List of Articles

  • OAK

    See BALŪṬ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿOBAYD ZĀKĀNI

    a Persian poet from the Mongol period (d. ca. 770/1370), renowned above all for his satirical poems.

    (Daniela Meneghini)

  • OBOLLA

    a port of Lower Iraq during the classical and medieval Islamic periods. It lay in the delta region of the Tigris, at the head of the Šaṭṭ al-ʿArab, on the west bank of the Tigris and on the north side of the canal, the Nahr al-Obolla which, together with the Nahr Maʿqel, connected Obolla with Baṣra during the early Islamic period.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ŌDŌ, TŌMĀ

    (1853-1918), Assyrian scholar and archbishop, born in Alqosh, north of Mosul, but who spent most of his adult life in Urmia, where he was killed.

    (Eden Naby)

  • OḠUZ KHAN NARRATIVES

    The Tāriḵ-e Oḡuz begins with a short genealogical and topographical introduction connecting the family of Oḡuz to that of Japheth, or Öljey/Oljāy Khan, as he is called in the text, and his son Dib Yāwqu Khan, who lived nomadic life around the lakes of Issyk-Kul and Balkhash.

    (İlker Evrım Bınbaş)

  • OHRMAZD

    Middle Persian name of the supreme deity in Zoroastrianism. See AHURA MAZDĀ .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • OIL AGREEMENTS IN IRAN

    (1901-1978): their history and evolution. The history of Iranian oil agreements began with an unprecedented concession granted by Nāṣer-al-Din Shah in 1872 to Baron Julius de Reuter.

    (Parviz Mina)

  • OIL INDUSTRY

    i. Petroleum and its Products. ii. Iran's Oil and Gas Resources

    (Multiple Authors)

  • OIL INDUSTRY i. PETROLEUM AND ITS PRODUCTS

    The first requisite for an oil or a gas field is a reservoir: a rock formation porous enough to contain oil or gas and permeable enough to allow their movement through it.

    (A. Badakhshan and F. Najmabadi)

  • OIL INDUSTRY ii. IRAN’S OIL AND GAS RESOURCES

    The Iranian oil industry is the oldest in the Middle East. Although the occurrence of numerous seeps in many parts of Iran had been known since the ancient times, the systematic exploration and drilling for oil began in the first years of the 20th century.

    (A. Badakhshan and F. Najmabadi)

  • OḴOWWAT

    (Brotherhood), the name of four newspapers and one magazine published in Tabriz, Rašt, Shiraz, Kermānšāh, and Baghdad in the early 1900s.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • OKRA

    See BĀMĪA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ʿOLAMĀ-YE ESLĀM

    “The Doctors of Islam,” title given to two medieval Zoroastrian polemical treatises written in Modern Persian.

    (Siamak Adhami)

  • OLEARIUS, ADAM

    (1599-1671), German author, secretary to the Holstein mission to Persia (1635-39), noted for the detailed account of his travels in Russia and Persia.

    (Christoph Werner)

  • OLIVE TREE

    (zaytun). The cultivated olive tree (Olea europaea L, Oleaceae) is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean basin. It is valued for its fruit and oil.

    (Willem Floor)

  • OLSHAUSEN, JUSTUS

    (1800-1882), German theologian and Oriental scholar, one of the pioneers of Iranian studies in the German-speaking countries. His most important contribution to Iranian studies is his decipherment of the Pahlavi legends of Late Sasanian coins, by which he became almost a second decipherer of the Pahlavī script after Silvestre de Sacy.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • OMAN, SEA OF

    the sea, or gulf, which divides Iran and the Arabian peninsula and forms the link between the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea.

    (Willem Floor)

  • OMM AL-KETĀB

    title of an anonymous Persian book associated with certain early Shiʿite ḡolāt (extremist) groups of southern Iraq. Originally published in Arabic, this work found its way into the manuscript collections of the Nezāri Ismaʿili s of Badaḵšān and became one of their most sacred and secret works, although it does not contain any known Ismaʿili doctrines.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ONO, Morio

    (1925-2001), eminent Japanese scholar and Iranologist.

    (Ali Ferdowsi)

  • ONṢOR AL-MAʿĀLI

    KAY KĀVUS b. Eskandar b. Qābus, penultimate prince of the Ziyarid dynasty of Tabaristan (Ṭabarestān) and Gilān, in origin Daylamite, which ruled in the 10th-11th centuries.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿONṢORI

    (ca. 961-1039), celebrated Persian poet of the early Ghaznavid period.

    (EIr)

  • OPIUM

    See AFYŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • OPTICS

    The science of “aspects” or “appearances” (ʿelm al-manāẓer), as optics was called in the Islamic Middle Ages, has a long and impressive history in both Arabic and Persian.

    (Elaheh Kheirandish)

  • ORAHAM, ALEXANDER JOSEPH

    (1898-1953), physician and lexicographer, born in the village of Armudāḡāj of the Urmia District, Azerbaijan. He emigrated to the United States and settled in Chicago. He is known for the widely used Assyrian-English Oraham’s Dictionary.

    (Eden Naby)

  • ORANSKIĬ, IOSIF MIKHAILOVICH

    It is difficult to name a field of Iranian studies which was not included in Oranskii's studies: history of Iranian studies, history of the teaching of Persian and other Iranian languages, the study of the languages themselves, the development of their grammatical structure, etymology, language contacts, dialectology, ethnology, etc.

    (Ivan Steblin-Kamensky)

  • ORBELI, IOSEF ABGAROVICH

    (1887-1961), orientalist and academician who specialized in Iranian studies, Armenian and Kurdish philology, and archeology.

    (Karen Yuzbashian)

  • ORDUBĀD

    a town on the north bank of the middle course of the Araxes (Aras) river of eastern Transcaucasia, former in Persian territory but now in the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿORFI ŠIRAZI

    Persian poet of the latter half of the 16th century (b. Shiraz, 1555; d. Lahore, Aug. 1591).

    (Paul Losensky)

  • ORIENTAL INSTITUTE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

    a major research center devoted to the study of the history, languages, and archeology of the ancient Near East, and Egypt.

    (Kamyar Abdi)

  • ORMURI

    OBSOLETE (HAS ARTICLE)

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ORMURI

    language spoken in Afghanistan and Pakistan by the Ormur or Baraki.

    (Ch. M. Kieffer and EIr.)

  • OROITES

    the Graecicized form (Oroí;tēs) of an Old Iranian name of unclear etymology (perhaps hypocoristic *Arv-ita- from OIr. *arva- = Av. auruua- ‘swift, brave’ according to Hinz, p. 39). It was borne by the satrap of Lydia, Phrygia, and Ionia during the reigns of the Achaemenid kings Cyrus II and Cambyses.

    (C. J. Brunner)

  • ORONTES

    Old Iranian masculine name, attested only in the Greek forms Oró;ntas, Oró;ntēs (Latin Orontes, Oronta), Orondēs, Aroandēs, Oro-, Aru-, Oruá;ndēs, which reflect certainly — since most of these variants denote traceably one and the same person (no. 2 below) — a form OPers. *Arvanta- (continued by MPers., NPers. Arvand), which is to be connected with Av. auruuaṇt- ‘swift, vigorous, brave’ and possibly shortened from a compound name like Av. Auruuaṱ.aspa- ‘Having swift horses’.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • OŠNUYA

    (now OŠNAVIYA), a small town of southwestern Azerbaijan. It lies near the southwestern corner of Lake Urmia on the Qādar-Čay river; it is some 32 km from the lakeshore and also some 32 km from the meeting-place of the modern frontiers of Iran, Turkey, and Iraq. The medieval geographers reckoned its distance from Tabriz as 16 farsangòs. It lies on a historic route from the Urmia basin over the Kela-Šin Pass to Ravānduz and the plains of northern Iraq.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • OSRUŠANA

    a district of medieval Islamic Transoxania lying to the east of Samarqand (q.v.) on the upper reaches of the Zarafšān river or Nahr-e Ṣogd.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • OSSETIC LANGUAGE i. History and description

    According to the 1989 Soviet census, Ossetic is spoken by about 500,000 people; of these, about 330,000 live in North Ossetia and 125,000 in Georgia. These figures should, however, be regarded with some caution as a large part of the Ossetic population is bilingual, also speaking Kabardian, Ingush, or Karachay-Balkar.

    (Fridrik Thordarson)

  • OSSETIC LANGUAGE ii. Ossetic Loanwords in Hungarian

    One of the features of Ossetic is the number of lexical traces that show ancient contacts with many, often very diverse, ethnic groups.

    (J. T. L. Cheung)

  • OSTANES

    legendary mage in classical and medieval literature.

    (Morton Smith)

  • OSTOVĀ

    (also A/Āstovā; Ostov), a rural district (rostāq) of northern Khorasan, considered in medieval Islamic times to be an administrative dependency of Nišāpur.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • OTANES

    Greek form (Otánēs) of the name OPers. Utāna(DB IV 83 u-t-a-n, rendered as Elam. Hu-ud-da-na, Bab. Ú-mi-it-ta-na-na-ʾ), which often is interpreted as “having good descendants”.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • ʿOTBI

    the family name of two viziers of the Samanids of Transoxiana and Khorasan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ʿOTBI, ABU NAṢR MOḤAMMED

    (ca. 961-1036 or 1040), secretary, courtier, and author of the Arabic al-Kitāb al-Yamini, an important dynastic history of the Ghaznavids.

    (Ali Anooshahr)

  • OTRĀR

    a medieval town of Transoxania, in a rural district (rostāq) of the middle Jaxartes River (Syr Darya), apparently known in early Islamic times as Fārāb/Pārāb/Bārāb.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • OTTOMAN-PERSIAN RELATIONS i. UNDER SULTAN SELIM I AND SHAH ESMĀʿIL I

    the dynamics of Ottoman-Safavid relations during these almost contemporaneous reigns (1512-20 and 1501-24, respectively) are closely connected with the general socio-political and socio-religious conditions in Anatolia, Persia, and the border regions between the two empires since the second half of the 15th century.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • OTTOMAN-PERSIAN RELATIONS ii. AFSHARID AND ZAND PERIODS

    At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Ottoman conflicts with European powers overshadowed relations with the Safavids.

    (Ernest Tucker)

  • OUPHARIZES

    (Greek name or appellative Wahriz), general of cavalry in the time of Ḵosrow I. He fought in Lazica against the Byzantines and their local allies (Agathius 3.28). It is uncertain whether this is the same person as Phabrizos (Procopius II. 28. 16-17; 29.2ff.; 30.32, 42ff.), a Persian officer sent by Ḵosrow to murder the king of Lazica, but who failed. Further, Oupharizes is probably not the same as the aged leader of the Persian expedition against the Ethiopians in Yemen (Ṭabari in Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser, p. 223). Bibliography: Given in the text.

    (Richard N. Frye)

  • OUSELEY, Gore

    (1770-1844), entrepreneur, diplomat, and orientalist.

    (Peter Avery and EIr)

  • OUSELEY, William

    (1767-1842), officer and orientalist.

    (Peter Avery and EIr)

  • OWL

    See BŪF.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • OXATHRES

    Persian masculine name, attested only in the Greek forms Oxá;thras and Oxá;thrēs (sometimes transformed by popular etymology as Oxyá;thrēs [see OXYATHRES] and Oxyá;rtēs [see OXYARTES]), which reflects OIr. *Huxšaθra- being the onomastic equivalent of the attested Avestan epithet huxšaθra- ‘of good reign’

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • OXUS RIVER

    See ĀMŪ DARYĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • OXUS TRUMPET

    Oxus trumpets are shorter (ca. 10 cm in length) than modern trumpets, but like modern ones they have a flaring bell at the front and a mouthpieces at the back. The most common material is silver, but copper, gold, lead, and gypsum are also used. Some are decorated with human and animal faces of high artistic merit.

    (Bo Lawergren)

  • OXYARTES

    Bactrian noble, satrap under Alexander the Great.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • OXYATHRES

    brother of the Achaemenid Darius III and companion of Alexander the Great.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • OZAI-DURRANI, ATAULLAH K.

    ATAULLAH K., the Afghan inventor and developer of fast-cooking rice, marketed under the name “Minute Rice,” who left more than half of his one million dollar estate for the translation and study of the works of the19th-century poets, Ḡāleb (d. 1869) and Mir Taqi Mir (d. 1810).

    (EIr)

  • ÖZGÄND

    ÖZGÄND (or Özkänd; Persian and Arabic: Uzkand), in the Middle Ages, a thriving city on the eastern edge of the Ferghana basin, and administrative center of that region in the Qarluq period.

    (Bertold Spuler)

  • O~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter O entries.

    (DATA)