List of Articles

  • PADERY, ETIENNE

    (b. 1674; fl 1714-1725), Ottoman Greek who served as a translator to the French embassy at Istanbul, and as a French consul at Shiraz.

    (Anne-Marie Touzard)

  • PĀDŠĀH ḴĀTUN

    (1256-1295), ruler of Kerman during the Il-Khanids, the youngest daughter of Qoṭb-al-Din Moḥammad and Qotloḡ Tarkān Ḵātun, grew up under the tutelage of her mother, also a ruler in Kerman.

    (Karin Quade-Reutter)

  • PĀDYĀB

    a Pahlavi word meaning “ritually clean.”

    (Ramiyar P. Karanjia)

  • PAHLAVI PAPYRI

    documents written exclusively in Egypt during the Persian (Sasanian) occupation under Ḵosrow II between 619 and 629 CE.

    (Dieter Weber)

  • PAHLAVI PSALTER

    name given to a fragment, consisting of twelve pages written on both sides, of a Mid. Pers. translation of the Syriac Psalter. It was discovered, with a mass of other documents, at Bulayiq, near Turfan, in eastern Turkistan (present-day Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China) by one of the four German expeditions to Central Asia (see TURFAN).

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • PAIKULI

    name of a pass in Iraq, west of the Iranian border at Qaṣr-e Širin. It is the site of a Sasanian monument with inscription. See NARSEH and HERZFELD, ERNST iv. Herzfeld and the Paikuli Inscription. (For the site, see Helmut Humbach, The Sassanian Inscription of Paikuli, Part 1. Supplement to Herzfeld’s Paikuli, Wiesbaden and Tehran, 1978, p. 5; map, fig. 116.)

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PAIRIKĀ

    a class of female demonic beings in the Avesta, often translated “sorceress, witch, or enchantress.”

    (Siamak Adhami)

  • PALACE ARCHITECTURE

    The abundant variety of styles in Iranian domestic architecture conceals a basic functional system that has remained unchanged since the Achaemenid period.

    (Dietrich Huff)

  • PALEOLITHIC AGE IN IRAN

    The Paleolithic or ‘Old Stone Age’ begins with the first stone tools some 2.5million years ago in Africa, and it ends with the Neolithic or ‘New Stone Age,’ essentially at the beginnings of agriculture.

    (Frank Hole)

  • PALM READING

    (chiromancy or palmistry; Pers. Kaf-bini), a form of physiognomy that deduces personal characteristics from the form of the lines on the subject’s palm.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • PANDIYĀT-E JAVĀNMARDI

    a Nezāri Ismaʿili book originally written in Persian and containing the sermons or religious admonitions to the true believers, seeking exemplary standards of ethical behavior and spiritual chivalry.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • PANJIKANT

    a Sogdian city, the ruins of which are located in the southern periphery of the present-day city of Panjakent (in western Tajikistan). Location and early history. At the beginning of the 8th century Panjikant was the main settlement of the Panč district, a fact reflected in its name.

    (Boris Marshak)

  • PAPER

    writing material invented in China that spread throughout Asia and to Iran in the pre-Islamic period.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • PAPER i. Paper in the Iranian World Prior to Printing

    its use in Iran prior to the introduction of printing.

    (Jonathan Bloom)

  • PAPER ii. Paper and Papermaking

    In the 16th and 17th centuries, paper production took place in Persia in Isfahan, Yazd, and Kerman, and in the 18th century probably in Rasht. In the 19th century it is known to have taken place in Tehran, Isfahan, Kerman, and Mashad.

    (Willem Floor)

  • PARI

    “fairy.” See PAIRIKĀ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PARIḴĀN ḴĀNOM

    (1548-1578), the second daughter of Shah Ṭahmāsp I, a politically influential and colorful figure at the Safavid court.

    (Manučehr Pārsādust)

  • PARMENIO

    (b. ca. 400 BCE, d. 330 BCE); probably from mountainous Upper Macedonia, he became Philip II’s most successful general.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • PARSI COMMUNITIES i. EARLY HISTORY

    The creation of a Parsi settlement in India was the outcome of the migration of Zoroastrian refugees from their original homeland in medieval Islamic Persia.

    (John R. Hinnells)

  • PARSI COMMUNITIES ii. IN CALCUTTA

    Calcutta became a center of Parsi settlement from the 18th century. Dadabhoy Behramji Banaji is recorded as the first Parsi to have come to Calcutta from Surat in western India in 1767.

    (Jesse S. Palsetia)

  • PARTHIAN(S)

    See ARSACID DYNASTY

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PASARGADAE

    capital city and last resting place of Cyrus the Great (r. 559-530 BCE), located in northern Fārs in the fertile and well-watered Dasht-i Murghab (Dašt-e morḡāb), the site stands 1,900 m above sea level at 30°15’ N and 53°14’ E.

    (David Stronach and Hilary Gopnik)

  • PASHTO LANGUAGE

    See AFGHANISTAN vi. PAŠTO.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PASTEUR INSTITUTE

    See INSTITUT PASTEUR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PAUL THE PERSIAN

    writer at the time of the Nestorian Patriarch Ezekiel (567-580 C.E.). Bar Hebraeus attributes to Paul “an admirable introduction to the dialectics (of Aristotle).” He also appears as a literary figure in an early Byzantine Greek anti-Manichean work, the Debate of Photinus the Manichean and Paul the Persian.

    (Byard Bennett)

  • PAVRY, BAPSY CURSETJI

    (1902-1995), daughter of Parsi Zoroastrian Dastur Cursetji Erachji Pavry.

    (Jenny Rose)

  • PAYĀM-E MAŠREQ

    Title of a collection of Persian verse by Muhammad Iqbal.

    (David Matthews)

  • PAYANDEH, ABU’L-QASEM

    (1908/1911-1984), journalist, translator, and fiction writer.

    (Ṣafdar Taqizāda)

  • PEARL i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    The oldest find of pearls in Persia comes from Tepe Giyan in Luristan, from levels dated to the mid-second millennium BCE.

    (Brigitte Musche)

  • PEARL ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    In the Islamic era pearls have been widely used—strung to make necklaces or sewn onto textiles, used to decorate hats, crowns, daggers, and scabbards.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • PEJMAN-E BAKHTIARI, HOSAYN

    (1900-1974) poet, lyricist, writer and translator, who composed highly acclaimed ḡazals, and also played an instrumental role in editing and annotating Neẓāmi Ganjavi’s Panj Ganj or Ḵamseh.

    (Soheila Saremi)

  • PELLIOT, PAUL

    PAUL (b. 28 May, 1878, d. 26 Oct. 1945), French orientalist who particularly contributed to the study of the languages and the history of the diverse religions and cultures of Central Asia.

    (Samuel Lieu)

  • PEPPER

    See FELFEL.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PERICLES

    (ca. 495-429 BCE), Athenian politician and commander in the period after the major victories over the forces of Xerxes I.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • PERIKHANIAN, ANAHIT

    (1 928-2012), scholar of Iranian studies, specializing in Sasanian jurisprudence, history, and society.

    (Arthur Ambartsumian)

  • PĒRŌZ

    Sasanian king (r. 459-84). See FIRUZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PERROT, JEAN

    (1920-2012), French archeologist and the last director of the Délégation Archéologique Française en Iran (1968-83).

    (Rémy Boucharlat)

  • PERSEPOLIS

    ruined monuments of the acropolis of the city of Pārsa, the dynastic center of the Achaemenid Persian kings, located in the plain of Marvdašt, some 57 km northeast of Shiraz.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • PERSEPOLIS ADMINISTRATIVE ARCHIVES

    two groups of clay tablets, fragments, and sealings produced and stored by administrative agencies based at Persepolis.

    (Annalisa Azzoni, Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre, Mark B. Garrison, Wouter F. M. Henkelman, Charles E. Jones, and Matthew W. Stolper)

  • PERSEPOLIS ELAMITE TABLETS

    administrative records in Elamite inscribed on clay tablets. Parts of two archives of such tablets were discovered in Persepolis in 1933-34 and 1936-38 by the archaeological expedition of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. They belonged to administrative records kept by agencies of the Achaemenid government during the reigns of Darius the Great, Xerxes and Artaxerxes I.

    (Muhammad A. Dandamayev)

  • PERSEPOLIS GRAFFITI: FOREIGN VISITORS

    These represent another phase in the transformation of the monuments from living palaces to evocative ruined memorials of the past, alongside the earlier systematic iconoclastic defacement of exposed human faces, the addition of Sasanian and Buyid drawings and inscriptions.

    (St. John Simpson)

  • PERSIAN AUTHORS OF ASIA MINOR PART 1

    Several Saljuqs of Rum (Anatolia) chose Iranian names such as Kaykāvus and Kayḵosrov and even made Persian the official language of state and court.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı (prep. Osman G. Özgüdenlı))

  • PERSIAN AUTHORS OF ASIA MINOR PART 2

    bibliography of major Persian authors of Asia Minor.

    (Tahsin Yazıcı (prep. Osman G. Özgüdenlı))

  • PERSIAN GULF i. IN ANTIQUITY

    a shallow, epi-continental sea approximately 1,000 km long and 200-350 km wide, narrowing to about 60 km across at the Straits of Hormuz.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • PERSIAN LANGUAGE i. Early New Persian

    Early New Persian is the first phase (8th-12th centuries CE) of the Persian language after the Islamic conquest of Iran.

    (Ludwig Paul)

  • PERSIAN MANUSCRIPTS i. IN OTTOMAN AND MODERN TURKISH LIBRARIES

    These are from four sources: (1) those written, translated, and copied in Anatolia; (2) those brought into Anatolia by immigrant scholars; (3) those brought by traders; 4) those brought as war booty.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • PERSIS, KINGS OF

    the Persian dynasts who between the 2nd century BCE and 3rd century CE ruled as Parthian representatives in Persis, southwestern Iran.

    (Josef Wiesehöfer)

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN i. PRE-ISLAMIC NAMES: GENERAL

    The system of formation of personal names attested in the Iranian languages to a great extent agrees with that known from most of the other Indo-European languages.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN ii. AVESTAN NAMES

    In the Avesta at least 400 personal names are attested. The bulk of these names is found in the second part of the Fravardīn Yašt in a litany-like enumeration.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN iii. ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Evidence from the Achaemenid period is considerable, but in authentic sources, the inscriptions of the kings themselves, fewer than fifty names are documented in their Old Persian form.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN iv. PARTHIAN PERIOD

    For the Parthian period there is no super-abundance of primary sources written in the official (Middle) Parthian administrative language.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN v. SASANIAN PERIOD

    For Sasanian times, priority treatment must be given to the names attested in non-literary, that is, epigraphic sources (in the broadest sense of the word).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • PERSONAL NAMES, IRANIAN vi. ARMENIAN NAMES OF IRANIAN ORIGIN

    Linguistic research has documented that the majority of Iranian lexical and other borrowings in Armenian originated in the Parthian language.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • PERSONAL NAMES, SOGDIAN i. IN CHINESE SOURCES

    Especially during some hundred years before the An Lushan’s rebellion (755-63 C.E.), when Tang controlled Central Asia, a great many Sogdians were encountered in northern China.

    (Y. Yoshida)

  • PESTS, AGRICULTURAL

    “Pest” refers to any animal or plant causing harm or damage to people or their animals, crops, or possessions, even if it only causes annoyance.

    (Cyrus Abivardi)

  • PESYĀN, MOḤAMMAD-TAQI KHAN

    (1892-1920), military officer with strong nationalist sentiments who served in the Government Gendarmerie from its inception until he was killed in a skirmish by Kurdish tribal forces.

    (Stephanie Cronin)

  • PEUCESTAS

    officer under Alexander the Great on his campaign in Asia.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • PEYK-E SAʿĀDAT-E NESWĀN

    women's magazine published in Rašt , 1927-30.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • PEYMĀN

    periodical published (1933-42) in Tehran by Aḥmad Kasravi, historian of the Constitutional Revolution.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • PHILATELY i. The Postage Stamps of Iran

    Postage stamps, which were introduced to Iran in 1868, have from the outset served as an object of utility as well as an instrument of official self-representation.

    (Roman Siebertz)

  • PHILATELY vi. POSTAL HISTORY

    To stop the spread of certain information, postal matter were, at times, strictly controlled. Not all mail was opened, but special attention was paid to particular senders and addressees. To legitimize censorship, special censor marks were applied on envelopes.

    (Mano Amarloui)

  • PHILOSOPHY

    see under FALSAFA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PHOENIX MOSQUE

    Over the centuries, the mosque has been mentioned by a variety of very different names. It is referred to as the Li Bai Ssŭ on some steles and as Wu-lin Gardens on a 13th-century street map. The name Li Bai Temple is thought to be the oldest designation.

    (George Lane)

  • PHRAORTES

    the second king of the Median dynasty. All information about him is from Herodotus.

    (I. Medvedskaya)

  • PHRATAPHERNES

    a member of the highest Persian aristocracy at the end of the Achaemenid period. He probably belonged to one of the Six Families that had helped Darius I gain the throne.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • PIANO IN PERSIAN MUSIC

    The first piano is known to have arrived in Persia as a gift from Napoleon Bonaparte to Fatḥ ʿAli Shah.

    (Hormoz Farhat)

  • PILARAM, FARAMARZ

    (1937-1983), a modernist artist, educator and among the founders of the Saqqā-ḵāna School of Art.

    (Hengameh Fouladvand)

  • PIR-E ZAN

    a calendar-related legend about an Old Woman who personifies winter.

    (Anna Krasnowolska)

  • PIŠ-PARDA

    a short comedy sketch, musical number, or dance performed before the main theatrical performance, or in an intermission between acts of a performance.

    (William O. Beeman)

  • PÎREMÊRD

    (1867-1950), pen-name of Tawfiq, son of Maḥmud, son of Ḥamza (in Kurdish: Tewfîq kurî Mehmûd ʿ Aḡa kurî Hemze ʿAḡa), Kurdish writer, journalist, and public intellectual.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • PLANE TREE

    See ČENĀR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PLANETS

    In antiquity, only five planets, visible to the naked eye (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) were known; in many early traditions, the Sun and the Moon, were added to their number. Hence, some sources mention both the “five” and the “seven” planets.

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • PLANTAIN

    See BĀRHANG .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PLATTS, JOHN THOMPSON

    (1830-1904), scholar and teacher of Persian at the University of Oxford. He wrote a widely used Persian grammar and published an edition and an English translation of Saʿ di’s Golestān.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • PLUM

    See ĀLŪČA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • POLAK, Jakob Eduard

    (1818-1891), Austrian physician and writer who was instrumental in establishing modern medicine in Iran.

    (Christoph Werner)

  • POLAND ii. PERSIAN ART AND ARTIFACTS IN POLISH COLLECTIONS

    Persian art has been present in Poland since medieval times. Among the objects—bought or brought back as war booty, like carpets, textiles, tents, richly ornamented weaponry, gold products—illuminated Persian manuscripts were also to be found.

    (Beata Biedrońska-Słota, Dorota Malarczyk, and Barbara Mękarska)

  • POLAND iii. Iranian Studies in Poland

    The development of Iranian studies in Poland was preceded by some nonscholarly interest in Persian language and culture.

    (Anna Krasnowolska)

  • POLEMICS i. BETWEEN SHIʿITES AND JEWS

    Twelver (Eṯnā ʿAšari Emāmi) Shiʿite polemics refer here to arguments gleaned from compositions written by Shiʿites.

    (Daniel Tsadik)

  • POLL TAX

    >See JEZYA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • POLO, MARCO

    (1254-1324), Venetian merchant and traveler (b. Venice or Curzola, 1254; d. Venice, 8 January 1324), whose travel accounts gained worldwide fame and whose description of the countries he visited between 1271 and 1298 represents a primary geographical and historical source concerning Asia during the Mongol domination.

    (Michele Bernardini)

  • POLOW

    See BERENJ “rice” i. In Iran, sec. “Rice in the Iranian diet. ”

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PONTUS

    Greek “sea,” generally taken in the ancient world to refer to the Black Sea; also applied to the Hellenistic kingdom of the Mithridatid rulers that emerged in northern Asia Minor at the end of the 4th century BCE.

    (Brian McGing)

  • POPE, ARTHUR UPHAM

    Pope was born on February 7, 1881 in Phenix, Rhode Island where his father Louis Pope was a minister in a local church. He was raised in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. Descended from English Puritans who had settled in the Boston area in 1634 Pope remained proud of his New England roots throughout his life.

    (Noel Siver)

  • PORTUGAL i. RELATIONS WITH PERSIA IN THE EARLY MODERN AGE (1500-1750)

    Portuguese-Persian relations had some importance for both countries during the early Modern Age, coinciding with the rise and fall of the Safavids.

    (Joao Teles e Cunha)

  • Poseidon: in Bactria

    Poseidon in Bactria presents the unusual pairing of an Hellenic sea-god with landlocked Central Asia.

    (Frank Holt)

  • POŠT-E KUH

    The exploration of Pošt-e Kuh started relatively late in comparison with other regions of Persia and the Near East. Until about 1929, the quasi-autonomous governors (wāli) of Pošt-e Kuh ruled over this region. Major Henry C. Rawlinson was the first European to explore the region.

    (Ernie Haerinck and Bruno Overlaet)

  • POSTERS

    developed during the 20th century to promote the cinema and other political, cultural, and economic activities.

    (Christiane Gruber)

  • Prayer at the end of work

    (music sample)

  • PREHISTORY OF IRAN: ARTIFICIAL CRANIAL MODIFICATIONS

    Cranial modification is one of the most obvious examples we have from the archaeological record of the active manipulation of the body during life, with implications in terms of the reflection of identity and identity construction.

    (Aurelie Daems and Karina Croucher)

  • PROCOPIUS

    of Caesarea, Greek historian (born ca. 500, died ca. 560). His description of Sasanian internal affairs and Persian-Roman relations is in part highly useful and reliable, and he is a primary source for the way the elite of the Later Roman Empire looked on the Persians.

    (Henning Börm)

  • PROSODY

    systems, styles, and theories of versification in the Iranian world.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • PROSODY i. Remnants of Proto-Indo-European Poetic Craft in Iranian 

    reconstructions of a special poetic language assumed for the Proto-Indo-Europeans and their reflections in other ancient Indo-European languages including Iranian.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • PROSODY iii. MIDDLE PERSIAN

    There are remnants left of pre-Islamic poetry within western Middle Iranian languages: fragments of Manichean religious hymns, some poems preserved in the literature of Pahlavi, and poetical pieces in New Persian not following the rules of classical versification.

    (Gilbert Lazard)

  • PROSODY iv. New Persian

    The study of poetic metre and of the art of versification, including rhyme, stanzaic forms, and the quantity and stress of syllables. See ʿARUŻ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PROSODY i. Remnants of Proto-Indo-European Poetic Craft in Iranian 

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • PROTOTHYES

    according to Herodotus 1.103.3 the father of the Scythian king Madýēs, who is said to have gone into battle against the Medes.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • PSALMS, BOOK OF

    in Iran and Central Asia. See the following entries: BIBLE, with multiple sub-articles on translations into Iranian languages, from pre-Islamic times to the present. PAHLAVI PSALTER. JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES OF IRAN ix. Judeo-Persian Literature.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PUNJABI

    Indo-Aryan language of the Punjab with about 26 million speakers in India and more than 60 million in Pakistan.

    (Christopher Shackle)

  • PUR BAHĀʾ JĀMI, TĀJ-AL-DIN

    poet, pun master, satirist, and often scathing social commentator.

    (George Lane)

  • PURDĀWUD, EBRĀHIM

    (1885-­1968), pioneer of studies in the religious and cultural history of Iran. See HISTORIOGRAPHY ix. Pahlavi Period (2) Specific Topics (b) Purdawud.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • PURSIŠNĪHĀ

    a collection of 59 questions and answers in Avestan and Middle Persian relating to matters of Zoroastrian religion

    (Mahnaz Moazami)

  • PUYANDA, Moḥammad-Jaʿfar

    (1954-1998), scholar and translator of literary texts and sociological studies. He never joined any political organization or party, but was a diligent defender of democracy and freedom of speech and belief.

    (Jalil Doostkhah)

  • Pišrow in Bayāte Tork

    (music sample)

  • Prayer at the end of work

    (music sample)

  • P~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter P entries.

    (DATA)