JEMĀLI

JEMĀLI, Ottoman poet and writer of the 15th century. In two manuscripts of the supplement (ḏeyl), which he wrote for the Ḵosrow o Širin of Šayḵi, his name is given as Bāyazid b. Moṣṭafā b. Šayḵ Aḥmad Tarjomāni Āqšahri or as Bāyazid b. Moṣṭafā al-mašhur be Šayḵ-oḡlu (Kut, p. 316). In medieval sources he was often confused with Šayḵ-oḡlu Moṣṭafā (1340-?; see Akün, pp. 481-85). Very little is known about Jemāli’s life. He was apparently born around 1410-12 and originated from Qarāmān in southern Turkey. He was the nephew of Šayḵi, who was an outstanding poet of the 14th-15th century. In the beginning of his career, Jemāli was very close to the Ottoman vizier Çandarlı Ḥalil Pasha (d. 1453). While in Bursa, he came under the protection of Sultan Morād II (r. 1421-44 and 1446-51) and became a highly respected poet at the court. After the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453 he came to live in Istanbul. Jemāli wrote several poems in praise of Meḥmet (Moḥammad) II (r. 1444-46 and 1451-81) and took part in his campaign to Albania. In comparison with the famous contemporary Ottoman poets such as Šayḵi, Nejāti Beg, and Aḥmed Pasha, he always remained second-class. According to the prevailing opinion, he died in Istanbul during the last years of the reign of Bāyazid II (r. 1481-1512).

Works. Jemāli’s Turkish divān has come down to us in a unique manuscript which also contains a few Persian couplets (Ankara, Millî Library, MS A. 7978/1; see Erimer, 1974). This divān has been dealt with in two different theses, both of them published (Derdiyok, 1988 and 1994; Karaman, 1988 and 2002). Jemāli’s Ḏeyl-e Ḵosrow o Širin, which is the supplement to the Ḵosrow o Širin by Šayḵi, comprises 109 couplets. Most probably it was written in 1430-31. The Homā vo Homāyun (Golšan-e ʿOššāq), for which the Homāy o Homāyun by Ḵᵛāju-ye Kermāni (q.v.) had served as a model, was written for Morād II in 1446. It contains 4,593 couplets and has been recorded in two manuscripts (Ilıca, 1961; Alkan, 1966; Horata, 1990). The Meftāḥ al-faraj, containing about 5,000 couplets, was completed in 1456 and presented to Meḥmet II (Yıldız, 1992). Al-Resāla al-ʿajiba fi al-ṣanāʾeʿ wa al-badāʾeʿ is known by the only manuscript preserved in the Cambridge University Library (MS no. 465, see Kut, p. 317). The Dar bayān-e mašaqqat-e safar wa żarurat o molāzemat, a small work of 73 couplets, can be found at the end of Jemāli’s divān. It deals with the difficulties of Meḥmet II’s campaign to Albania (Erimer, 1974).

Bibliography:

Works. Kadriye Alkan, “Cemâlî’nin ‘Hümâ vü Hümâyûn’ (Gülšen-i ‘Uššâk) Mesnevisi,” B.A. diss., Ankara University, Ankara, 1966.

İ. Çetin Derdiyok, Cemâlî Divanı (İnceleme-Metin), M.A. diss., Çukurova University, Adana, 1988.

Idem, Cemâlî, hayatı, eserleri ve divanı, critical edition and facsimile, Cambridge, Mass., 1994.

Osman Horata, Cemâlî, Hümâ vü Hümâyûn (Gülšen-i ‘Uššâk). İnceleme-Tenkidli Metin, Ankara, 1990.

İnciser Ilıca, “Gülšen-i ‘Uššâk (Hümâ vü Hümâyûn), Cemâlî,” B.A. diss., Istanbul University, Istanbul, 1961.

Nihal Nomer Karaman, “Cemâlî divânı,” Ph.D. diss., Istanbul University, Istanbul, 1988. Idem, Cemâlî divânı, Istanbul, 2002.

Osman Yıldız, “Cemâlî-i Karamanî, Miftahu’l-ferec. Dil özellikleri, metin, söz dizini,” Ph.D. diss., 4 vols., İnönü University, Malatya, 1992.

Sources. Ašıq Çelebi, Mešāʿir al-šoʿarā or Tezkere of Ašıq Çelebi, facsim. ed. G. M. Meredith-Owens, London, 1971, fols. 20a, 354a.

Mostafa Ali Gelibolulu, Künhü’l-ahbâr’ın tezkire kısmı, ed. Mustafa İsen, Ankara, 1994, p. 123.

Latifi, Latifi tezkiresi, ed. Mustafa İsen, Ankara, 1990, p. 121.

Qınalızāde Ḥasan Çelebi, Taḏkerat al-šoʿarā, 2nd ed., ed. İbrahim Kutluk, Ankara, 1989, vol. I, pp. 260-61.

Sehi Beg, Hešt bihišt, the tezkire, facsim. ed. Günay Kut, Cambridge, Mass., 1978, pp. 55, 107-8, 113.

Mehmed Süreya Bey, Sijill-i ʿOṯmāni, 4 vols., Istanbul, 1890-97, repr. 1971, vol. II, p. 85.

Studies. Ömer Faruk Akün, “Şeyh-oğlu Mustafa,” İslâm Ansiklopedisi XI, 1970, pp. 481-85.

Hüseyin Ayan, “Cemâlî,” Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Ansiklopedisi II, Istanbul, 1977, pp. 38-39.

Bursalı Meḥmed Ṭāhir, Osmanlı mü’ellifleri, 3 vols., Istanbul, 1914-24, vol. II, p. 122.

Dāneš-nāma-ye adab-e fārsi, vol. VI: Adab-e fārsi dar Ānātuli wa Bālkān, ed. Ḥasan Anuša, Tehran, 2004, p. 280.

Faruk Kadri Demirtaş [Timurtaş], “Fâtih devri şâirlerinden Cemâlî ve eserleri,” İstanbul Üniversitesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Dergisi 4/3, 1951, pp. 189-213.

İ. Çetin Derdiyok, “Fâtih devri şâirlerinden Cemâlî’nin divân’ında yer alan iki tarih,” Türk Kültürü 32/375, 1994, pp. 434-37.

Idem, “Miftahü’l-Ferec’in iki yeni nüshası,” Bir 4, 1995, pp. 61-66.

Sadeddin Nuzhet Ergun, Türk şairleri, 3 vols., Istanbul, 1936, vol. III, pp. 979-82.

Kayahan Erimer, “Gün Işığına Çıkan Değerli Bir Eser,” Türk Dili Araştırmaları Yıllığı, Belleten 1973-1974, 1974, pp. 265-81.

Osman Horata, “Cemâlî’nin hayatı ve eserleri,” Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 8, 1991, pp. 51-83.

Idem, “Cemâlî’nin Hümâ vü Hümâyûn mesnevisi,” Marmara Üniversitesi Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi, Prof. Dr. Ãmil Çelebioğlu Armağanı 7, 1993, pp. 281-306.

Idem, “Hâcû-yı Kirmânî ve Cemâlî’nin Hümâ vü Hümâyûn mesnevilerinin karşılaştırılması,” Journal of Turkish Studies 24/1, in Memoriam Agâh Sırrı Levend, ed. Günay Kut, vol. I, Cambridge, Mass., 2000, pp. 121-35.

Idem, “Cemâlî,” Türk Dünyası Edebiyatçıları Ansiklopedisi II, Ankara, 2002, pp. 429-32.

Günay Kut, “Cemâlî,” Diyanet Vakfı İslâm Ansiklopedisi VII, 1993, pp. 316-17.

Osman Yıldız, “Cemālī-i Karamanī ve Miftâhu’l-ferec’i,” Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 2, 1996, pp. 271-92.

(Osman G. Özgüdenli)

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