KALILA WA DEMNA

KALILA WA DEMNA, a collection of didactic animal fables, with the jackals Kalila and Demna as two of the principal characters. The story cycle originated in India between 500 BCE and 100 BC, and circulated widely in the Near East. The fables were translated into many languages, undergoing significant changes in both form and content. The Sanskrit original and several significant early translations have not survived. In Sanskrit literature the story cycle is known as Pañcatantra, while it was often called Fables of Bidpai in early modern Europe.

i. Redactions and circulation

ii. The translation by Abu’l-Maʿāli Naṣr-Allāh Monši

iii. Illustrations

(Multiple Authors)

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