List of Articles

  • ṢABĀ, ABU’l-ḤASAN

    Born into an aristocratic and affluent family, Abu’l-Ḥasan had the good fortune of being raised in an environment fostering love of music and arts. He descended from a long line of court physicians, known for their artistic talents.

    (Hormoz Farhat)

  • SABALĀN MOUNTAIN

    Kuh-e-Sabalān; 4,740 m), the highest and spatially most extended volcano in northwestern Iran.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ṢĀBER

    (1862-1911), MIRZĀ ʿALI-AKBAR ṬĀHERZĀDA, famous Azerbaijani satirist and poet.

    (Hasan Javadi)

  • SABET, HABIB

    (1903-1990), Bahai entrepreneur and industrialist, who rose from humble beginnings to become one of the wealthiest and most influential men in Iran in the late Pahlavi period.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • SABKŠENĀSI

    the title of a book by Malek al-Šoʿarā Moḥammad Taqi Bahār first published in 1942.

    (Matthew Smith)

  • ŠĀBUHRAGĀN

    (Šāpurāḵān, Šāburāḵān, Šāburḵān), one of the books written by Mani (216-274/7 CE), founder of the Manichean religion, in which he summarized his teaching systematically.

    (Christiane Reck)

  • ṢĀBUN

    "soap." See SOAP.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST

    general title of a set of 50 volumes published between 1879 and 1910, all translated into English by some of the leading scholars of the time under the supervision of Friederich Max Müller.

    (Carlo G. Cereti)

  • SACRIFICE i. IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    At least since the publication of the seminal essay by Henri Hubert and Marcel Mauss much of the discussion has been devoted to a search for what essentially defines sacrifice.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • SADA FESTIVAL

    the most important Iranian winter festival, celebrated by kindling fires.

    (Anna Krasnowolska)

  • ṢADĀ-YE EṢFAHĀN

    weekly newspaper published in Isfahan (6 March 1921 to April/May 1944, with lengthy interruptions).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • SADEQI, BAHRAM

    Sadeqi started writing poetry and prose at a young age and was still in high school when his poems, under the pseudonym “Ṣahbā Meqdāri,” appeared in literary journals of the period. Although well-versed in classical Persian literature and familiar with Persian prosody, he adhered to a free and independent mode of expression.

    (Saeed Honarmand)

  • SAʿDI

    Persian poet and prose writer (b. Shiraz, ca. 1210; d. Shiraz, d. 1291 or 1292), widely recognized as one of the greatest masters of the classical literary tradition.

    (Paul Losensky)

  • ṢADR

    Arabic term used in the Iranian lands mainly to denote an outstanding person (scholar or otherwise); hence it was also applied as a personal title.

    (Willem Floor)

  • SADR, BEHJAT

    pioneer modernist painter and educator, notable in the development of Iranian modern art movement.

    (Hengameh Fouladvand)

  • ṢADR-AL-DIN ŠIRĀZI

    See MOLLĀ ṢADRĀ ŠIRĀZI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ṢĀʾEB TABRIZI

    (ca. 1592-1676), MIRZĀ M0ḤAMMAD ʿALI, celebrated Persian poet of the later Safavid period, was born in Tabriz and died in Isfahan.

    (Paul E. Losensky)

  • SA'EDI, Gholam-Hosayn

    (1936-1985), writer, editor, and dramatist; an influential figure in popularizing the theater as an art form, as well as a medium of political and social expression in contemporary Iran.

    (Faridoun Farrokh and Houra Yavari)

  • ŠAFAQ

    a newspaper published in Tabriz, 3 October 1910 to 18 December 1911. It was an organ of the Democrat Party (Ḥezb-e demokrāt), with a strong nationalist orientation.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • SAFAVID DYNASTY

    Originating from a mystical order at the turn of the 14th century, the Safavids ruled Persia from 1501 to 1722.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • SAFAVID DYNASTY (cont.)

    Annotated bibliography.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • SAFFARIDS

    a dynasty of medieval Islamic eastern Iran which ruled from 247/861 to 393/1003. From a base in their home province of Sistān, the first Saffarids built up a vast if transient military empire, at one point invading Iraq and threatening Baghdad.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • SAFIDRUD

    With a length of 670 km the Safidrud is the second largest river of Iran. Its headwaters are located in the Zagros ranges of northwestern Iran in the province of Kordestān. Originating in the mountain range of the Kuh-e Čehel Čašma, the headwater region is moist and rainy.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • SAFINA-YE ḴOŠGU

    An important Indo-Persian taḏkera (collection of biographical notices of poets with anthologies of their verse) of the 18th century, by Bindrāban Dās Ḵošgu.

    (Stefano Pello)

  • SAFINE-YE SOLAYMANI

    (“Ship of Solayman,” henceforth SS), a Persian travel account of an embassy sent by the Safavid ruler Shah Solayman (r. 1666-94) to Siam in the year 1685.

    (M. Ismail Marcinkowski)

  • ṢAFJĀHĪ DYNASTY

    See DECCAN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ŠAFT

    district and small town in southwestern Gilān.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • SAGDID

    in Zoroastrian practice, a purificatory ritual, involving a dog, before a body is carried away to be exposed; see DOG ii. In Zoroastrianism.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ŠĀH ḴALIL-ALLĀH

    the forty-fifth imam of the Qāsemšāhi branch of Nezāri Ismaʿilis in the 18th century.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ŠĀH ṬĀHER ḤOSAYNI DAKKANI

    (1480-90s-1549), thirty-first and the most famous imam of the Moḥammadšāhi (or Moʾmeni) branch of the Nezāri Ismaʿilis. A resident of Deccan, Šāh Ṭāher was a learned theologian, poet, literary stylist, and an accomplished diplomat who rendered valuable services to the Neẓāmšāhi dynasty of Aḥmadnagar.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA iv. Illustrations

    It is within the medieval arts of the object, and particularly on portable ceramic and metalwork vessels made in Persia and neighboring regions during the 12th and 13th centuries, that the early history and iconography of Šāh-nāma imagery can be most fully appreciated.

    (Marianna Shreve Simpson)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA v. ARABIC WORDS

    Moïnfar calculates that the Šāh-nāma contains 706 words of Arabic origin, occurring a total of 8,938 times. The 100 words occurring most frequently account for 60 percent of all occurrences.

    (John R. Perry)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA — EXCURSUS

    Essay: “Reflections on Re-reading the Iliad and the Shahnameh” by Amin Banani.

    (Amin Banani)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA vi. The Šāh-nāma as a Source for Popular Narratives

    Šāh-nāma has been the source for different versions of the stories, such as the ones published in Eskandar-nāma and Dārāb-nāma , narrated by storytellers in public . The voluminous works with branching plots, relate the heroic-romantic adventures of their eponymous heroes, often with a religious, Islamic emphasis.

    (Julia Rubanovich)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA nn. The Šāh-nāma as a historical source

    (Mahmoud Omidsalar and Touraj Daryaee)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS i. INTO TURKISH

    Turks have been influenced by the Šāh-nāma since the advent of the Saljuqs in Persia. Their last prince in Persia, Ṭoḡrel III, recited verses from the Šāh-nāma while swinging his mace in battle.

    (Osman G. Özgüdenli)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS ii. INTO GEORGIAN

    was translated, not only to satisfy the literary and aesthetic needs of readers and listeners, but also to inspire the young with the spirit of heroism and Georgian patriotism.

    (Jamshid Sh. Giunashvili)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS iii. INTO ENGLISH

    Ferdowsi ’s epic, the Šāh-nāma, was first introduced to English readers by Sir William Jones, who in his many essays on Oriental poetry, compared Ferdowsi to Homer.

    (Parvin Loloi)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS xiii. INTO POLISH

    The first, brief mention of Ferdowsi in Polish was made by Ignacy Krasicki (1735-1801) in his work on poets and poetry, and he included in his collection of Oriental tales two passages originating from the Šāh-nāma.

    (Anna Krasnowolska)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS xiv. INTO RUSSIAN

    The first translation of the Šāh-nāma into Russian dates from 1849, when V. Zhukovski (d. 1852) wrote his poem Rustem and Zorab.

    (Natalia Chalisova)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS xv. INTO JAPANESE

    After ʿOmar Ḵayyām, whose Robāʿiyāt was introduced to Japanese readers around the turn of the 20th century, Ferdowsi was the first Persian poet to attract the attention of Japanese writers.

    (Hashem Rajabzadeh)

  • ŠĀH-NĀMA TRANSLATIONS xvi. INTO SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES

    among the works of classical Persian literature, Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma is the one best known in the Scandinavian countries.

    (Claus V. Pedersen)

  • SAḤĀB, ʿAbbās

    Saḥāb made about seven hundred maps and atlases, many hand-drafted, originals of which are kept in the SGDI’s library. He closely supervised every project from the start to the end. Saḥāb’s devotion to his work and his love for the field made him travel to hundreds of settlement of Iran, sometimes on foot, to collect data.

    (Firouz Firooznia)

  • SAHAND MOUNTAIN

    (Kuh-e Sahand), With 3710 m the third of the great volcanoes in the volcano province of Eastern Anatolia and Northwestern Iran, the other two being Ararat and Sabalān.

    (Eckart Ehlers)

  • ṢĀḤEB EBN ʿABBĀD, ESMĀʿIL

    vizier and belletrist.

    (Maurice Pomerantz)

  • ṢAḤIFA AL-SAJJĀDIYA, AL-

    celebrated collection of supplicatory prayers attributed to Imam Sajjād, the fourth Imam of the Imami Shiʿites; an important source of Shiʿite piety, its prestige is reflected in its honorific titles.

    (Louis Medoff)

  • ŠĀHIN

    Šams-al-Din Maḵdum (b. Bukhara, 1859; d. Qarši 1894), Bukharan Tajik poet and satirist.

    (Evelin Grassi)

  • ŠAHNĀZI, ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn

    (1905-1948) musician and performer of the tār (a plucked long-necked lute).

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi)

  • ŠAHNĀZI, ʿAli Akbar

    (1897-1984), master musician, renowned teacher, and composer of Persian classical music.

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi)

  • ŠAHRBĀNU

    (lit. “Lady of the Land,” i.e., of Persia), said to be the daughter of Yazdegerd III (r. 632-51), the last Sasanian king.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • ŠAHRESTĀN YAZDEGERD

    a Sasanian city-fortress built by Yazdegerd II (r. 439-57 CE).

    (Murtazali Gadjiev)

  • ŠAHRESTĀNĪHĀ Ī ĒRĀNŠAHR

    (The Provincial Capitals of Iran), the only major surviving Middle Persian text on geography.

    (Touraj Daryaee)

  • ŠAHREWAR

    name of one of the Amahraspandān in Zoroastrianism. This is the Middle Persian form of the name deriving from Av. Xšaθra Vairya, meaning literally “dominion to be chosen” and more freely “choice/desirable/best dominion.”

    (William W. Malandra)

  • SAIFPOUR FATEMI

    journalist, political figure, and university professor.

    (Lotfali Khonji)

  • SAIIDO NASAFI, MIROBID

    (Mir ʿĀbed Sayyedā Nasafi), Tajik poet (d. Bukhara, between 1707 and 1711).

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • SAKAS: IN AFGHANISTAN

    from the large family of Iranian nomads called Scythians who moved southwards towards the territories of present-day Afghanistan from their realms in the Central Asian plains, about the mid-second century BCE.

    (Pierfrancesco Callieri)

  • ŠAKKI

    a district of eastern Transcaucasia, now within the northwesternmost part of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan, where the modern town of Sheki or Shaki.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • SALAMIS

    island west of Athens and site of a major naval battle in 480 BCE between the Greeks and the Persian fleet of Xerxes I. Salamis was the second of five battles of the Greco-Persian War of 480-79.

    (Christopher Tuplin)

  • SALEMANN, Carl Hermann

    (1849-1916, a leading Iranist scholar of his time, specializing in Middle and early Modern Persian. His tenacity and willingness to publish his results quickly contributed greatly to the advancement of the study of the newly found texts from Central Asia.

    (Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst)

  • SALJUQS iii. SALJUQS OF RUM

    dynasty of Turkish origin that ruled much of Anatolia (Rum), ca. 1081-1308.

    (Andrew Peacock)

  • SALJUQS v. SALJUQID LITERATURE

    The term ‘Saljuqid literature’is used here to refer to literary works in Persian produced between 432/1040 and 617/1220.

    (Daniela Meneghini)

  • SALJUQS vi. ART AND ARCHITECTURE

    The Saljuq period can be regarded as an epoch in which Islamic art and architecture in Persia reached maturity, i.e., in which techniques were developed and formal solutions were established that lasted for centuries to come.

    (Lorenz Korn)

  • SAMĀʿI, ḤABIB

    outstanding player of the santur (a kind of dulcimer), usually considered the greatest santur player of his time

    (Morteza Dehkordi and EIr.)

  • SAMAK-E ʿAYYĀR

    a prose narrative originating in the milieu of professional storytellers, transmitted orally and written down around the 12th century.

    (Marina Gaillard)

  • SAMARQAND i. HISTORY AND ARCHEOLOGY

    i. History and Archeology Since the publication of the entry Afrāsiāb (EIr. I, 1984, pp. 576-78), new information has been brought to light on this archeological site and, consequently, on the history of pre-Mongol Samarqand. This progress is mainly a result of the activities of the MAFOUZ (Mission Archéologique Franco-Ouzbèke), which commenced in 1989 and continues to date.

    (Frantz Grenet)

  • SAMFONI-e MORDAGĀN

    first novel (1989) by Abbas Maroufi, fiction writer and the founder and editor of the periodical Gardun.

    (Houra Yavari)

  • ŠAMS-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD

    (1240-1310-11), Nezāri Ismaʿili imam, the sole surviving son of Rokn-al-Din Ḵoršāh, the last lord of Alamut. The youthful Šams-al-Din was taken to a safe place; thus, escaped the tragic fate of his family, who were all murdered by the Mongols.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • SANĀʾI

    (d. ca. 1130), Persian poet of the later Ghaznavid era, celebrated particularly for his homiletic poetry and his great influence on the development of mystical literature in general.

    (J. T. P. de Bruijn)

  • SANAI, MAHMOUD

    professor of psychology, psychoanalyst, educator, writer, translator, and government official.

    (Ali Gheissari)

  • SAN‘ATIZADEH KERMANI, Homayun

    (1925-2009), entrepreneur, man of letters, publisher, and founding manager of Moʾassasa-ye entešārāt-e Ferānklin, who played an instrumental role in the introduction of modern publishing industries in Iran.

    (Cyrus Alinejad)

  • SANCISI-WEERDENBURG, HELEEN

    (1944-2000), Dutch ancient historian, specializing in classical Greek and Achaemenid history.

    (Amélie Kuhrt)

  • SAND GROUSE

    a family (Pteroclididae) of game birds of which seven species are found in Persia, characteristic of Persia’s vast deserts and steppes. They have no affinity with true grouse and are included in the same order as pigeons (Columbiformes).

    (Eskandar Firouz)

  • ŠĀNDARMAN

    one of the five traditional Ṭāleš khanates (Ḵamsa-ye Ṭavāleš) in western Gilān, between Ṭāleš Dulāb and Māsāl.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SANG-E CHAKHMAQ

    The Aceramic Neolithic phase spans Levels 2-5 of the Western Tepe. This period is notable for large mud-brick houses with plastered and red-painted floors and well-built fireplaces, some of which appear to have had ritual significance. Amongst these houses there is abundant evidence for lithic tools.

    (Christopher P. Thornton)

  • SANG-E ṢABUR

    (1966, tr. by Mohammad Reza Ghanoonparvar, as The Patient Stone, 1989 ), the last, and arguably, the most critically acclaimed work of fiction by Sadeq Chubak.

    (Ali Ferdowsi)

  • SANGLĀḴ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALI

    (b. Qučān, Khorasan, date unknown; d. Tabriz, 3 March 1877), celebrated calligrapher and stone carver, as well as poet and author. He lived as a dervish and spent much of his time traveling, with long sojourns in the Ottoman empire and Egypt.

    (Maryam Ekhtiar)

  • SANJANA, Darab Dastur Peshotan

    (1857-1931), Zoroastrian head-priest and scholar.

    (Michael Stausberg)

  • SANJAR SHAH

    an archeological site in Tajikistan, discovered by a team of Soviet orientalists in 1947.

    (Gerd Gropp)

  • SANJAR, Aḥmad b. Malekšāh

    Abu’l-Ḥārith, Moʿezz-al-donyā-wa’l-din, Borhān Amir-al-Moʾmenin, first subordinate sultan of Khorasan and then Great Sultan of the Great Saljuq empire.

    (Deborah G. Tor)

  • SAOŠYANT

    a term in Zoroastrianism sometimes rendered as “savior.” Since the term also occurs frequently in reference to contemporary individuals, a more neutral translation such as “benefactor” or “helper” (Lommel) may be preferred.

    (William W. Malandra)

  • ŠĀPUR

    Three Sasanian king of kings and a number of notables of the Sasanian and later periods were called “Shapur.”

    (Multiple Authors)

  • SHĀPUR I: History-ARCHIVED

    second Sasanian king of kings (r. 239-70) and author of several rock-reliefs and the trilingual inscription on the walls of the so-called Kaʿba-ye Zardošt [ŠKZ]. i. History

    (Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ŠĀPUR I: History

    second Sasanian king of kings (r. 239-70) and author of several rock-reliefs and the trilingual inscription on the walls of the so-called Kaʿba-ye Zardošt [ŠKZ].

    (Shapur Shahbazi)

  • ŠĀPUR I: The Great Statue

    With a height of about 6.70 m and a width across the shoulders of more than 2 m, the monumental statue of Shapur I can be considered the most impressive extant sculpture dating from the Sasanian period. It is carved out of a huge stalagmite.

    (G. R. Garosi)

  • ŠĀPUR I: ROCK RELIEFS

    seven rock reliefs from the time of Šāpur I located in Fārs.

    (Bruno Overlaet)

  • ŠĀPUR II

    (r. 309-79 CE), longest reigning monarch of the Sasanian dynasty.

    (Touraj Daryaee)

  • SĀQI-NĀMA

    (Book of the Cupbearer), a poetic genre in which the speaker, seeking relief from his hardships, losses, and disappointments, repeatedly summons the sāqi or cupbearer to bring him wine.

    (Paul Losensky)

  • Sāqi-nāme in Dastgāh Māhur

    (music sample)

  • SAQQĀ-ḴĀNA HISTORY

    Saqqā-ḵāna is a term referring to public water dispensers, which were, and in some places still are, a feature of some large institutional buildings in Iran, typically mosques, shrines, and bazaars.

    (Willem Floor)

  • SAQQĀ-ḴĀNA SCHOOL OF ART

    a contemporary art movement in Iran in 1962. The term was initially applied to painting and sculpture which used existing elements from votive Shiʿite art. It gradually came to be applied more widely to art works that used traditional-decorative elements.

    (Hamid Keshmirshekan)

  • SAQQEZ

    a semifluid resin obtained from cuts and cracks of the wild pistachio trees, found in its natural habitats in Iran.

    (Bahram Grami)

  • ŠARAFĀBĀD

    Tepe Šarāfabād was excavated in 1971 by the joint project of the University of Michigan and what was then the Archeological Service of Iran. The staff of the excavation was directed by Henry T. Wright III, and the official representative of the National Research Center for Archeology was Muhammed H.Ḵošābi.

    (Robert M. Schacht and Henry T. Wright III)

  • SARBEDĀRS

    a religious movement in northern Khorāsān and eastern Māzandarān that led to the establishment of a dynasty of local rulers based in Sabzevār in the district of Bayhaq , northeastern Iran.

    (Denise Aigle)

  • SARGOḎAŠTE-E SAYYEDNĀ

    title of an anonymous Persian work containing the biography of Ḥasan-e Ṣabbāḥ, the founder of the Nezāri Ismaʿili state of Persia, centered at the mountain fortress of Alamut .

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • ŠARḤ-e TAʿARROF

    an extensive commentary in Persian on Abu Bakr Moḥammad Kalābāḏi’s Sufi manual Ketāb al-Taʿarrof le-maḏhab ahl al-taṣawwuf.

    (Nasrollah Pourjavady)

  • ŠARIF KHAN, Moḥammad

    (d. ca. 1807), physician at the court of the Mughal emperor, Shah ʿĀlam II (r. 1760-1806), author, and the eponymous founder of the Šarifi family of physicians.

    (Fabrizio Speziale)

  • ŠARQ

    a literary journal published occasionally in Tehran between 1924 and 1932.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • SASANIAN COINAGE

    The coinage of the Sasanian empire (ca. 224-651 CE) is not only the most important primary source for its monetary and economic history, but is also of greatest importance for history and art history.

    (Nikolaus Schindel)

  • SASANIAN DYNASTY

    The Sasanian dynasty represented the last Persian lineage of rulers to achieve hegemony over much of Western Asia before Islam, ruled 224 CE–650 CE.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • SASANIAN ROCK RELIEFS

    inscriptions carved on rocks or buildings, some ostraca, usually economic, and some seals and bullae. As a result the information provided by the two primary sources, the coins and the rock commissioned by some kings, are of major importance.

    (G. Herrmann and V. S. Curtis)

  • SASANIAN TEXTILES

    Classical, Islamic, and Chinese sources celebrate Sasanian textiles as a very precious commodity, but no specific descriptions of them are given. Most studies of Sasanian textile art are originally based on these sources and on examining the reliefs of the larger grotto at Tāq-e Bostān.

    (Matteo Compareti)

  • SASANIAN WALL PAINTING

    Murals found on sites within the territory of the Sasanian empire (224- 650 CE) are considered Sasanian. While their main function is decorative, their secondary function can be derived from location, theme, and dimension, and is important because it reflects a world-view.

    (An De Waele)

  • SATASPES

    an Achaemenid, the son of a certain Teaspis and from his mother’s side a nephew of King Darius I.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • SATI BIK

    Mongol princess of the Il-Khanid dynasty who reigned for about nine months in 1338, though only in name.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • SATTĀR KHAN

    (1868-1914), defender of Tabriz during the Qajar “Lesser Autocracy” in 1908-09—an example of a mythical personage, and as a long-lasting focal point of collective memory and identity, whose symbolic function has an impact until this very day.

    (Anja Pistor-Hatam)

  • SAVDO ABDULQODIRHOJAI

    (1823-24-1873), Tajik lyric and satirical poet.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • ṢAWMAʿA SARĀ

    city and district in western Gilān. The city is located at lat 37°17′ N, long 29°19′ E, in the Fumanāt plain, at a distance of 25 km to the west of Rašt, the center of the province.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • ŠĀYEST NĒ ŠĀYEST

    (Proper and Improper), a work in the Middle Persian/Pahlavi language dealing with Zoroastrian jurisprudence and containing miscellaneous laws concerning sins, purity, and impurity.

    (Fereydun Vahman)

  • SAYFI QAZVINI

    (1481-1555), a Persian historian best known for his Lobb al-tawāriḵ, a chronicle dealing with the dynastic history of Iran from ancient times until the late 1540s.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ŠĀYGĀN, ʿALI

    (ALI SHAYEGAN; b. Shiraz, 1903; d. Westwood, New Jersey, 10 May 1981), law scholar, author, academician, and one of the closest associates of the prime minister Mohammad Mossadegh.

    (Hamid Hosseini)

  • ŠAYḴ-ʿALI KHAN ZANGANA

    (1611 or 1613-1689), grand vizier for twenty years under Shah Solaymān I Ṣafawi.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • SAYR WA SOLUK

    title of the spiritual autobiography of Naṣir-al-Din Ṭusi (1201-74), celebrated polymath and vizier of under the Il-khanid.

    (S. J. Badakhchani)

  • SAYYED AJALL

    governor of the Dali province in China during the Mongol period.

    (George Lane)

  • SCERIMAN FAMILY

    a wealthy Persian-Armenian merchant family.

    (Sebouh Aslanian and Houri Berberian)

  • SCHAEDER, HANS HEINRICH

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • SCHEFER, Charles-Henri-Auguste

    In 1833 Schefer entered the prestigious Collège Louis-le-Grand, where one of his classmates was Charles Baudelaire (1821-67). Schefer enrolled in his school's Arabic, Turkish, and Persian courses for prospective translators (jeunes de langues).

    (Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam)

  • SCHEIL, Jean-Vincent

    (1858-1940), Father, French philologist and archeologist.

    (Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam)

  • SCHIMMEL, ANNEMARIE

    (1922-2003), German orientalist and scholar of Islam and Sufism.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • SCHIMMEL, ANNEMARIE iv. Works on Iqbal and Indo-Muslim Studies

    studies on Iqbal, Indian Sufism, and Indo-Muslim literature.

    (Burzine K. Waghmar)

  • SCHIMMEL, ANNEMARIE v. Bibliography

    bibliography of works by Annemarie Schimmel.

    (Burzine K. Waghmar)

  • SCHLERATH, BERNFRIED

    German scholar of Indo-European, chiefly Indo-Iranian, philology and Indo-European cultural studies.

    (Stefan Zimmer)

  • SCHLIMMER, JOHANNES LODEWIK

    (1818-1876), Dutch physician who served in Iran as an instructor of medicine and became a leading pioneer in the promotion of modern medicine in Iran. His Terminologie Medico-Pharmaceutique (1874) helped standardize medical technical terms in Persian.

    (Willem Floor)

  • SCHMIDT, HANNS-PETER

    (1930-2017), a German Indo-Iranist who specialized in studies on Indian mythology and the Zoroastrian religion.

    (Touraj Daryaee)

  • SCYTHIAN LANGUAGE

    one of the idioms spoken by the nomadic tribes of the Eurasian steppelands along the northern edge of the home of the Iranian peoples in the Old Iranian period.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • SCYTHIANS

    a nomadic people of Iranian origin who flourished in the steppe lands north of the Black Sea during the 7th-4th centuries BCE.

    (Askold Ivantchik)

  • SE QAṬRA ḴUN

    short story by Ṣādeq Hedāyat in a collection with the same title .

    (Soheila Saremi)

  • SEALS AND SEALINGS

    IN THE EASTERN IRANIAN LANDS The bulk of the material known at present is of antiquarian origin and was gathered between the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries when European and Russian scholars and collectors turned their attention to these previously unexplored regions.

    (Pierfrancesco Callieri)

  • SEBEOS

    a seventh-century Armenian historian. The Armenian history traditionally attributed to Sebeos is an important source for the history of the Sasanian empire from the last years of Hormozd IV to the death of Yazdegerd III.

    (James Howard-Johnston)

  • SEBÜKTEGIN

    a slave commander of the Samanids and the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty in eastern Afghanistan.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • SEFIDRUD

    See Safidrud.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ŠEHĀB-AL-DIN ŠĀH ḤOSAYNI

    the forty-seventh imam of the Nezāri Ismaʿilis was a high dignitary and author in the 19th century.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • SELEUCIA

    For Seleucia on the Tigris, see s.v. CTESIPHON.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SELEUCID ECONOMY

    Economic activity was based mainly on agriculture. Trade and industry tended to be local. Conversion from commodity-based revenue, as practiced by the Achaemenids, to coin-based was achieved through urbanization.

    (G. G. Aperghis)

  • SELEUCID EMPIRE

    founded in 312/311 BCE by Seleucus I Nicator, formerly a general in the army of Alexander the Great. Adopting the titles “King of Asia” and “Great King,” the Macedonian rulers of the Seleucid dynasty laid claim to the territory of the former Achaemenid empire.

    (Rolf Strootman)

  • SELEUCID ERA

    the first system of continuous year numbering, introduced in the Middle East by the Seleucids, and the direct forerunner of the Christian, Islamic, and Jewish years. As the formal time reckoning system of the Seleucid empire, the era was adopted throughout the Middle East.

    (Rolf Strootman)

  • SELEUCUS

    (Greek: Seleukos), name of seven kings of the Seleucid empire. Seleucus I Nicator (r. 312-281 BCE), was founder of the Seleucid empire and succeeded in re-uniting the greater part of the former Achaemenid empire after the death of Alexander the Great.

    (Rolf Strootman)

  • SEMINO, Barthélémy

    French general, engineer, and linguist in the service of the Qajars in Persia.

    (Shireen Mahdavi)

  • SEPEHRI, Sohrab

    (1928-1980), notable Iranian poet and painter.

    (Houman Sarshar)

  • SERĀJ AL-AḴBĀR-E AFḠĀNIYA

    “Torch of the news of Afghanistan,” bi-monthly Persian language newspaper published in Kabul during the second decade of the reign of Amir Ḥabib-Allāh (r. 1901-19).

    (May Schinasi)

  • ŠERVĀN

    (ŠIRVĀN, ŠARVĀN), a region of Eastern Transcaucasia, known by this name in both early Islamic and more recent times, and now (since 1994) substantially within the independent Azerbaijan Republic.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ŠERVĀNŠAHS

    (Šarvānšāhs), the various lines of rulers, originally Arab in ethnos but speedily Persianized within their culturally Persian environment, who ruled in the eastern Caucasian region of Šervān from mid-ʿAbbasid times until the age of the Safavids.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • Set # 3 - Music Samples Test

    (music sample)

  • Set # 4 - Music Samples Test

    (music sample)

  • Set # 5 - Music Samples Test

    (music sample)

  • SEVRUGUIN, ANTOIN

    (1830-1933), Armenian–Iranian photographer who lived most of his life in Persia. He studied painting and photography in Tbilisi. Sevruguin decided to create a survey of the people, landscape, and architecture of Persia. He had a reputation as a portrait photographer and thus Nāṣer-al-Din Shah appointed him as an official court photographer.

    (Aphrodite Désirée Navab)

  • Šeydā

    the pen name of Mirzā ʿAli-Akbar Širāzi (b. Shiraz, 1259/1843; d. Tehran at the Ṣafi ʿAlišāh ḵānaqāh, 1324/1906), a Persian musician regarded as the most important composer of the lyrical popular song (taṣnif) in the late Qajar period.

    (Margaret Caton)

  • SHADDADIDS

    Caucasian dynasty of Kurdish origin reigning from about 950 until 1200, first in Dvin and Ganja, later in Ani.

    (Andrew Peacock)

  • SHADMAN, Sayyed Fakhr-al-Din

    (1907-1967), cultural critic and writer of fiction, professor of history, civil servant, and cabinet minister.

    (Ali Gheissari)

  • SHAH ABBAS I

    Safavid king of Iran (996-1038/1588-1629). Styled "Shah ʿAbbās the Great," he was the third son and successor of Solṭān Moḥammad Shah. See ʿABBĀS I.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SHAHBAZ, Hasan

    From 1942 to 1948 Shahbaz wrote articles for newspapers and magazines, translated his first books, and worked as a translator for foreign companies, and as a contractor for Allied Forces in Iran. In 1949 he became an editor at the News Desk of the Embassy of Pakistan and later joined the American Embassy in Tehran.

    (Ḡafur Mirzāʾi)

  • SHAHID SALESS, Sohrab

    Iranian cinematographer and award-winning filmmaker.

    (Pardis Minuchehr)

  • SHAHRYAR, MOHAMMAD HOSAYN

    (1906-1988), prolific poet and the most noted representative of the short-lived Persian romanticism, who also composed poems in Azeri Turkish. Shahryar’s poetry has influenced many contemporary poets.

    (Kamyār ʿĀbedi and EIr)

  • SHAHRZAD

    (Reżā Kamāl, 1898-1937), dramatist and translator who played a key role in introducing European Romanticism to Iran through his loose adaptations of French drama.

    (Mohammad Tolouei)

  • SHAHSEVAN

    (Šāhsevan), name of a number of tribal groups in various parts of northwestern Iran, notably in the Moḡān and Ardabil districts of eastern Azerbaijan and in the Ḵaraqān and Ḵamsa districts between Zanjān and Qazvin.

    (Richard Tapper)

  • SHAMANISM

    AND ITS CONNECTION TO IRAN. Archeological and ethnological sources in Iran do not lead to confirmation of the existence of shamanic practices there, whether ancient or modern. Yet some scholars have tried to find traces of them.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • SHAMI STATUE

    from Šāmi, Khuzestan, the only intact monumental cast bronze of the Parthian period.

    (Trudy S. Kawami)

  • SHAPUR I: The Great Statue

    With a height of about 6.70 m and a width across the shoulders of more than 2 m, the monumental statue of Shapur I can be considered the most impressive extant sculpture dating from the Sasanian period. It is carved out of a huge stalagmite.

    (G. R. Garosi)

  • SHAPUR II

    (r. 309-79 CE), longest reigning monarch of the Sasanian dynasty.

    (Touraj Daryaee)

  • SHATT AL-ARAB

    (ŠAṬṬ AL-ʿARAB), combined effluent of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • SHAYKHISM

    (ŠAYḴIYA), a school of Twelver Shiʿism whose founding is attributed to Shaikh Aḥmad Aḥsāʾi (d. 1241/1826).

    (Denis Hermann)

  • SHEEP

    See GUSFAND.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SHEYBANI, MANUCHEHR

    poet, painter, filmmaker, and dramatist.

    (Saeid Rezvani)

  • SHIELD in Eastern Iran

    In Lurestan, a round bronze shield was found, which has a skirting along the edge, an umbo in the center, and relief depictions of fantastic creatures.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • SHIʿITE DOCTRINE

    Shiʿite doctrine is usually considered to be based on five principles. However, to articulate matters of faith in such a manner seems reductionist and late.

    (Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi)

  • SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya

    The distinction between believers and ulema (ʿolemāʾ “religious scholars”) is known to both Sunnites and Shiʿites, and forms the starting point for internal ranking systems among their ulema.

    (Rainer Brunner)

  • SHIʿITE DOCTRINE iii. Imamite-Sunnite Relations since the Late 19th Century

    Since the 20th century, sectarian relations have reflected a growing number of attempts to reach, at least to some degree, an understanding and a rapprochement of each other’s views (taqrib, rarely taqārob.

    (Rainer Brunner)

  • SHIʿITES IN ARABIA

    survey of the Arabian peninsula including Persian Gulf regions.

    (Werner Ende)

  • SHIʿITES IN LEBANON

    Shiʿites, that is, Muslims adhering to the Twelver (eṯnāʿašari) or Imamite persuasion of Shiʿism, form the single largest denominational community of Lebanon. Their number is estimated at 1.5 million.

    (Sabrina Mervin)

  • SHIR-E SHIAN

    Given the lack of architectural remains and the shallowness of the deposit, Schmidt argued that Shir-e Shian was a temporary campsite occupied for only one period. It is also plausible, given that burials were often placed below the floors of houses in prehistory, that the mounds of Shir-e Shian had simply been heavily eroded over time.

    (Christopher P. Thornton)

  • SHIRAZ ARTS FESTIVAL

    For eleven consecutive years, beginning in 1967, a festival of arts, known in Persian as Jašn-e honar, took place in Shiraz and the nearby remains of the ancient imperial city of Persepolis . Its purpose was to be a meeting place of the performing arts of the Eastern world with those of the West.

    (Hormoz Farhat)

  • SHIRAZ i. HISTORY TO 1940

    The city of Shiraz has been the capital of the province of Fārs since the Islamic conquest, succeeding Eṣṭaḵr of the Sasanian period and Persepolis of the Achaemenid days.

    (A. Shapur Shahbazi)

  • SHIRVANLU, FIRUZ

    (1938-1989), art critic, scholar, and artist, who played an instrumental role in the creation and management of several museums and cultural centers in the 1960s and 1970s.

    (EIr)

  • SHOGHI EFFENDI

    Šawqi Rabbāni (1897-1957), eldest grandson and successor of ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ as leader of the Bahai Faith (1921-57). Iranian Bahais usually refer to him as Ḥażrat-e Waliy-e Amrallāh, the title given to him by ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ, usually translated as “the Guardian of the Cause of God, or simply “the Guardian.”

    (Moojan Momen)

  • SIĀH-QALAM

    “black pen” (1) the genre of paintings or drawings done in pen and ink; (2) the painters of such drawings.

    (Bernard O'Kane)

  • SIĀHKAL

    small town and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in the southeastern part of Gilān province.

    (Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger)

  • SIALK, TEPE

    See CERAMICS i. The Neolithic Period through the Bronze Age in Northeastern and North-central Persia.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SIAR AL-MOLUK

    also known as Siāsat-nāma (The book of statecraft) and Panjāh faṣl (Fifty chapters), a manual on statecraft written for the Saljuq sultan Malekšāh by his vizier Neẓām-al-Molk.

    (Neguin Yavari)

  • SIĀVAŠ

    See KAYĀNIĀN vi. Siiāuuaršan, Siyāwaxš, Siāvaš.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SIBERIAN ELM

    See ĀZĀD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SĪH-RŌZAG

    a text of the Xorda Avesta comprising invocations to Zoroastrian divinities.

    (Enrico G. Raffaelli)

  • SILK

    Originally from China, silk has been known in Iran since ancient times. See ABRĪŠAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SILVER

    Silver, the element Ag, was found in a number of areas of Islamic Greater Iran, and medieval authors described its exploitation. Although few silver vessels have survived, contemporary literature demonstrates its importance as a luxury material.

    (Michael Spink)

  • SIMJURIDS

    a family of Turkish mamluks who over four generations, from the late 9th century to the Qarakhanid conquest (389/999), played a leading role in the Samanid state.

    (Luke Treadwell)

  • SIMORḠ

    (Persian), Sēnmurw (Pahlavi), Sīna-Mrū (Pāzand), a fabulous, mythical bird. The name derives from Avestan mərəγō saēnō ‘the bird Saēna’, originally a raptor, either eagle or falcon, as can be deduced from the etymologically identical Sanskrit śyená;. Saēna is also attested as a personal name which is derived from the bird name. In the Avestan Yašt 14.41 Vərəθraγna, the deity of victory, wraps xᵛarnah, fortune, round the house of the worshipper, for wealth in cattle, like the great bird Saēna, and as the watery clouds cover the great mountains, which means that Saēna will bring rain.

    (Hanns-Peter Schmidt)

  • SINDHI

    A language of the Indo-Aryan family. Many of its numerous distinctive features may be attributed to the isolated position in the lower Indus valley of Sindh.

    (Christopher Shackle)

  • SINEMĀ WA NEMĀYEŠĀT

    the first Persian magazine entirely devoted to cinematography (1930).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • SIRĀFI, ABU SAʿID ḤASAN

    ABU SAʿID ḤASAN b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Marzobān (b. Sirāf on the coast of Fārs in 280/893-94; d. Baghdad 2 Rajab 368/3 February 979), 10th century polymath known best for his work as a grammarian.

    (David Pingree)

  • ŠIRĀZI, Nur-al-Din Moḥammad ʿAbd-Allāh

    Indo-Muslim physician and one of the main Persian authors of works on medical subjects in India in the 17th century.

    (Fabrizio Speziale)

  • SISIGAMBIS

    the mother of Darius III and of Stateira (2), perhaps also of Oxyathres; captured in the Persian base camp after the battle of Issus along with other members of the immediate royal family.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • SISTĀN ii. In the Islamic period

    It was during the governorship in Khorasan of ʿAbdallāh b. ʿĀmer for the caliph ʿOṯmān that the Arabs first appeared in Sistān, when in 31/652 Zarang surrendered peacefully, although Bost resisted fiercely.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • SISTĀNI, MIRZĀ ŠĀH-ḤOSAYN

    (1571-after 1627), Persian historian, poet, and bureaucrat whose works include a local history of Sistān, a biographical dictionary of poets, and two maṯnawis.

    (Kioumars Ghereghlou)

  • ŠKAND GUMĀNĪG WIZĀR

    a Middle Persian Zoroastrian text written by Mardānfarrox son of Ohrmazddād in the ninth century.

    (Carlo G. Cereti)

  • SLAVES and SLAVERY

    See BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SMBAT BAGRATUNI

    distinguished Armenian prince and head of the Bagratid house at the turn of the 6th to the 7th century.

    (Nina Garsoïan)

  • SMOKING IN IRAN

    Iran began producing finished cigarettes in order to meet growing domestic demand. Russian investors established a series of manufacturing facilities in Rasht by 1890. According to the accounts of the British consul in Gilan, the these produced cigarettes “too hot and coarse for European tastes,” but “well made and cheap enough.”

    (Esfandyar Batmanghelidj)

  • SOAP

    (Ar. and Pers. ṣābun) was manufactured in Persia from antiquity. In the 10th century, various Persian towns produced soap, among them Bost, Balkh, and Arrajān.

    (Willem Floor)

  • ṢOBḤI, FAŻL-ALLĀH MOHTADI

    (1897-1962), Persian school teacher, who is best known as a children’s storyteller, collector of folktales, broadcaster, and Bahai apostate.

    (Moojan Momen)

  • SOCIETAS IRANOLOGICA EUROPAEA

    (SIE), important international association in the field of Iranian studies.

    (Gherardo Gnoli)

  • SODIQI MUNŠI, Mirzo

    Tajik poet (d. 1819). Little is known of his life and career.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • SOFRA

    a piece of cloth that is spread on the floor, and on which dishes of food are placed at meal times.

    (Mahmoud Omidslalar)

  • SOGDIAN LANGUAGE

    one of the Eastern Middle Iranian languages once spoken in Sogdiana.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • SOGDIAN LANGUAGE i. Description

    Sogdian is one of the Eastern Middle Iranian languages once spoken in Sogdiana (northern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) before the Islamization of the area in the 10th century. It was written in three scripts: Sogdian, Manichean, and Syriac.

    (Yutaka Yoshida)

  • SOGDIAN LANGUAGE ii. Loanwords in Persian

    Loanwords from Sogdian into Persian were adopted through the cultural relations and commercial interactions which existed between Iran proper and Transoxiana, the birth place of Sogdian language.

    (B. Gharib)

  • SOGDIAN LITERATURE i. Buddhist

    A considerable number of Buddhist Sogdian texts dating from around the 8th century CE were unearthed from “Caves of the Thousand Buddhas” at Dunhuang in western China and from Turfan in Chinese Turkestan.

    (Yutaka Yoshida)

  • SOGDIAN TRADE

    The people of Sogdiana were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia from the 5th to the 8th century.

    (Etienne de la Vaissiere)

  • SOGDIANA

    the name in Classical sources for Suγd, the region of Central Asia north of the river Oxus/Amu Darya.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • SOGDIANA i. The Name

    etymology of the name of the ancient and medieval land around Samarqand.

    (Pavel Lurje)

  • SOGDIANA ii. Historical Geography

    accounts of the cities and regions of Sogdiana.

    (Pavel Lurje)

  • SOGDIANA iii. HISTORY AND ARCHEOLOGY

    an Iranian-speaking region in Central Asia that stretches from the rivers Āmu Daryā in the south to the Syr Daryā in the north, with its heart in the valleys of the Zarafšān and the Kaška Daryā.

    (Étienne de la Vaissière)

  • SOGDIANA iv. SOGDIAN ART

    The development and apogee of Sogdian art was limited to four or five centuries before and during the Muslim conquest of Transoxania. Sogdian art of the heartlands flourished in the settled areas of the Zeravshan and Kashkadarya valleys, as well as in Ustrushana (Osrušana), north of the Turkestan mountain range.

    (Markus Mode)

  • ŠOKUROV, MOḤAMMADJĀN

    (1925-2012), Tajik scholar and literary critic. From the late 1980s, in the milieu of glasnost, he cultivated an interest in the theory of modern Tajik culture, and he published copiously on the issues of the history and contemporary conditions of Tajik language, literature, and culture during the independence period after 1991.

    (Habib Borjian and Evelin Grassi)

  • SOLAYMĀN

    Il-Khan of Iran (1339-1344) , a great-grandson of Hülegü’s third son Yošmut.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • SOLAYMĀN I

    the eighth king of the Safavid dynasty (r. 1076-1105/1666-94).

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • SOLAYMĀN I

    (1648-1694), Shah, the eighth king of the Safavid dynasty and the oldest son of Shah ʿAbbās II. Until his enthronement, he grew up secluded in the royal harem and his first language was Turkish.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • SOLAYMĀNI, Ātajān Peyrow

    (1899-1933), Tajik poet who blended the classical traditions of Tajik-Persian verse with the social themes of the new Soviet Central Asia of the 1920s and early 1930s.

    (Keith Hitchins)

  • SOLṬĀN ḤOSAYN

    (1668-1727), the ninth and last Safavid king, the eldest son of Shah Solaymān I. Like most Safavid rulers, he was most comfortable speaking Turkish, although he appears to have learned Persian as well.

    (Rudi Matthee)

  • SOLṬĀN WALAD

    13th-14th-century Sufi shaikh and poet, son and eventual successor of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi(Mawlawi). See BAHĀʾ -AL- DĪN SOLṬĀN WALAD.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SOMĀʿI, ḤABIB-archive

    (1905-1946), an outstanding player of the santur (a kind of dulcimer).

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr)

  • SOPURḠĀN

    Neo-Aramaic Sipūrḡān, Assyrian village in the Urmia plain, situated on the Nazlu river, 26 km northeast of the city of Urmia.

    (David G. Malick)

  • SORḴA

    (locally: Sur), township and sub-province in Semnān Province.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • SORUSHIAN, Jamshid

    (1914-1999), a Zoroastrian community leader and author.

    (Carlo G. Cereti)

  • SOUR CHERRY

    See ĀLBĀLŪ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SOUR GRAPE jUICE

    See ĀB-ḠŪRA.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SOUTH PERSIA RIFLES

    (SPR), a locally recruited militia, commanded by British officers, and operating in the provinces of Fārs and Kermān from 1916 to 1921.

    (Floreeda Safiri)

  • SOUTHEAST ASIA i. PERSIAN PRESENCE IN

    Attention will be given to some of the most striking features of the Persian influences on Southeast Asian Islamic culture.

    (M. Ismail Marcinkowski)

  • SOUTHEAST ASIA ii. SHIʿITES IN

    Along with Sufism, Shiʿite elements too entered Malay-Indonesian Islam, certainly by way of southern India, where it was well represented.

    (M. Ismail Marchinkowski)

  • SPĀHBED

    Sasanian title that denoted a high military rank and meant ‘chief of an army, general.’

    (Rika Gyselen)

  • SPAIN: RELATIONS WITH PERSIA IN THE SAFAVID PERIOD

    relations with Persia in the 16th and 17th centuries.

    (José Cutillas Ferrer)

  • SPANDARMAD

    one of the six great Aməša Spəntas in Zoroastrianism. See ĀRMAITI .

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SPEAR

    (Av. aršti- ‘spear,’ OPers. aršti ‘throwing weapon’ or ‘javelin’) is mentioned in the Avesta several times.

    (Boris A. Litvinsky)

  • SPIEGEL, FRIEDRICH (VON)

    Friedrich von (b. 11 July 1820 in Kitzingen am Main, d. 15 December 1905 in Munich), German orientalist and scholar of Iranian studies. Devoting most of his life to Old Iranian and Zoroastrian studies, he became one of the most prolific authors of his time and, as a pioneer, put Iranian studies in German-speaking countries on a solid foundation.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • SPULER, Bertold

    As a teenager Spuler lived through the economic and political turmoils of the 1920s following German defeat in World War I. He received a humanist education, with a focus on Latin and Greek, at the Bismarck Gymnasium in Karlsruhe. Spuler easily picked up languages.

    (Werner Ende, Bert Fragner, Dagmar Riedel)

  • SRAOŠA

    a major deity (yazata) in Zoroastrianism, whose great popularity reserved a place for him in Iranian Islam as the angel Surōš. In Avestan, the word occurs both as a noun and as a name. Its basic common meaning is “to hear and obey.”

    (William W. Malandra)

  • SAMĀʿI, ḤABIB

    (1905-1946), an outstanding player of the santur (a kind of dulcimer).

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr)

  • STAMPS

    see PHILATELY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • STANZAIC POETRY

    Stanzaic verse forms have been part of the corpus of classical Persian poetry from the early stage onwards and have continued to play a role until modern times, alhough the quantity of stanzaic poetry in Persian literature is modest in comparison to other verse forms.

    (Gabrielle van den Berg)

  • STARK, FREYA Madeline

    British travel-writer. Her 1934 book The Valley of the Assassins and Other Persian Travels belongs to the canon of English travel literature.

    (Malise Ruthven)

  • STATEIRA

    a name attested for several royal women of the Achaemenid period: daughter of Hydarnes, wife of Codomannus, daughter of Darius III.

    (Ernst Badian)

  • STEEL INDUSTRY IN IRAN

    In 1927, plans were drawn up to establish smelting works in the north of the country to produce rail tracks domestically.

    (Willem Floor)

  • STEIN, (MARC) AUREL

    (1862-1943), Sir, Hungarian–British archeologist and explorer, was born in Pest, Hungary and died in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    (Susan Whitfield)

  • STERN, SAMUEL MIKLOS

    (1920-1969), a Hungarian-British orientalist and a leading scholar of modern Ismaʿili studies.

    (Farhad Daftary)

  • STOREY, Charles Ambrose

    British orientalist, author of the bio-bibliographical survey of Persian literature (1888-1968).

    (Yuri Bregel)

  • STROPHIC POETRY

    See STANZAIC POETRY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • STRUYS, JAN JANSZOON

    (1630-1694), Dutch sailor and sail maker, whose account of his various travels in Europe, Africa, and Asia, first published in 1676, has been translated into several languages.

    (Willem Floor)

  • STUCCO DECORATION

    IN IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE. This entry focuses on the Parthian and Sasanian periods and hints at the continuity in the Islamic period.

    (Jens Kröger)

  • STŪM

    Essentially a soliloquy of remembrance, the stūm ritual links living Zoroastrians to deceased coreligionists by reminding them that righteousness during life ensures salvation after death.

    (Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy)

  • SŪDGAR NASK and WARŠTMĀNSR NASK

    the first and second of three commentaries on the Old Avesta, extant in a Pahlavi resume in book nine of the Dēnkard, the third being the Bag nask.

    (Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina)

  • SUGAR

    Cultivation, manufacturing, and processing in Iran. Sugar was already known in Sasanian Persia around 460 CE.

    (Willem Floor)

  • SULEDEH

    Caspian township and former sub-province in Māzandarān province, located half a mile off the Caspian shore on the river Suledeh, which rose in the hills of Lābij/Lāvij. Suledeh was on the western border of the coastal part of Nur district.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • ŠUR

    a modal system (dastgāh ) in the traditional music in Iran.

    (Jean During)

  • SŪR SAXWAN

    (Banquet Speech), a Middle Persian text about a court banquet held in the Sasanian Empire.

    (Touraj Daryaee)

  • SUSA

    a collection of articles about a major ancient city in Iran and one of the capital cities of the Achaemenids.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • SUSA i. EXCAVATIONS

    In 1836, Major Rawlinson visited the site briefly and discovered fragments of columns, as well as an inscription by a “king of Susra.” Layard stayed in Khuzestan between 1840 and 1842. He, too, was interested in the famous “black stone” of the Tomb of Daniel, which had already disappeared before Rawlinson’s visit.

    (Hermann Gasche)

  • SUSA ii. HISTORY DURING THE ELAMITE PERIOD

    This span of almost two thousand years has been divided into three clearly defined phases called paleo-, meso-, and neo-Elamite, each of which presents peculiarities of its own.

    (François Vallat)

  • SUSA iii. THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    The history of Persia before Cyrus and at the beginning of his reign indicate that Persian elements were present in the plain not far from Susa in the first decades of the 6th century.

    (Rémy Boucharlat)

  • SUSA iv. The Hellenistic and Parthian Periods

    The town retained its importance under Alexander’s officers and successors, the Diadochs. It continued to house an extensive treasury and was a major prize in the wars they engaged in.

    (Laurianne Martinez-Sève)

  • SUSA v. THE SASANIAN PERIOD

    The satrap of Susa (Šuš) had been loyal to the Parthian king Artabanus V, and the city was forcibly conquered by Ardašir (qq.v.) in 224 after his victory over King Šād-Šāpur of Isfahan.

    (Gerd Gropp)

  • SUŠYĀNT

    See SAOŠYANT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • SUVASHUN

    The story is narrated through the eyes of Zari, a happily married woman whose behavior, as she struggles to protect her family, runs counter to that of the traditionally marginalized Persian woman. Other details are recounted through accounts of social visits and other encounters between Zari and her friends and relatives.

    (Masʿud Jaʿfari Jazi)

  • SUYĀB

    now called Ak-Beshim, the site of an important city on the Silk Road, located 60 km to the east of the city of Bishkek in Kyrgyzstan. The city was founded most probably by the Sogdians in the 6th century C.E. Located on the eastern frontier of a region culturally dominated by them, it became the point where Sogdian and local Turkish cultures were integrated with that of China. It flourished as a main center on the Silk Road in the 6th–11th centuries. Its history and culture have been revealed by a series of four archeological excavations: 1939-1940, directed by A. N. Bernshtam; 1953-1954, led by L. R. Kyzlasov; 1955-1958, under L.P. Zyablin; and 1996-1998, conducted by a joint expedition of the State Hermitage Museum and of the Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic).

    (Gregory Semenov)

  • SWEDEN

    i. Persian Art Collections, ii. Swedish Officers in Persia, 1911-15, iii. Swedish Archeological Mission to Iran, iv. Iranian Community

    (Multiple Authors)

  • SWEDEN i. PERSIAN ART COLLECTIONS

    Persian art collections in Sweden contain items from the prehistoric period (3600 BCE) to the 19th century. The first artifacts of possibly Iranian origin were brought by Vikings (or Rus), who traveled to the shores of the Caspian and there met with merchants from Iran.

    (Karin Еdahl)

  • SWEDEN ii. SWEDISH OFFICERS IN PERSIA, 1911-15

    In October 1910, increasing unrest in southern Persia led the British government to demand that the Persian central government restore order. The Persian government decided to create a highway gendarmerie with the aid of European instructors.

    (Mohammad Fazlhashemi)

  • SWEDEN iii. SWEDISH ARCHEOLOGICAL MISSIONS TO IRAN

    This article provides an overview of Swedish archeological missions to Iran from the beginning of contact between Swedish and Persian culture in the 17th century to present times.

    (Carl Nylander)

  • SWEDEN iv. Iranian Community

    1984 was a turning point for the influx of Iranians to Sweden. In that year 1,074 Iranians immigrated to Sweden. From this date the rate of Iranians moving to Sweden increased exponentially, reaching its peak in 1988 with 6,203 immigrants.

    (Hassan Hosseini-Kaladjahi and Melissa Kelly)

  • SYKES, Ella Constance

    (1863-1939), traveler and writer about Iran, sister of Percy M. Sykes.

    (Denis Wright)

  • SYKES, Percy Molesworth

    (1867-1945), Sir, soldier, diplomat, traveler, and writer who wrote extensively on Iran.

    (Denis Wright)

  • SYNGUÉ SABUR: PIERRE DE PATIENCE

    Atiq Rahimi was educated at the Franco-Afghan lycée in Kabul, and received a doctorate in audio-visual sciences from the Sorbonne. He has lived in Paris as a political refugee since 1985. Ḵāk o ḵākestar, his first novel in Persian, was published in Paris in 1996.

    (Faranguis Habibi)

  • SYRIAC LANGUAGE

    the slightly archaizing Eastern Aramaic dialect of the city of Edessa that is the most important Aramaic dialect used by Christians. Syriac served as an important contributor to the mainstream of medieval Islamic and Western European civilization.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • SYRIAC LANGUAGE i. IRANIAN LOANWORDS IN SYRIAC

    Many of the authors of Syriac literature were Persians who wrote in Syriac, either because they were Christian converts, or because they wrote about subjects that had a literary tradition in Syriac, such as medicine.

    (Claudia A. Ciancaglini)

  • SYRIAC LANGUAGE ii. SYRIAC WRITINGS ON PRE-ISLAMIC IRAN

    Among numerous chronicles in Syriac using the same information, we must distinguish between the sources that derive from the western Syrians or Jacobites, and those which originate with the eastern Syrians or Nestorians.

    (Phillipe Gignoux)

  • SYRIAC LANGUAGE iii. Syriac Translators as the Medium for Transmission of Greek Ideas to Sasanian Iran

    The high point in the history of translation from Greek to Syriac came in the seventh century, during which translations in all domains were revised.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • Sabā, Zard-e Malijeh

    (music sample)

  • Šāh-nāma

    (music sample)

  • Šahnāz

    (music sample)

  • Sanandaj – Dekr Qāderieh

    (music sample)

  • Segāh Yatim

    (music sample)

  • Šeyḵ Amiri Suite

    (music sample)

  • Šeyḵāni-Asuri

    (music sample)

  • Shaydā - az ğam-e ‘ešq-e to

    (music sample)

  • Simorğ

    (music sample)

  • Song in praise of opium

    (music sample)

  • Song of carpet-weaving

    (music sample)

  • S~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter S entries.

    (DATA)