SHAHRYAR, MOHAMMAD HOSAYN

SHAHRYAR, MOHAMMAD HOSAYN (Moḥammad Ḥosayn Behjat Tabrizi; b. Tabriz, Šahrivar 1285 Š./August 1906; d. Tehran, 27 Šahrivar 1367 Š./18 September 1988), outstanding, prolific contemporary poet (Figure 1, Figure 2).

LIFE

Shahryar was the son of Sayyed Esmāʾil, known as Mir Āqā (d. 1934), a calligrapher and erudite man (Zāhedi, p. 37). His childhood years coincided with the social and political unrest of the Constitutional Revolution that had prompted the family to relocate to rural areas as a preemptive security measure. Thus, Shahryar’s education began at a maktab (see EDUCATION iii. THE TRADITIONAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS) and then continued at the Ṭālebiyeh School in Tabriz. He also studied Arabic literature, and French with a private tutor. His school years in Tabriz brought him into contact with friends, classmates, and teachers, many of whom went on to become scholars and poets of note: Yaḥyā Āryanpur, Gholam-‘Ali Ra’di Azarakhshi, Reżā Ganjaʾi, Sayyed Moḥammad Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʾi, the celebrated cleric philosopher, and Esmāʿil Amir Ḵizi, the poet and political activist who was his teacher (ʿAlizādeh, 2000, p. 7).

In February 1920 Shahryar relocated to Tehran. He completed his education at Dār-al-fonun in 1924 and, following his father’s advice, enrolled at the School of Medicine (Madraseh-ye ʿāli-e ṭebb; see Faculty of Medicine; ʿAlizādeh, 1995, p. 3). In Tehran he made close acquaintance with the musician Abu’l-Ḥasan Ṣabā and the young poet Amiri Firuzkuhi. His elegiac mathnavi (rhymed couplets) in memory of the noted singer, Parvāneh (“Ruḥ-e Parvāneh,” Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 451-59), and his ghazal in praise of the pioneering singer Qamar-al-Moluk Vaziri, whose first name means “moon” in Arabic, earned him instant recognition:

Az kuri-e čašm-e falak emšab Qamar injāst
Āri Qamar emšab, be ḵodā, tā saḥar injāst
(“Yek šab bā Qamar,” Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 190-91)

Spitting in heaven's eye, tonight is the ‘moon’ here
Yes, by God, tonight till dawn, the ‘moon’ is here

His first poetry collection, entitled Divān-e Šahryār was published in Tehran in 1931, with introductions by such celebrated poets and scholars as Saʿid Nafisi, Ḥosayn Pežmān-e Baḵtiāri, as well as Malek-al-Šoʿarāʾ Bahār, who praised his eloquent language, and his innovative and well crafted imagery (Bahār, “Introduction” to the collection; see also ʿAlizādeh, 1995, pp. 588-89). The collection included some of Shahryar’s most celebrated ghazals, strongly tinted by the reverberations of his ill-fated love for a girl whose parents disallowed their marriage and instead married her off to another man (for details, see ʿAli-Aṣḡarpur, pp. 210-27). Emotionally distraught, Shahryar left the School of Medicine in his final year in 1929 and never resumed his medical education (Eḥtešāmi, pp. 48-147).

In 1931, Shahryar began work at the State Office for the Registration of Deeds and Properties, and he was commissioned to Nishapur the following year, where he met the painter Kamāl-al-Molk and praised him in a long poem, entitled “Ziārat-e Kamāl-al-Molk” (Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 443-51). During his stay in Nishapur, Shahryar was a valued presence in literary circles and was among those who participated in Ferdowsi’s millennial celebration (“Yādgār-e jašn-e Ferdowsi,” Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 725-28; see also Purṣadri, p. 323). A year after his father’s death in 1934, Shahryar returned to Tehran and was employed by the Ministry of Health as an inspector. He was later transferred to the Bank of Agriculture (see BANKING), where he worked as an accountant. His poems in glorification of Iran’s national unity during the ascendancy of the Democrat Party of Azerbaijan (e.g. “Be pišgāh-e Āḏarbāijān-e ʿazizam”; “Ideāl-e melli’, Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 340-45, and 335-36, respectively), earned him an exemption from showing up in the bank by the order of ʿAli Manṣur (Manṣur al-Molk), the then prime minister of Iran (ʿAlizādeh, 1995, p. 5).

Following his mother’s death in 1953, Shahryar retuned to Tabriz and continued to live there for the rest of his life. In Tabriz he married ʿAzizeh ʿAbd-al-Ḵāleqi, a distant relative and a primary school teacher. They had three children: Šahrzād, Maryam, and Hādi. He retired from the bank in 1965. In appreciation of his achievements as a poet, Tabriz University awarded him an honorary professorship in 1967, and the day 16 of the month Esfand was announced as “Ruz-e Šahryar” in the cultural calendar of the province (Āryanpur, p. 511; Figure 3). Shahryar was a competent calligrapher and wrote his own copy of the Qorʾan. He had a keen interest in music, had many friends among musicians, and, for a time, used to play the tār and the setār (Sepantā, pp. 27-32).

Following a period of hospitalization in Tabriz, Shahryar was transferred to a hospital in Tehran, where he died on 18 September 1988. He was buried in the Poets’ Graveyard (Maqbarat-al-Šoʿarāʾ) of Tabriz, where Ḵāqāni Šervāni is also interred (Figure 4). His house was transformed into a museum.

POETRY

Shahryar’s passion for poetry was recognized at an early age. While still in high school in Tabriz, his first poems appeared at Adab, the school’s journal, under the pen name Behjat. Although his verse has taken diverse forms throughout his life, he composed some of his most appreciated poems in the traditional genre of ghazal:

Nālad be ḥāl-e zār-e man emšab setār-e man
Ān māyeh-ye tasalli-e šabhā-ye tār-e man
(“Setār-e man,” Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 219-20)

My setar weeps for my sorrows tonight
That source of solace in my dark and dismal nights

Emšab ey māh be dard-e del-e man taskini
Āḵer ey māh tow hamdard-e man-e meskini
Kāheš-e jān-e tow man dānam o man midānam
Ke tow az duri-e Ḵoršid čehā mibini
(“Ney-e maḥzun,” Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, p. 182)

Oh moon, you comfort my aching heart tonight
After all, oh moon, in my anguish you share
The slow waning of your life, I know, and only I know
How, in separation from the sun, you suffer

Shahryar’s lyrical poems that earned him the applause of such poets as ʿĀref Qazvini (see Šahr-e šʿer-e Āref, Moḥammad ʿAli Sepānlu, 1996, pp. 242-43), among many others, could be roughly divided into three broad categories of religious, panegyric, and love poems, although the lines between the three is often blurred (Purṣadri, p. 327). His poetical sensibilities, combined with his understanding of Persian music, is echoed in his skillful employment of internal rhyme and alliteration, which, by extension, has made his ghazals rewarding choices for some of the great composers and vocalists of his time. “Ḥālā čerā” (Why so late), one of his love poems in which letter “ā” is repeated in various arrangements, was set to music by Ruḥ-Allāh Ḵāleqi, and sung by Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Banān, the renowned singer, who paid careful attention to his choice of lyrics:

Āmadi jānam be qorbānat vali ḥālā čerā
Bi-vafā ḥālā ke man oftādeh-am az pā čerā
Nušdāruʾi o baʿd az marg-e Sohrāb āmadi
Sang-del in zudtar miḵˇāsti ḥālā čerā
(“Ḥālā čerā,” Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, p. 163)

You have come at last, my dearest, but why so late?
Oh faithless, now that I have so fallen, why so late?
A panacea, and you have arrived after Sohrab’s death
Oh stone-hearted, you might have come sooner, why so late

Shahryar’s poetry is characterized by his skillful placing of non-literary words in his poems, bringing the genre of ghazal close to unadorned colloquial idiom and slang language (Šāmlu, p. 8; Yusofi, p. 626; see Abu’l-Fażl Moḥammadi, Farhang-e eṣṭelāḥāt-e ʿāmiāneh dar šeʿr-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1992). His intimate, idiomatic mode of expression and almost conversational tone initiates a new trend in the Persian ghazal and enriches the genre’s lexical repertoire by drawing on popular culture and expressions (Behbahāni, p. 83; Mortażavi, p. 624). The sincerity of his language makes his poems readily comprehensible by a broad segment of the public.

Although his effortless use of slang and colloquial language has contributed to the appearance of some grammatical or lexical lapses in his poetry, he is generally admired for the elegance of his language, and his fame has surpassed almost all the poets of his time (Zarrinkub, p. 153).

Shahryar’s familiarity with music, along with his fascination with the musical harmony and the intricate aesthetics of the poetry of Hafez is well manifested in his conscious attempts to employ phonetic patterning, particularly consonance and assonance, not too often stipulated as stylistic objectives in modern poetry (Šafiʿi-Kadkani, p. 475).

As noted by other critics, however, Shahryar’s ghazals occasionally betray his attempts to imitate the lyrical mood and typical expressions of the classical lyricists and often fail to conjure up the elegant language of a poet like Saʿdi, or the resourceful ambiguity by which the lyrics of a poet like Hafez is recognized and appreciated (Yusofi, pp. 636-37).

Shahryar’s poems in rhymed couplets (mathnavi), most noted among them “Afsāneh-ye šab” (The tale of night) in 1,624 lines (Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 574-625), has further earned him popular recognition and critical eminence. The poem consists of 40 sections, which follow the same meter. In 1946 Shahryar recited an unpublished section of the poem, subtitled “Nāmzad-bāzi-e rustāʾi” (The rural love affair) at the First Iranian Writers Congress, sponsored by the Perso-Soviet Society of Cultural Relations (Anjoman-e ravābeṭ-e farhangi-e Iran va Etteḥād-e Jamāhir-e Šowravi). It was met with high acclaim and earned a special mention by Eḥsān Ṭabari, who praised the poem’s modern outlook and thematic novelty (Šams-e Langarudi, I, p. 305).

“Taḵt-e Jamšid,” a poem related to “Afsāneh-ye šab” in 571 lines (Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 626-54), also in the genre of mathnavi, sets forth in an emotional and archaic language a glimpse into the turbulent history of Persepolis. Although his early poems were mostly composed in classical meters, he also experimented with the modernist trends in literature:

Gāh bā sāz-e ḡazal Ḥāfez be Širāzam barad
Gāh bā Afsāneh-aš Nimā be Yuš ārad marā
(Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, p. 156)

There are times that Hafez leads me to Shiraz with the song of his ghazals
And times that Nima takes me to Yush with his Afsaneh)

Influenced by Nimā’s Afsāneh, he composed such poems as “Do morḡ-e behest (Two birds of Paradise), and “Haḏyān-e del (Delirium of the heart; Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 502-16 and 553-67, respectively; see also Nāderpur, p. 40; Nuriʿalāʾ, p. 150). These poems, although modern in both vision and language, stay within the confines of the classical genre of mosammaṭ (stanzaic verse), which was used by Nimā in Afsāneh. Regarded by Shahryar as the Persian original of Ḥeydar Bābā-ye salām, his most noted poem in Azeri Turkish (Tabriz, 1953; see below), “Haḏyān-e del” earned the praise of Nimā for its romantic mood and novel imagery (Nimā Yušij, p. 26). After the 1950s, however, Shahryar composed several poems in free verse, including “Ey vāy mādaram” (pp. 516-19), “Payām be Anštan” (pp. 122-24), and “Mumiāʾi” (pp. 541-48; Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967). In these poems, hemistiches do not contain the same number of syllables, and the rhymes do not follow a regular pattern. Nevertheless, Shahryar considered the free verse as being only modestly different from baḥr-e ṭawil, a genre of Persian poetry in which the same foot is repeated throughout (Shahryar, “Introduction,” Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 50-55)

Shahryar speaks of his notion of poetry as a medium to express love and passion in various contexts, including the epilogues of his poetry collections and interviews. His conviction that poetry should epitomize the poet’s affections and moods (Aḵavān-e Ṯāleṯ, 2003, p. 176) is well manifested in his turning the rhythms and language of everyday speech into a medium for rendering a wide range of emotions. Quite a number of his ghazals and most of his qeṭʿas (topical verse) seem to have been composed as his spontaneous reflection on incidents he had witnessed and are marked by his insertion of references to actual circumstances (šeʿr-e voquʿ; Kāviān, I, pp. 131-45). Throughout the years, Shahryar’s poetry inched closer and closer toward mysticism, and was increasingly colored by his religious convictions (ʿAlizādeh 2000, p. 76; Sepantā, pp. 27-32). He composed highly passionate and extremely popular poems in praise of ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb, the first Shiʿite Imam:

ʿAli ey homā-ye raḥmat, tow če āyati, ḵodā rā
Ke be māsevā fekandi hameh sāyeh-ye ḵodā rā
(“Monājāt,” Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, p. 76)

Ali, oh angel of mercy, which verse are you from God,
that have cast the shadow of God upon all but God

Shahryar, in contrast to many of his contemporaries, demonstrated little engagement with political issues and ideologies (Aḵavān-e Ṯāleṯ, 1990, pp. 10-20), and praised political figures diametrically different in their political stance or religious conviction (e.g., “Dāḡ-e Amir” and “Sorud-e istgāh o dorud-e šāhanšāh”; Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 300-302 and 274-77, respectively; see also Divān-e Šahryār [Congreh-ye bozorgdāšt-e Šahryār] IV, 1992, Tehran, pp. 269-313; Aḵavān-e Ṯāleṯ, 1990. pp. 10-20). He was, however, a man of intense nationalistic sensitivity. Imageries in praise of Persepolis, Zoroaster, and Ferdowsi are recurring motifs in his poetry (e.g “Šivan-e Šahrivar,” and Taḵt-e Jamšid,” Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 569-70 and 627-54, respectively; see also Enqelāb dar šeʿr-e Šahryār (Tehran, 1982); Naḡmehā-ye ḳun (Tabriz, 1984); and Šahryār o enqelāb-e Eslāmi (Tehran, 1993), all edited by Aṣḡar Fardi.

Ḥeydar Bābā-ye salām (Tabriz, 1953), a long poem in two parts addressed to Ḥeydar Bābā, a mountain near Tabriz, is Shahryar’s most acclaimed poem in his mother tongue, a colloquial Azeri Turkish idiom. The poem was first published in 1951 in Erādeh-ye Āḏarbāijān, a journal founded by Raḥim Zehtāb-e Fard, who was noted for his vigorous opposition to the dominance of the Democrat Party in Azerbaijan. Ḥeydar Bābā-ye salām, in which Shahryar reflects on and speaks about his years of childhood spent near this mountain, quickly became famous, not only in Azerbaijan but across the rest of the Turkic world (Ergin, p. 293). Shahryar “turned the Azeri Turkish into a masterful literary language.” (Javadi and Burrill, p. 254; see also Barāheni, 1995b, p. 358)

Written in a lively, stanzaic form, Ḥeydar Bābā-ye salām contains a wealth of local tales, songs, proverbs, sayings, aphorisms, references to festive and funeral rites, historical and religious beliefs, and food and clothing, as well as descriptions of nature (Kārang, p. 25). Ḥeydar Bābā-ye salām is written in two parts (Tabriz, 1954, 1966) and consists of 76 segments, each of five hemistiches with eleven syllables. The first three hemistiches end in the same rhyme, while the other two are rhymed differently. The prosodic meter of this poem is well known in Azerbaijan and frequently used in the composition of love songs (Āryanpur, p. 516). The widespread success of the poem is mainly due to its folkloric charm and pleasant popular language (Mortażavi, “Introduction,” Ḥeydar Bābā-ye salām, p. ḥ). As contended by Mohammad-Ali Jamalzadeh, Shahryar’s Azeri poems have also contributed considerably to the flourishing of Persian language beyond the boundaries of Iran, as far as the Republic of Azerbaijan and Turkey (ʿAlizādeh, 1995a, pp. 12, 31). Ḥeydar Bābā-ye salām has earned the immense affection of the both Turkic and Persian speakers. It has been translated into many languages and has been adapted into a few plays (for a Persian translation of the poem see, Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1967, pp. 655-76). The text, as commented by Shahryar himself, is his adaptation of the two translations of the poem into Persian by Pari Jahānšāhi and Nāhid Hādi (Figure 5). The poem is also available in Persian translation by Ḥosayn Monzavi (Tehran, 1990), Moḥammad ʿAli Sajjādieh (Tehran, 1991), Mir Ṣāleḥ H̱osayni (Germany, 1993), Bahman Forsi (London, 1993), Karim Mašruṭehči (Tehran, 1994), Behruz Ṯervatiān (Tehran, 1995), and Fereydun Nowbahār (Tehran, 2005).

Shahryar’s “Sahandieh,” is his patriotic response to a versified letter by Bolud Qaračorli Sahand (1926-1979), another poet from Azerbaijan, who denigrates Shahryar for rendering his poems in Persian, rather than Azeri Turkish. Sahandieh begins by Shahryar’s romanticized depiction of Sahand Mountain and ends with his portrayal of himself as a poet who narrates the sufferings of his birthplace in Persian language.

Shahryar has been regarded as “amongst the very last guardians of classical poetry (Mortażavi, p. 634), and “a remarkable finale to the long tradition of classical Persian poetry, (Barāheni, 1995a, p. 74). He has also earned the praise of a literary scholar as the most noted representative of the short-lived Persian romanticism, whose poems are romantic and lyrical in imagery and tone, and are often composed in intense moments of epiphany (Šafiʿi-Kadkani, p. 472-74; see also Jaʿfari Jazi, p. 195). Shahryar’s poetry has influenced many of his traditionalist and neo-traditionalists contemporary poets, noted among them Fereydun Moshiri, Nader Naderpur, and above all, Hušang Ebtehāj (Sāyeh), who has praised Shahryar in several poems, including in “Be Šahryār,” a poem he has dedicated to Shahryar following the death of Nimā Yušij (ʿĀbedi, pp. 36-45; Bāstāni-e Pārizi, p. 253; Figure 6, Figure 7)

Bā man-e bi-kas-e tanhā šodeh, yārā tow bemān
Hameh raftand az in ḵāneh, Ḵodā rā tow bemān
Man-e bi-barg-e ḵazān-dideh degar raftaniyam
Tow hameh bār o bari, tazeh Bahārā tow bemān
(“Baʿd az Nimā,” Kāmyār ʿĀbedi, Dar zolāl-e šeʿr: zendegi o šeʿr-e H. E. Sāyeh, Tehran, 2007, pp. 202-3)

Now that I am forlorn and alone, dear companion, you stay
All have forsaken this house, by God, you stay
Me, the leafless autumn tree, shall soon depart
You, so full of bound and promise, fresh as spring, you stay

For a music sample, see Hālā čerā?

For a music sample, see Heydar Bābā.

Bibliography:

Shahryar’s poems have been compiled into a number of collections, including the following.

Divān-e Šahryār, Tehran, 1931 (Introductions by Bahār, and Pežmān-e Baḵtiyāri).

Divān-e Šahryār I (Ḡazaliyāt, Qaṭaʿāt, Robāʿiyāt), with an introduction by ʿAli Zohari), Tehran, 1949 (supplement to Šāhed periodical).

Divān-e Šahryār II (Mathnavihā, Qaṣidehā, etc.), Tehran, 1949.

Divān-e Šahryār III (Maktab-e Šahryār), Tehran, 1956.

Divān-e Šahryār IV (Afsāneh-ye šab and several unpublished works), Tehran, 1957.

Enqelāb dar šeʿr-e Šahryār, ed. Aṣḡar Fardi, Tehran, 1982.

Ḥeydar Bābā-ye salām (Introductions by Mehdi Rowšanżamir, ʿAbd-alʿAli Kārang, and Šahryār), Tabriz, 1963.

Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, 4 vols., Tabriz, 1967-70 (Figure 8).

Naḡma-hā-ye ḳun, ed. Aṣḡar Fardi, Tabriz, 1984.

Ruḥ-e Parvāneh, Tehran, 1929 or 1931.

Šahryār o enqelāb-e Eslāmi, ed. Aṣḡar Fardi, Tehran, 1993.

Sources.

Kāmyār ʿĀbedi, Dar zolāl-e šeʿr: zendegi o šeʿr-e H. E. Sāyeh, Tehran, 2007, pp. 202-3.

Mehdi Aḵavān-e Ṯāleṯ, Badāyeʿ va bedʿathā-ye Nimā Yušij, Tehran, 1990.

Idem, Ṣedā-ye ḥeyrat-e bidār, ed. Morteżā Kāḵi, Tehran, 1993.

Jamšid ʿAlizādeh, ed., Be hamin sādegi o zibāʾi: yād-nāmeh-ye Šahryār, Tehran, 1995a.

Idem, “Goft o gu bā Šahryār,” in idem, ed., 1995b.

Idem, “Eqterāḥ-e ḡazal-e Ṣahryār,” in idem, ed., Tehran, 1995c.

Yaḥyā Āryanpur, Az Nimā tā ruzgār-e mā, Tehran, 1997.

ʿAli Akbar ʿAṣḡarpur, “Dāstān-e ʿešq-e Šahryār,” Rahavard 65, Winter 2004, pp. 210-27.

Reżā Barāheni, “Saʿādat-e didār bā Šahryār-e pākbāḵteh,” in ʿAlizādeh, ed., 1995a, p. 74.

Idem, “Māliḵuliyā-ye eqlimi va šāʿeri-e Šahryār,” in ʿAlizādeh, ed., 1995a, p. 358.

Moḥammad Ebrāhim Bāstāni-e Pārizi, “Ḵˇāb-e ḵoš dar sāyeh-ye divār-e Sāyeh,” Bukhara 15/95-96, Mehr-Ābān 1392 Š./October-November 2013, pp. 250-54.

Simin Behbahāni, “Naẓar-e Simin Behbahāni,” in Az panjarehā-ye zendegāni, ed. Moḥammad ʿAẓimi, Tehran, 1990, p. 83.

Abu’l-Ḥassan Eḥtešāmi, Šekufehā-ye ḏowq o adab, Tehran, n.d.

Muharrem Ergin, Azerî türkçesi, Istanbul, 1971.

Moḥammad-ʿAli Jamālzādeh, “Nāmeh-ye Šahryār be Jamālzādeh,” in ʿAlizādeh, ed., 1995.

Masʿud Jaʿfari Jazi, Seyr-e romānticism dar Irān az mašruṭeh tā Nimā, Tehran, 2007.

Hassan Javadi and K. Burrill, “AZERBAIJAN x: Azeri Turkish Literature,” in EIr III, 1988, pp. 251-54.

ʿAbd-al-ʿAli Kārang, “Maktab-e Šahryār,” in Ruz-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1958.

Aḥmad Kāvian, “Yādi az Šahryār,” Negāh-e now 1, Mehr 1370 Š./October 1991, pp. 131-45.

Abu’l-fażl Moḥammadi, Farhang-e eṣṭelāḥāt-e ʿāmiāneh dar šeʿr-e Šahryār, Tabriz, 1992.

Manučehr Mortażavi, “Introduction,” Ḥeydar Bābā-ye salām, Tabriz, 1967; repr. Kolliyāt-e Divān-e Šahryār, 4 vols., Tabriz, 1967-70, pp. 4-13.

Nimā Yušij, “Manẓumeh-ye Haḏyān-e del-e Šahryār,” in ʿAlizādeh, ed., 1995a, p. 26.

Nāder Nāderpur, Šeʿr-e angur, “Introduction,” Tehran, 1958, p. 40.

Esmāʿil Nuriʿalā, Ṣovar o asbāb dar šeʿr-e emruz-e Iran, Tehran, 1969.

Aḥmad Purṣadri, “Šahryār, Moḥammad Ḥosayn,” Dānešnāme-ye zabān o adab-e fārsi VI, Tehran, 2004, pp. 322-33.

Moḥammad Reżā Šafiʿi-Kadkani, Bā čerāḡ o āiyneh: dar jost-o-ju-ye rišehā-ye taḥavvol dar šeʿr-e moʿāṣer-e Iran, Tehran, 1390.

Aḥmad Šāmlu, Az mahtābi be kučeh, Tehran, 1978.

Sāsān Sepantā, “Ostādān-e musiqi-e moʿāṣer dar šeʿr-e Šahryār,” Adabestān 39, 1992, pp. 27-32.

Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yusofi, “Sorud-e ābšār,” Češmeh-ye rowšan: didāri bā šāʿerān, Tehran, 1990, pp. 635-42.

ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrinkub, Az goḏašteh-ye adabi-e Iran, Tehran, 1996.

Idem, Šeʿr-e bi doruḡ šeʿr-e bi neqāb, Tehran, 1996.

(Kamyār ʿĀbedi and EIr)

Cite this article:

Kamyār ʿĀbedi and EIr, "SHAHRYAR, MOHAMMAD HOSAYN," Encyclopædia Iranicaonline edition, 2015, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/shahryar-mohammad (accessed on 02 September 2015).