GOLŠANI ṢĀRUḴĀNI

GOLŠANI ṢĀRUḴĀNI, a 15th-century Turkish poet who also wrote in Persian. His original name is unknown, and virtually no information is available on his life. His nesba of Ṣāruḵāni suggests that he originated in the area of present-day Manisa, and the fact that he went to Šarvān, a destination chosen at the time by those who wished to become the disciples of Yaḥyā Šarvāni, the “second elder” of the Ḵalwati Sufi order, may imply that he was a dervish (this possibility is mentioned in Laṭifi, p. 283, and ʿĀli, f. 134b). While in Šarvān, he was acquainted with the poet Kāšefi, famous for his Ḡazā-nāma-ye Rum, whom he lampooned in a satire. It has, however, been suggested that Golšani was actually of Šarvāni origin, and that the designation “Ṣāruḵāni” found in some manuscripts of his work was the result of a copyist’s error (Farzan, p. 72). Since the last qaṣida Golšani wrote was a eulogy on the death in 888/1483 of Šāhzāda ʿAbd-Allāh, son of Sultan Bayezid (Bāyazid) II, it may be presumed that he himself died sometime during the reign of that ruler (1481-1512). His Divān has survived in only one manuscript (MS Istanbul, Bayezid Halk Kütüphanesi 5280). Almost half of the Divān is devoted to qasidas written in praise of sultans Mehmed (Moḥammad) II and Bayezid II (facsimile edition by T. Yazıcı, “Gülşeni: Eserleri ve Fâtih ve Bayezid Hakkında Kasideleri” in Fatih ve Istanbul, 2 vols., Istanbul, 1954, II, pp. 83-137); the rest comprises ḡazals (ff. 143b-185a), quatrains, satires and panegyrics of fellow poets such as Kāšefi, Nojumi, and Jadwali. Golšani also wrote a didactic maṯnawi in Turkish variously known as Pand-nāma, Asrār-nāma, and Rāz-nāma (MSS Istanbul, Millet Kütüphanesi, Manzum 932, Ali Emîrî 859), modeled in content and form on the Elāhi-nāma of ʿAṭṭār (q.v.).

The fact that in one qaṣida (Divan, ff. 23a-23b) Gol-šani enumerates twenty-two Persian poets ranging from Rudaki and Ḵāqāni to ʿAbd-Allāh Ṭusi (d. 869/1464) together with a mention of their characteristics shows that he was well acquainted with Persian literature. He is, however, compelled to admit his own deficiencies as a poet, and he must be regarded as a somewhat mediocre poet in his qaṣidas, ḡazals, and robāʿis; his satires are also not particularly successful.

Bibliography:

H. Aksoy, “Gülšeni-i Saruhāni,” Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi XIV, Istanbul, 1996, p. 256.

Moṣṭafā ʿĀli, Konh al-aḵbār, MS Istanbul, İstanbul Üniversitesi Kütüphanesi, Turkish MS 5959, f. 1349; (the taḏkera section has been edited by Mustafa İsen, Ankara, 1994).

E. Farzan, “Gülşani-i Saruhāni: Hayatı, Farsça Divanı, ve Rāz-nāma,” Ph.D. thesis, İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi, 1980.

J. Von Hammer-Purgstall, Geschichte der osmanischen Dichtkunst bis auf unsere Zeit, 4 vols., Pest, 1836-38, II, p. 286.

ʿAbd-al-Laṭif Čelebi Laṭifi, Taḏkerat al-šoʿarāʾ, ed. A. Cevdet, Istanbul, 1314/1896-97, p. 283.

Bursalı Mehmed Tahir, Osmanli Müellifleri, 3 vols. in 4, Istanbul, 1333-42/1914-28, II, p. 388.

(Tahsin Yazıcı)

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