List of Articles

  • QĀʾĀNI

    (1808-1854), one of the most prominent poets of the Qajar era and a well-known practitioner of the Literary Return (bāzgašt-e adabi ) style.

    (Alyssa Gabbay)

  • QADAMGĀH

    an ancient site some 40 km south of the Persepolis. Its Persian name (“place of the footprints”) was explained to the 19th-century visitor as due to “the curious marks in the rocks, which are said to be the foot-prints of Ali’s horse.” The date generally accepted is the Achaemenid or the post-Achaemenid period.

    (R. Boucharlat)

  • QĀDESIYA, BATTLE OF

    an engagement during the mid-630s CE in which Arab Muslim warriors overcame a larger Sasanian army and paved the way for their subsequent conquest of Iran. The battle took place at a small settlement on the frontier of Sasanian Iraq.

    (D. Gershon Lewental)

  • QĀʾENI, Shaikh Moḥammad-ʿAli

    (1860-1924), prominent Bahai apologist and director of the Bahai school in Ashkabad.

    (Minou Foadi)

  • QAJAR DYNASTY viii. “Big Merchants” in the Late Qajar Period

    Big merchants (tojjār-e bozorg), reached the height of their influence in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They made a major contribution to the country’s economic growth and had a significant impact on key political developments in the late Qajar period.

    (Gad G. Gilbar)

  • QAJAR DYNASTY xii. The Qajar-Period Household

    Qajar society was pluralistic, in the sense that different groups of various social status existed in it. It was patrilineal and patriarchal, and residence after marriage was normally patrilocal.

    (Shireen Mahdavi)

  • QAJAR DYNASTY xiii. Children’s Upbringing in the Qajar Period

    a description of rituals and ceremonies in different periods of children's lives, as well as their education and place in household duties, during the Qajar dynasty.

    (Shireen Mahdavi)

  • QAJAR DYNASTY xiv. Qajar Cuisine

    Persian cuisine is an art that has evolved through centuries of refinement, culminating in the Qajar period and continuing in present-day Iran. Qajar cuisine has its origins in Iran’s ancient empires, particularly that of the Sasanians.

    (Shireen Mahdavi)

  • QALA d-ŠRARA

    (The voice of truth), a monthly publication of the mainly French Catholic Lazarist Mission in Urmia which ran from 1897 to 1915. It was the second periodical to appear in Urmia wholly published in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, after Zahrire d-bahra (1849-1918).

    (Eden Naby)

  • QALʿA-YE DOḴTAR

    The rocky plateau stretching in an east-west direction above the river bend was fortified against the adjoining mountainside by a traverse wall that ran up from the northern and southern cliffs to a semi-circular bastion on the spine of the crest. There are rubble stonewalls along the northern and southern precipices with fort structures on outcrops.

    (Dietrich Huff)

  • QALAM

    a common name for a reed, a perennial plant of the grass family, after its hollow stem is cut and a nib is formed on the tip for calligraphy purposes.

    (Sina Goudarzi and Bahram Grami)

  • QAMAR-AL-MOLUK VAZIRI

    (1905-1959), commonly referred to as Qamar, popular, pioneering Persian mezzo-soprano. Qamar’s first formal performance as a vocalist took place at Tehran’s Grand Hotel in 1924.

    (Erik Nakjavani)

  • QANĀT

    earliest irrigation system in Iran. See KĀRIZ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • QANDRIZ, MANSUR

    Matisse, Picasso, and Persian miniature paintings inspired Qandriz’s early figurative work. He chose, as a critic commented, “mystical symbols to combine traditional and modern elements into his abstract designs.” Imaginary elements and heavenly figures, reminiscent of spiritual quests, are characteristics of Qandriz’s early paintings.

    (Hengameh Fouladvand)

  • QĀNUNI, JALĀL

    (1900-1987), master performer of the Persian modal system (dastgāh) and expert in Daštestāni music (folk music from Fārs province).

    (Houman Sarshar)

  • QĀNUNI, RAḤIM

    Širāzi (1871-1944), innovator, master of Persian classical music, and teacher.

    (Houman Sarshar)

  • QARĀ ḴEṬĀY

    western branch of the Mongolic Qitans, who ruled China as the Liao from 907 to 1124.

    (István Vásáry)

  • QARABAGH

    (Qarabāḡ), a district (woloswāli) of Ghazni Province in Afghanistan.

    (Alessandro Monsutti)

  • QARAKHANIDS

    see ILAK-KHANIDS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • QARMATIS

    or QARMATIANS, the name given to the adherents of a branch of the Ismaʿili movement during the 3rd/9th century. See CARMATIANS.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • QĀSEMI-e ḤOSAYNI-e GONĀBĀDI

    poet and scholar of the Safavid period.

    (Jaʿfar Šojāʿ Keyhāni)

  • QĀSEMLU, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    Qāsemlu became interested in politics in the early 1940s, when the Allied forces invaded Iran and the nascent Kurdish nationalist movement was revived during the occupation of the two Azerbaijan provinces by the Soviet forces.

    (Carol Prunhuber)

  • QAŠQĀʾI TRIBAL CONFEDERACY i. HISTORY

    Like most present-day tribal confederacies in Persia, the Il-e Qašqā ʾi is a conglomeration of clans of different ethnic origins, Lori, Kurdish, Arab and Turkic.

    (Pierre Oberling)

  • QAŠQĀʾI TRIBAL CONFEDERACY ii. LANGUAGE

    Qašqāʾi is a language of southwestern or Oghuz branch of Turkic languages, spoken in the Iranian provinces of Hamadan and Fārs, especially in the region to the north of Shiraz.

    (Michael Knüppel)

  • QAṢRĀN

    a historical region located north of present-day Tehran.

    (Giti Deyhim and EIr.)

  • QAWĀMI, Ḥosyan

    (1909-1989), known also as Fāḵtaʾi, a master vocalist in the second half of the 20th century.

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr)

  • QAWL

    Yezidi, a type of poetry that plays a central role in the religious life of the Yezidis. These hymns are chanted to music on solemn religious occasions, and are an important source of Yezidi religious knowledge.

    (Philip G. Kreyenbroek)

  • QAYDĀFA

    a female character in various Islamic versions of the Alexander Romance.

    (Julia Rubanovich)

  • QĀŻI SAʿID QOMI

    (1640-1696), Moḥammad-Saʿid b. Moḥammad-Mofid, Shiʿite philosopher, jurist, and mystic of the Safavid period.

    (Sajjad H. Rizvi)

  • QAZI, Mohammad

    (1913-1998), noted translator.

    (Noṣrat-Allāh Żiāʾi)

  • QAZVINI, MOḤAMMAD

    (1877-1949), distinguished scholar of Persian history and literature.

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar)

  • QEPČĀQ

    a loosely-held union of Turkic tribes (ca. 1030-1237) deriving from the Kimek state and tribes, who came into western and central Eurasian steppes from the east.

    (Peter B. Golden)

  • QESHM ISLAND

    (Jazira-ye Qešm, Ar. Jazira-al-Ṭawila); the largest island (ca. 122 km long, 18 km wide on average, 1,445 sq km) in the Persian Gulf, about 22 km south of Bandar-e ʿAbbās.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • QEṢṢA-YE SANJĀN

    an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. See PARSI COMMUNITIES i. Early History.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • QODDUS

    (1822-1849), spiritual title of Moḥammad-ʿAli Bārforuši, a prominent Bābi figure.

    (Nosrat Mohammad-Hosseini)

  • QODSI MAŠHADI

    (ca. 1582-1646), ḤĀJI MOḤAMMAD JĀN, Persian poet of the first half of the 17th century, was born in Mashad and died in Lahore.

    (Paul Losensky)

  • QOFṢ

    the Arabised form of Kufiči, lit. “mountain dweller,” the name of a people of southeastern Iran found in the Islamic historians and geographers of the 10th-11th centuries.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • QOHESTĀNI, ABU ESḤĀQ

    Ebrāhim, one of the most prominent Nezāri Ismaʿili dāʿis and authors of the early Anjedān period around the middle of the 15th century in Nezāri history. His sole surviving work is the Haft bāb.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • Qohrud i. Historical Geography

    mountainous river, village, and district, with attractive architectural monuments; on a caravan station from Kashan to Isfahan.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • QOM i. History to the Safavid Period

    The present town of Qom in Central Iran dates back to ancient times. Its pre-Islamic history can be partially documented.

    (Andreas Drechsler)

  • QOM LAKE

    (DARYĀČA-ye QOM, or Qom Basin), also called Daryāča-ye Sāva, one of the interior watersheds in northwestern Persia (see DRAINAGE). It is situated between the southern flanks of the western Alborz system and the eastern slope of the northern Zagros, and covers just over 92,000 km².

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • QOPČUR

    a Mongol tax with severe impact on the population of some parts of Iran.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • QOŠUN

    organ of the Iranian armed forces (qošun, arteš), published in Tehran, 1922-35, continued as Arteš to 1937.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • QOṬB-AL-DIN ḤAYDAR ZĀVI

    a famous Sufi of Turkish origin.

    (Tahsin Yazici)

  • QOṬB-AL-DIN ŠIRĀZI

    Persian polymath, Sufi, and poet (b. Shiraz, October 1236; d. Tabriz, 7 February 1311).

    (Sayyed ʿAbd-Allāh Anwār)

  • QOTLOḠ TARKĀN ḴĀTUN

    the ruler of Kerman (R. 1257-83), she was enslaved during childhood and acquired by an old merchant from Isfahan, who raised her as his own daughter and provided her with an excellent education.

    (Karin Quade-Reutter)

  • QUAL

    See BELDERČĪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • QUINCE

    See BEH.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • Qamar al-Moluk - Magar nasim-e sahar

    (music sample)

  • Qāri Navā’i

    (music sample)

  • Qašqā’i

    (music sample)

  • Q~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter Q entries.

    (DATA)