State, adjoining Surat. See PARSI COMMUNITIES i. Early History, ZOROASTRIANISM ii. Historical Review: from the Arab Conquest to Modern Times.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • NAVY i. Nāder Shah and the Iranian Navy

    earliest moves toward establishing a navy arose out of the consequences of his military campaigns in the interior of Persia.

    (Michael Axworthy)

  • NAWBAḴTI FAMILY

    a notable Shiʿite family of Persian descent, many of whose members, like their eponymous ancestor Nawbaḵt and his son Abu Sahl Fażl, ranked among the local illuminati of Baghdad.

    (Sean W. Anthony)

  • NAWBAḴTI, ḤASAN

    ḤASAN b. Musā Abu Moḥammad, 4th/10th century theologian and philosopher in Baghdad, d. between 300/912-3 and 310/922-3.

    (David Pingree)

  • NAWʿI

    (1563-1610), Persian poet in India, best known for his long maṯnawi , Suz o godāz, a romance centered on a suttee (sati) heroine.

    (Sunil Sharma)

  • NAWM-NĀMA

    the dream journal of Fażl-Allāh Astarābādi (1339-1394), the founder of the Ḥorufi movement.

    (Orkhan Mir-Kasimov)

  • NAWWĀB ŠIRĀZI, ʿALI-AKBAR

    (Manṣur Rastegār Fasāʾi)

  • NAXARAR

    term given to the para-feudal, social pattern that early Armenia apparently shared with Parthian Iran, although it was preserved into the Sasanian period and beyond.

    (Nina Garsoïan)

  • NĀẒER

    title of the director of the Safavid royal secretariat. See DAFTAR-ḴĀNA-YE HOMĀYŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • NAẒIRI NIŠĀPURI

    Indo-Persian poet of the late 16th and early 17th centuries (b. Nishapur, ca. 1560; d. Ahmadabad, between 1612 and 1614).

    (Paul Losensky)

  • NEDĀY-E ESLĀM

    (The voice of Islam), a pro-constitutional newspaper lithographed and published in Shiraz, 1907.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • NEGAHBAN, EZAT O.

    eminent Iranian archaeologist. Negahban carried out his first series of excavations in 1961 at the site of Mehrānābād about 25 km south of Tehran on the road to Sāveh.

    (Kamyar Abdi)

  • NEHĀVAND

    (Nehāvand), a town in western Iran, situated in the northern Zagros region.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • NEʿMAT-ALLĀH MOKRI, Ḥājj

    See JEYḤUNĀBĀDI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • NÉMETH, Gyula

    Nemeth's scholarship was devoted almost entirely to various aspects of Ottoman-Turkish studies. A few works of his, however, crossed over into Iranian studies and made lasting contributions to this field, including the Persian-Arabic elements in the Turkish language.

    (András Bodrogligeti)

  • NEMRUD DAĞI

    The burial mound of Antiochus I is flanked by terraces in the east, north, and west. The settings of the sculptures on the east and west terraces are essentially identical: in each case, a row of five limestone statues (originally up to 8 m in height) overlook the terrace, their backs to the mound.

    (Bruno Jacobs)

  • NEO-ARAMAIC LANGUAGE

    See ARAMAIC, IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (10). Aramaic, ASSYRIANS IN IRAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • NEOLITHIC AGE IN IRAN

    Originally the term “Neolithic” referred to the final Stone Age before the ages of metals.Today “Neolithic” usually refers to the period of the origins and early development of agricultural economies.

    (Frank Hole)

  • NEŠALJ

    large village in central Iran known for its picturesque architecture, the festivity of Friday of Nešalj in the early autumn, and its extinct Median dialect.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • NEŠALJ i. The Village

    located in Niāsar Rural District, Niāsar District, Kashan Sub-Province, Isfahan province.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • NEŠALJ ii. The Dialect

    Nešalj had a Median dialect of Rāji variety, a language group spread throughout Kashan region, but it has been succumbing to Persian in recent decades.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • NETHERLANDS : Archives

    The main sources for Iran, the Persian Gulf and the Dutch-Persian relations are found in the Dutch National Archives (Nationaal Archief, NA).

    (Willem Floor)

  • NEW JULFA

    the Armenian settlement at Isfahan. See JULFA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • newsite

    (Encyclopædia Iranica)

  • NEY-DĀWUD, Morteżā

    (1900-1990), celebrated composer of music and performer and instructor of the tār (a plucked, long-necked lute).

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi)

  • NĒZAK

    (or Nizāk), dynastic name appearing on a long series of silver coins issued by a local dynasty in Kāpisā (in the region of Kabul; Sk. Kāpiśī) ca. late 7th century C.E., which at times ruled over Gandhara as well; it is also the name by which a dynasty in southern Toḵarestān is remembered in Arabic sources pertaining to the 7th-8th century.

    (Frantz Grenet)

  • NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK

    (1018-1092), vizier of two Saljuq sultans, rose from a relatively lowly position in the bureaucracy of the provincial governor of Balḵ (Balkh) to become the de facto ruler over a vast empire, with a final apotheosis as the archetypal good vizier in the world of Islam.

    (Neguin Yavari)

  • NEẒĀM-AL-SALṬANA MĀFI, Ḥosaynqoli Khan

    (1832-1908), governor, minister, and prime minister of the Nāṣeri and Moẓaffarid era. 3/29/2017 unpublished as per E.D. email; Use new image when re-published

    (Mansoureh Ettehadieh)

  • NEẒĀM-AL-SALṬANA, ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN

    (1832-1908), official, governor, and prime minister in the Qajar era.

    (Mansoureh Ettehadieh)

  • NEẒĀMI QUNAVI

    (Neẓāmi of Konya; d. 1469-73?), poet in Persian, Arabic, and Turkish.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenlı)

  • NEZĀR B. AL-MOSTANṢER, ABU MANṢUR

    (1045-1095), Fatimid crown prince and Nezāri Ismaʿili imam. He< was the eldest son of al-Mostanṣer Be’llāh, the eighth Fatimid caliph and the eighteenth Ismaʿili imam.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • NEZĀRI QOHESTĀNI

    (1247-1320-21), a Persian poet of Nezāri Ismaʿili affiliation; born in Birjand, a commercial town in Qohestān, southern Khorasan.

    (Nadia Eboo Jamal)

  • NIĀZI, FĀTEḤ

    (1914-1991), Tajik prose writer; began his literary career in the early 1930s as a writer of verse in Uzbek. As a fiction writer Niāzi began with short pieces, which he published in a collection entitled Intiqomi tojik. Niāzi’s reputation as a writer rests on three long novels, the writing of which spanned his entire career. All of them are concerned with the Second World War and are based upon his own experiences.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • NIETZSCHE AND PERSIA

    Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900), the great German thinker, is best known as a philosopher of culture.

    (Daryoush Ashouri)

  • NIGHTINGALE

    See BOLBOL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • NĪRANGDĪN CEREMONY

    a Zoroastrian ritual to consecrate gōmēz, or bull’s urine; the consecrated liquid is known as nīrang or nīrangdīn.

    (Firoze M. Kotwal and Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • NISA

    New Nisa, capital of ancient Parthia, occupies a large area enclosed within stout mud-brick fortifications, which enclose a citadel. Excavations here have brought to light a monumental funerary building of the Parthian era with a flat, crenellated roof, a façade, and wall decoration with terracotta plates.

    (Antonio Invernizzi)

  • NISĀBURI, ḤASAN

    ḤASAN b. Moḥammad al-Aʿraj, Neẓām-al-Din Qommi, Astronomer; d. after 1311.

    (David Pingree)

  • NISĀYA

    (later MPers. Nisāy, NPers. Nesā, Ar. Nasā), the Old Iranian name of several Iranian regions and places, which cannot easily be distinguished from one another. They are mentioned in a variety of sources from antiquity and the Middle Ages, and already Moqaddasi (24.17) listed Nisā (Nasā) among the names in use for different places (e.g., in Fars, Hamadān, Kermān, Khorasan), although it is quite possible that only some of the later Nesā names are connected with OIr. *Nisāya-.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • NISHAPUR i. Historical Geography and History to the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Nishapur (Nišāpur) was, with Balḵ, Marv and Herat, one of the four great cities of the province of Khorasan. It flourished in Sasanid and early Islamic times, but after the devastations of the Mongol invasions of the 13th century, subsided into a more modest role until it revived in the 20th century.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • NISHAPUR vi. Archeology

    A major crossroad on the international trade route and silk road, the archeological area in Nishapur has two main sections which have been subjects of discoveries during different eras.

    (Rocco Rante)

  • NISHAPUR vii. Excavations by the Metropolitan Museum of Art

    The MMA started expeditions in Iran in 1935 in Qaṣr-e Abu Naṣr, continued to Nishapur, and ended in 1948 after six seasons.

    (Marika Sardar)

  • NISIBIS

    city in northern Mesopotamia, a major focus of military confrontations between the Roman and Sasanian empires an center of theological studies for the Church of the East. Once in Sasanian hands, the city’s role was reversed to that of advanced Persian base of operations against Roman and Byzantine frontier defenses.

    (Samuel Lieu)

  • NÖLDEKE, THEODOR

    Nöldeke could convincingly prove the thesis already proposed by Niels Ludvig Westergaard (1815-1878) that Middle Persian was not an Irano-Semitic hybrid language, but an authentic Iranian dialect, the phonetic forms of which were “obscured by a partly cryptographic, partly extremely historicizing spelling.”

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • NOMADISM

    Pastoral nomadism is a livelihood form that is ecologically adjusted at a particular level to the utilization of marginal resources. These resources occur in areas too dry, too elevated, or too steep for agriculture to be a viable mode of livelihood, and the nomadic pastoralist thus makes use of resources that otherwise would be neglected.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • NOQṬAT AL-KĀF

    (Point of the letter Kāf), the earliest general history of the Bābi religion spanning the years 1260/1844 to 1268/1851-52 with a theological preamble.

    (Kavian S. Milani)

  • NOṢAYRIS

    followers of Nusayrism, a syncretistic religion with close affinity to Shiʿism, whose adherents live mostly in Syria and southeastern Turkey.

    (Meir M. Bar-Asher)

  • NOWRUZ

    Nowruz, “New Day”, is a traditional ancient festival which celebrates the starts of the Persian New Year. It is the holiest and most joyful festival of the Zoroastrian year.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • NOWRUZ i. In the Pre-Islamic Period

    Nowruz, “New Day”, is the holiest and most joyful festival of the Zoroastrian year. It is also its focal point, to which all other high holy days relate.

    (Mary Boyce)

  • NOWRUZ ii. In the Islamic Period

    Nowruz survived while less significant festivals were eclipsed by their Islamic rivals and gradually became abandoned by indifferent Mongol and Turkish rulers or hostile clerical authorities.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • NOWRUZ iii. In the Iranian Calendar

    The day Hormoz (the first day of any Persian month) of the month of Farvardin is the New Year day in the Persian calendar; at present it coincides with the day of the vernal equinox.

    (Simone Cristoforetti)

  • NOWŠAHR

    port city and sub-province in western Māzandarān Province.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • NOZHAT AL-MAJĀLES

    an anthology of over 4,000 quatrains (robāʾi) by some 300 poets of the 5th to 7th/11th-13th centuries, compiled around the middle of the 7th/13th century.

    (Moḥammad Amin Riāḥi)

  • NUḤ (II) B. MANṢUR (I)

    Samanid Amir (r. 365-87/976-97), initially in both Transoxania and Khorasan, latterly in Transoxania only, called after his death Amir-e Rāżi, “The Well-Pleasing Amir,” or according to Naršaḵi, Amir-e Rašid, “The Rightly-Guided Amir.”Nuḥ was the last Samanid to enjoy a reign of significant length, but within it he had little freedom to act independently.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • NUR-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD II B. ḤASAN

    (March 1148 - September 1210), an Ismaʿili imam; the fifth lord of Alamut who succeeded to the leadership of the Nezāri Ismaʿili state and daʿwa at the age of seventeen. He reigned for forty-four years, managing the affairs of the Nezāris, especially in Persia.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • NURESTÂNI LANGUAGES

    five languages constituting the Nurestâni (Pers. “Nurestāni,” Engl. “Nuristani”) subgroup of the Indo-Iranian language family. The approximately 130,000 speakers of these languages inhabit Nurestān Province in northeastern Afghanistan and a few adjacent valleys in Pakistan's Chitral District. 2/23/2017 As per Elton Daniel’s email, I unpublished the article and took it off the index and search and featured article, until further notice. The FA image is stored under Iranica images folder as nurestani_ed.jpg.

    (Richard F. Strand)

  • NURI, FAŻL-ALLĀH

    1843-1909), a prominent jurist who campaigned in the Constitutional Revolution of 1906-1909 for constitutionalism according to the šariʿa (canonical laws of Islam), and in its default, preferred absolutism to secularism.

    (Vanessa Martin)

  • NURISTAN

    (Nurestān), the “Land of Light,” a region to the northeast of Afghanistan, imbedded in the Hindu Kush valleys to the south of its main ridge.

    (Max Klimburg)

  • NUTS

    See ĀJĪL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • NYBERG, Henrik Samuel

    (1889-1974), Swedish scholar of extremely broad interests, competent in a number of different fields, in both Semitic and Iranian studies.

    (Carlo G. Cereti)

  • Nakisā va Bārbad

    (music sample)

  • Newroz

    (music sample)

  • Nowhe of Men's Mourning

    (music sample)

  • Nowhe Zeynab

    (music sample)

  • Nowruze-ḵuni

    (music sample)

  • Neydāwud – Māhur

    (music sample)

  • N~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter N entries.

    (DATA)