FENDERESK

FENDERESK, a rural district (dehestān) of the county (šahrestān) of Gonbad-e Qābūs (q.v.). It is situated north of the Alborz range (q.v.) in the eastern part of Māzandarān, bordered to the north by the rural districts of Bāḡlī-mārāmā and Daland; to the east by Qalʿa-ye Mīrān; to the west by Katūl; and to the south by the district (baḵš) of Bāsṭām/Besṭām in Semnān province (Markaz-e āmār-e Īrān, Naqša, p. 17). Its lands are irrigated by the tributaries of the Gorgānrūd (Sāzmān-e Wezārat-e defāʿ, pp. 51, 59, 83, 92, 103, 172). Its principal agricultural products are wheat, barley, rice, cotton, cereals, potato, oilnuts, and various kinds of fruits. Its handicrafts include carpets, felt, jājīm, textiles, and mats made out of plants (Wezārat-e jehād, pp., 1342-45). According to Rabino (tr. p. 249), the Āq Emām shrine, revered by the Turkmens, was situated on a hill top in the vicinity of the hamlet Nīlī. The poet and scholar Mīr Abu’l-Qāsem Fendereskī (d. 1050/1640) was from this area. The little information we have about the history of this district belongs to the post-Safavid period and concerns a few minor events which took place there (Sotūda, VI, pp. 362-72; Hedāyat, Rawżat al-ṣafā IX, p. 10; Eʿtemād-al-Salṭana, Montaẓam-e nāṣerī II, p. 1177-78, III, p. 1360). According to Melgunov (tr. p. 70), in 1242/1826 the tribal nomads Godār (Godar) lived in the district of Fenderesk and the surrounding areas. In 1276/1859-60 the population of the district, made of twelve villages, comprised 1,300 households (ca. 6,570 souls). The census of 1296/1879 put its population at 7,912 (Ḏabīḥī, ed., in Gorgān-nāma, pp. 220, 236, 263-65). The people of Fenderesk were often in conflict with the Yomūt Turkomans (Qūrḵānčī, p. 31).

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(Minu Yusuf-Nežād)

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