ḴAZINADĀR

ḴAZINADĀR (or ḵezānadār; also ḵāzen, pl. ḵozzān), title of the royal treasurer since the early Islamic period. The title Moʾnes-al-Ḵāzen, mentioned in the early 10th century as that of an associate of the ʿAbbasid vizier Ebn al-Forāt, may actually refer to the royal treasurer (Sourdel, II, pp. 387-88, 742). As in pre-Islamic period (see GANZABARA), the term could also refer to lower menial court personnel such as ḵozzān al-faraš “keepers of bedding storage” and ḵāzen al-šamʿ “keeper of the candle supply” (Helāl b. Ṣābeʾ, p. 23).

Under the Buyids the royal treasurer was known as the ṣāḥeb divān al-ḵazāʾen (Burgel, p. 11). The terms ḵazinadār, ḵezānadār or ḵāzen were used in Persia throughout its Islamic history from the Ghaznavid period to the Qajars (Bayhaqi, p. 267; Horst, p. 23; Naḵjavāni, I, pp. 296-99, 368, I/2, pp. 140, 238, 409-10, II, pp. 34, 75, 77, 83, 88, 97, 128-29, 458; Nabipour, pp. 35a, 43b, 68a, 68b, 70a; Woods, p. 11). Towards the end of the Safavid dynasty, the head of the treasury was referred to as ḵezānadār-bāši (Āṣaf, p. 100; Tavernier, p. 220). Under the Il-khanid and Timurid officials known as ḵezānači are mentioned, of whom there were more than one, who were in charge of keeping gold, silver, and other precious objects, but it is not known what their function was and what treasure they were in charge of (Waṣṣāf, pp. 47, 207, 578; Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh. III, pp. 392, 538-39; Manz, pp. 170-71).

The function of the royal treasurer remained rather unchanged throughout the Islamic period. He was in charge of the ḵezāna, that is the storehouse where the ruler’s precious possessions were kept. Under the Saljuqs the term also was synonymous with māl-e ḵezāna or treasury taxes (Horst, p. 79). The state treasury was known as ḵezāna-ye ʿāmera under the Il-khanids, which term continued to be used to the end of the Qajar period (Nabipour, pp. 35a, 43b, 68a, 68b, 70a; Mirḵᵛānd, VII, p. 107; Mirzā Rafiʿā, pp. 44-46; Mervi, index, s.v.; Qāʾem-maqām, 1978, II, pp. 132, 302; idem, 1979, pp. 139, 205, 210).

Gold and silver (coined, wrought or bullion) were kept in the treasury, as well as all kinds of other precious and valuable pieces, such as precious stones, jewelry, furs, carpets, robes, weapons, horse tack, royal banners, and kettle drums (Bayhaqi, p. 267; Horst, p. 23; Afšutaʾi, p. 128; Wāleh, 1938, p. 212; Idem, 2001, p. 209; Fraser, p. 77; Momtaḥen-al-Dawla, pp. 169-70). Costly manuscripts also were usually part of the royal treasury (Neẓām-al-Molk, p. 4; Horst, pp. 11, 164; Mostawfi, I, pp. 391-92; Eʿtemād-al-Salṭana, Sāl-nāma, in idem, 1942, V, Appendix, p. 25).

The treasurer kept records of what entered and left the treasury (Bayhaqi, p. 267; Horst, p. 23; Raḥimlu, p. 69; Mirzā Samiʿā, p. 65; Wāleh, 1938, pp. 207, 283). Under the Safavids, the treasurer were always one of the eunuchs in the royal service (Jawhar, tr., p. 74; Mirzā Rafiʿā, pp. 44-46; Wāleh, 1938, p. 283; Olearius, p. 672; Du Mans II, pp. 14, 266; Floor, 1998a, p. 36; Floor and Faghfoory, pp. 184-85; Gemelli Carreri, II, p. 221). The treasurer was assisted by a staff of ḵazinadārs, supervisors (mošref), scribes (dabir) and porters (ḥammāl) as well as, in Safavid times, of ʿazabs, key-keepers (keliddār), and ṣarrāfs (Bayhaqi, pp. 220, 259; Horst, p. 23; Naḵjavāni, I, pp. 296-99, 368; Wāleh, 2001, p. 446; Astarābādi, p. 129; Mirzā Rafiʿā, pp. 44-46; Mirzā Samiʿā, pp. 56, 93, 95; Du Mans, II, p. 267). Magnates as well as large pious endowments (waqf) also had treasurers (Bayhaqi, p. 147; Qalqašandi, III, p. 475; Mojmal al-tawāriḵ 408; Puturidze, doc. 49, Fraser, p. 77; cf. ḵāzen-e ḵānaqāh, in Minovi and Afšār, eds., pp. 137, 139, 147, 149, 158, 221-22, 225).

There seems to have been two types of royal treasuries since the 10th century, if not earlier. The ḵezāna-ye ḵāṣṣ of the Saljuqs probably is an early example of one (Horst, p. 23). Neẓām-al-Molk reports: “Kings have always had two treasuries, the capital treasury [ḵezāna-ye aṣl] and the expenses treasury [ḵezāna-ye ḵarj]” (Neẓām-al-Molk, p. 323; tr. p. 246]. This two-fold division also became a physical one under the Safavids when the Shah’s treasury (gold, silver, and crown jewels) was kept in the harem Mirzā Rafiʿā, pp. 44-46; Wāleh, 1938, p. 283; Olearius, p. 672; Du Mans, pp. 14, 266; Floor, 1998a, p. 36; Gemelli Carreri, II, p. 221). Under the Qajars, there the royal treasury (ḵezāna-ye andarun) was kept at the royal harem and directly managed by the shah himself and one of his trusted wives; by the end of the 19th century it became the Wezārat-e ḵezāna-ye ʿāmera. The other treasury (ḵezāna-ye mālia) comprised the department of revenues (ʿāyedāt) and back (baqāyā) taxes and other government sources of income. The mint was also part of the treasury as was the trunk office (ṣandoq-ḵāna) under an official called ḵāzen-al-molk, ḵāzen-al-mamālek, or ganjvar. Starting in 1880, the treasury, which collected taxes, became known as the Wezārat-e ḵezāna or Wezārat-e mālia and the treasurer as vizier (Mostawfi, I, pp. 391-93).

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(Willem Floor)

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