List of Articles

  • TAʿĀROF

    an Arabic term used in Persian to define a broad complex of behaviors in Iranian life that mark and underscore differences in social status.

    (William O. Beeman)

  • ṬABAQĀT-E NĀṢERI

    an extensive general history composed in Persian by b. Serāj-al-Din Jowzjāni, who for the first part of his career lived in Ḡur under the Ghurid sultans and latterly in Muslim India under the Moʿezzi or Šamsi Delhi sultans.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ṬABARI, ABU JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD B. JARIR

    one of the most eminent Iranian scholars of the early Abbasid era, author of a celebrated commentary on the Qorʾān as well as the most important of the classical Arabic historical texts still extant.

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • ṬABĀṬABĀʾI, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    eminent Twelver Shiʿite philosopher and author of a famous exegesis of the Qur’an, al-Mizān.

    (Louis Medoff)

  • TABRIZ v. The city in the 19th century

    Tabriz surpassed Isfahan in population early in the nineteenth century to become the most populous city in Iran. The city was centrally situated relative to the three neighboring regions with which most of its trade was conducted and to which people from the province traveled: the Caucasus, eastern Anatolia, and central Iran.

    (James D. Clark)

  • TABRIZ x. MONUMENTS x(1). The Blue Mosque

    (Pers. Masjed-e kabud), also known as Masjed-e Moẓaffariya, built during the rule of the Qarā Qoyunlu dynasty (1351-1469) and completed in 1465. The extant tilework documents artistic connections with contemporary architecture in Timurid Khorasan and in the Ottoman Empire.

    (Sandra Aube)

  • TADAYYON, Sayyed Moḥammad Birjandi

    (b. Birjand, 1881; d. United States, December 1951), early 20th-century educationist and politician.

    (Hormoz Davarpanah)

  • TAḎKERA-YE NAṢRĀBĀDI

    a compilation of short biographical notices on some one thousand poets of the Safavid period.

    (Mahmoud Fotoohi)

  • TAḎKERAT al-AWLIĀʾ

    (Saints’ Lives), a hagiographic account of the sayings and miraculous deeds (karāmāts) of eminent sufis and other religious figures from the early Islamic centuries.

    (Mohammad Esteʿlami)

  • TAḎKERAT al-MOLUK

    (Memorial for kings), Persian manual from the transitional period between the collapse of the Safavid empire at the end of the reign of Shah Solṭān Ḥosayn (r. 1694-1722) and the early Afghan period in Persia.

    (M. Ismail Marcinkowski)

  • TADWIN, AL-

    a local biographical dictionary of Qazvin in Arabic compiled by ʿAbd-al-Karim Rāfeʿi Qazvini. See KETĀB AL-TADWIN.

    (K. Morimoto)

  • TAFAŻŻOLI, AḤMAD

    On his way back to Iran, Tafazzoli stayed for a few months in Paris, where he conducted research and made acquaintance with Father Jean de Menasce, a noted scholar in Iranian studies, whom he later assisted in his translation of the third book of Dēnkard.

    (Philippe Gignoux)

  • TAFT

    town and district in Yazd province.

    (EIr, based on an article submitted by Ali Modarres)

  • TAHERIDS

    (Pers. Āl-e Ṭāher), name of a prominent family of the early Abbasid period and more particularly a line of governors of Khorasan (821-73) from that family. Many of the Taherids, governors, and lesser officials, in Khorasan and in Iraq, were celebrated patrons of the arts, and adab literature is filled with anecdotes about their largesse and their appreciation of wit, wisdom, and bon mots.

    (Elton L. Daniel)

  • ṬAHMĀSP I

    (1524-1576), second ruler of the Safavid dynasty. His 52-year reign was the longest of all Safavid rulers.

    (Colin Paul Mitchell)

  • TĀJ AL-SALĀṬIN

    a book in the genre of Mirror for Princes written in Malay by Boḵāri Jawhari (fl. early 17th cent.).

    (M. Ismail Marcinkowski)

  • TĀJ-al-SALṬANA

    (1884-1936), one of the best known daughters of the Qajar king Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96), due to her memoirs (Ḵāterāt), written in 1914, which were first partially published in 1969 and whose authenticity has been disputed.

    (Afsaneh Najmabadi)

  • TAJADDOD

    (Modernity), a newspaper published as the official organ of the Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, of which a total of 202 issues appeared in Tabriz.

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • TAJIK

    i. The Ethnonym: Origins and Application. ii. Tajik Persian. iii. Colloquial Tajiki in Comparison with Persian of Iran.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • TAJIK i. THE ETHNONYM: ORIGINS AND APPLICATION

    The Tajiks are an Iranian people, speaking a variety of Persian, concentrated in the Oxus Basin, the Farḡāna valley (Tajikistan and parts of Uzbekistan) and on both banks of the upper Oxus.

    (John R. Perry)

  • TAJIK ii. TAJIK PERSIAN

    Tajiki Persian is the variety of New Persian used in Central Asia. From the 1920s it was officially fostered in the USSR as the national literary language of the Tajik SSR (since 1991, the Republic of Tajikistan). It is also spoken in parts of Uzbekistan, notably in the cities of Bukhara and Samarqand.

    (John R. Perry)

  • TAJIK iii. COLLOQUIAL TAJIKI IN COMPARISON WITH PERSIAN OF IRAN

    Fārsi of Iran (here called “Farsi” for short), Tajiki, and Dari are distinct branches of the Persian language, and within each branch a wide variety of local dialects exist.

    (Bahriddin Aliev and Aya Okawa)

  • TAJIKISTAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

    Tajikistan’s leading research institution for coordinating and conducting theoretical and applied research projects.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • TAJIKISTAN i. STATUS OF ISLAM SINCE 1917

    Tajikistan’s population, which numbered slightly more than six million in the year 2000, consists overwhelmingly of ethnic groups which have historically been Muslim.

    (Muriel Atkin)

  • TAJIKISTAN v. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS

    The alphabet change to Roman and then to Cyrillic (1928 and 1940) coupled with vernacularization of Tajik Persian, called for independent lexicography in Tajikistan.

    (Habib Borjian)

  • TAKLAMAKAN

    The Taklamakan stretches over 337,000 square kilometers in the centre of the Tarim basin. The vast depression runs nearly 1,200 km from west to east, and is 400 km wide from north to south. It forms an elliptical, semi-open basin in the Lop Nur marsh.

    (Alain Cariou)

  • TAḴT-E SOLAYMĀN

    outstanding archeological site with substantial Sasanian and Il-khanid ruins in Azerbaijan, between Bijār and Šāhin-dež, about 30 km north-northeast of Takāb, at about 2,200 m elevation, surrounded by mountain chains of more than 3000 m height, obviously chosen for its natural peculiarity; an outcrop of limestone, about 60 m above the valley, built up by the sediments of the overflowing calcinating water of a thermal spring-lake (21° C) with about 80 m diameter and more than 60 m depth on the top of the hill (Damm).

    (Dietrich Huff)

  • TAḴTI, Ḡolām-Reżā

    (b. Tehran, 20 Šahrivar 1309 Š./27 August 1930; d. Tehran, 27 Ordibehešt 1347 Š./7 June 1968), freestyle wrestling champion, and Persia’s most popular athlete of the 20th century.

    (Houchang E. Chehabi)

  • ṬĀLEB

    Poet and physician (d. 1015/1606-07). See ABU ṬĀLEB TABRIZI.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ṬĀLEB ĀMOLI

    Persian poet of the early 17th century (b. Mazandaran, ca. 1580; d. India, 1626-7).

    (Paul Losensky)

  • ṬĀLEBUF, ʿABD-AL-RAḤIM

    (1834-1911), intellectual and author of several influential works, including Ketāb-e Aḥmad. The fact that the book went through several reprints both inside and outside Iran testifies to its popularity. Its style and design made it a textbook of choice in the modern schools of Tabriz.

    (Cyrus Masroori)

  • TĀLEŠ DISTRICT

    altogether stretches north from the Safidrud, which cuts through the western Alborz mountains in western Gilān, to the the Araxes-Kura plain in the south of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

    (Marcel Bazin)

  • ṬĀLEŠ DULĀB

    one of the five traditional Ṭāleš khanates (Ḵamsa-ye Ṭavāleš) in western Gilān.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • TAʿLIM O TARBIAT

    monthly periodical published by the Ministry of Culture (April 1925-March 1927, April 1934-July 1938).

    (Nassereddin Parvin)

  • TALMUD ii. RABBINIC LITERATURE and MIDDLE PERSIAN TEXTS

    Jews and Persians had coexisted in Mesopotamia, mostly peaceably, for some 700 years by the time that the first generation of prominent Babylonian talmudic rabbis was born in the third quarter of the 2nd century.

    (Yaakov Elman)

  • TALMUD, PERSIAN ELEMENTS IN

    Persian influence on Judaism through the Babylonian Talmud (Bavli) is by no means negligible. The Bavli is full of Iranian words and motifs.

    (Jacob Neusner)

  • TAMIŠA WALL

    an at least 11-km-long Sasanian wall west of present-day Sarkālata village in Gorgān, crossing the coastal corridor at the southeast corner of the Caspian Sea.

    (Hamid Omrani Rekavandi and Eberhard W. Sauer)

  • TANG-E SARVAK

    (Gorge of the cypresses), an archeological site in eastern Ḵuzestān province, southwestern Iran. It is located in a gorge in the mountainous area approx. 50 km north of Behbahān. At an altitude of ca. 1200 m, it is only reached after a long climb.

    (Ernie Haerinck)

  • TANNING, RUBBER, AND FOOTWEAR INDUSTRIES

    Tanning was an economic activity traditionally practiced all over Iran, not only in the large towns, but also (for local consumption) in small towns and large villages, and it was practiced on a small scale by the nomads.

    (Willem Floor)

  • TAQIYA

    dissimulation; the practice, commonly regarded as distinctively Shiʿite, of hiding beliefs or rituals in times of imminent harm to one.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • TAQIYA i. In Shiʿism

    The foundations of taqiya can be traced back to certain Qurʾanic verses, perhaps the most explicit of which is Qurʾan 3:28. Taqiya holds an exceptional degree of legitimacy in Shiʿism owing to the abundant Hadith in its praise from the Imams. In Shiʿite exegesis there are several taqiya related intepretations of Qurʾanic verses.

    (Louis Medoff)

  • TAQIYA ii. AMONG BABIS AND BAHAIS

    Dissimulation of the faith was widespread among Babis and Bahais until the early years of the ministry of Shoghi Effendi (1921-57), when he, in a number of messages starting in 1927, prohibited its practice.

    (Kamran Ekbal)

  • TAQIZADEH, SAYYED ḤASAN

    (1878-1970), distinguished statesman, constitutionalist, and scholar.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • TAQIZADEH, SAYYED ḤASAN i. To the end of the Constitutional Revolution

    (1878-1970), distinguished statesman, constitutionalist, and scholar.

    (Iraj Afshar and EIr)

  • TĀRIḴ-E QOM

    (The History of Qom), an early local history (comp. 378/988) from medieval Persia by Ḥasan b. Moḥammad Qomi, which has been preserved in an early 9th/15th-century Persian translation.

    (Andreas Drechsler)

  • TĀRIḴ-E SISTĀN

    an anonymous local history in Persian of the eastern Iranian region of Sistān, the region that straddles the modern Iran-Afghanistan border. It forms a notable example of the flourishing genre of local histories in the pre-modern Iranian lands.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • ṬARZI, MAḤMUD

    (1865-1933), writer, journalist, politician, and a prominent figure in Afghanistan in the first quarter of the 20th century. Tarzi was hailed as the "father of journalism" and oversaw the bi-monthly Serāj al-aḵbār, for which he wrote most of the articles, and was a translator of Turkish, an essayist, and a poet.

    (May Schinasi)

  • TAṢNIF

    a type of vocal composition in classical Persian music.

    (Margaret Caton)

  • TAVADIA, JEHANGIR C.

    Parsi scholar of ancient Iranian languages and Zoroastrianism.

    (Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy)

  • TAVALLALI, Fereydun

    (1919-1985), noted poet and writer. His literary career paralleled the dominant social, political, and literary trends of the middle decades of 20th century Iran.

    (Kāmyār ʿĀbedi)

  • TAVERNIER, JEAN-BAPTISTE

    JEAN-BAPTISTE (1605-89), merchant, traveler, and author of Les six voyages and other works.

    (Pierre-François Burger)

  • TAʿZIA

    a term used for the Shiʿite passion play performed in Persia. It is the sole form of serious drama to have developed in the world of Islam, with the exception of contemporary theater, which was introduced to Islamic countries in the mid-19th century.

    (Peter Chelkowski)

  • TEA

    See ČĀY.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • TEDESCO, PAUL MAXIMILIAN

    (1898-1980), Austrian scholar of Indo-Iranian studies.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • TEHRAN i. A PERSIAN CITY AT THE FOOT OF THE ALBORZ

    At the northern borders of Iran’s arid central plateau, the southern foothills of the Alborz chain, which have the advantage of major precipitations, are particularly suitable for human settlements.

    (Xavier de Planhol)

  • TEHRĀNI, Ḥosayn

    (1911-1973) well-known master performer of the tonbak.

    (Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi)

  • TEKIŠ B. IL ARSLĀN

    (r. 1172-1200), ʿAlāʾ-al-Donyā wa’l-Din Abu’l-Moẓaffar, a ruler of the branch of Khwarazmshahs who descended from the Great Saljuq slave commander (ḡolām) Anuštigin Ḡarčāʾi.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • TELEGRAPH i. FIRST TELEGRAPH LINES IN PERSIA

    The initiator of introducing the electric telegraph in Persia was Mirzā Malkom Khan. In 1858 he carried out two successful telegraphic experiments for Nāṣer-al-Din Shah.

    (Soli Shahvar)

  • TENTS in Iran

    A portable dwelling characteristic of certain nomad groups. It consists of a canopy of cloth or skin supported by upright posts and anchored to the ground by means of pegs and ropes.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • TENTS i. General Survey

    The most common type of tent in Iran and Afghani­stan is the “black tent” (constructed of bands of woven goat hair stitched together), which is known from Mauritania to India.

    (Jean-Pierre Digard)

  • TENTS ii. Variety, Construction, and Use

    Both of the basic tent types used by nomads elsewhere in the Middle East are present in Iran and Afghanistan: the black, goat-hair tent and the felt tent.

    (P. A. Andrews)

  • TEPE HISSAR

    Sixteen hundred graves were recorded; of these 782 from 1932 formed the basis of the 1937 tabular presentation of burial data. Generally, bodies were buried on their sides in a flexed position in simple pits. In period II, however, rare brick cist graves appear.

    (Robert H. Dyson)

  • TEPE YAHYA

    (Tappe Yaḥyā), archeological site in the Soḡun valley, Kerman province, ca. 220 km south of Kerman and 130 km north of the Straits of Hormuz.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • TERKEN ḴĀTUN

    title of the wife of the Khwarazmshah Tekiš b. Il-Arslān (r. 1172-1200) and mother of ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad (r. 1200-20).

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • testcjb

    test only

    (EIr)

  • testcjb2

    Test Only.

    (EIr)

  • TETRADRACHM

    “four drachmas,” or stater, a denomination of silver coinage; see DIRHAM.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN IRAN

    Textile production in Iran dates back to the 10th millennium BCE. The first European-style factories in Persia were established in the 1850s and were among the first establishments in the country to use modern technology.

    (Willem Floor)

  • THAILAND-IRAN RELATIONS

    Iran’s cultural and trade relations with Southeast Asia date back far into the pre-Islamic period. With regard to the Sasanid and the early Islamic periods, the studies by Colless and Tibbetts (see bibliography) are essential. However, official diplomatic relations between the two regions, exemplified by the exchange of non-permanent missions rather than by permanent extraterritorial embassies, become traceable only during the Safavid period (1501-1722).

    (M. Ismail Marcinkowski)

  • THEOPHYLACT SIMOCATTA

    Greek historian and author of Histories, a work mainly concerned with late sixth-century Byzantine warfare in the Balkans and against Persia.

    (Michael Whitby)

  • TIGER

    See BABR.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • TIGRAN II

    THE GREAT, king of Armenia (r. 95-55 BCE), the most distinguished member of the so-called Artašēsid/Artaxiad dynasty.

    (Nina Garsoïan)

  • TIGRIS RIVER

    major river arising in the Taurus mountains of eastern Turkey, fed mainly by snow melt, which flows about 2,032 km through eastern Turkey and Iraq to the Persian Gulf.

    (Daniel T. Potts)

  • TILLA BULAK

    The site’s stratigraphy is marked by two main building horizons, of which the earlier one was destroyed in a conflagration that apparently engulfed the entire hamlet. From rooms of this phase, complete household inventories have been recovered which will be of enormous help in understanding the rural economic system.

    (Kai Kaniuth)

  • TIŠTRYA

    (Pahl. Tištar, NPers. Teštar), an important Old Iranian astral divine being (yazata-), to whom the eighth hymn (Tištar Yašt) of the Later Avestan corpus was dedicated (Panaino, 1990).

    (Antonio Panaino)

  • TOBACCO

    Modes of use, cultivation, and cultural connotations of Tobacco in Iran. Persian sources imply that the use of tobacco was already known in Persia before its introduction into Europe in the 1550s.

    (Willem Floor)

  • TOCHARIAN LANGUAGE

    the conventional name for two closely related Indo-European languages that were spoken in northwest China, in the north of the Tarim Basin in present-day Xīnjiāng.

    (Michaël Peyrot)

  • TOḠA TIMUR

    (1336-1353), the last of the Mongol Il-Khans of Iran.

    (Peter Jackson)

  • TOḤFAT AL-AḤBĀB

    (Gift for friends), a Persian dictionary of the early Safavid period, compiled by Ḥāfeẓ Solṭān-ʿAli Owbahi Heravi in 936/1529-30.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • TOḤFAT AL-SAʿĀDA

    An early 16th-century Persian dictionary of 14,000 entries by Maḥmud b. Shaikh Żiāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad, a poet of northern India.

    (Solomon Bayevsky)

  • TONB ISLANDS

    (GREATER and LESSER), two tiny islands of arguable strategic importance in the eastern Persian Gulf, south of the western tip of Qešm island.

    (Guive Mirfendereski)

  • TOPKAPI PALACE

    and its Persian holdings. The Topkapı Palace, which was known as the Yeni Saray (New Palace) until the 19th century, served the Ottoman sultans for almost 380 years as the imperial residence and center of command.

    (Zeren Tanındı)

  • TORTURE IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Torture is here taken as defined in the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), Art. 1.1.

    (Bruno Jacobs)

  • TOWFIQ (TAWFIQ) NEWSPAPER

    a satirical and political weekly newspaper published intermittently in Tehran between 1923 and 1971.

    (Hasan Javadi)

  • TOYUL

    one of the terms for “land grant.” See EQṬĀʿ.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • TRAGACANTH

    For gum tragacanth, see KATIRĀ.

    (Cross-reference)

  • TRAJAN

    Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Roman emperor (98-117 CE), born probably in 53 CE, and died in early August 117. During his reign, the Imperium Romanum stretched to its widest extent, but only for a short period.

    (Erich Kettenhofen)

  • TREE

    See DERAḴT.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • TRIBE

    For the Persian terms used and an overview of tribal groups, see ʿAŠĀYER.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • ṬUBĀ VA MAʿNĀ-YE ŠAB

    novel (1987) by Shahrnush Parsipur, fiction writer and essayist, generally regarded as one the first instances of magical realism in modern Iran. The novel’s creative use of magical realism is colored by a distinctly mystical tone and has borrowed much of its flavor from Iran’s Illuminationist Philosophy.

    (Houra Yavari)

  • TUMANSKIǏ, Aleksandr Grigor’evich

    (1861-1920), Russian orientalist, major-general of the Russian Imperial Army. He belonged to an ancient aristocratic family which had originated from the Great Duchy of Lithuania.

    (Jahangir Dorri)

  • TUP

    (tr. by Fariydoun Farrokh as The Cannon, Washington D. C., 2009), the first full-length novel by Gholam-Hosayn Sa’edi.

    (F. Farrokh)

  • ṬURĀN

    (ṬOVARĀN), the mediaeval Islamic name for the mountainous district of east-central Baluchistan lying to the north of the mediaeval coastal region of Makrān, what was in recent centuries, until 1947, the Aḥmadzay Khanate of Kalat.

    (C. Edmund Bosworth)

  • TURFAN EXPEDITIONS

    Turfan (also Uigur Turpan, Chin. Tulufan) in Xinjiang (Chinese Turkestan) is the largest oasis (ca. 170 square kilometers) on the ancient northern Silk Road.

    (Werner Sundermann)

  • TURKEY

    See BŪQALAMŪN.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • TURKIC LANGUAGES OF PERSIA: AN OVERVIEW

    Only in few other regions (Caucasus and Southern Siberia) one can find a nearly comparable diversity of Turkic languages as in Persia. The number of their speakers varies from several thousands to several millions.

    (Michael Knüppel)

  • TURKIC LOANWORDS IN PERSIAN

    Turkic-Iranian language contacts, as well as reciprocal loaning/borrowing of words, go back to the era of the Old Turkic language.

    (Michael Knüppel)

  • TURKIC-IRANIAN CONTACTS i. LINGUISTIC CONTACTS

    Speakers of Iranian and Turkic languages have been in contact since pre-Islamic times, notably along the Inner Asian commercial corridors known collectively as the Silk Road.

    (John R. Perry)

  • TURKIC-IRANIAN CONTACTS ii. CHAGHATAY

    Chaghatay has been strongly influenced by Islamic prestige languages, especially Persian and Arabic, in all segments: phonetics, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, and cultural content. In the hands of the educated elite it became a tool wielded impressively.

    (András Bodrogligeti)

  • TURKMENS OF PERSIA ii. LANGUAGE

    Geographical location and the “tribal affiliation” of the speakers form the background of the dialectal variety. The dialects of Turkmen are spoken in their respective areas, where the members of the corresponding “tribes” live.

    (Michael Knüppel)

  • TURKO-SOGDIAN COINAGE

    issues of the khaqans (ḵāqāns) of the Western Turkic khanate in Central Asia between the 6th and 8th centuries CE, so called because the Turkic rulers issued them with Sogdian inscriptions.

    (Larissa Baratova)

  • TURNIP

    a biennial shrub of the Cruciferae family with edible fleshy thick root, hairy rosette leaves, grape inflorescence and siliques fruits.

    (Shamameh Mohammadifar)

  • ṬUSI, NAṢIR-AL-DIN

    (1201-74), celebrated polymath and vizier, whose significant works in literary, theological and scientific disciplines later earned him the title of Moʿallem-al-ṯāleṯ.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • TUSI, NAṢIR-AL-DIN i. BIOGRAPHY

    (1201-74), celebrated polymath and vizier, whose significant works in literary, theological and scientific disciplines later earned him the title of Moʿallem-al-ṯāleṯ.

    (George E. Lane)

  • ṬUSI, NAṢIR-AL-DIN ii. AS MATHEMATICIAN AND ASTRONOMER

    Naṣir-al-Din Ṭusi (1201-74) wrote works on subjects ranging from arithmetic to geometry, and to mathematical geography and spherical trigonometry, to astronomy proper as well as to astrological science and optics and trigonometry.

    (George Saliba)

  • Tajnis

    (music sample)

  • Tarz-e Yari

    (music sample)

  • Tasnif (balākeš) – Dastgāh šur

    (music sample)

  • Tasnif-e Mobtalā

    (music sample)

  • Ta‘zia of Qazvin

    (music sample)

  • Tork čašmaš ar jānam fetne karde rāst

    (music sample)

  • T~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    list of all the figure and plate images in the T entries

    (DATA)