HERAT, ancient city and province in northwestern Afghanistan.

i. Geography.

ii. History, Pre-Islamic Period.

iii. History, Medieval Period.

iv. Topography and urbanism.

v. Local histories.

vi. The Herat question.

vii. The Herat frontier in the latter half of 19th and 20th centuries.

viii. From the Soviet occupation to the post-Ṭālebān period. See Supplement.

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