ḤEJĀZ

ḤEJĀZ, an important modal type (šāh-guša) of the Persian radif, constituting the second half of the āvāz Abu ʿAtā (q.v.; connected with with the mode Šur). In the radif of Mirzā ʿAbd-Allāh, it comprises the sequences (guša) Ḥejāz, Basta-negār, Yaquluna (Baḡdādi), and Čahār pāra, to which may be added Gabri, Ḡamangiz, and Gilaki.

Its scale (Eb) D C Bb A G F Ep D, beginning with A and ending with D, is one of the most widely known scales from Anatolia to Khorasan. In a practically identical form, it also belongs to the Azeri tradition as a guša (or šoʿba) of Šur.

The term Ḥejāzi, which is mentioned by Jalāl-al-Din Moḥammad Balḵi Rumi (ḡazal 2937), is part of the twelve šodud (maqām) of Ṣafi-al-Din Ormavi (Šarḥ,p. 376) and ʿAbd-al-Qāder Marāḡi (1965, p. 56). It is, therefore, known in two different forms, one of which carries the qualification Ḥejāz-e Tork or Ḥejāz-e aṣl (Forṣat Širāzi, p. 17, based on ancient sources). According to the treatises written in the 16th and 17th centuries, the low register of Ḥejāz engenders the šoʿba Segāh and the high register Ḥesār. In the Arab and Turkish tradition, Ḥejāz is a formal type (jens) D Eb F# G, as well as a great maqām in the scale of D C B A G F# Eb Ḏ C Bp A G, where the jens Segāh (on Bp) is found again.

For a music sample, see Hejāz.

For a music sample, see Hejāz, Bastenegār, Yaquluna, Čāhārpāre.

For a music sample, see Tork čašmaš ar jānam fetne karde rāst.

Bibliography:

Yaḥyā Ḏokāʾ, ed., “Maʿrefat-e ʿelm-e musiqi” (a Safavid treatise), in Ḥabib Yaḡmāʾi and Iraj Afšār, ed., Nāma-ye Minovi, Tehran, 1971, pp. 190-98.

Jean During, Le rèpertoire-modèle de la musique persane: radif de tār et de setār de Mirzā Abdollāh, Tehran, 1991.

Jean During, Zia Mirabdolbaghi, and Dariush Safvat, The Art of Persian Music, Washington, D.C., 1991, pp. 72, 79.

ʿAbd-al-Qāder b. Ḡaybi Ḥāfeẓ Ma-rāḡi, Maqāṣed al-alḥān, ed. Taqi Bineš, Tehran, 1344 Š./1965.

Idem, Jāmeʿ al-alḥān, ed. Taqi Bineš, Tehran, 1987, index, s.v.

Ḥáejāz, Ḥejāzi. Mirzā Moḥammad-Naṣir Forṣat Širāzi (Forṣat-al-Dawla), Boḥur al-alḥān, ed. Moḥammad-Qāsem Ṣāleḥ Rāmsari, Tehran, 1988.

A. Ḡaznavī, “Resāla dar bayān-e 12 maqām,” in A. A. Rajabov, ed., Naḡma-ye niyāgān, Dushanbe, 1988.

Musā Maʿrufi, Radif-e haft dastgāh-e musiqi-e irāni/Les Systèmes de la Musique Traditionelle Iranienne (Radif), ed. Mehdi Barkešli, Tehran, 1962, 2nd ed., 1973.

Moḥammad-Taqi Masʿudiya (Massoudieh), Radif-e āvāzi-e musiqi-e sonnati-e Irān be rewāyat-e Maḥmud Karimi/Radif vocal de la musique iranienne, Tehran, 1978.

Moḥammad b. Maḥmud Nišāburi, “Resāla-ye musiqi,” ed. with commentaries Amir Ḥosayn Purjawādi as “Resāla-ye musiqi-e Moḥammad b. Maḥmud b. Moḥammad Nišāburi,” Maʿāref 12/1-2, 1995, pp. 32-70.

Jalāl-al-Din Moḥammad Balḵi Rumi, Koliyāt-e Šams-e Tabrizi, based on Badiʿ-al-Zamān Foruzānfar’s edition, 2nd. ed., Tehran, 1990.

Šarḥ-e Mawlānā Mobā-rakšāh bar Adwār, tr. R. d’Erlanger as LaMusique Arabe III, Paris, 1938.

Mehdi Setāyešgar, Vāža-nāma-ye musiqi-e Irān Zamin, 2 vols., Tehran, 1995-96, I, pp. 367-70.

(Jean During)

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