List of Articles

  • RABʿ-E RAŠIDI

    the charitable foundation (abwāb al-berr) established by the physician, vizier, and historian Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh in an eastern suburb of Tabriz.

    (Sheila S. Blair)

  • RABATAK INSCRIPTION

    in the Bactrian language. See KUSHAN DYNASTY ii. Inscriptions of the Kushans.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • RABBAN ŠĀPUR

    East Syrian monk (7th century CE); the monastery he founded in Ḵuzestān, in the mountains of Šuštar, exercised noteworthy influence on monastic practice in the Persian Gulf area and Fārs, as well as Beth Huzāye, during the 7th century.

    (Florence Jullien)

  • RĀBET, ʿABD-AL-AḤAD

    19th-century Indian author of Persian works (d. 1268/1851-52).

    (Mohammad Baqir)

  • RAʿD

    (Thunder), the name of a newspaper published by Sayyed Żiyāʾ-al-Din Ṭabāṭabāʾi in Tehran, 1913-1921, with interruptions.

    (Nasreddin Parvin)

  • RAʿDI AZARAKHSHI, Gholam-ʿAli

    (1909-1999), prominent poet.

    (Kāmyār ʿĀbedi)

  • RADI, AKBAR

    (1939-2007) dramatist, short story writer, university lecturer, and an influential figure in popularizing theatre as an art in modern Iran, whose incorporation of colloquial Persian in his works, has contributed to the preservation of the dialects of the northern provinces.

    (Farindokht Zahedi)

  • RAFʿAT (REFʿAT)

    (d. 1819), pen name of ḠOLĀM JILĀNI , scholar of Arabic and Persian literature, teacher at Rampur, and author of Dorr-e manẓum .

    (Gregory Maxwell Bruce)

  • RĀḠEB EṢFAHĀNI

    (d. early 5th/11th cent.), scholar, littérateur, and author of works on Islamic ethics, Qurʾanic exegesis, Islamic theology, and Arabic philology, as well as anthologies.

    (Geert Jan van Gelder)

  • RAHAVARD

    one of the first Persian periodicals published by the Iranian community in the United States after the Iranian revolution of 1979.

    (Ḡafur Mirzāʾi)

  • RAHI

    pen name of prominent 20th century poet and lyricist Mohammad Hasan Mo'ayyeri. See MO'AYYERI, MOHAMMAD HASAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • RAḤIMZĀDA, BĀQI

    (Boqī Rahimzoda in Tajik orthography; b. Sorboḡi, 15 May 1910; d. Dushanbe, 30 January 1980), Tajik poet who adapted classical Persian-Tajik forms to the social and cultural goals of the Soviet era.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • RAHMANI, NOSRAT

    (1930-2000), modernist poet of 1960s-1990s, among the few of his contemporaries whose poems did not participate in the ideological discourse of the period in search of social justice and freedom, and whose rebellious discontent manifested itself more in his challenging of social norms and codes of behavior.

    (Saeid Rezvani)

  • RĀHNEMĀ-YE ZENDAGI

    (Guide to life), a biweekly magazine published in Tehran, 1940-41.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • Railroads i. The First Railroad Built and Operated in Persia

    During the three decades between the 1850s and the 1880s various foreign concerns attempted to introduce railways to Persia, but these did not materialize.

    (Soli Shahvar)

  • RAJʿA

    (lit.: “return”), theological term that has had many meanings according to the context in which it was professed.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • RĀM WA SITĀ

    an early 17th-century Persian translation of an ancient Indian love story epic in Vālmiki’s Sanskrit Rāmāya a that narrates the earthly career of Rām, an incarnation of the god Vishnu, and his wife Sitā. It was translated in the maṯnawi genre by Masiḥ Saʿd-Allāh Pānipati.

    (Prashant Keshavmurthy)

  • RAM, Emad

    (1931-2003), composer, vocalist, and flute player.

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi)

  • RĀMHORMOZ

    a town and sub-province in Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran.

    (Dénes Gazsi)

  • RĀNEKUH

    old district encompassing eastern Gilān in the 19th century. It became a part of Lāhijān sub-province (šahrestān) in 1937 and was divided between the sub-provinces of Langarud and Rudsar in the 1960s.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • RĀŠED-AL-DIN SENĀN

    (1126-1193), one of the most prominent figures in the entire history of the Nezāri Ismaʿilis in Syria. He converted to Ismaʿilism in his youth and went to Alamut to furthur his education on the subject. He played a major role in the regional politics of Syria and succeeded in maintaining the independence of his community under the most adverse circumstances.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • RASHT i. The City

    city and district in Gilān province, the capital of Gilān and the largest city along the Caspian coast of Iran.

    (Christian Bromberger)

  • RASHT ii. The District

    the largest distirct in the plain of Gilān and the most populated in the whole province.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • RAŠN

    Avestan Rašnu, the deity of the ancient Iranian pantheon who functions as the divine Judge.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • RAŠN YAŠT

    the Middle Persian title given to the twelfth Yašt of the Avesta. It is dedicated to the Zoroastrian deity Rašnu

    (Leon Goldman)

  • RASSEKH, MEHRI

    Returning to Iran in 1962, Rassekh taught asassistant professor at the University of Tehran Department of Psychology and Education. She was promoted to full professorship and in 1973 was appointed head of that department— the first woman department head in an Iranian university.

    (Cyrus Alai)

  • RASTḴIZ

    (Resurrection) newspaper published 1915-16 in Baghdad a group of Iranian expatriates in Europe, headed by Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizāda.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • RASULID HEXAGLOT

    a six-language glossary compiled by or prepared for the sixth Rasulid king of Yemen (r. 1363-77).

    (Peter B. Golden)

  • RATHINES

    a general of Pharnabazos, the satrap of the Daskylitis (see DASCYLIUM) under Dareios II and Artaxerxes II (see DARIUS iv and ARTAXERXES II).

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • RĀVANDI, Qoṭb-al-Din Saʿid

    Imami author, traditionist, and jurist (d. Qom, 14 Šawwāl 573/5 April 1178).

    (Etan Kohlberg)

  • RAWAK VIHARA

    a ruined Buddhist stupa and monastery complex located about 40 km northeast of Hotan/Hetian in Xinjiang Province, western China; translated as “high building” or “steep house”.

    (Ulf Jaeger)

  • RAWLINSON, HENRY ii. CONTRIBUTIONS TO ASSYRIOLOGY AND IRANIAN STUDIES

    His first relevant activity was to copy the trilingual inscriptions of Darius I and Xerxes I at Mount Alvand (Elvend) near Hamadān, in April 1835.

    (Peter T. Daniels)

  • RAWWADIDS

    a family of Arab descent that controlled parts of Azerbaijan and Armenia from the late 8th through the 11th centuries.

    (Andrew Peacock)

  • RAWŻA-YE TASLIM

    title of the most comprehensive work on the Nezāri Ismaʿili theology of the Alamut period by Naṣir-al-Din Ṭusi, the celebrated polymath who also served as vizier under the Il-khanid Hülegü.

    (S. Jalal Badakhchani)

  • RAY i. ARCHEOLOGY

    In the late 19th and early 20th century, the site was excavated unscientifically by Western archeologists and local dealers, mostly to search for precious objects; a large proportion of the finds found their way to the black market. At present several museums conserve some specimens from Ray belonging to this antiquarian surge.

    (Rocco Rante)

  • RĀŻIA ĀZĀD

    (Roziya Ozod; 1893-1957), Tajik poet and educator.

    (Evelin Grassi)

  • RED DEER

    Cervus elaphus, in Persian: Marāl and also Gavazn and Gāv-e kuhi. i. Natural history. ii. In Persian art. The red deer ranges from Europe to Northeast Asia, its appearance changing gradually, until, from Central Asia eastward, it becomes quite similar to the North American wapiti.

    (Eskandar Firouz)

  • REDARD, GEORGES

    Swiss scholar of comparative grammar of the Indo-European languages and Iranian dialectology.

    (Gerard Fussman)

  • REICHELT, HANS

    HANS (b. 20 April, 1877 in Baden near Vienna, d. 12 May 1939 in Baden), Austrian scholar of Indo-European and Iranian studies.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • RESĀLA-YE MADANIYA

    a treatise of some 130 pages by Abd-al-Baha, internally dated in 1292/1875, which calls on the Iranian people to ‘awake’ and take the steps necessary to modernize the country.

    (Sen McGlinn)

  • REŻWĀNŠAHR

    small town and sub-provencial unit (šahrestān) in the western part of Gilān Province.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • RHETORICAL FIGURES

    devices of embellishment, tropes, and figures considered as an intrinsic part of literary expression in medieval Persia.

    (Natalia Chalisova)

  • RHODOGUNE

    probably a rendering of OIran. *Vṛda-gaunā-, fem. “rose-colored,” and the name of several female historical figures.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • RHOXANE

    Greek rendering of OIr. *Raṷxšnā-, a woman's name.

    (Multple Authors)

  • RHOXANE i. THE NAME

    the woman's name.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • RHOXANE ii. ALEXANDER'S WIFE

    the name of several women in the aristocracy of Achaemenid Iran.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • RHYTON

    translated as “drinking horn,” its upper end can be filled with liquid and the lower end has a spout for pouring liquid out.

    (Ulf Jaeger)

  • RIAHI, MOHAMMAD AMIN

    prominent scholar of Persian classical literature, statesman, and professor of Persian language and literature.

    (Moḥammad Esteʿlāmi)

  • RICE

    See BERENJ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • RISHĀR KHAN

    (Rišār Khan), the Persian name of Jules Richard (1816-1891), a Frenchman in the service of Persian government as a language instructor at Dār al-Fonun College, court photographer, and translator.

    (Shireen Mahdavi)

  • RITTER, Hellmut

    (1892-1971), German scholar of Islamic studies, and particularly of Persian literature and mysticism. His magnum opus: Das Meer der Seele: Mensch, Welt und Gott in den Geschichten des Farīduddīn ʿAṭṭār (Leiden 1955) is an encyclopedic manual which guides the reader through the psychology of Islamic mysticism. The book is the best introduction to date into Sufi thought.

    (Josef van Ess)

  • ROBINSON, Samuel

    (1794-1884), British scholar of Persian, translator, cotton manufacturer, and educationalist.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • ROMANIAN-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    Economical and political relations developed significantly between Romania and Iran in the second half of the 20th century;these led to cultural relations as well, as evidenced by the translations of classical Persian poetry and manuscripts into Romanian.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • ROSE WATER

    See GOLĀB.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ROSENTHAL, FRANZ WILHELM

    (1914-2003), American scholar of Arabic and Semitic Studies, and particularly of Islamic intellectual history.

    (Hinrich Biesterfeldt)

  • ROSTAM b. Farroḵ-Hormozd

    Sasanian provincial ruler and military commander at the Battle of Qādesiya (mid-630s CE).

    (D. Gershon Lewental)

  • ROXANE

    the name of several women in the aristocracy of Achaemenid Iran, the most important of whom was the wife of Alexander the Great. She bore him a son, also named Alexander, whom she hoped to gain kingship. See RHOXANE.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • RUDĀBA

    princess of Kabul, wife of Zāl, and mother of Rostam. Her story (Šāh-nāma, ed. Khaleghi, I, pp. 186-270) is “one of the most beautiful narratives in Persian poetry” (Khaleghi, p. 39; cf. Nöldeke, p.71).

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • RUDBĀR

    town and district in southwestern Gilān. Rudbār is located on both banks of the Safidrud river at lat 36°51′ N, long 49°25′ E, at an average altitude of 300 m.

    (Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger)

  • RUDSAR

    city and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in eastern Gilān.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • RUḤAFZĀ, SOLAYMĀN

    (1900-1995), master of Persian classical music. He belongs to the first generation of Persian classical musicians who learned musical notation and the second generation to record his music.

    (Houman Sarshar)

  • RUḤAWŻI

    a comic type of traditional folk musical drama in Iran.

    (William O. Beeman)

  • RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN

    (d. 1273), Persian poet and Sufi philosopher

    (Multiple Authors)

  • RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN vii. Philosophy

    (William C. Chittick)

  • RUMI, JALĀL-AL-DIN viii. Rumi’s Teachings

    His didactic poem, the Maṯnawi and his main prose work, the Fihe mā fihe represent the last two decades of his life, constituting the most substantial sources for his teachings without need for recourse to his many biographies.

    (Jawid Mojaddedi)

  • RUSSIA

    I. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution. II. Iranian-Soviet Relations (1917-1991). III. Travelers in Persia to 1917. IV. Russians at the court of Moḥammad-ʿAli Shah.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • RUSSIA i. Russo-Iranian Relations up to the Bolshevik Revolution

    Prior to the 18th century, Iran and Russia treated each other as equal in their sporadic trade and diplomatic contacts. The fragmentation of Iran during the 18th century encouraged Russian aspirations to establish its domination in the Caucasus and the Caspian.

    (Elena Andreeva)

  • RUSSIA ii. IRANIAN-SOVIET RELATIONS (1917-1991)

    From the outset, the very first international resolutions of the young Soviet state had an immediate impact on relations with Iran.

    (N. M. Mamedova)

  • RUSSIA iii. Russo-Iranian Relations in the Post-Soviet Era (1991-present)

    Since the end of the 1980s, Iran and Russia have sought to increase their cooperation in the military, nuclear, oil, and gas sectors. It emerged in the light of Iran’s need to bypass Western restrictions on technology transfers in the nuclear, aviation, and military sectors.

    (Clément Therme)

  • RUSSIA iv. TRAVELERS IN PERSIA TO 1917

    Russian travelers’ reports are a valuable source on the history of Persia and its relationship with Russia.

    (Elena Andreeva)

  • RUSSIA v. RUSSIANS AT THE COURT OF MOḤAMMAD-ʿALI SHAH

    The presence of Russians at the court of Moḥammad-ʿAli Shah (r. 1907-09) reflected Russia’s efforts to improve her competitive position against the British by strengthening her influence over the Qajar rulers.

    (Elena Andreeva)

  • RUSSIA vi. Persian Art Collections in Russia

    The collection of Iranian art in Russia is kept in the two major cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; some small collections and individual pieces that may be preserved in other towns, but no information about them is available.

    (Anatol A. Ivanov)

  • RUZ-NĀMA-YE RASMI-E DAWLAT-E IRĀN

    (Official Journal of the Government of Iran), a paper published in Tehran as the official organ of government since 1911.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • RUZBEHĀN

    the proper name used in artist signatures in twelve manuscripts with illumination, which are associated with 16th-century Shiraz workshops.

    (Lâle Uluç)

  • RYE

    (čāvdār), Secale cereale L. (fam. Gramineae). The Persian name is probably of Turkish origin.

    (Hušang Aʿlam)

  • Rajaz

    (music sample)

  • Raqs: Dozala va Tombak

    (music sample)

  • Reng-e Čahārgāh

    (music sample)

  • R~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter R entries.

    (DATA)