List of Articles

  • XANTHUS THE LYDIAN

    Greek historiographer, son of a certain Kandaules, probably born in Sardis, and a Hellenized Lydian.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • XENOPHON

    (ca. 430-353 BCE), Greek historian and essayist from Athens, who served among the Greek mercenaries of Cyrus the Younger.

    (Christopher J. Tuplin)

  • XERXES

    name of two Achaemenid rulers and of some later princes.

    (Multiple Authors)

  • XERXES i. The Name

    the common Greek (Xérxēs) and Latin form (Xerxes, Xerses) of the Achaemenid throne-name which in Old Persian is spelled x-š-y-a-r-š-a.

    (Rüdiger Schmitt)

  • XIONGNU

    (Hsiung-nu), the great nomadic empire to the north of China in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, which extended to Iranian-speaking Central Asia and perhaps gave rise to the Huns of the Central Asian Iranian sources.

    (Étienne de la Vaissière)

  • XRAFSTAR

    (Avestan xrafstra-) “evil animals” in Zoroastrianism. See MAMMALS iii. The Classification of Mammals and the Other Animal Classes according to Zoroastrian Tradition.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • XVADĀHOY

    founder of a monastery in Beth Ḥāle in the Ḥira region, following the line of Abraham of Kaškar’s reform, which exerted a great influence throughout the area (7th century CE).

    (Florence Jullien)

  • XᵛĀRƎNAH

    Avestan term (Mid. Pers. xwarrah), conventionally “glory.” See FARR[AH].

    (Cross-Reference)

  • XWADĀY-NĀMAG

    ‘Book of lords,” title of a Sasanian-period national history. See HISTORIOGRAPHY ii. Pre-Islamic Period.

    (Cross-Reference)

  • XWĒŠKĀRĪH Ī RĒDAGĀN

    (The duty of children), a Pahlavi manual for Zoroastrian children regarding correct behavior.

    (Mahnaz Moazami)

  • X~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    There are no figures or plates in letter X entries at this time.

    (DATA)