GERMANIKEIA

GERMANIKEIA (Germanicia; Mid. Pers. Germanyōs), city in the ancient country of Commagene in the Roman province of Syria, present-day Maraş in southeast Turkey. According to the inscription of Šāpūr I, the city was captured in 252 or probably in 253 (about the date see DICHŌR) in the course of Šāpūr’s second campaign against the Romans (ŠKZ, Mid. Pers., l. 10: glmnwsy, Parth., l. 8: grmnyws; Greek, l. 17: Germanikia; on the form of the name in both Iranian versions, cf. Huyse, I, p. 32).

Germanikeia was the northernmost city in the second campaign of Šāpūr, but numbers 24 to 30 of the first list of cities in his inscription at Kaʿba-ye Zardošt (ŠKZ) form almost insurmountable obstacles towards reconstructing the course of military events. Germanikeia could have been conquered by a single raiding squad together with the above-mentioned Dichōr and Dolichē (qq.v.); the retreat of this squad would then have proceeded via the subsequently mentioned cities of Batna and Chanar, if we identify these two with Batnai and Ichnai in the country of Osrhoene. However, this reconstruction by the present author is mainly hypothetical (cf. Kettenhofen, p. 76 and map 2).

Bibliography:

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(Erich Kettenhofen)

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